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1

Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

2009-08-01

2

The glue protein of ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa ): a natural adhesive with some features of collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic ribbed musselGeukensia (Modiolus)demissa attaches itself to the roots of cord grass and other hard objects in tidal salt marshes by spinning adhesive byssal threads. The precursor of a protein apparently present in the adhesive plaques of the threads was isolated in quantity from the foot of the mussel. The protein has an apparent molecular weight of 130000, a

J. Herbert Waite; Douglas C. Hansen; Kathleen T. Little

1989-01-01

3

Changes in protein expression in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa: evidence for a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during prolonged aerial exposure  

PubMed Central

During aerial exposure (emersion), most sessile intertidal invertebrates experience cellular stress caused by hypoxia, and the amount and types of hypoxia-induced stress will differ as exposure time increases, likely leading to altered metabolic responses. We examined proteomic responses to increasing emersion times and decreasing recovery (immersion) times in the mussel Geukensia demissa, which occurs in salt marshes along the east coast of North America. Individuals are found above mean tide level, and can be emersed for over 18 h during spring tides. We acclimated mussels to full immersion at 15°C for 4 weeks, and compared changes in gill protein expression between groups of mussels that were continually immersed (control), were emersed for 6 h and immersed during recovery for 18 h (6E/18R), were emersed for 12 h and recovered for 12 h (12E/12R), or were emersed for 18 h with a 6 h recovery (18E/6R). We found clear differences in protein expression patterns among the treatments. Proteins associated with anaerobic fermentation increased in abundance in 6E/18R but not in 12E/12R or 18E/6R. Increases in oxidative stress proteins were most apparent in 12E/12R, and in 18E/6R changes in cytoskeletal protein expression predominated. We conclude that G. demissa alters its strategy for coping with emersion stress over time, relying on anaerobic metabolism for short- to medium-duration exposure, but switching to an air-gaping strategy for long-term exposure, which reduces hypoxia stress but may cause structural damage to gill tissue. PMID:24501137

Fields, Peter A.; Eurich, Chris; Gao, William L.; Cela, Bekim

2014-01-01

4

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TOTAL LIPID, LIPID CLASSES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS (GUKENSIA DEMISSA) OVER AN ANNUAL CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...

5

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish (like tuna ... alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Shellfish Allergy When someone is allergic to shellfish, the body's ...

6

Shellfish Biotoxins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Fisheries and Oceans Canada website provides information regarding shellfish biotoxins and shellfish closures in the Pacific region of Canada. Links are provided to information about amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, paralytic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, other shellfish biotoxins, and shellfish contamination closures.

7

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... difference in preventing problems. What Is a Shellfish Allergy? You may hear people talk about having a " ... Continue What Happens When Someone Has a Shellfish Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infections. But ...

8

The effects of metal and nutrient addition on Ribbed Mussels, Geukensia demissa, in the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh and Eel Pond  

E-print Network

the potential effects of nutrient loading and heavy metal pollution on salt marshes, researchers established highly contaminated with heavy metals. Nutrient additions did not promote or deter the health of mussels Marsh plots, perhaps a result of metal contamination. Keywords Salt marsh, nutrients, heavy metals

Vallino, Joseph J.

9

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

10

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

11

Dimorphisms and self-incompatibility in the distylous species Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae): possible implications for its reproductive output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distyly has been interpreted as a mechanism that favors cross-fertilization. In this research we describe floral attributes\\u000a and ancillary floral polymorphisms typically associated to heterostylous plants in Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae), a distylous shrub of the Venezuelan Andes cloud forests. A hand-pollination experiment was done to evaluate\\u000a self- and intramorph incompatibility and female reproductive output in both floral morphs. The studied

Hamleth Valois-Cuesta; Pascual J. Soriano; Juan Francisco Ornelas

2011-01-01

12

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

13

NOAA's Science Supports Shellfish Aquaculture  

E-print Network

of the biological effects of ocean acidification on cultured species. NOAA is also restoring native oyster habitat shellfish in Puget Sound. Ocean Acidification Data Benefits West Coast Shellfish Industry Ocean the consequences of ocean acidification on our nation's marine resources, shellfish hatchery operations

14

DiarrheticShellfishPoisoningtoxins: thestorybehindarecentcaseofhuman  

E-print Network

to Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) can occur following the consumption (3.5 %) individuals reported their illness to the relevant food authority. The mussels were by the Food Standards Agency Scotland for marine biotoxins in shellfish) for Norovirus and biotoxin analyses

15

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

16

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

17

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

18

Freezing Fish and Shellfish.  

E-print Network

means of preserving the fresh-caught quality of fish and shellfish. Why Freeze? Freezing preserves foods by lowering their tem peratures to a point not conducive to bacterial growth and natural enzyme action. Many spoilage bacteria are destroyed... by freezing, and those that survive are unable to grow at the low temperature. A fresh seafood product can spoil when bacteria are not present. Natural enzymes that help fish digest food and carry on natural metabolism in the cells of the fish...

Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

1980-01-01

19

Dimorphisms and self-incompatibility in the distylous species Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae): possible implications for its reproductive output.  

PubMed

Distyly has been interpreted as a mechanism that favors cross-fertilization. In this research we describe floral attributes and ancillary floral polymorphisms typically associated to heterostylous plants in Palicourea demissa (Rubiaceae), a distylous shrub of the Venezuelan Andes cloud forests. A hand-pollination experiment was done to evaluate self- and intramorph incompatibility and female reproductive output in both floral morphs. The studied population was morphologically distylous but morph differences in most ancillary floral polymorphisms and reciprocity of the sexual organ heights were found. The floral morphs were self-incompatible and did not differ in fruit set under controlled cross-pollination conditions, but at the population level they exhibited imperfect reciprocal herkogamy. Fruits and seeds of short-styled plants were larger than those of long-styled plants and fruit set was higher in short-styled plants under natural conditions, suggesting a higher reproductive potential among short-styled plants. Given the 1:1 morph ratio within the studied population, further evidence is needed to determine the influence of floral visitors and seed dispersers in the expression of heterostyly in P. demissa under natural conditions. PMID:20577893

Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Soriano, Pascual J; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

2011-01-01

20

MFR PAPER 1300 Shellfish Diseases  

E-print Network

. The shellfish industry has encouraged and supported the reported research to increase the efficiency problems, some of which overlap with fish diseases. One problem is that the molluscan bivalves are filter to urban and industrial pollu- tants discharged into estuarine waters. In spite of these hazards, shellfish

21

November 2012 Washington Shellfish Initiative  

E-print Network

November 2012 Washington Shellfish Initiative Scientific Summary of Ocean Acidification Panel on Ocean Acidification #12;NOTICE from NOAA Mention of a commercial company or product does and Back Cover Graphic: Acknowledgments: Scientific Summary of Ocean Acidification in Washington State

22

The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

23

Field and laboratory measurements of bivalve filtration of natural marine bacterioplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ahstruct Clearance of natural bacterioplankton and phytoplankton by Mytihs edulis, Geukensia demissa, and Myu arenuriu was measured in the laboratory. Of the three, only Geukensia proved capable of efficient clearance of bacteria. Field measurements of clearance across a 46-m-wide Myths bed showed substantial removal of phytoplankton but no effect on bnc- terial concentrations. Measurements of the living gill tissue of

RICHARD T. WRIGHT; RICHARD B. COFFIN; CURTIS P. ERSING; DANIEL PEARSON

1982-01-01

24

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins  

PubMed Central

Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

2013-01-01

25

Shellfish ranching in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are six main species of shellfish of commercial importance within the UK (mussels, flat oysters, cockles, king scallops, Manila clams and lobsters) which can be thought of as ranched to varying degrees. A seventh (Pacific oysters) can be included, since a very small proportion of the production may undergo a period of growth on natural habitats in some areas.

C. A. Burton; J. T. MacMillan; M. M. Learmouth

2001-01-01

26

Tide pushing shellfishers into red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

Hampson, Rick; Today, Usa

27

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

28

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

29

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

30

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

31

Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

32

Shellfish ranching in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are six main species of shellfish of commercial importance within the UK (mussels, flat oysters, cockles, king scallops,\\u000a Manila clams and lobsters) which can be thought of as ranched to varying degrees. A seventh (Pacific oysters) can be included,\\u000a since a very small proportion of the production may undergo a period of growth on natural habitats in some areas.

C. A. Burton; J. T. MacMillan; M. M. Learmouth

33

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

34

The role of genetics in shellfish restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 20 October 2005 Abstract - Restoration of shellfish populations is becoming an increasingly common practice worldwide, as natural fisheries succumb to pressures of overharvesting, habitat loss or degradation, and challenges from invasive competitors and pathogens. Primary genetic concerns relevant to shellfish restoration projects are reviewed, using the cupped oysters Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica as case studies. Molecular genetic

Patrick M. Gaffneya

35

CONTAMINATION OF ATLANTIC COAST COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shellfish (oysters and/or clams) were obtained from 37 commercial harvesting sites in 12 Atlantic coast states from Maine to Florida and 1 site in New Brunswick, Canada. Gill washings from 25 shellfish at each site were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA) for oocysts of Cryptosporidium. ...

36

Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!  

PubMed Central

The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

2011-01-01

37

December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative  

E-print Network

December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative The goal of the National Shellfish Initiative is to increase shellfish aquaculture for commercial and restoration purposes by shellfish aquaculture and aims to increase shellfish production and wild shellfish populations in U

38

Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints  

E-print Network

Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints Compiled - Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction and Overview of Aquaculture .................................................. 8 2

Firestone, Jeremy

39

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of shellfish...

2012-10-01

40

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of shellfish...

2011-10-01

41

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of shellfish...

2010-10-01

42

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of shellfish...

2014-10-01

43

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of shellfish...

2013-10-01

44

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

45

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Jacobs, Dan

46

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

47

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

48

FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for  

E-print Network

DO UMENTS ·FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for I. ~RSITY Or vaEGON TYPE ASCHOOL. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish Buying Guide and Quantity Recipes for Type A School Lunches A-I The Type BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES FOR TYPE A SCHOOL LUNCHES General Information A- I This publication

49

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH By Philip H. Mitchell  

E-print Network

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH ~ By Philip H. Mitchell 2°7 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH. By PHILIP H. MITCHELL. J1, The respiratory exchanges to temperature changes, a smaller utili- zation of oxygen in proportion to the body weight with increase in size

50

RESEARCH Open Access Maternal fish and shellfish consumption and  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Maternal fish and shellfish consumption and wheeze, eczema and food allergy of seafood and wheeze, eczema, and food allergy in preschool children. Fish and shellfish were studied questionnaire. Wheeze, eczema, and food allergy were evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the mother when

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management. PMID:24287955

Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

2013-01-01

52

Radioimmunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams and mussels  

SciTech Connect

Shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) compromise human health. The threat of this contamination results in enormous economic losses in the recreational and commercial exploitation of shellfish resources in the affected areas. Most states deal with the PSP problem either by prohibiting the collection of shellfish during certain time periods or by instituting monitoring programs. The only recognized method of analysis for PSP that is currently and routinely used in monitoring programs is the time-of-death mouse bioassay. Several attempts to develop simple and highly specific biochemical assays for the detection and quantitation of the PSP toxins have been reported. More recently, much improved immunoassays have been developed. To evaluate the validity and usefulness of the immunoassay for the determination of PSP toxins, the authors have used extracts of shellfish gathered from Maine and Connecticut to compare the results of the mouse bioassay and HPLC methods with the radioimmunoassay developed previously.

Yang, G.C.; Imagire, S.J.; Yasaei, P.; Ragelis, E.P.; Park, D.L.; Page, S.W.; Carlson, R.E.; Guire, P.E.

1987-08-01

53

COMPARISON OF RIBBED MUSSEL POPULATIONS IN MARSHES SUBJECT TO INCREASING LAND USAGE AND NUTRIENT LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Narragansett Bay salt marshes of similar geomorphology and hydrology were clustered into low, medium and high human impact based on land use and nutrient inputs. We measured abundance, condition index (CI) and growth of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) from 10 salt ma...

54

RIBBED MUSSEL NITROGEN ISOTOPE SIGNATURES REFLECT NITROGEN SOURCES IN COASTAL MARSHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in tissue of the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Initially, mussels were fed a diet of 15N-enriched algae in the laboratory to determine how the tissue n...

55

Bacterial degradation of paralytic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Bacteria isolated from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture in vitro. Bacteria were isolated on marine agar and grown in marine broth supplemented with a mussel extract and an algal extract containing PSTs (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins 2 and 3, decarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 and C1/C2 toxins). Toxin levels were measured before and after 5d of incubation, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reduction of overall toxicity verified by mouse bioassays. Of the 73 bacterial cultures screened, seven isolates were designated "competent" PST degraders, individually reducing the overall toxicity of the PSTs by at least 90% within 3d. Most isolates degraded 100% of the saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin within 1-3d. In all cases, the overall kinetics of degradation of the toxicities was first order, as were the individual degradation kinetics of most of the individual toxins. This is the first report of nearly complete elimination of PSTs through bacterial action and may perhaps result in the development of a practical means to eliminate or reduce the risk of PSP intoxication associated with shellfish consumption. PMID:18573270

Donovan, Carrie J; Ku, John C; Quilliam, Michael A; Gill, Tom A

2008-07-01

56

Comparison evaluation of liquid chromatographic and bioassay methods of analysis for determination of paralytic shellfish poisons in shellfish tissues.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was compared with the AOAC mouse bioassay method (18.086-18.092) for determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish tissues. Shellfish samples were collected from Massachusetts coastal waters as part of a state surveillance program, and extracts of shellfish meat were analyzed for toxins by using both analytical methods. Overall correlation of the LC and bioassay methods is good (r = 0.943), but for samples with toxicities less than 100 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat, the correlation is significantly less (r = 0.531). Limits of detection are 10 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat and 40 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat for the LC and bioassay methods, respectively. Analytical capacity of the LC method is limited to 12 samples/person-day compared with 30 samples/person-day for the bioassay. Sampling capacity of the LC method could be increased by using a fluorescence detector with a wider response range, which would eliminate the need for dilution of concentrated samples. PMID:2759998

Salter, J E; Timperi, R J; Hennigan, L J; Sefton, L; Reece, H

1989-01-01

57

Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery  

PubMed Central

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp). PMID:25523764

Bono, James L.; Watson, Michael A.; Needleman, David S.

2014-01-01

58

Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery.  

PubMed

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp). PMID:25523764

Richards, Gary P; Bono, James L; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S

2014-01-01

59

A toxin profile for shellfish involved in an outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning in India.  

PubMed

Toxin profiles of clams and oysters involved in the outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning in India in 1983 were studied by a liquid chromatographic technique. Gonyautoxins 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8, and 11-epigonyautoxin 8 appeared to be the major toxins along with small amounts of saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, decarbamoylsaxitoxin, decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3, C3 and C4. Toxin profile suggests the involvement of Alexandrium spp. in this outbreak. PMID:2219145

Karunasagar, I; Karunasagar, I; Oshima, Y; Yasumoto, T

1990-01-01

60

Liquid chromatographic determination of paralytic shellfish poisons in shellfish after prechromatographic oxidation.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method for quantitating paralytic shellfish poison toxins in shellfish has been developed in which the toxins are converted to fluorescent purines by prechromatographic oxidation under mildly basic conditions with hydrogen peroxide or periodate. The addition of ammonium formate to the periodate oxidation reaction greatly improved the yield of fluorescent derivatives for neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxin-1, B-2, and C-3 compared to the same reaction without ammonium formate. As little as 3-6 ng of each of the nonhydroxylated toxins and 7-12 ng of the hydroxylated compounds per gram of shellfish could be detected. Reversed-phase chromatography using ammonium formate in the mobile phase improved the chromatography of neosaxitoxin and B-2 compared to results obtained earlier. Because the oxidation products of neosaxitoxin and B-2 could not be separated, parent compounds were separated before oxidation by using an SPE-COOH ion exchange cartridge. The repeatability coefficient of variation for the oxidation reactions ranged from 3 to 8% for the peroxide reaction, and from 4 to 11% for the periodate reaction, depending upon the individual toxin determined and its concentration in the extract (0.04-0.55 micrograms/g). The method was compared to the mouse bioassay and the postcolumn oxidation method. In most cases, results were comparable. PMID:1661726

Lawrence, J F; Ménard, C

1991-01-01

61

Lipophilic shellfish toxins in Dinophysis caudata picked cells and in shellfish from the East China Sea.  

PubMed

We reported previously that okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) incidents due to consuming cultivated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in coastal cities near the East China Sea in May 2011. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and its seco acids were also present in these mussels. Causative species of microalgae were not identified because detailed information on the location of the contaminated shellfish was not recorded. In order to explore potential causes for these poisoning events, the lipophilic toxin profiles in picked cells of Dinophysis and in shellfish samples collected from two mariculture zones in the East China Sea were analyzed in the present study. Single-cell isolates (100 cells total for each location) of Dinophysis were collected from the aquaculture zones of Gouqi Island (Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province) and Qingchuan Bay (Ningde City, Fujian Province) in July and September 2013, respectively, for lipophilic toxin profiling. Shellfish samples collected over the course of a year from the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone and mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected four times from the Qingchuan Bay aquaculture zone were tested for lipophilic toxins by LC-MS/MS. The Dinophysis cells isolated from both sampling sites were identified under the light microscope as Dinophysis caudata. Average quota of PTX2, the predominant toxin in D. caudata isolated from the coastal waters of Gouqi Island and Qingchuan Bay, was 0.58 and 2.8 pg/cell, respectively. Only trace amounts of OA and DTX1 were detected in D. caudata. PTX2, PTX2sa, 7-epi-PTX2sa, OA, and/or DTX1 were found in samples of mussels (M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus coruscus) collected in the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone from the end of May to the beginning of July 2013. PTX2, PTX2sa, and 7-epi-PTX2sa were also detected in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) during that period, but almost no OA and DTX1 were present. Gymnodimine (GYM) was detected in almost all mussel (M. coruscus) samples, with the highest levels occurring in winter. Trace amounts of pectenotoxins (PTXs) and OAs were also found in mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected from Qingchuan Bay. D. caudata is suggested as an important source of PTXs in shellfish cultivated in the East China Sea. This is the first report of toxin profiles for single-cell isolates of Dinophysis in the East China Sea. PMID:25233922

Li, Aifeng; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Fan, Lin

2015-02-01

62

Paralytic shellfish poisoning detection by surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors in shellfish matrixes.  

PubMed

The detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in contaminated shellfish is essential for human health preservation. Ethical and technical reasons have prompted the search for new detection procedures as an alternative to the mouse bioassay. On the basis of the detection of molecular interactions by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, an inhibition assay was developed using an anti-GTX2/3 antibody (GT13-A) and a saxitoxin-CM5 chip. This assay allowed for quantification of saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxin 2,3 (GTX2/3), decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 2,3 (dcGTX2/3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and C 1,2 (C1/2) at concentrations from 2 to 50 ng/mL. The interference of five shellfish matrixes with the inhibition assay was analyzed. Mussels, clams, cockles, scallops, and oysters were extracted with five published methods. Ethanol extracts and acetic acid/heat extracts (AOAC Lawrence method) performed adequately in terms of surface regeneration and baseline interference, did not inhibit antibody binding to the chip surface significantly, and presented STX calibration curves similar to buffer controls in all matrixes tested. Hydrochloric acid/heat extracts (AOAC mouse bioassay method) presented surface regeneration problems, and although ethanol-acetic acid/dichloromethane extracts performed well, they were considered too laborious for routine sample testing. Overall the best results were obtained with the ethanol extraction method with calibration curves prepared in blank matrix extracts. STX recovery rate with the ethanol extraction method was 60.52+/-3.72%, with variations among species. The performance of this biosensor assay in natural samples, compared to two AOAC methods for PSP toxin quantification (mouse bioassay and HPLC), suggests that this technology can be useful as a PSP screening assay. In summary, the GT13-A-STX chip inhibition assay is capable of PSP toxin detection in ethanol shellfish extracts, with sufficient sensitivity to quantify the toxin in the range of the European regulatory limit of 80 microg/100 g of shellfish meat. PMID:17630717

Fonfría, Eva S; Vilariño, Natalia; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Chris; Haughey, Simon A; Ben-Gigirey, Begoña; Vieites, Juan M; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Botana, Luis M

2007-08-15

63

Contamination of shellfish from Shanghai seafood markets with paralytic shellfish poisoning and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins determined by mouse bioassay and HPLC.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of investigations of shellfish toxin contamination of products obtained from Shanghai seafood markets. From May to October 2003, 66 samples were collected from several major seafood markets. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in shellfish samples were monitored primarily by a mouse bioassay, then analysed by HPLC for the chemical contents of the toxins. According to the mouse bioassay, eight samples were detected to be contaminated by PSP toxins and seven samples were contaminated by DSP toxins. Subsequent HPLC analysis indicated that the concentrations of the PSP toxins ranged from 0.2 to 1.9 microg/100 g tissues and the main components were gonyautoxins 2/3 (GTX2/3). As for DSP, okadaic acid was detected in three samples, and its concentration ranged from 3.2 to 17.5 microg/100 g tissues. Beside okadaic acid, its analogues, dinophysistoxins (DTX1), were found in one sample. According to the results, gastropod (Neverita didyma) and scallop (Argopecten irradians) were more likely contaminated with PSP and DSP toxins, and most of the contaminated samples were collected from Tongchuan and Fuxi markets. In addition, the contaminated samples were always found in May, June and July. Therefore, consumers should be cautious about eating the potential toxic shellfish during this specific period. PMID:16019840

Wu, J-Y; Zheng, L; Wang, J-H

2005-07-01

64

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

SciTech Connect

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

1990-07-01

65

HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE PROCESSING: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molluscan shellfish bioconcentrate enteric viruses from human wastes that are present in the growing waters. Consequently, the consumption of raw shellfish poses considerable risk for contracting illnesses associated with these viruses. High hydrostatic pressure is a new nonthermal sanitizing proc...

66

As required by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference, National Shellfish Sanita-tion Program, harvesting of bivalve (filter-feeding) shellfish is prohibited in an area  

E-print Network

Program, harvesting of bivalve (filter-feeding) shellfish is prohibited in an area when concentrations of red tide organisms reach 5,000 Karenia brevis cells per quart. K. brevis produces brevetoxins capable are tested for toxicity during that period, and the harvesting ban is lifted when test results verify

Florida, University of

67

Profiles of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish from Portugal explained by carbamoylase activity.  

PubMed

The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has not been recorded in the Portuguese coast since 1995. A bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum occurred in the NW coast of Portugal in the autumn of 2005, and PSP profiles were determined in several inshore and offshore shellfish species by HPLC after pre-column oxidation. Most of the species studied contained a complex toxin profile, typically representative of contamination by G. catenatum. However, clams such as Spisula solida contained mainly decarbamoyl toxins, while less extensive transformation was found in Scrobicularia plana. In vitro incubation of S. solida digestive glands with PSP standards revealed a rapid transformation of carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins into their corresponding decarbamate analogues. After 24 h, less than 5% of the carbamate or N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins tested remained. After a 24 h in vitro incubation of S. plana digestive glands, no decarbamate analogues were detected. Artificial toxification of S. plana with cultures of G. catenatum revealed the conversion into decarbamoyl analogues progressed slowly: initially dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX accounted only for 5% of total non N-1 hydroxilated toxins, after 6 days these toxins accounted for 41% of the toxin composition. In vitro incubations of digestive glands from other commercial bivalves did not reveal production of decarbamoyl analogues over a 24 h period. PMID:17481642

Artigas, Mireia Lara; Vale, Paulo João Vieira; Gomes, Susana Sousa; Botelho, Maria João; Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; Amorim, Ana

2007-08-10

68

Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers. PMID:23412717

Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S

2013-03-01

69

Comparative analysis of modeled nitrogen removal by shellfish farms.  

PubMed

The use of shellfish aquaculture for nutrient removal and reduction of coastal eutrophication has been proposed. Published literature has indicated that nitrogen contained in harvested shellfish can be accurately estimated from shell length:nitrogen content ratios. The range of nitrogen that could be removed by a typical farm in a specific estuarine or coastal setting is also of interest to regulators and planners. Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model outputs of nitrogen removal at the shellfish farm scale have been summarized here, from 14 locations in 9 countries across 4 continents. Modeled nitrogen removal ranged from 105lbsacre(-1)year(-1) (12gm(-2)year(-1)) to 1356lbsacre(-1)year(-1) (152gm(-2)year(-1)). Mean nitrogen removal was 520lbsacre(-1)year(-1) (58gm(-2)year(-1)). These model results are site-specific in nature, but compare favorably to reported nitrogen removal effectiveness of agricultural best management practices and stormwater control measures. PMID:25534625

Rose, Julie M; Bricker, Suzanne B; Ferreira, Joao G

2015-02-15

70

Atypical profiles of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish from Luanda and Mussulo bays, Angola.  

PubMed

Currently Angola does not possess a monitoring programme for shellfish contamination with marine biotoxins. Among other potentially toxic microalgae, the presence of Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense has been reported at the Angola coast, two species associated worldwide with production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). A preliminary assessment of contamination with PSTs was carried out by HPLC with pre-column derivatization in samples of Semele proficua from Luanda Bay and samples of Senilia senilis from Mussulo Bay, collected between June 2007 and February 2008. An unusual profile was found, not matching any of the 10 oxidation products expected from the known hydrophilic PSTs normally reported in marine dinoflagellates: the N-sulfocarbamoyl, the decarbamoyl or the carbamoyl analogues of saxitoxin (STX). Four major compounds were noted, and designated A through D. These were not autofluorescent, additionally A and D presented much stronger response after peroxide oxidation than after periodate oxidation. Fluorescence emission and ultraviolet absorption maxima were similar to oxidation products of STX analogues. Separation carried out in two different C18 columns clearly showed the retention times did not match the oxidation products of standards. In the period of August through October 2007, samples of S. proficua from Luanda Bay presented a strong cross-reaction with a commercial antibody towards STX, in the range of 2600-5800STXequiv./kg, while for the same period levels in the samples of S. senilis from Mussulo Bay ranged between <30 and 340STXequiv./kg. This reaction was directly proportional to the presence of the four unknown fluorescent peaks. The presence of these compounds was very persistent throughout the studied period, in particular in Luanda Bay. This contamination might not be characteristic of a dinoflagellate blooming, but could be related to a persistent cyanobacterial contamination, due to the strong sewage pollution of the area. PMID:19041661

Vale, Paulo; Rangel, Isabel; Silva, Bárbara; Coelho, Paulo; Vilar, Andrea

2009-01-01

71

Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish  

PubMed Central

Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L?1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

2014-01-01

72

East Coast Shellfish Hatchery and Nursery List 2012 Gef Flimlin  

E-print Network

Contact: Kevin Reinecke 1210 Grogan Avenue NE Palm Bay, FL 32907 Cell - 321-243-2526 Phone - 321-733-2704 kevin.blueacres@gmail.com Cedar Creek Shellfish Farm - H, N Contact: Mike Sullivan 859 A Pompano Avenue 33946 Phone - 941-697-3181 or 863-604-18911 bhurt@tampabay.rr.com Ewan Leighton ­ N, H Contact: Ewan

Florida, University of

73

Recreational Shellfish Beach Closures Due to Biotoxins or Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map represents the Health Status of beaches in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and beaches to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding beach closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.

Washington State Department of Health

74

Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

75

Dinophysis toxins: causative organisms, distribution and fate in shellfish.  

PubMed

Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L?¹). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Blanco, Juan

2014-01-01

76

Potential virus detection and intervention methods for molluscan shellfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Norovirus is the number one cause of foodborne illness in the Unites States, causing an estimated 9 million cases/yr. Hepatitis A is uncommon in the US but can result in serious illness. Bivalve shellfish are efficient bioconcentrators of these viruses from contaminated growing waters. Consequentl...

77

Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark.  

PubMed

Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were tested for porcine pathogens and indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). All samples tested negative for HEV, RV and Salmonella, whereas E. coli and the highly stable porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected in eight and 12 samples, respectively. This is the first study to report the detection of PCV2 in commercial mussels. Based on the detection of PCV2 in clean areas with low prevalence of the normally applied fecal indicator E. coli, testing for PCV2 may be a more sensitive and robust specific porcine waste indicator in shellfish harvesting areas. PMID:25016209

Krog, J S; Larsen, L E; Schultz, A C

2014-09-01

78

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the  

E-print Network

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean Introduction Reports of excessive amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons in fishery products have threatened the utilization by humans of the vast protein resources in the sea. Chlorinated hydrocarbons from both

79

AN RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV...

80

A highly rapid and simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.  

PubMed

Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is simple to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a rapid and simple screening method prior to the MBA. PMID:24874362

Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko

2014-11-01

81

Rapid postcolumn methodology for determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish tissue.  

PubMed

A rapid liquid chromatographic (LC) method with postcolumn oxidation and fluorescence detection (excitation 330 nm, emission 390 nm) for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish tissue has been developed. Extracts prepared for mouse bioassay (MBA) were treated with trichloroacetic acid to precipitate protein, centrifuged, and pH-adjusted for LC analysis. Saxitoxin (STX), neoSTX (NEO), decarbamoylSTX (dcSTX), and the gonyautoxins, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5, dcGTX2, and dcGTX3, were separated on a polar-linked alkyl reversed-phase column using a step gradient elution; the N-sulfocarbamoyl GTXs, C1, C2, C3, and C4, were determined on a C-8 reversed-phase column in the isocratic mode. Relative toxicities were used to determine STX-dihydrochloride salt (diHCl) equivalents (STXeq). Calibration graphs were linear for all toxins studied with STX showing a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and linearity between 0.18 and 5.9 ng STX-diHCI injected (equivalent to 3.9-128 microg STXeq/100 g in tissue). Detection limits for individual toxins ranged from 0.07 microg STXeq/100 g for C1 and C3 to 4.1 microg STXeq/100 g for GTX1. Spike recoveries ranged from 76 to 112% in mussel tissue. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeated injections of GTX and STX working standard solutions was < 4%. Uncertainty of measurement at a level of 195 microg STXeq/100 g was 9%, and within-laboratory reproducibility expressed as RSD was 4.6% using the same material. Repeatability of a 65 microg STXeq/100 g sample was 3.0% RSD. Seventy-three samples were analyzed by the new postcolumn method and both AOAC Official Methods for PST determination: the MBA (y = 1.22x + 13.99, r2 = 0.86) and the precolumn LC oxidation method of Lawrence (y = 2.06x + 12.21, r2 = 0.82). PMID:18567305

Rourke, Wade A; Murphy, Cory J; Pitcher, Ginette; van de Riet, Jeffery M; Burns, B Garth; Thomas, Krista M; Quilliam, Michael A

2008-01-01

82

2012 Bacteria Data -Shellfish Tributary and Narrow River Sites: Fecal coliform and enterococci Shellfish Waters Tributaries Fecal Coliform Data (see "Rivers" data for enterococci data)  

E-print Network

potential sources of bacterial contamination. Samples may have been collected over a period of days for each2012 Bacteria Data - Shellfish Tributary and Narrow River Sites: Fecal coliform and enterococci Shellfish Waters Tributaries Fecal Coliform Data (see "Rivers" data for enterococci data) Watershed

Rhode Island, University of

83

Evolving to the optoelectronic mouse for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish.  

PubMed

Despite ethical and technical concerns, the in vivo method, or more commonly referred to mouse bioassay (MBA), is employed globally as a reference method for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish. This is particularly the case for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and emerging toxin monitoring. A high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for PSP toxin analysis, but due to difficulties and limitations in the method, this procedure has not been fully implemented as a replacement. Detection of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has moved towards LC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, whereas the analysis of the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid is performed by HPLC. Although alternative methods of detection to the MBA have been described, each procedure is specific for a particular toxin and its analogues, with each group of toxins requiring separate analysis utilising different extraction procedures and analytical equipment. In addition, consideration towards the detection of unregulated and emerging toxins on the replacement of the MBA must be given. The ideal scenario for the monitoring of phycotoxins in shellfish and seafood would be to evolve to multiple toxin detection on a single bioanalytical sensing platform, i.e. 'an artificial mouse'. Immunologically based techniques and in particular surface plasmon resonance technology have been shown as a highly promising bioanalytical tool offering rapid, real-time detection requiring minimal quantities of toxin standards. A Biacore Q and a prototype multiplex SPR biosensor have been evaluated for their ability to be fit for purpose for the simultaneous detection of key regulated phycotoxin groups and the emerging toxin palytoxin. Deemed more applicable due to the separate flow channels, the prototype performance for domoic acid, okadaic acid, saxitoxin, and palytoxin calibration curves in shellfish achieved detection limits (IC20) of 4,000, 36, 144 and 46 ?g/kg of mussel, respectively. A one-step extraction procedure demonstrated recoveries greater than 80% for all toxins. For validation of the method at the 95% confidence limit, the decision limits (CC?) determined from an extracted matrix curve were calculated to be 450, 36 and 24 ?g/kg, and the detection capability (CC?) as a screening method is ?10 mg/kg, ?160 ?g/kg and ?400 ?g/kg for domoic acid, okadaic acid and saxitoxin, respectively. PMID:25245418

Campbell, Katrina; McNamee, Sara E; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe; Vilarino, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Poli, Mark; Elliott, Christopher T

2014-11-01

84

Evaluation of prechromatographic oxidation for liquid chromatographic determination of paralytic shellfish poisons in shellfish.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method employing prechromatographic oxidation for the determination of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins was evaluated. A number of changes to an earlier method resulted in improved separation and quantitation of most PSP analogues. Modification of the periodate oxidation reaction for the N-hydroxy-containing toxins led to improved sensitivity and stability of the products, enabling automated overnight analyses. These changes also enabled quantitation of gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (together) in the presence of gonyautoxins 2 and 3. Decarbamoylsaxitoxin can be identified and quantitated after peroxide oxidation. A cleanup step using a strong-anion-exchange column removed the C toxins and B-2 from the extracts and enabled a more accurate quantitation of gonyautoxins 1 and 4 and neosaxitoxin. Chiral chromatography, employing a reversed-phase column and chiral mobile-phase additives (copper-proline complex), was briefly evaluated for the separation of the oxidation products of the isomer pairs, gonyautoxins 1 and 4 and gonyautoxins 2 and 3. A comparison of the method with the mouse bioassay for the determination of PSP in lobster hepatopancreas (58 samples) showed a reasonable correlation (0.90) over a concentration range of 40-500 micrograms/100 g (saxitoxin equivalents), although the LC results were consistently higher than the mouse bioassay values by about 40%. PMID:7756867

Lawrence, J F; Ménard, C; Cleroux, C

1995-01-01

85

Determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Norwegian shellfish by liquid chromatography with fluorescence and tandem mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

A novel extraction and clean-up method has been developed for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish samples. Raw shellfish material was extracted with an acidic acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) solution, whilst being homogenised. During the homogenisation the sample extraction solution was cooled with ice water. Subsequently, the extract was frozen at -20 degrees C for at least 4h. During freezing, two layers were formed, only the lower predominantly aqueous layer was used for the determination. The final extract solution was cleaned-up using a combination of Oasis HLB and Carbograph activated carbon SPE columns. The developed extraction and clean-up methods combined with gradient elution liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has resulted in a method which can determine the analogs GTX 1-5, C1-2, DcGTX 2-3, DcSTX, Neo, STX in a single analysis with an overall detection limit of 313 microg STXdiHCL-eq./kg shellfish meat. The use of the developed extraction method with post-column high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) method provided an overall limit of detection of 89 microg STXdiHCL-eq./kg shellfish meat for the same toxins. Both post-column HPLC-FLD and LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the Norwegian PSP toxin profile. It was found that the PSP toxins could be detected in shellfish samples from the Norwegian coastline for 10 months of the year, from March till December. The toxin profile consisted mainly of the carbamate toxins, GTX 1-4, Neo and STX, in terms of both concentrations and contribution to the overall toxicity. In addition, several of the n-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins were either detected in the samples at relatively low concentrations or their presence in the samples were indicated but could not be confirmed by the post-column HPLC-FLD and LC-MS/MS analyses. PMID:18619989

Sayfritz, S J; Aasen, J A B; Aune, T

2008-08-01

86

Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates  

PubMed Central

Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

2006-01-01

87

Microbial reclamation of shellfish wastes for the production of chitinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp and crab shell powder (SCSP), prepared by treating shellfish processing waste with boiling and crushing, was used as a substrate for isolating chitinolytic microorganisms. Three potential strains (E1, J1, and J1-1) were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus, B. alvei, and B. sphaericus, respectively. Three extracellular chitinases (FB1, FB2, and FB3) were purified from the culture supernatants of Bacillus

San-Lang Wang; Jau-Ren Hwang

2001-01-01

88

Impact of Xynthia Tempest on Viral Contamination of Shellfish  

PubMed Central

Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named “Xynthia tempest” destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde

2012-01-01

89

Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.  

PubMed

Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

2012-05-01

90

Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham produces a newly discovered sub-class of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, saxitoxins) that contain a hydroxybenzoate moiety in place of the carbamoyl group (GC toxins: GC1–GC3). GC toxins bind strongly to sodium channels and their lipophilic nature may increase their potential to bioaccumulate in marine organisms. Cultures Australian G. catenatum strains were found to contain

Andrew P. Negri; Christopher J. S. Bolch; Stephanie Geier; David H. Green; Tae-Gyu Park; Susan I. Blackburn

2007-01-01

91

Pseudoalteromonas Bacteria Are Capable of Degrading Paralytic Shellfish Toxins? †  

PubMed Central

Marine bacterial isolates cultured from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture. Seven isolates reduced the overall toxicity of the algal extract by ?90% within 3 days. These isolates shared at least 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with five Pseudoalteromonas spp. Phenotypic tests suggested that all are novel strains of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. PMID:19717625

Donovan, Carrie J.; Garduño, Rafael A.; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ku, John C.; Quilliam, Michael A.; Gill, Tom A.

2009-01-01

92

Route of metabolization and detoxication of paralytic shellfish toxins in humans .  

E-print Network

??Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) are a collection of over 26 structurally related imidazoline guanidinium derivatives produced by marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. Glucuronidation of drugs… (more)

García, Carlos

2010-01-01

93

N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.  

PubMed

Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms. PMID:24880785

Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

2014-09-01

94

Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N) and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20-300 ng/mL), incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis. PMID:22069687

Devlin, Raymond; Campbell, Katrina; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher

2011-01-01

95

Naturally contaminated shellfish samples: quantification of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts and cytotoxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Contamination of shellfish from the Portuguese coast with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins is a recurrent event, with most of the commercial bivalves contaminated with high percentages of esters of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2). This report describes the quantification of DSP toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts of several cockle and mussel samples naturally contaminated and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity profiles in V79 cells. The quantification of the acyl esters in the shellfish samples involved the cleavage of the ester bond through alkaline hydrolysis and the release of the parent toxins OA and DTX2. Unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) for the detection and quantification of DSP toxins. The cytotoxicity of the analysed extracts was evaluated using the MTT reduction assay and compared with the cytotoxicity presented by different concentrations of OA standard (1-100?nM). OA exhibited marked cytotoxic effects and decreased cell viability in a dose dependent mode, with an IC?? of 27?nM. The cytotoxicity pattern of unhydrolysed extracts was clearly dependent on the concentration of free toxins. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the esterified toxins present was revealed after their conversion into free toxins by alkaline hydrolysis. For the hydrolysed extracts of cockles and mussels, the cytotoxicity presented was mainly related to the concentration of OA and DTX2. PMID:20981863

Rodrigues, Susana M; Vale, Paulo; Chaveca, Teresa; Laires, António; Rueff, José; Oliveira, Nuno G

2010-10-01

96

75 FR 18549 - In the Matter of Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-668] In the Matter of Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination...States after importation of certain non- shellfish derived glucosamine and [[Page 18550

2010-04-12

97

Does traditional shellfishing affect foraging by waders? The case of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine intertidal flats are often exploited by humans and waders since they provide food, particularly shellfish. This raises important conservation issues. Waders can be affected by shellfishing activities in multiple ways, such as a reduction of the available shellfish, disturbance by the presence of shellfishers on their feeding areas, and changes in micro-habitat, due to sediment reworking. In this study we quantified the impact of traditional shellfishing on waders in the Tagus estuary. Particular attention was given to hand-raking of clams Scrobicularia plana, which constitutes most of the consumed food by waders. Shellfishers did not cause a relevant depletion of clams for waders; they removed less than 0.3% of its total production and focused on size classes that were usually not taken by birds. Hand-raking caused temporary changes in the vertical distribution and availability of invertebrate prey in the sediment. However, this did not affect the bird's feeding rates, presumably because prey availability remained above the threshold at which intake rates are expected to decline. The presence of shellfishers in the birds foraging areas potentially affects waders by keeping them away from foraging areas, but even the most affected species lost less than 10% of their foraging grounds due to this factor. Overall, we conclude that the current low harvesting levels of shellfishing are compatible with the preservation of the estuary as a key site for waders. Nevertheless, simulations showed that traditional shellfishing could have much greater potential to affect waders through disturbance than through prey removal. The results for the Tagus show that even small harvest rates, representing a negligible loss of food for waders and potentially considered sustainable by shellfish managers, could have a great impact on waders due to increased disturbance. This effect of disturbance likely occurs in most estuaries and should be taken into consideration when planning shellfish harvesting in important wader feeding areas.

Dias, Maria P.; Peste, Filipa; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

2008-03-01

98

Effect of ozonation and ?-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use

A. P. Louppis; P. Katikou; D. Georgantelis; A. V. Badeka; M. G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

99

Parallel Analyses of Alexandrium catenella Cell Concentrations and Shellfish Toxicity in the Puget Sound?  

PubMed Central

Alexandrium catenella is widespread in western North America and produces a suite of potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans and have deleterious impacts on public health and economic resources. There are seasonal PSP-related closures of recreational and commercial shellfisheries in the Puget Sound, but the factors that influence cell distribution, abundance, and relationship to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in this system are poorly described. Here, a quantitative PCR assay was used to detect A. catenella cells in parallel with state shellfish toxicity testing during the 2006 bloom season at 41 sites from April through October. Over 500,000 A. catenella cells liter?1 were detected at several stations, with two main pulses of cells driving cell distribution, one in June and the other in August. PSTs over the closure limit of 80 ?g of PST 100 per g of shellfish tissue were detected at 26 of the 41 sites. Comparison of cell numbers and PST data shows that shellfish toxicity is preceded by an increase in A. catenella cells in 71% of cases. However, cells were also observed in the absence of PSTs in shellfish, highlighting the complex relationship between A. catenella and the resulting shellfish toxicity. These data provide important information on the dynamics of A. catenella cells in the Puget Sound and are a first step toward assessing the utility of plankton monitoring to augment shellfish toxicity testing in this system. PMID:20495054

Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Haley, Sheean T.; Borchert, Jerry A.; Lona, Bob; Kollars, Nicole; Erdner, Deana L.

2010-01-01

100

Recent domoic acid closures of shellfish harvest areas in Washington State inland waterways  

E-print Network

Recent domoic acid closures of shellfish harvest areas in Washington State inland waterways Vera L, for the first time in September 2003, high-density blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia forced the closure of recreational conditions associated with shellfish closures in two inland waterways of Washington State during the Fall

Cochlan, William P.

101

Evaluation of viral shellfish depuration in a semi-professional size tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depuration processes try to eliminate microorganisms using seawater to allow living, filter-feeding shellfish to naturally purge themselves from agents they accumulated from the environment. Until now the only parameter to evaluate depuration was the decrease in E. coli counts. Studies have shown that viruses can persist in the environment longer than E. coli and that shellfish meeting the end- standard

Monique Pommepuy; Marie-Paule Caprais; Jean-Claude Le Saux; Cecile Le Mennec; Sylvain Parnaudeau; Yvon Madec; Martial Monier; Goulven Brest; Frangoise Le Guyader

102

Parallel analyses of Alexandrium catenella cell concentrations and shellfish toxicity in the Puget Sound.  

PubMed

Alexandrium catenella is widespread in western North America and produces a suite of potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans and have deleterious impacts on public health and economic resources. There are seasonal PSP-related closures of recreational and commercial shellfisheries in the Puget Sound, but the factors that influence cell distribution, abundance, and relationship to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in this system are poorly described. Here, a quantitative PCR assay was used to detect A. catenella cells in parallel with state shellfish toxicity testing during the 2006 bloom season at 41 sites from April through October. Over 500,000 A. catenella cells liter(-1) were detected at several stations, with two main pulses of cells driving cell distribution, one in June and the other in August. PSTs over the closure limit of 80 mug of PST 100 per g of shellfish tissue were detected at 26 of the 41 sites. Comparison of cell numbers and PST data shows that shellfish toxicity is preceded by an increase in A. catenella cells in 71% of cases. However, cells were also observed in the absence of PSTs in shellfish, highlighting the complex relationship between A. catenella and the resulting shellfish toxicity. These data provide important information on the dynamics of A. catenella cells in the Puget Sound and are a first step toward assessing the utility of plankton monitoring to augment shellfish toxicity testing in this system. PMID:20495054

Dyhrman, Sonya T; Haley, Sheean T; Borchert, Jerry A; Lona, Bob; Kollars, Nicole; Erdner, Deana L

2010-07-01

103

Seasonal variation of bacterial communities in shellfish harvesting waters: Preliminary study before applying phage therapy.  

PubMed

The recurrent emergence of infections outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption is an important health problem, which results in substantial economic losses to the seafood industry. Even after depuration, shellfish is still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new efficient strategies to control the shellfish infection transmission. Phage therapy during the shellfish depuration is a promising approach, but its success depends on a detailed understanding of the dynamics of bacterial communities in the harvesting waters. This study intends to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, disease-causing bacterial populations and bacterial sanitary quality indicators in two authorized harvesting-zones at Ria de Aveiro. During the hot season, the total bacterial community presented high complexity and new prevalent populations of the main shellfish pathogenic bacteria emerged. These results indicate that the spring/summer season is a critical period during which phage therapy should be applied. PMID:25484114

Pereira, C; Santos, L; Silva, A P; Silva, Y J; Cunha, A; Romalde, J L; Nunes, M L; Almeida, A

2015-01-15

104

Low-level radioactivity measurements in an ocean shellfish matrix.  

PubMed

Reference marine biological samples are necessary to test the performance of the analytical methods employed in surveying and monitoring radioactive materials in the sea. The measurement of artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations in ocean shellfish material by nondestructive ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory is reported. The material analysed, a composite material made of Irish Sea and White Sea mussel and Japan Sea oyster, was prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). PMID:10724403

Altzitzoglou, T

2000-03-01

105

Biogenic amines in fish, fish products and shellfish: a review.  

PubMed

Fish, cephalopods and shellfish provide a healthy source of high-quality proteins, essential vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The beneficial effects of fish consumption on human health such as protection against coronary heart disease and certain cancer may be offset by fish decomposition and the formation of chemical contaminants such as biogenic amines. There are several toxicological effects of biogenic amines on humans, especially histamine. It is the causative agent of histamine or scombroid fish poisoning which is a significant public health problem. In individuals with diminished histamine detoxification, ingestion of even a low or moderate histamine- or tyramine-containing fish may lead to food intolerance. Biogenic amines such as putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine can potentiate histamine toxicity. Furthermore, dietary polyamine intake should be minimised in some cancer patients. Besides their potential toxicity, biogenic amines are used for the evaluation of hygienic quality of different marine and freshwater species. Spoilage pattern and biogenic amine formation are species specific. Histamine has been traditionally used as an indicator of the quality of histidine-rich fish (dark-muscle fish). On the other hand, putrescine and cadaverine are the most objective indicators of quality of histidine-poor fish (white-muscle fish), shellfish and fermented seafood products. PMID:21834642

Prester, Ljerka

2011-11-01

106

Artificial neural network prediction of viruses in shellfish.  

PubMed

A database was probed with artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) models to investigate the efficacy of predicting PCR-identified human adenovirus (ADV), Norwalk-like virus (NLV), and enterovirus (EV) presence or absence in shellfish harvested from diverse countries in Europe (Spain, Sweden, Greece, and the United Kingdom). The relative importance of numerical and heuristic input variables to the ANN model for each country and for the combined data was analyzed with a newly defined relative strength effect, which illuminated the importance of bacteriophages as potential viral indicators. The results of this analysis showed that ANN models predicted all types of viral presence and absence in shellfish with better precision than MLR models for a multicountry database. For overall presence/absence classification accuracy, ANN modeling had a performance rate of 95.9%, 98.9%, and 95.7% versus 60.5%, 75.0%, and 64.6% for the MLR for ADV, NLV, and EV, respectively. The selectivity (prediction of viral negatives) was greater than the sensitivity (prediction of viral positives) for both models and with all virus types, with the ANN model performing with greater sensitivity than the MLR. ANN models were able to illuminate site-specific relationships between microbial indicators chosen as model inputs and human virus presence. A validation study on ADV demonstrated that the MLR and ANN models differed in sensitivity and selectivity, with the ANN model correctly identifying ADV presence with greater precision. PMID:16151110

Brion, Gail; Viswanathan, Chandramouli; Neelakantan, T R; Lingireddy, Srinivasa; Girones, Rosina; Lees, David; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos

2005-09-01

107

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

108

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.  

PubMed

A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP. PMID:17465121

La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-09-01

109

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

2008-01-01

110

An RNA extraction protocol for shellfish-borne viruses.  

PubMed

The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV-1), and the norovirus surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV) strain KCD, for the purpose of RT-PCR detection within seeded oyster (Crassostrea virginica) extracts. The RT-PCR equivalent sensitivities observed within seeded oysters as compared to virus stocks were 0.68, 6.8, 26, 5.6, and 14.5 RT-PCR(50) units when assaying 10% of total RNA extracted from seeded oyster extracts for CAV9, CBV5, AiV, FCV, and MNV-1, respectively. For oysters exposed to virus-contaminated seawater, the detection equivalent sensitivities observed were 680, 68, 2600, 560, and 14.5 RT-PCR(50) for CAV9, CBV5, AiV and FCV, and MNV-1, respectively. These results indicate that the GPTT method can be used as a general viral RNA extraction method for multiple picornaviruses and caliciviruses that could potentially contaminate shellfish. PMID:17184849

Kingsley, David H

2007-04-01

111

Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

An interlaboratory study was conducted for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. The method used liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after prechromatographic oxidation of the toxins with hydrogen peroxide and periodate. The PSP toxins studied were saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3 together), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1,4 together), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), B-1 (GTX5), C-1 and C-2 (C1,2 together), and C-3 and C-4 (C3,4 together). B-2 (GTX6) toxin was also included, but for qualitative identification only. Samples of mussels, both blank and naturally contaminated, were mixed and homogenized to provide a variety of PSP toxin mixtures and concentration levels. The same procedure was followed with samples of clams, oysters, and scallops. Twenty-one samples in total were sent to 21 collaborators who agreed to participate in the study. Results were obtained from 18 laboratories representing 14 different countries. PMID:15084091

Lawrence, James F; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Menard, Cathie

2004-01-01

112

Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study was conducted for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. The method used liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after prechromatographic oxidation of the toxins with hydrogen peroxide and periodate. The PSP toxins studied were saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3; together), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1,4; together), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), B-1 (GTX5), C-1 and C-2 (C1,2; together), and C-3 and C-4 (C3,4; together). B-2 (GTX6) toxin was also included, but for qualitative identification only. Mussels, both blank and naturally contaminated, were mixed and homogenized to provide a variety of PSP toxin mixtures and concentration levels. The same procedure was followed with clams, oysters, and scallops. Twenty-one test samples in total were sent to 21 collaborators who agreed to participate in the study. Results were obtained from 18 laboratories representing 14 different countries. It is recommended that the method be adopted First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:16526455

Lawrence, James F; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Menard, Cathie

2005-01-01

113

Cell bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP): comparison with postcolumn derivatization liquid chromatographic analysis and application to the monitoring of PSP in shellfish.  

PubMed

We performed a neuroblastoma cell (Neuro2a) culture assay modified slightly from a method reported previously to provide a simple and sensitive evaluation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish. The cell bioassay was just as sensitive for C-toxins as for gonyautoxins. The sensitivity of our cell bioassay was 4 times that of the current standard mouse bioassay. Using the cell bioassay, we evaluated PSP toxicity in 361 shellfish samples collected from Mikawa Bay and Ise Bay, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, from April 1999-March 2002. The results were compared with those obtained in a postcolumn derivatization liquid chromatographic analysis. PSP toxins were detected in 236/361 samples by both assays, and there was a fairly good correlation (r = 0.9001, n = 236, p < 0.001) between the results from the two assays. We applied this cell bioassay when short-necked clams in the bay turned poisonous in 2001. The chronological changes in PSP toxicity in the short-necked clams were analyzed and compared with those of the cell density of poisonous plankton (Alexandrium tamarense) occurring in the bay. The PSP toxicity in shellfish peaked 2 weeks after the cell density reached a maximum. We recommend using the cell bioassay for routine monitoring of PSP toxicity in shellfish living in natural marine environments. PMID:16417278

Hayashi, Rumiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Okumura, Masanao; Kondo, Fumio

2006-01-25

114

Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing a global increase in HABs and seafood contaminations, whose causative factors are only partially understood. Phycotoxins are small to medium-sized natural products and belong to many different groups of chemical compounds. The molecular mass ranges from approximately 300 to over 3000 Da, and the compound classes represented include amino acids, alkaloids and polyketides. Each compound group typically has several main compounds based on the same or similar structure. However, most groups also have several analogues, which are either produced by the algae or through metabolism in fish or shellfish or other marine organisms. The different phycotoxins have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. Saxitoxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, gambierol, palytoxins, domoic acid, and, perhaps, cyclic imines, alter different ion channels and/or pumps at the level of the cell membrane. The normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues is primarily perturbed by these mechanisms, leading to adverse effects in humans. Okadaic acid and related compounds inhibit serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, and disrupt major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Pectenotoxins bind to actin filaments, and alter cellular cytoskeleton. The precise mechanisms of action of yessotoxins and azaspiracids, in turn, are still undetermined. The route of human exposure to phycotoxins is usually oral, although living systems may become exposed to phycotoxins through other routes. Based on recorded symptoms, the major poisonings recognized so far include paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic, diarrheic shellfish poisonings, ciguatera, as well as palytoxin and azaspiracid poisonings. PMID:20358682

Rossini, Gian Paolo; Hess, Philipp

2010-01-01

115

Anja Robinson Fellowship Purpose: To provide support for graduate students doing shellfish aquaculture  

E-print Network

aquaculture research at the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport. Approximately $800 will be awarded and potential of proposed research to shellfish aquaculture); use of HMSC facilities; academic and research

116

PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

117

Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

Flick, George J.

118

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88  

SciTech Connect

Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

1988-07-01

119

76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...e.g., water temperature, water salinity, season, and estuary water exchange...e.g., depth, temperature, water salinity, season) and shellfish sampled (e...substrate, water temperature, water salinity, season, species, and animal...

2011-10-20

120

Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

121

The Behavioral Ecology of Shellfish Gathering in Western Kiribati, Micronesia 1: Prey Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on contemporary shellfish exploitation among several atoll communities in Kiribati, Micronesia, this paper examines\\u000a the relationship between human foragers and their invertebrate prey via the prey choice or diet breadth model derived from\\u000a optimal foraging theory. Shellfish, like many other reef organisms, are relatively sedentary and predictable, but these characteristics\\u000a make them susceptible to over-harvesting. The research reveals that

Frank R. Thomas

2007-01-01

122

Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) were, as their name suggests, discovered as a result of human poisoning after\\u000a consumption of contaminated shellfish. More recently, however, the same toxins have been found to be produced by freshwater\\u000a cyanobacteria. These organisms have worldwide distribution and are common in our sources of drinking water, thus presenting\\u000a another route of potential human exposure.

A. R. Humpage; V. F. Magalhaes; S. M. Froscio

2010-01-01

123

First Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Shellfish and Coastal Environments of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC), also called verotoxin-producing E. coli, is a major cause of food-borne illness, capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS). This\\u000a study was carried out to evaluate the presence of (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish and Mediterranean coastal environments of Morocco. The contamination of shellfish and marine environment\\u000a with Shiga toxin-producing E.

Mohamed Bennani; Samira Badri; Tarik Baibai; Nadia Oubrim; Mohammed Hassar; Nozha Cohen; Hamid Amarouch

124

Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State  

PubMed Central

The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

2013-01-01

125

A management strategy to reduce bacterial pollution in shellfish areas: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of bacterial pollution in shellfishing areas is not uncommon in the coastal regions of the United States. Bacterial contamination from man's activities can effectively reduce our natural shellfish resource areas by forcing their closure because of high potential risk of diseases being spread by shellfish harvested in these areas. Tillamook Bay, a relatively small, enclosed drainage basin of nonurban character, presents an excellent study area for observing this problem. The high population density of animals, raised on a relatively small floodplain area, represents one of the major sources of pollution in the bay. This paper summarizes the history of the agencies involved with the problem and presents the current approach to alleviate bacterial pollution in the bay without unduly penalizing other industries in the Tillamook basin. The paper also presents some of the legal aspects of reducing water pollution in shellfish harvesting areas and the jurisdiction of federal agencies in these matters. Finally, recommendations are given to reduce bacterial output by the major source categories in the basin, and criteria for bay closure to shellfish harvest are developed to protect the public from bacterially contaminated shellfish.

Crane, Stuart R.; Moore, James A.

1986-01-01

126

Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish by using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

The prechromatographic oxidation LC method developed by Lawrence [J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 74, 404-409(1991)] for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been tested for the quantitative determination of PSP toxins in shellfish. All aspects of the method were studied and modified as necessary to improve its performance for routine regulatory purposes. The chromatographic conditions were changed to shorten analysis time. The oxidation reaction was tested for repeatability and the influence of the sample matrix on quantitation. An important part of the study was to quantitatively evaluate an ion exchange (-COOH) cleanup step using disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges that separated the PSP toxins into 3 distinct groups for quantitation, namely the C toxins, the GTX toxins, and the saxitoxin group. The cleanup step was very simple and used increasing concentrations of aqueous NaCl for elution of the toxins. The C toxins were not retained by the cartridges and thus were eluted unretained with water. The GTX toxins (GTX1 to GTX6 as well as dcGTX2 and dcGTX3) eluted from the cartridges with 0.05M NaCl while the saxitoxin group (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and dcsaxitoxin) required 0.3M NaCl for elution. Each fraction was analyzed by LC after oxidation with periodate or peroxide. All of the compounds could be separated and quantitatively determined in spiked samples of mussels, clams, and oysters. The nonhydroxylated toxins could be quantitated at concentrations as low as about 0.02 microg/g (2 micro/100 g) of tissue while the hydroxylated toxins could be quantitated at concentrations as low as about 0.1 microg/g (10 microg/100 g). Average recoveries of the toxins through the complete cleanup procedure were 85% or greater for spiked extracts of oysters and clams and greater than 73% for mussels. PMID:11501910

Lawrence, J F; Niedzwiadek, B

2001-01-01

127

Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing.  

PubMed

Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985-2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for designing efficient and effective shellfish monitoring programs along the GoM coast. PMID:23391892

Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C; Borsuk, Mark E

2013-03-01

128

Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing  

PubMed Central

Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985–2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for designing efficient and effective shellfish monitoring programs along the GoM coast. PMID:23391892

Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C.; Borsuk, Mark E.

2013-01-01

129

Removal of paralytic shellfish toxins by probiotic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%-97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%-49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

130

Paralytic shellfish toxins inhibit copper uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Known targets of these toxins, which typically occur at detrimental concentrations during harmful algal blooms, include voltage-gated ion channels in humans and other mammals. However, the effects of the toxins on the co-occurring phytoplankton community remain unknown. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms of the model photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to saxitoxin exposure as a means of gaining insight into the phytoplankton community response to a bloom. Previous work with yeast indicated that saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake, so experiments were designed to examine whether saxitoxin exhibited a similar mode of action in algae. Expression profiling following exposure to saxitoxin or a copper chelator produced similar profiles in copper homeostasis genes, notably induction of the cytochrome c6 (CYC6) and copper transporter (COPT1, CTR1) genes. Cytochrome c6 is used as an alternative to plastocyanin under conditions of copper deficiency, and immunofluorescence data showed this protein to be present in a significantly greater proportion of saxitoxin-exposed cells compared to controls. Live-cell imaging with a copper-sensor probe for intracellular labile Cu(I) confirmed that saxitoxin blocked copper uptake. Extrapolations of these data to phytoplankton metabolic processes along with the copper transporter as a molecular target of saxitoxin based on existing structural models are discussed. PMID:23423950

Cusick, Kathleen D; Wetzel, Randall K; Minkin, Steven C; Dodani, Sheel C; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

2013-06-01

131

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

132

Studies on Freezint of Shell-Fish -II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in free amino acid content and compostion, and formation of odor components in ark shell Anadara broughtonii(Shrenk) during frozen storgae were studied in connection with storage temperature. The shucked shell-fish were frozen -40°C and stored at -10, -20 and -40°C, respectively for three months, and the shell flesh were subjected to anyalyses for free amino acids and odor components. The amount of total free amino acids in the shell flesh storedat -10°C was not as large as those in the flesh stored at -20 and -40°C. This finding implies that free amino acids in the shell flesh, when frozen-stored at a relatively high temperature, decrease in amount during storage and/or become liable to be lost along with drip during the course of thawing. As for respective amino acids, a mounts of Tau, ?-Ala, and Gly decreased markedly, while those of Met, Leu and Ile increased to some extent. In addition, it is of particular interest that ?-Ala is likely to be present in the free state. Amounts of volatile compounds such as carbonyl, nitrogenous, and sulfurous compounds have never attained the level where unpleasant or fishy odor could be percieved. However, there was a clear tendency that the higher the storage temperature, the larger amount of these compounds were presen.

Song, Dae Jin; Konagaya, Shiro; Nakamura, Koji; Iida, Haruka; Tanaka, Takeo

133

Environmental factors influencing the microbiological contamination of commercially harvested shellfish.  

PubMed

Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (such as oysters, clams, mussels and cockles) can concentrate contaminants from the water column. The extent of faecal contamination in shellfish is usually estimated by determining the concentration of faecal coliforms and/or Escherichia coli. Three sample points in each of three geographically separate commercial shellfisheries were selected for analysis for the effect of season, spring/neap and high/low tidal cycles, rainfall and wind direction on the results of routine E. coli monitoring. General linear modelling was used for the analyses. The principle factors affecting the contamination of shellfisheries were season, high/low tidal cycle and rainfall. The effects varied between harvesting areas and between individual sampling points within harvesting areas. Undertaking such analyses for all harvesting areas would contribute to the management of monitoring programmes and assist in the evaluation of potentially contaminating sources, such as sewage discharges. The type of analyses undertaken on E. coli monitoring data would also be pertinent for the analysis of putative viral indicators, such as F+ coliphage, and could be extended to data on bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:12639007

Lee, R J; Morgan, O C

2003-01-01

134

Superabsorbent materials from shellfish waste--a review.  

PubMed

Increasing global demand for improved absorbent materials for body fluids in disposable medical and personal-care articles creates an incentive for new basic research and development of efficient absorbent materials and systems with additional benefits such as biodegradability or certain biomedical functions. Highly absorbing materials based on polyelectrolyte polymers can absorb up to 50 grams of body fluid per gram of dry mass. Currently available synthetic superabsorbents are not biodegradable in landfills and do not offer any value-added functions to personal and medical-care products. Various academic and industrial research groups have put considerable amounts of effort and resources toward development of new absorbent materials from natural polymers, which would decompose in landfills. The basic substrates in these studies have been mainly polysaccharides, particularly cellulose and starch. The most common approach has involved converting these polymers into carboxymethyl derivatives followed by structural cross-linking. Commercial synthetic superabsorbent polymers as well as those derived from cellulose and starch are essentially polyanionic. On the other hand, polycationic absorbers seem to have potential functional advantages over the polyanionic counterparts. Chitin is the second abundant natural polymer, whose main derivative, chitosan, becomes polycationic in acid media. Currently, the main source of this polysaccharide is shellfish waste. This review provides basic information about new superabsorbent materials based on chitosan salts, their properties and preparation. PMID:12115771

Dutkiewicz, Jacek K

2002-01-01

135

Basis for a new procedure to eliminate diarrheic shellfish toxins from a contaminated matrix.  

PubMed

The natural contamination of shellfish with diarrheic shellfish toxins (DSP) has important public health implications. To avoid the economic effects of toxic episodes on shellfish farmers and the related industry, research on artificial methods alternative to the natural detoxification of shellfish is needed. Because the usual thermal processes are not efficient, alternative technologies have to be studied. Here preliminary results are presented about the lability of the DSP toxin okadaic acid in a supercritical atmosphere of carbon dioxide with acetic acid. Most of the toxin is eliminated (up to 90%), and the biological activity against its target enzyme is also severely affected (up to 70% reduction). Detoxification of contaminated shellfish requires a partial dehydration, and the detoxification yield is lower than that obtained with free toxin. Mass spectrometry experiments suggest that acetylation of the toxin molecule is not the basis of the inactivating mechanism, but a conformational change is suggested. This is the first report of the use of supercritical fluids to inactivate toxins. PMID:11782215

González, José C; Fontal, Olga I; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Vieites, Juan M; Botana, Luis M

2002-01-16

136

Concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus and rotavirus from shellfish by hybridization tests.  

PubMed Central

A modified polyethylene glycol precipitation method for concentration of virus followed by a new method to recover nucleic acid was used to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (SA11) in shellfish (oysters and hard-shell clams) by hybridization tests. Infectious virus, seeded into relatively large quantities of shellfish, was recovered consistently, with greater than 90% efficiency as measured by either in situ hybridization (HAV) or plaque assay (rotavirus SA11). Viral nucleic acid for dot blot hybridization assays was extracted and purified from virus-containing polyethylene glycol concentrates. Separation of shellfish polysaccharides from nucleic acid was necessary before viral RNA could be detected by dot blot hybridization. Removal of shellfish polysaccharides was accomplished by using the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Use of CTAB reduced background interference with hybridization signals, which resulted in increased hybridization test sensitivity. After polysaccharide removal, dot blot hybridization assays could detect approximately 10(6) physical particles (corresponding to approximately 10(3) infectious particles) of HAV and 10(4) PFU of SA11 rotavirus present in 20-g samples of oyster and clam meats. These studies show continuing promise for the development of uniform methods to directly detect human viral pathogens in different types of shellfish. However, practical applications of such methods to detect noncultivatable human viral pathogens of public health interest will require additional improvements in test sensitivity. Images PMID:1660697

Zhou, Y J; Estes, M K; Jiang, X; Metcalf, T G

1991-01-01

137

Management of domoic acid monitoring in shellfish from the Catalan coast.  

PubMed

Monitoring of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in shellfish from the Catalan coast started in 2001. No ASP toxins were detected in any of the analyses performed before 2008. On 22 January 2008, domoic acid (DA) was detected in Donax trunculus (0.5 mg?kg(-1)) and confirmed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (0.6 mg?kg(-1)). A total of 974 shellfish samples were analyzed from January 2008 to December 2011, covering all the Catalan production areas and the most important marketed species. DA was detected in 23.8 % of the samples and was recorded every month in all areas and all species, except Ostrea edulis, although the percentage of samples with DA and DA content varied widely among samples. DA exceeded the regulatory level of 20 mg?kg(-1) twice: in Callista chione sampled on February 2008 and in D. trunculus sampled on April 2010. DA content in Bolinus brandaris appeared constant and close to 4.5 mg?kg(-1) for months in 2009. Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, and Ruditapes sp. presented very low concentrations of DA in the Ebro Delta bays, despite 113 alert situations according to Pseudo-nitzschia spp. abundances and the high number of shellfish samples analyzed. The origin of DA in Catalan shellfish remains unknown. PMID:23275095

Giménez Papiol, Gemma; Casanova, Alexis; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Diogène, Jorge

2013-08-01

138

New Jersey has a small but expanding shellfish aquaculture industry. Two species are grown: the hard clam Mercenaria  

E-print Network

#12;New Jersey has a small but expanding shellfish aquaculture industry. Two species are grown scale until 1997. With the State's initiation of Aquaculture Development Zones and new permitting regulations, New Jersey's shellfish aquaculture industry is poised for expansion. Documentation of the extent

Garfunkel, Eric

139

Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

2013-01-01

140

Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Counts in Shellfish Harvested from Kedah, Penang and Perak Pre and Post-Tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to examine the level of fecal indicator bacterial counts (Fecal Coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC)) in shellfish harvested from Penang, Perak and Kedah after the tsunami and to compare the mean FC and EC in shellfish from the three states pre and post-tsunami. The data used in this paper were obtained from the

Wan Norhana; Mohd Nor Azman; Batu Maung

141

Phylogenetic and functional diversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with the paralytic shellfish poisoning dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gymnodinium catenatum is one of several dinoflagellates that produce a suite of neurotoxins called the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning in temperate and tropical waters. Previous research suggested that the bacteria associated with the surface of the sexual resting stages (cyst) were important to the production of PST by G. catenatum. This study sought

David H Green; Lyndon E Llewellyn; Andrew P Negri; Susan I Blackburn; Christopher J. S Bolch

2004-01-01

142

THE COLONY OVERLAY PROCEDURE FOR PEPTIDASES TO DETECT AND ENUMERATE TOTAL VIBRIONACEAE IN MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH AND THEIR GROWING WATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 1925, molluscan shellfish harvesting has been regulated in the United States based on sanitary surveys of shellfish growing waters. Surveys have relied on the use of coliform standards which have effectively eliminated outbreaks of typhoid fever and other bacterial illnesses. Only the Vibrio...

143

Recent innovation in microbial source tracking using bacterial real-time PCR markers in shellfish.  

PubMed

We assessed the capacity of real-time PCR markers to identify the origin of contamination in shellfish. Oyster, cockles or clams were either contaminated with fecal materials and host-associated markers designed from Bacteroidales or Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S RNA genes were extracted from their intravalvular liquid, digestive tissues or shellfish flesh. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the oyster intravalvular liquid with FastDNA spin kit for soil enabled the selected markers to be quantified in 100% of artificially contaminated samples, and the source of contamination to be identified in 13 out of 38 naturally contaminated batches from European Class B and Class C areas. However, this protocol did not enable the origin of the contamination to be identified in cockle or clam samples. Although results are promising for extracts from intravalvular liquid in oyster, it is unlikely that a single protocol could be the best across all bacterial markers and types of shellfish. PMID:23398745

Mauffret, A; Mieszkin, S; Morizur, M; Alfiansah, Y; Lozach, S; Gourmelon, M

2013-03-15

144

Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.  

PubMed

Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent. PMID:24937222

Lee, R J; Reese, R A

2014-06-01

145

A comparison of RT-PCR-based assays for the detection of HAV from shellfish.  

PubMed

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the most common cause of viral infection linked to shellfish consumption. The lack of correlation between the fecal coliform indicators and the presence of enteric viruses in shellfish and their harvesting waters points to the need for molecular methods to detect viruses. We compared two RT-PCR based techniques currently available for the detection of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish. Both approaches involve extraction of viral particles by glycine buffer and concentration of virus particles by one or two PEG precipitation steps. One procedure involves as RNA extraction method the use of oligo (dT) cellulose to select poly (A) RNA, and the other uses a system in which total RNA is bound on silica membrane. Comparison of the two RT-PCR based methods highlighted the efficiency of the first approach which is less time-consuming and technically demanding than the second. PMID:15164621

Di Pinto, A; Conversano, M C; Forte, V T; La Salandra, G; Montervino, C; Tantillo, G M

2004-04-01

146

Evaluation of a postcolumn electrochemical reactor for oxidation of paralytic shellfish poison toxins.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method using a postcolumn electrochemical reactor that oxidizes paralytic shellfish poison toxins to fluorescent derivatives has been developed. Several experimental parameters, including pH and oxidation potential, were investigated. For nonhydroxylated toxins, the sensitivity improved with increasing pH and voltage. At optimum operating conditions, the sensitivity for saxitoxin and gonyautoxins 2 and 3 was an order of magnitude greater than that for neosaxitoxin and B1 and 2 orders of magnitude greater than that for B2. The limit of detection for saxitoxin was 0.10 ng (signal-to-noise ratio, 3:1). Electrochemical oxidation products were similar to those formed in the prechromatographic periodate oxidation method. Shellfish and plankton extracts were analyzed with the electrochemical system, and results agreed well with those obtained with established methods. Shellfish samples contaminated at the regulatory limit of 0.8 microgram/g were readily analyzed by the method. PMID:7756884

Lawrence, J F; Wong, B

1995-01-01

147

Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State  

PubMed Central

The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 ?g okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

2013-01-01

148

Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view. PMID:24419543

C De, Bidhan; Meena, D K; Behera, B K; Das, Pronob; Das Mohapatra, P K; Sharma, A P

2014-06-01

149

Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

2013-01-01

150

Age Determination Methods for Northwest Atlantic Species (of fish and shellfish)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fishery Biology Program of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center provides this resource to assist with age determination of fish and shellfish species from the Northwest Atlantic. Released in its current form in 1997, this resource represents the fruit of many years of accumulated expertise. Techniques for aging sixteen species of fish or shellfish are given here, based on growth marks in scales, otoliths, and shells. From Atlantic Butterfish through Yellowtail Flounder, these detailed descriptions and black-and-white images should be of valuable assistance to researchers.

Almeida, F. P.; Dery, L. M.; Penttila, J.; Sheehan, T. F.

1997-01-01

151

Shellfish allergy and relation to iodinated contrast media: United Kingdom survey  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess current practice of United Kingdom cardiologists with respect to patients with reported shellfish/iodine allergy, and in particular the use of iodinated contrast for elective coronary angiography. Moreover we have reviewed the current evidence-base and guidelines available in this area. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was send to 500 senior United Kingdom cardiologists (almost 50% cardiologists registered with British Cardiovascular Society) using email and first 100 responses used to analyze practise. We involved cardiologists performing coronary angiograms routinely both at secondary and tertiary centres. Three specific questions relating to allergy were asked: (1) History of shellfish/iodine allergy in pre-angiography assessment; (2) Treatments offered for shellfish/iodine allergy individuals; and (3) Any specific treatment protocol for shellfish/iodine allergy cases. We aimed to establish routine practice in United Kingdom for patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. We also performed comprehensive PubMed search for the available evidence of relationship between shellfish/iodine allergy and contrast media. RESULTS: A total of 100 responses were received, representing 20% of all United Kingdom cardiologists. Ninety-three replies were received from consultant cardiologists, 4 from non-consultant grades and 3 from cardiology specialist nurses. Amongst the respondents, 66% routinely asked about a previous history of shellfish/iodine allergy. Fifty-six percent would pre-treat these patients with steroids and anti-histamines. The other 44% do nothing, or do nonspecific testing based on their personal experience as following: (1) Skin test with 1 mL of subcutaneous contrast before intravenous contrast; (2) Test dose 2 mL contrast before coronary injection; (3) Close observation for shellfish allergy patients; and (4) Minimal evidence that the steroid and anti-histamine regime is effective but it makes us feel better. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence that allergy to shellfish alters the risk of reaction to intravenous contrast more than any other allergy and asking about such allergies in pre-angiogram assessment will not provide any additional information except propagating the myth. PMID:24669292

Baig, Mudassar; Farag, Ahmad; Sajid, Jamal; Potluri, Rahul; Irwin, R Bruce; Khalid, Hafiz Mohammed Idrees

2014-01-01

152

Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation. Progress report No. 1, October 1, 1985-July 25, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to investigate the feasibility of employing food irradiation technology to reduce or eliminate the threat of viral diseases contracted as a result of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish. Several recently published studies warn of the health risks associated with eating of raw shellfish - particularly American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and the hardshelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. This study addresses the possibility of reducing the incidence of molluscanborne diseases through the application of /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation processing to effect the inactivation of pathogenic viruses in live, raw shwllfish. Dosimetry, D/sub 10/ doses, and organoleptic effects were studied.

Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

1986-07-25

153

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of bacteria across an intertidal shellfish bed: Implications for regulatory monitoring of faecal indicator organisms.  

PubMed

Routine bacterial monitoring of shellfish beds using indicator species is a common global practice designed to prevent human consumption of contaminated shellfish products. However, current bacteriological monitoring procedures which focus on the quantification of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) as a proxy for microbial pollution may not be representative of total bacterial contamination levels present in shellfish harvesting areas. The objective of this study was to critically assess the accuracy of current monitoring strategies by quantifying the spatial (lateral and longitudinal distance) and temporal (seasonality and tidal state) concentrations of FIOs (Escherichia coli and total coliforms) within a single intertidal commercially harvested shellfish bed. Spatial and temporal FIO dynamics, including the effects of tidal state and seasonality, were quantified in mussel flesh and sediment samples from a single intertidal mussel (Mytilus edulis) bed. Our results confirmed that FIO concentrations across a shellfish bed were heterogeneous over larger spatial and temporal scales, but showed no relation to the concentrations of autochthonous bacteria, such as Vibrio spp., or the physico-chemical parameters of the sediment. These results have important implications for both public health and the economic prosperity of the shellfish industry, and demonstrate the importance of accommodating both spatial and temporal fluctuations in routine bacteriological monitoring protocols. We conclude that current FIO monitoring procedures may not accurately represent levels of microbial contamination within shellfish harvesting areas and that more robust microbiological testing procedures need developing. PMID:25460933

Clements, Katie; Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L; Wilson, James; Malham, Shelagh K

2015-02-15

154

Species Diversity in Florida's Shellfish Aquaculture Industry Over the past several years there has been an  

E-print Network

Species Diversity in Florida's Shellfish Aquaculture Industry Over the past several years there has and market potential. Currently, the sunray venus is being investigated as a new aquaculture species to Florida of the green mussel, which is an important fishery and aquaculture species in the Indo

Florida, University of

155

SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER  

E-print Network

SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER FINAL of the aquaculture industry to public Baylor ground, timely information regarding the productivity of these grounds and the ability to support aquaculture would be highly desirable information. In this scenario, public bottom

156

Complete Genome Sequence of the Larval Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii Type Strain ATCC 19109  

PubMed Central

Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here, we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (ATCC type strain 19109), which consists of two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp), and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,973 bp). PMID:25523763

Needleman, David S.; Watson, Michael A.; Bono, James L.

2014-01-01

157

Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saxitoxin (STX) was the first known and most studied toxic component of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). This toxin blocks neuronal transmission by binding to the voltage-gated Na+ channel. Although the toxin's mechanism of action is well known at the molecular level, there are still many unresolved questions about its pharmacokinetics and the PSP intoxication syndrome in mammals. Some of these

Dar??o Andrinolo; Luis F Michea; Néstor Lagos

1999-01-01

158

IDENTIFYING CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS IN MARYLAND!  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS IN MARYLAND! ROBERT. KEVIN SUMMERS6 ABSTRACT In five of the seven most important commercial fisheries of Maryland of the University of Maryland. "University of Maryland, Chesapeake Biological Labora- tory, Solomons, MD 20688. s

159

MERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. II. SABLEFISH, ANOPLOPOMA FIMBRIA  

E-print Network

MERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. II. SABLEFISH, ANOPLOPOMA FIMBRIA ALICE S several locations in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California were analyzed for their mercury content. Mean mercury level in this species varied with the geographical location of catch, showing a gradual

160

Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

161

Estuarine Fish and Shellfish Species in U.S. Commercial and Recreational  

E-print Network

Estuarine Fish and Shellfish Species in U.S. Commercial and Recreational Fisheries: Economic Value.S. Commercial and Recreational Fisheries: Economic Value as an Incentive to Protect and Restore Estuarine: kimberlylellis@yahoo.com 2 Current address: Habitat Ecological Consulting, 182 East 9th Street #12C, New York, NY

162

Rapid Detection of Noroviruses in Fecal Samples and Shellfish by Nucleic Acid Sequence-based Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method of detecting noroviruses in artificially and naturally contaminated shellfish. We used 58 fecal samples that tested positive for noroviruses with electron microscopy (EM) to develop an NASBA assay for these viruses. Oligonucleotide primers targeting the polymerase coding region were used to amplify

Xiaoxia Kou; Qingping Wu; Jumei Zhang; Hongying Fan

2006-01-01

163

Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk

Eric M. Hallerman; Anne R. Kapuscinski

1995-01-01

164

Hard clam aquaculture is the largest and most valuable of the shellfish  

E-print Network

Hard clam aquaculture is the largest and most valuable of the shellfish aquaculture industries on the East Coast. It accounts for more than $50 million in economic value annually. Hard clams are bivalve or freshwater for an extend- ed period. Hard clams occur natural- ly all along the Atlantic coast from Nova

Florida, University of

165

Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile from shellfish and marine environments.  

PubMed

This pilot study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Clostridium difficile in marine environments and in edible shellfish. Samples of seawater, sediment, and zooplankton were collected at five sampling stations in the Gulf of Naples. Six samples of edible shellfish, furthermore, were obtained: two from mussel farms and four from wholesalers. The isolation and the characterization of C. difficile strains were carried out using selective media and molecular techniques, respectively. C. difficile was isolated from nine of the 21 samples investigated. Shellfish and zooplankton showed the highest prevalence of positive samples. No C. difficile was detected in marine sediment. Majority of the C. difficile isolates were toxin A/B positive. Six known different PCR ribotypes (003, 005, 009, 010, 056, and 066) were identified, whereas one strain may represent a new PCR ribotype. C. difficile may be present in the marine environment in Southern Italy, including shellfish and zooplankton. This study is reporting the isolation of C. difficile from zooplankton, clams, and mussels and pointing out a new possible route to exposure to C. difficile of healthy individuals in the community. PMID:21901293

Pasquale, Vincenzo; Romano, Vincenza Jessica; Rupnik, Maja; Dumontet, Stefano; Cižnár, Ivan; Aliberti, F; Mauri, F; Saggiomo, V; Krovacek, Karel

2011-09-01

166

MOLECULAR DETECTION AND HIGH PRESSURE SANITIZATION OF SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A highly sensitive virus RNA extraction method for shellfish, using Glycine buffer, Polyethylene glycol, Tri-reagent and poly dT magnetic beads, termed the GPTT procedure, has recently been developed which facilitates RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and Norwalk-like viruses...

167

Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

168

New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

169

High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

170

Potential risk assessment of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen, China.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr in 240 shellfish including oyster, short-necked clam, razor clam, and mud clam collected from six administrative regions in Xiamen of China were measured. The daily intakes of heavy metals through the consumption of shellfish were estimated based on both of the metal concentrations in shellfish and the consuming amounts of shellfish. In addition, the target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals in shellfish on human body. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in shellfish ranged at the following sequence: Cr > Cd > Pb > Hg. The concentrations of Hg and Pb in most samples were below the limits (0.3 mg kg(-1) for Hg and 0.5 mg kg(-1) for Pb) of national standard (GB 18406.4-2001) set in China. About 57 % of samples were found to contain more than 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Cd, in which the highest level was found in oyster from Xiangan with a value of 1.21 mg kg(-1). The average concentrations of Cd in oyster and mud clam samples were 0.338 and 0.369 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the samples of short-necked clam and razor clam. The highest concentration of Cr was found to present in short-necked clam from Jimei with a value of 10.4 mg kg(-1), but a mean value of 1.95 mg kg(-1) in all the shellfish was observed, and no significant difference was found among the different sampling regions. The calculated daily intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr through consuming the shellfish were 0.005, 0.122, 0.137, and 1.20 ?g kg(-1) day(-1), respectively, which accounted for 2.19, 3.42, 13.7, and 40.1 % of the corresponding tolerable limits suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The THQ values of the four metals were far below 1 for most samples, except for those of Cd and Cr in the four shellfish species with the mean values of 0.132 and 0.385, respectively. The highest THQ values of Cd were observed in the species of oyster (0.719) and mud clam (0.568). But the high THQ values of Cr observed in all the four species were derived from the applied reference dose (RfD) data of Cr(VI) due to the unavailable RfD value of total Cr. The results indicate that the intakes of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen of China do not present an appreciable hazard risk on human health, but attention should be paid to consuming those with relatively high THQ values, such as oyster, mud clam, and short-necked clam. PMID:23054773

Li, Jian; Huang, Zhiyong; Huang, Zhiyong Y; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hong

2013-05-01

171

Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.  

PubMed

The global contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), or compounds with similar characteristics, is well known. Still there are data gaps for POP concentrations from many areas in the world. The aim of the present study is to assess several legacies POPs and also hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in shellfish from three locations in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The sources of the contaminants are discussed. Pooled samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction and acid and column cleanup prior to analysis by gas chromatogram equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The by far most abundant environmental contaminant originates from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), independent of species analyzed or sampling site. The results indicate ongoing or at least recent discharges of DDT. The second highest concentrations were reported for HBCDD (21-40 ng/g fat) in the shellfish, independent of sampling sites. The two natural products, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 2'-MeO-BDE-68, were also present in the shellfish (1.3-22 and 1-14 ng/g fat, respectively). The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 (0.8-6.5 ng/g fat), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.1-3.6 ng/g fat), and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) (2.3-4.9 ng/g fat) were all higher than the concentrations of other HCH isomers, ?-endosulfan, PBDE congeners, and mirex. Apart from the DDTs and HBCDDs, it is evident that the pollution of shellfish was similar to, or lower than, the contamination of shellfish in other parts of the world. PMID:24958534

Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Hua; Yao, Zongli; Jiang, Jianbin; Bergman, Ake

2014-06-25

172

ACUTE TOXICITY, SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF CHLORINATION PRODUCTS, VIRUSES, AND BACTERIA IN EDIBLE SHELLFISH: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies, synthesizes, and summarizes published scientific data concerning toxicity, sublethal physiological effects, and uptake/depuration rates of chlorine, viruses, and bacteria in edible marine shellfish of the United States. The summary may provide environmental...

173

Indirect human impacts turn off reciprocal feedbacks and decrease ecosystem resilience.  

PubMed

Creek bank salt marsh die-off is a conservation problem in New England, driven by predator depletion, which releases herbivores from consumer control. Many marshes, however, have begun to recover from die-off. We examined the hypothesis that the loss of the foundation species Spartina alterniflora has decreased facilitator populations, weakening reciprocal positive plant/animal feedbacks, resilience, and slowing recovery. Field surveys and experiments revealed that loss of Spartina leads to decreased biodiversity, and increased mortality and decreased growth of the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa, a key facilitator of Spartina. Experimental addition of Geukensia facilitators to creek banks accelerated Spartina recovery, showing that their loss limits recovery and the reciprocal feedbacks that drive community resilience. Reciprocal positive feedbacks involving foundation species, often lost to human impacts, may be a common, but generally overlooked mechanism of ecosystem resilience, making their reestablishment a valuable restoration tool. PMID:25432574

Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Crotty, Sinead M

2014-11-29

174

Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported. PMID:25098307

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Lance, Ellen W; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-10-01

175

Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity. PMID:21660552

Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

2012-04-01

176

A new simple screening method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay (MBA). To alleviate animal welfare concerns, we evaluated the utility of using sublethal indicators of toxicity as an alternative to measuring time to death. Live mice were injected with a PSP congener and the changes in neurotransmitter levels were measured 60, 90, and 120 min after injection. Acetylcholine (ACh) was the most sensitive marker for PSP toxicity. The changes in neurotransmitter levels were most pronounced in the blood. Thus, measurement of Ach levels in the blood may serve as a sensitive predictor for PSP that would not require sacrifice of the mice. This method was relatively simple, sensitive (less than 1 ?g/kg weight, equivalent to 20 ng/mL), low maintenance, and rapid (less than 60 min).

Cheng, Jinping; Pi, Shuaishuai; Ye, Shufeng; Gao, Haomin; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhenyi; Song, Yuling; Xi, Lei

2012-09-01

177

Probing Norwalk-like virus presence in shellfish, using artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

A database was examined using artificial neural network (ANN) models to investigate the efficacy of predicting PCR-identified Norwalk-like virus presence and absence in shellfish. The relative importance of variables in the model and the predictive power obtained by application of ANN modelling methods were compared with previously developed logistic regression models. In addition, two country-specific datasets were analysed separately with ANN models to determine if the relative importance of the input variables was similar for geographically diverse regions. The results of this analysis found that ANN models predicted Norwalk-like virus presence and absence in shellfish with equivalent, and better, precision than logistic regression models. For overall classification performance, ANN modelling had a rate of 93%, vs 75% for the logistic regression. ANN models were able to illuminate the site-specific relationships between indicators and pathogens. PMID:15318497

Brion, G; Lingeriddy, S; Neelakantan, T R; Wang, M; Girones, R; Lees, D; Allard, A; Vantarakis, A

2004-01-01

178

A Putative Gene Cluster from a Lyngbya wollei Bloom that Encodes Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds. PMID:21347365

Mihali, Troco K.; Carmichael, Wayne W.; Neilan, Brett A.

2011-01-01

179

Thermal degradation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in scallop digestive glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive glands containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were isolated from toxic scallops. Citrate\\/phosphate buffers with the pH values ranging from 3 to 7 were added to achieve predetermined pH levels. The samples were heated at 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130°C using a computer controlled oil bath, and three tubes at each pH level were transferred into an ice

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

1999-01-01

180

High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

A high pressure liquid chromatographic procedure is described for assay of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The method is applicable to saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins I through IV, and their sulfocarbamoyl derivatives. Toxins are separated on a bonded phase cyano column and detected by fluorescence following alkaline oxidation (NH+4 and periodic acid). The utility of the HPLC procedure for research and monitoring is discussed. PMID:6853415

Sullivan, J J; Iwaoka, W T

1983-03-01

181

Reevaluation of Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxin by Bacteria Associated with Dinoflagellates of the Portuguese Coast  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by certain dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial species. The autonomous production of PSTs by bacteria remains controversial. In this study, PST production by two bacterial strains, isolated previously from toxic dinoflagellates, was evaluated using biological and analytical methods. Analyses were performed under conditions determined previously to be optimal for toxin production and detection. Our data are inconsistent with autonomous bacterial PST production under these conditions, thereby challenging previous findings for the same strains. PMID:12957964

Martins, Claudia A.; Alvito, Paula; Tavares, Maria João; Pereira, Paulo; Doucette, Gregory; Franca, Susana

2003-01-01

182

Biotransformations of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Bacteria Isolated from Bivalve Molluscs  

PubMed Central

Due to the possibility that bacteria could be involved in the clearance of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) from bivalve molluscs, investigations into which, if any, bacteria were able to grow at the expense of PST focused on several common shellfish species. These species were blue mussels, oysters, razor fish, cockles, and queen and king scallops. Bacteria associated with these shellfish were isolated on marine agar 2216 and characterized by their carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG). Selected isolates from groups demonstrating 90% similarity were screened for their ability to metabolize a range of PST (gonyautoxins 1 and 4 [GTX 1/4], GTX 2/3, GTX 5, saxitoxin, and neosaxitoxin) using a novel screening method and confirming its results by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results suggest that molluscan bacteria have different capacities to utilize and transform PST analogues. For example, isolates M12 and R65 were able to reductively transform GTX 1/4 with concomitant production of GTX 2/3, while isolate Q5 apparently degraded GTX 1/4 without the appearance of other GTXs. Other observed possible mechanisms of PST transformations include decarbamoylation by isolate M12 and sulfation of GTXs by isolates Q5, R65, M12, and C3. These findings raise questions as to the possible role of bacteria resident in the shellfish food transport system. Some researchers have suggested that the microflora play a role in supplying nutritional requirements of the host. This study demonstrates that bacteria may also be involved in PST transformation and elimination in molluscan species. PMID:11319121

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Grant, Faye; Ferguson, Carolyn M. J.; Gallacher, Susan

2001-01-01

183

First detection of cyanobacterial PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning) toxins in Spanish freshwaters.  

PubMed

Presence of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin and gonyautoxin-5 was analyzed by mass spectrometry in 41 Spanish freshwaters and 13 strains of potential PST-producing planktonic cyanobacteria. Toxins were detected in five waterbodies, but were absent from the isolated strains. PST containing samples belonged to the same geographical region (South Western Spain) and were most likely related to the presence of the genus Aphanizomenon. PMID:21376073

Wörmer, Lars; Cirés, Samuel; Agha, Ramsy; Verdugo, María; de Hoyos, Caridad; Quesada, Antonio

2011-05-01

184

Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish  

PubMed Central

Introductions of non-native species are seen as major threats to ecosystem function and biodiversity. However, invasions of aquatic habitats by non-native species are known to benefit generalist consumers that exhibit dietary switches and prey upon the exotic species in addition to or in preference to native ones. There is, however, little knowledge concerning the population-level implications of such dietary changes. Here, we show that the introduction of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum into European coastal waters has presented the Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus with a new food resource and resulted in a previously unknown predator–prey interaction between these species. We demonstrate, with an individuals-based simulation model, that the presence of this non-native shellfish, even at the current low density, has reduced the predicted over-winter mortality of oystercatchers at one recently invaded site. Further increases in clam population density are predicted to have even more pronounced effects on the density dependence of oystercatcher over-winter mortality. These results suggest that if the Manila clam were to spread around European coastal waters, a process which is likely to be facilitated by global warming, this could have considerable benefits for many shellfish-eating shorebird populations. PMID:17412684

Caldow, Richard W.G; Stillman, Richard A; Durell, Sarah E.A. le V. dit; West, Andy D; McGrorty, Selwyn; Goss-Custard, John D; Wood, Philippa J; Humphreys, John

2007-01-01

185

Quantitative ELISA kit for paralytic shellfish toxins coupled with sample pretreatment.  

PubMed

A new ELISA kit to quantitate the level of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in crude shellfish extracts was developed. A conjugate for preparing antigen and a novel antibody used in the ELISA was prepared based on the unique reactions between C11-O-sulfate toxins such as gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3) and various thiol compounds, followed by coupling to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The compounds necessary for competitive ELISA, labeled toxin and an artificial standard toxin to replace saxitoxin in the analysis, were also produced by the same techniques. The resulting ELISA recognized all the toxin components tested; however, carbamoyl-N-sulfate derivatives such as B and C toxins and N1-OH toxins such as neoSTX and GTX1,4 showed low affinity to the antibody. The difference in the reactivity of the antibody observed among the toxin components prevents accurate quantification of the toxin amounts in shellfish extracts. To address this problem, the former toxin components were transformed to corresponding carbamate toxins by mild HCl treatment according to a conventional method. The reduction of N1-OH of the latter toxins to N1-H was performed by our original method using hemin as a catalyst. We report here the new ELISA kit coupled with the pretreatment process to transform the toxin components favorable for the quantitative analysis of PSP toxins. PMID:24830145

Sato, Shigeru; Takata, Yoshinobu; Kondo, Sunaho; Kotoda, Akiko; Hongo, Naoto; Kodama, Masaaki

2014-01-01

186

Open-sandwich immunoassay for sensitive and broad-range detection of a shellfish toxin gonyautoxin.  

PubMed

At present, the analytical method for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish is the mouse bioassay (MBA), which is an official method of the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC [8]). However, the low sensitivity and concerns over the number of live animals required for testing have been cited as the major reason for seeking its replacement. In this report, we employed an open-sandwich immunoassay (OS-IA) to detect gonyautoxin (GTX2/3), a kind of PSP toxins. OS-IA, which utilizes the antigen-induced enhancement of antibody VH/VL interaction, can measure a small molecule antigen in a noncompetitive format. Hence it has a wider working range and shorter measurement time. We isolated anti-GTX2/3 antibody gene from a hybridoma GT-13A by screening a Fab-displaying phage library. Then the vectors for OS-IA were constructed, and examined for antigen concentration-dependency of the VH/VL interaction by OS-ELISA. As a result, in each case, signal intensity increases notably in a wide concentration range (0.1 to >1000 ng mL(-1)) of free GTX2/3, which was enough to cover its regulation value (80 ?g 100 g(-1)) in many countries. So OS-IA will be widely applicable to detect PSP toxins in shellfish meats and in drinking water. PMID:23953213

Hara, Yuko; Dong, Jinhua; Ueda, Hiroshi

2013-09-01

187

A rapid detection method for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by cell bioassay.  

PubMed

We report here a rapid detection method for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using a cultured neuroblastoma cell line, modified from the bioassay system previously established by Manger et al. [Manger, R.L., Leja, L.S., Lee, S.Y., Hungerford, J.M., Kirkpatrick, M.A., Yasumoto, T., Wekell, M.M., 2003. Detection of paralytic shellfish poison by rapid cell bioassay: antagonism of voltage-gated sodium channel active toxins in vitro. J. AOAC Int. 86 (3), 540-543]. In the present study, we made two major modifications to the previous method. The first is the use of maitotoxin, a marine toxin of ciguatera fish poisoning, which enables the incubation period to be reduced to 6 h when applied to the microplate 15 min prior to the end of the incubation. The second is the use of WST-8, a dehydrogenase detecting water-soluble tetrazolium salt for determining the target cell viability, which permits the omission of a washing step and simplifies the counting process. In addition, we attempted to reduce the required materials as much as possible. Thus, our modified method should be useful for screening the PSP-toxins from shellfish. PMID:15922387

Okumura, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Tomita, Ban-Ichi

2005-07-01

188

Detection of noroviruses in shellfish and semiprocessed fishery products from a Belgian seafood company.  

PubMed

Shellfish have been implicated in norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks worldwide. This study presents data obtained from various batches of shellfish and fishery products from a Belgian seafood company over a 6-month period. For the intact shellfish (oysters, mussels, and clams), 21 of 65 samples from 12 of 34 batches were positive for NoVs; 9 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 3,300 to 14,300 genomic copies per g. For the semiprocessed fishery products (scallops and common sole rolls with scallop fragments), 29 of 36 samples from all eight batches were positive for NoVs; 17 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 200 to 1,800 copies per g. This convenience study demonstrated the performance and robustness of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection and interpretation method and the added value of NoV testing in the framework of periodic control of seafood products bought internationally and distributed by a Belgian seafood processing company to Belgian food markets. PMID:25198595

Li, Dan; Stals, Ambroos; Tang, Qing-Juan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2014-08-01

189

Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model.  

PubMed Central

The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription-PCR-based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983-1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2-trichloro,2,2,1-trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate-glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription-PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR-positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round-structured viruses in shellfish. Images PMID:7521997

Lees, D N; Henshilwood, K; Doré, W J

1994-01-01

190

Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro-  

E-print Network

Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro- algae that provide a nutritional profile for shellfish. Although the algal cells are intact, the algae are not alive. The diet does not contain

Florida, University of

191

The ecological role of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the estuarine environment: A review with application to oyster and clam culture in West Coast (USA) estuaries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aquaculture is viewed as a potential mechanism to meet the growing demand for seafood around the world. The future of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the U.S. hinges on sustainable practices on the part of industry and a more consistent regulatory regime. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture is a recent...

192

Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris).  

PubMed

Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1+2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses' excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms. PMID:24316438

Lopes, Vanessa M; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui; Costa, Pedro Reis

2014-01-01

193

Comparison of biosensor platforms for surface plasmon resonance based detection of paralytic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are produced by certain marine dinoflagellates and may accumulate in bivalve molluscs through filter feeding. The Mouse Bioassay (MBA) is the internationally recognised reference method of analysis, but it is prone to technical difficulties and regarded with increasing disapproval due to ethical reasons. As such, alternative methods are required. A rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor inhibition assay was developed to detect PSP toxins in shellfish by employing a saxitoxin polyclonal antibody (R895). Using an assay developed for and validated on the Biacore Q biosensor system, this project focused on transferring the assay to a high-throughput, Biacore T100 biosensor in another laboratory. This was achieved using a prototype PSP toxin kit and recommended assay parameters based on the Biacore Q method. A monoclonal antibody (GT13A) was also assessed. Even though these two instruments are based on SPR principles, they vary widely in their mode of operation including differences in the integrated ?-fluidic cartridges, autosampler system, and sensor chip compatibilities. Shellfish samples (n=60), extracted using a simple, rapid procedure, were analysed using each platform, and results were compared to AOAC high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and MBA methods. The overall agreement, based on statistical 2×2 comparison tables, between each method ranged from 85% to 94.4% using R895 and 77.8% to 100% using GT13A. The results demonstrated that the antibody based assays with high sensitivity and broad specificity to PSP toxins can be applied to different biosensor platforms. PMID:21645735

Haughey, Simon A; Campbell, Katrina; Yakes, Betsy J; Prezioso, Samantha M; Degrasse, Stacey L; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher T

2011-07-15

194

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

195

Paralytic shellfish toxins in the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, isolated from Montargil reservoir, Portugal.  

PubMed

Montargil reservoir, located in a dry flat area in the centre of Portugal, was filled in 1958 to fulfil agricultural, electric and industrial requirements. In May 1996, an intensive bloom of phytoplankton was detected. The algal community was strongly dominated by cyanobacteria with predominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae from May to June and Microcystis aeruginosa from July to August. Extracts of samples collected during the bloom period showed high toxicity by mouse bioassay. During the M. aeruginosa predominance period, the toxicity was ascribed to the presence of hepatotoxins, but clear symptoms of paralytic shellfish poison were observed when A. flos-aquae was the dominant species. In order to confirm the production of neurotoxins a strain of A. flos-aquae was isolated and established in culture. In this manuscript, we show the morphological characteristics and confirm paralytic shellfish toxins production by the strain isolated and maintained in culture. Identification of the saxitoxin analogs was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry technique (LC-MS). The toxins found in the culture extract were GTX5 (64.5 mol%), neoSTX (23.0 mol%), dcSTX (6.1 mol%), STX (5.4 mol%) and GTX6 (1.1 mol%). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of unambiguous evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria in Portugal. The toxin profile is rather different from the previously reported PSP producing A. flos-aquae and demonstrates its diversity in terms of toxin production. PMID:10858510

Pereira, P; Onodera, H; Andrinolo, D; Franca, S; Araújo, F; Lagos, N; Oshima, Y

2000-12-01

196

Evidence for production of paralytic shellfish toxins by bacteria associated with Alexandrium spp. (Dinophyta) in culture.  

PubMed Central

A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed. The chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins by pre- and postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and enzyme immunoassay. PMID:9065273

Gallacher, S; Flynn, K J; Franco, J M; Brueggemann, E E; Hines, H B

1997-01-01

197

Sterol composition of shellfish species commonly consumed in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Shellfish can be a component of a healthy diet due to a low fat and high protein content, but the cholesterol content of some species is often cited as a reason to limit their consumption. Data on levels of non-cholesterol sterols in commonly consumed species are lacking. Objective Shellfish were sampled and analyzed to update sterol data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Design Using a nationwide sampling plan, raw shrimp and sea scallops, canned clams, and steamed oysters, blue crab, and lobster were sampled from 12 statistically selected supermarkets across the United States in 2007–08. For each species, four composites were analyzed, each comprised of samples from three locations; shrimp and scallops from six single locations were also analyzed separately. Using validated analytical methodology, 14 sterols were determined in total lipid extracts after saponification and derivatization to trimethylsilyethers, using gas chromatography for quantitation and mass spectrometry for confirmation of components. Results Crab, lobster, and shrimp contained significant cholesterol (96.2–27 mg/100 g); scallops and clams had the lowest concentrations (23.4–30.1 mg/100 g). Variability in cholesterol among single-location samples of shrimp was low. The major sterols in the mollusks were brassicasterol (12.6–45.6 mg/100 g) and 24-methylenecholesterol (16.7–41.9 mg/100 g), with the highest concentrations in oysters. Total non-cholesterol sterols were 46.5–75.6 mg/100 g in five single-location scallops samples, but 107 mg/100 g in the sixth, with cholesterol also higher in that sample. Other prominent non-cholesterol sterols in mollusks were 22-dehydrocholesterol, isofucosterol, clionasterol, campesterol, and 24-norcholesta-5,22-diene-3?-ol (4–21 mg/100 g). Conclusions The presence of a wide range of sterols, including isomeric forms, in shellfish makes the analysis and quantitation of sterols in marine species more complex than in animal and plant tissues. The detailed sterol composition reported herein provides data that may be useful in research on the impact of shellfish consumption on dietary risk factors. PMID:23115546

Phillips, Katherine M.; Ruggio, David M.; Exler, Jacob; Patterson, Kristine Y.

2012-01-01

198

Benthic response to shellfish farming in Thau lagoon: Pore water signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical distributions of dissolved species across the sediment-water interface (SWI), including major cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium), minor cations (lithium, strontium, barium), redox sensitive species (dissolved manganese, iron, sulfate, sulfide, ammonium) and other chemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, soluble reactive phosphorous, dissolved silica) were studied in a Mediterranean lagoon used for intensive shellfish farming. In order to quantify the impact of this activity on diagenetic processes and the influence of seasonal changes, two stations contrasted with respect to organic carbon fluxes were sampled in Thau lagoon from March 2001 to August 2002 during four field campaigns in winter, spring, summer and fall. Well-defined layers enriched with redox sensitive species were observed following the conventional sequence of early diagenetic reactions. However, differences were observed between both stations in depths and thickness layers. Concentration gradients extended down to more than 92 cm depth at the central position of the lagoon (station C4 - 8 m depth) and down to 40 cm depth inside shellfish farming zones (station C5 - 9 m depth). Station C4 showed an unusual diagenetic signature: sharp dissolved oxygen, iron, nitrate and manganese gradients existed at the SWI but gradients of dissolved sulfide and alkalinity as well as other parameters (dissolved silica, Ba, etc.) were recorded only from 25 to 30 cm depth downward. Seasonal changes were observed in pore water composition as deep as 30-50 cm in station C4 (only 15 cm in station C5). The center of the lagoon is not directly subjected to biodeposits deriving from shellfish activity. Isotopic and bioturbation data allowed to rule out a reworking of the sediment deeper than a few centimeters. In addition to organic content of the sediment, physical parameters were likely to induce the 10-20 cm gap between dissolved iron and sulfide profile as well as the higher vertical extent of diagenetic sequence observed at station C4. Conversely to station C5, station C4 underwent stronger currents and wave effect probably generating advective transport of water through the sediment, but no permeability data were available to confirm this hypothesis. During summer, climatic conditions generated vertical stratification of the water column and transient suboxic conditions at the bottom. Such conditions drove the upward shift of redox fronts, compacting the diagenetic sequence. These effects were reinforced at station C5 by shellfish and its farm structures (mainly attenuation of current and increased heat absorption).

Metzger, E.; Simonucci, C.; Viollier, E.; Sarazin, G.; Prévot, F.; Jézéquel, D.

2007-04-01

199

Paralytic shellfish poison reference materials: an intercomparison of methods for the determination of saxitoxin.  

PubMed

Within the framework of the European Commission's Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR) a project has been undertaken to develop shellfish reference materials for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (PSP). In a preliminary phase of the project, an intercomparison study of methods was undertaken. In this exercise 18 laboratories were asked to analyse solutions of saxitoxin and PSP-containing shellfish extracts with a method of their choice. The study revealed that: all the methods considered (four HPLC methods, one ELISA method) were in principle adequate for the quantification of saxitoxin in solution in the absence of interfering substances (Coefficient of variation (CV) 33% at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml); three of the HPLC methods used were able to quantify saxitoxin in PSP-positive mussel extract, the fourth method gave significant overestimation; the CV of all HPLC results was 53% at a mean saxitoxin mass fraction of 2.06 mg/kg mussel meat, the recoveries varied from 59-173%; and the ELISA method grossly overestimated the saxitoxin content in mussel extract, probably due to cross reactions of the antibodies with other PSP. The feasibility of preparing a homogeneous batch of ampouled mussel extracts (CV 3.5% at a saxitoxin concentration of approximately 1.5 mg/kg shellfish), sufficiently stable for at least 4 months storage both at 4 degrees C and approximately 20 degrees C, was demonstrated. The performance of the different methods for the analysis of PSP other than saxitoxin has not yet been evaluated, due to the current lack of PSP standards. Some of the problems observed in the intercomparison study were partly due to the nature of the chromatographic columns used, the composition of the HPLC mobile phase (pH, ion strength), non-optimal conditions for derivatization and matrix interference. Following the outcome of this study, a three year multistage project involving 15-20 European laboratories has been initiated, aimed at improving the accuracy and comparability of PSP measurements as well as preparing reference materials for PSP. PMID:8181632

van Egmond, H P; van den Top, H J; Paulsch, W E; Goenaga, X; Vieytes, M R

1994-01-01

200

Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.  

PubMed Central

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

1997-01-01

201

Route of metabolization and detoxication of paralytic shellfish toxins in humans.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) are a collection of over 26 structurally related imidazoline guanidinium derivatives produced by marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. Glucuronidation of drugs by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is the major phase II conjugation reaction in mammalian liver. In this study, using human liver microsomes, the in vitro paralytic shellfish toxins oxidation and sequential glucuronidation are achieved. Neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), Gonyautoxin 3/2 epimers (GTX3/GTX2) and Saxitoxin (STX) are used as starting enzymatic substrates. The enzymatic reaction final product metabolites are identified by using HPLC-FLD and HPLC/ESI-IT/MS. Four metabolites from GTX3/GTX2 epimers precursors, three of neoSTX and two of STX are clearly identified after incubating with UDPGA/NADPH and fresh liver microsomes. The glucuronic-Paralytic Shellfish Toxins were completely hydrolysed by treatment with beta-glucuronidase. All toxin analogs were identified comparing their HPLC retention time with those of analytical standard reference samples and further confirmed by HPLC/ESI-IT/MS. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) were widely metabolized by human microsomes and less than 15% of the original PST, incubated as substrate, stayed behind at the end of the incubation. The apparent V(max) and Km formation values for the respective glucuronides of neoSTX, GTX3/GTX2 epimers and STX were determined. The V(max) formation values for Glucuronic-GTX3 and Glucuronic-GTX2 were lower than Glucuronic-neoSTX and Glucuronic-STX (6.8+/-1.9x10(-3); 8.3+/-2.8x10(-3) and 9.7+/-2.8x10(-3)pmol/min/mg protein respectively). Km of the glucuronidation reaction for GTX3/GTX2 epimers was less than that of glucuronidation of neoSTX and STX (20.2+/-0.12; 27.06+/-0.23 and 32.02+/-0.64microM respectively). In conclusion, these data show for the first time, direct evidence for the sequential oxidation and glucuronidation of PST in vitro, both being the initial detoxication reactions for the excretion of these toxins in humans. The PST oxidation and glucuronidation pathway showed here, is the hepatic conversion of its properly glucuronic-PST synthesized, and the sequential route of PST detoxication in human. PMID:19632259

García, Carlos; Barriga, Andrés; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

2010-01-01

202

Building heat conservation and the feasibility of solar hot water heating in Long Island shellfish hatcheries  

SciTech Connect

Temperature regulation is a vital component of any aquaculture system. Existing facilities can be retrofitted with extra insulation, waste heat recovery systems and in some cases, active solar water heating. Those aquaculture ventures that seek to raise organisms to market size under controlled conditions are currently hindered by high operating costs, including fuel. These outfits can also benefit from conservation and alternative energy technologies. In addition, the industry may be more willing to cultivate species normally restricted by climatic conditions if a less expensive source of heating were available. This report focuses on three of the bivalve shellfish aquaculture enterprises of Long Island, New York. In the 1978 to 1979 growing season, Long Island shellfish growers collectively burned over 50,000 gallons of heating oil to warm their hatchery waters and buildings. Since then, heating oil prices have doubled. Currently, some growers are limited by these fuel costs from beginning production earlier in the season. In this report, several heat conservation measures are discussed, and the feasibility of active solar hot water is examined.

Berg, D.L.

1980-01-01

203

Developing improved immunoassays for paralytic shellfish toxins: the need for multiple, superior antibodies.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a risk to humans upon consumption of contaminated seafood. The PST family is comprised of more than twenty congeners, with each form having a different potency. In order to adequately protect consumers yet reduce unnecessary closures of non-contaminated harvesting areas, a rapid method that allows for analysis of sample toxicity is needed. While a number of PST immunoassays exist, the outstanding challenge is linking quantitative response to sample toxicity, as no single antibody reacts to the PST congeners in a manner that correlates with potency. A novel approach, then, is to combine multiple antibodies of varying reactivity to create a screening assay. This research details our investigation of three currently available antibodies for their reactivity profiles determined using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay. While our study shows challenges with detection of the R1-hydroxylated PSTs, results indicate that using multiple antibodies may provide more confidence in determining overall toxicity and the toxin profile. A multiplexed approach would not only improve biosensor assays but could also be applied to lateral flow immuno-chromatographic platforms, and such a theoretical device incorporating the three antibodies is presented. These improved assays could reduce the number of animal bioassays and confirmatory analyses (e.g., LC/MS), thereby improving food safety and economic use of shellfish resources. PMID:22967609

Yakes, Betsy Jean; Prezioso, Samantha M; DeGrasse, Stacey L

2012-09-15

204

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Protogonyaulax tamarensis and Protogonyaulax catenella in Axenic Culture.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxin concentrations were measured and individual toxin profiles were monitored in axenic batch cultures of Protogonyaulax tamarensis and Protogonyaulax catenella. High pressure liquid chromatographic methods were used that allowed the separation of all 12 known paralytic shellfish poisons, including toxins C1, C2, and C3, from a single sample. In isolates of both Protogonyaulax species, total toxin levels were relatively low after inoculation, increased rapidly in early to mid-exponential growth to a value 100 to 300% of that at the initial time point, then decreased by 86 to 95% as the culture aged. Although the concentrations of individual toxins per cell followed the same general pattern as that seen for total moles of toxin per cell, variability in toxin profile with culture age was observed. In P. tamarensis, the mole percent of neosaxitoxin increased substantially from 8 to 44% as total toxin levels per cell decreased. A concomitant decrease in the mole percent of saxitoxin with culture age was noted. Although not as precipitous, changes in the mole percent of specific toxins from P. catenella were also observed. The mole percent of gonyautoxins I and IV increased, while that of gonyautoxins II and III decreased. These data suggest that the toxin profile in isolates of Protogonyaulax can change, sometimes significantly, with changing environmental variables. PMID:16666456

Boczar, B A; Beitler, M K; Liston, J; Sullivan, J J; Cattolico, R A

1988-12-01

205

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Protogonyaulax tamarensis and Protogonyaulax catenella in Axenic Culture 1  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxin concentrations were measured and individual toxin profiles were monitored in axenic batch cultures of Protogonyaulax tamarensis and Protogonyaulax catenella. High pressure liquid chromatographic methods were used that allowed the separation of all 12 known paralytic shellfish poisons, including toxins C1, C2, and C3, from a single sample. In isolates of both Protogonyaulax species, total toxin levels were relatively low after inoculation, increased rapidly in early to mid-exponential growth to a value 100 to 300% of that at the initial time point, then decreased by 86 to 95% as the culture aged. Although the concentrations of individual toxins per cell followed the same general pattern as that seen for total moles of toxin per cell, variability in toxin profile with culture age was observed. In P. tamarensis, the mole percent of neosaxitoxin increased substantially from 8 to 44% as total toxin levels per cell decreased. A concomitant decrease in the mole percent of saxitoxin with culture age was noted. Although not as precipitous, changes in the mole percent of specific toxins from P. catenella were also observed. The mole percent of gonyautoxins I and IV increased, while that of gonyautoxins II and III decreased. These data suggest that the toxin profile in isolates of Protogonyaulax can change, sometimes significantly, with changing environmental variables. PMID:16666456

Boczar, Barbara A.; Beitler, Mark K.; Liston, John; Sullivan, John J.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

1988-01-01

206

Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.  

PubMed

Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

2009-09-01

207

Bioaccumulation Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Environmental Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Bivalve Shellfish from France  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques

2014-01-01

208

[Pollution of fish and shellfish with organotin compounds and estimation of daily intake].  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds have been widely used as antifouling paint for ship bottoms and fishery firm nets, and they are known to be aquatic environmental contaminants. A survey of the pollution with organotin compounds in fish and shellfish has been carried out for samples (180 samples from 43 kinds) which were collected in the Hokkaido prefecture during the period from February, 1989 to September, 1992. On the other hand, daily intakes of organotin compounds have been investigated using the Market Basket Method. Relatively high concentrations of TBT and TPT were detected from flat fish and shellfish such as Hirame (bastard halibut), Kurogarei (black plaice), Asari (Japanese littleneck), Hokkigai (Japanese surf clam) and Kaki (oyster). The maximum value of TBT in samples was 0.38 microgram/g (for both Asari and Kaki), and TPT was 0.47 microgram/g (Kurogarei). Estimated daily intakes of DBT, TBT and TPT were 0.45 microgram, 2.40 micrograms and 4.11 micrograms, respectively. The values presented in this study were lower in comparison with the acceptable daily intake. It was revealed that the values of the organotin compounds in this study were not so high as to have any efect on human health at the present. PMID:8157252

Yamamoto, I

1994-03-01

209

Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.  

PubMed

The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

2014-11-01

210

Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish  

PubMed Central

From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week?1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559

Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Ángeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz

2013-01-01

211

[Towards a dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen, shellfish gatherers and environmental labor law].  

PubMed

The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers. PMID:25272110

Carvalho, Ingrid Gil Sales; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Larrea-Killinger, Cristina; da Rocha, Júlio César de Sá; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Machado, Louise Oliveira Ramos

2014-10-01

212

Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

1992-07-01

213

Characterisation of natural indigo and shellfish purple by mass spectrometric techniques.  

PubMed

Two analytical methods based on mass spectrometry were used in the characterisation of constituents of natural indigo prepared from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria, and of shellfish purple prepared from the hypobranchial glandular secretions of Murex trunculus, following old recipes. On-line pyrolysis gas chromatography in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by mass spectrometric analysis (Py-silylation/GC/MS), and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DE-MS), were used. Extensive fragmentation of indigoid dyes was obtained by Py-silylation/GC/MS. The following molecular markers were highlighted, which are useful for identification purposes: 1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-one for indigoid dyes, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one for indirubine, and 6-bromo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-one for shellfish purple. Using DE-MS, 6,6'dibromoindigotine, monobromoindigotine and indigotine were identified as the main components, and the presence of tyrindoxyl, one of the dye precursors, was also assessed. PMID:15164351

Andreotti, Alessia; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Ribechini, Erika

2004-01-01

214

Effect of cooking on the concentration of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poison in lobster hepatopancreas.  

PubMed

The hepatopancreases from lobsters (Homarus americanus) obtained from two locations in eastern Canada (Gaspé and Bay of Fundy) were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) before and after the shellfish were cooked by boiling or steaming. Forty-five lobsters from each location were divided into three groups of 15. Two of the groups were boiled or steamed while the third was uncooked for comparison purposes. The hepatopancreases of all lobsters were individually analysed for total PSP toxicity using the standard mouse bioassay procedure. Individual toxins were determined in each sample using a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure employing pre-chromatographic oxidation of the toxins to form fluorescent derivatives. The results demonstrated that boiling or steaming reduced total toxicity (measured as saxitoxin equivalents per hepatopancreas) by approximately 65% compared to values obtained from raw lobsters. Of the individual toxins studied, saxitoxin decreased by about 60% with both the cooking treatments while gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (combined) decreased by almost 100% in the Gaspé samples and by about 90% in the Fundy samples with the same cooking treatments. Trace amounts of saxitoxin or gonyautoxins 2 and 3 were detected in some samples of tail or claw meat before or after cooking. In vitro boiling of raw hepatopancreas for up to 30 min led to no change in total or individual PSP concentration, indicating that the toxins in cooked lobster are not removed through chemical decomposition but are leached out during the loss of water. PMID:9237337

Lawrence, J F; Maher, M; Watson-Wright, W

1994-01-01

215

A fluorimetric method based on changes in membrane potential for screening paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels.  

PubMed

To prevent the consumption of bivalves contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), toxin levels in seafood products are estimated by using the official mouse bioassay. Because of the limitations of this bioassay other methods of monitoring toxins are clearly needed. We have developed a test to screen for PSP toxins based on its functional activity; the toxins bind to the voltage-gated Na+ channels and block their activity. The method is a fluorimetric assay that allows quantitation of the toxins by detecting changes in the membrane potential of human excitable cells. This assay gives an estimate of toxicity, since each toxin present in the sample binds to sodium channels with an affinity which is proportional to its intrinsic toxic potency. The detection limits for paralytic shellfish toxins were found to be 1 ng saxitoxin equivalents/ml compared to the regulatory limit threshold of 400 ng/ml (equivalent to 80 microg/100 g) used in most countries. Our results indicate that this fluorescent assay is a specific, very sensitive, rapid, and reliable method of monitoring PSP toxin levels in samples from seafood products and toxic algae. PMID:11161318

Louzao, M C; Vieytes, M R; Baptista de Sousa, J M; Leira, F; Botana, L M

2001-02-15

216

Analyses of paralytic shellfish toxins and biomarkers in a southern Brazilian reservoir.  

PubMed

The Alagados Reservoir (Brazil) is an important source for the supply of water, recreation and fishery. Since 2002, the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms (paralytic shellfish toxins - PST producers) have been noted. This study was aimed at the monitoring of PST occurrence in the Reservoir's water and fish. Biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activities, lipoperoxidation (LPO), histopathology, and comet assay were analyzed in fish. Water and fish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. The PST concentrations in water were 5.15, 43.84, and 50.78 ng equiv Saxitoxin/L in the spring, summer and autumn, respectively. The PST muscle concentration was below the limit for shellfish. Gonyautoxins (GTX) were found in water samples and fish muscle, and GTX 5 was the major analogous found in muscle. In the summer samples, the LPO, genetic damage, and the GST and AchE activities increased while in the autumn an increase in EROD activity and genetic damage were observed. In all samplings, histopathological alterations in the fish gills and liver were found. The results showed a seasonal variation in the fishes health, which could be related also to farming activities and to the contaminants bioavailability during the year. PMID:19778550

Clemente, Zaira; Busato, Raquel H; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; Cestari, Marta M; Ramsdorf, Wanessa A; Magalhães, Valéria F; Wosiack, Ana C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

2010-01-01

217

Evaluation of passive samplers as a monitoring tool for early warning of Dinophysis toxins in shellfish.  

PubMed

From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week-1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559

Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Ángeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz

2013-10-01

218

Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of sterols in natural marine brown and red macroalgae and associated shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon (?13C) and hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of sterols in natural marine brown (Sargassum filicinum and Undaria pinnatifida), red macroalgae (Binghamia californica and Gelidium japonica), and in shellfish (Binghamia californica, Haliotis discus and Omphalius pfeifferi) feeding on the brown algae have been investigated as a first attempt to understand the isotopic compositions of sterols in natural algae and heterotrophs. Brown

Yoshito Chikaraishi

2006-01-01

219

Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region  

E-print Network

Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region Hannah M. Horecka, Andrew C. Thomas n , Ryan A. Weatherbee School of Marine Sciences, 5706 Aubert Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Gulf of Maine Cobscook Bay Shellfish toxicity a b s t r a c

Townsend, David W.

220

UTILIZING SHELLFISH RESPONSES TO SET TARGET WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF OYSTER REEFS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Volety, Aswani K., S.G. Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Utilizing Shellfish Responses to Set Target Water Quality Conditions for the Restoration of Oyster Reefs in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Presented at the International Workshop on Restoration of Benthic Invertebr...

221

The effect of size and age on depuration rates of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) in mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depuration or elimination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) was followed for 73 days in 1- and 2-year-old mussels. The age groups also differed in size, providing a broad approach to studying the effect of the differences in physiology accompanying the differences in size. Content of DST was analysed both on groups and individual mussels. Environmental variables were measured to evaluate

A. Duinker; M. Bergslien; Ø. Strand; C. D. Olseng; A. Svardal

2007-01-01

222

BMAA in shellfish from two Portuguese transitional water bodies suggests the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as a potential BMAA source.  

PubMed

The neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases have been intensely studied since 2005 when the toxin was discovered to be produced by worldwide-distributed cyanobacterial species inhabiting terrestrial, marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems. Recently, BMAA production was also associated with one eukaryotic group, namely, diatoms, raising questions about its production by other phytoplanktonic groups. To test for BMAA bioavailability in ecosystems where abundant phytoplanktonic blooms regularly occur, samples of filter-feeding shellfish were collected in two Portuguese transitional water bodies. BMAA content in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) collected weekly between September and November 2009 from Ria de Aveiro and at least once a month from May to November from Ria Formosa, fluctuated from 0.079±0.055 to 0.354±0.066?g/g DW and from below the limit of detection to 0.434±0.110?g/g DW, respectively. Simultaneously to BMAA occurrence in cockles, paralytic shellfish toxins were detected in shellfish as a result of Gymnodinium catenatum blooms indicating a possible link between this marine dinoflagellate and BMAA production. Moreover, considerable high BMAA levels, 0.457±0.186?g/g DW, were then determined in a laboratory grown culture of G. catenatum. This work reveals for the first time the presence of BMAA in shellfish from Atlantic transitional water bodies and consubstantiate evidences of G. catenatum as one of the main sources of BMAA in these ecosystems. PMID:24747603

Lage, Sandra; Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Rydberg, Sara Jonasson

2014-07-01

223

Higher Water Temperature and Incubation under Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions Increase the Recovery and Diversity of Arcobacter spp. from Shellfish  

PubMed Central

Some Arcobacter species are considered emerging food-borne and waterborne pathogens, and shellfish have been suggested as one of their reservoirs. However, only a few studies have investigated the presence of Arcobacter in this kind of food. This study assesses the prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. in shellfish by multiplex PCR (m-PCR) and culturing methods (under different atmospheric conditions) and evaluates the possible influence of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, and harvesting bay). Arcobacter was detected by m-PCR and/or culturing in 61 (29.9%) of 204 shellfish samples. Of the positive samples by culturing, 41.1% were obtained under only aerobic incubation conditions, while 23.2% were obtained under only microaerobic conditions. Of 476 investigated isolates, 118 belonged to different enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR genotypes (strains) and to 11 different species. This study shows the highest diversity of Arcobacter species ever observed in samples from any origin. The most prevalent species was Arcobacter butzleri (60.2%), followed by Arcobacter molluscorum (21.2%). The prevalence of Arcobacter was significantly higher during the summer than in other seasons, being associated with an increase in water temperature. Results confirm that shellfish are a reservoir for a remarkable diversity of Arcobacter spp. PMID:24185851

Levican, Arturo; Collado, Luis; Yustes, Clara; Aguilar, Carme

2014-01-01

224

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses (HAVs)) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river

SONIA PINA; MONTSERRAT PUIG; FRANCISCO LUCENA; JOAN JOFRE; ROSINA GIRONES

1998-01-01

225

Subsistence shellfish harvesting in the Maputaland Marine Reserve in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Rocky shore organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shellfish harvest from c. 36 600 woman collecting days in the Maputaland Marine Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was monitored between 1988 and 1994. Mussels Perna perna (185 t), oysters Striostrea margaritacea and Saccostrea cucullata (5 t), red bait Pyura stolonifera (41 t flesh weight) and limpets Patella and Fissurella spp. (144 000 animals) were the main species harvested, although

R. Kyle; B. Pearson; P. J. Fielding; W. D. Robertson; S. L. Birnie

1997-01-01

226

Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Maine experiences annual closures of shellfish harvesting due to the accumulation of toxins produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium. Factors controlling the timing, location, and magnitude of these events in eastern Maine remain poorly understood. Previous work identified possible linkages between interannual variability of oceanographic variables and shellfish toxicity along the western Maine coastline but no such linkages were evident along the eastern Maine coast in the vicinity of Cobscook Bay, where strong tidal mixing tends to reduce seasonal variability in oceanographic properties. Using 21 years (1985-2005) of shellfish toxicity data, interannual variability in two metrics of annual toxicity, maximum magnitude and total annual toxicity, from stations in the Cobscook Bay region are examined for relationships to a suite of available environmental variables. Consistent with earlier work, no (or only weak) correlations were found between toxicity and oceanographic variables, even those very proximate to the stations such as local sea surface temperature. Similarly no correlations were evident between toxicity and air temperature, precipitation or relative humidity. The data suggest possible connections to local river discharge, but plausible mechanisms are not obvious. Correlations between toxicity and two variables indicative of local meteorological conditions, dew point and atmospheric pressure, both suggest a link between increased toxicity in these eastern Maine stations and weather conditions characterized by clearer skies/drier air (or less stormy/humid conditions). As no correlation of opposite sign was evident between toxicity and local precipitation, one plausible link is through light availability and its positive impact on phytoplankton production in this persistently foggy section of coast. These preliminary findings point to both the value of maintaining long-term shellfish toxicity sampling and a need for inclusion of weather variability in future modeling studies aimed at development of a more mechanistic understanding of factors controlling interannual differences in eastern Gulf of Maine shellfish toxicity.

Horecka, Hannah M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Weatherbee, Ryan A.

2014-05-01

227

A comparison of virus concentration methods for molecular detection and characterization of rotavirus in bivalve shellfish species.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to develop a method for concentrating rotavirus, to assess the detection rate, and to characterize the genotype of naturally occurring rotavirus in bivalve shellfish species; including oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The results demonstrated that an adsorption-twice elution-extraction method was less-time consuming method of concentrating the spiked rotavirus, yielding high sensitivity of 1.14 genome copies/g of digestive tissues from all three shellfish species, as detected using an RT-nested PCR. In seeding experiments, rotavirus as low as 1.39 genome copies was able to be detected in 4 g of digestive tissues or per sample. In the period of August 2011 to July 2012, of the 300 bivalve shellfish samples collected and tested, 24 (8.0%) were found to be contaminated with rotavirus, the figures being: oysters, 13/100 samples; mussels, 10/100 samples; and cockles, 1/100 samples. By DNA sequencing of the RT-nested PCR products and phylogenetic analysis, the rotaviruses detected were classified into G1, lineage II (4 samples); G3 (10 samples): lineage I (3 samples), lineage IIIc (3 samples), lineage IIId (3 samples), lineage IV (1 sample); G9 (6 samples); and G12, lineage III (1 sample). These findings suggest that this virus concentration method provides high sensitivity for the detection of rotavirus from the three bivalve shellfish species. The prevalence of rotavirus and the identified genotypes contribute to the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in different shellfish species. PMID:25475280

Kittigul, Leera; Singhaboot, Yutatirat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit

2015-04-01

228

Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history, review of epidemiology, and future implications  

PubMed Central

The relationship between toxic marine microalgae species and climate change has become a high profile and well discussed topic in recent years, with research focusing on the possible future impacts of changing hydrological conditions on Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species around the world. However, there is very little literature concerning the epidemiology of these species on marine organisms and human health. Here, we examine the current state of toxic microalgae species around the UK, in two ways: first we describe the key toxic syndromes and gather together the disparate reported data on their epidemiology from UK records and monitoring procedures. Secondly, using NHS hospital admissions and GP records from Wales, we attempt to quantify the incidence of shellfish poisoning from an independent source. We show that within the UK, outbreaks of shellfish poisoning are rare but occurring on a yearly basis in different regions and affecting a diverse range of molluscan shellfish and other marine organisms. We also show that the abundance of a species does not necessarily correlate to the rate of toxic events. Based on routine hospital records, the numbers of shellfish poisonings in the UK are very low, but the identification of the toxin involved, or even a confirmation of a poisoning event is extremely difficult to diagnose. An effective shellfish monitoring system, which shuts down aquaculture sites when toxins exceed regularity limits, has clearly prevented serious impact to human health, and remains the only viable means of monitoring the potential threat to human health. However, the closure of these sites has an adverse economic impact, and the monitoring system does not include all toxic plankton. The possible geographic spreading of toxic microalgae species is therefore a concern, as warmer waters in the Atlantic could suit several species with southern biogeographical affinities enabling them to occupy the coastal regions of the UK, but which are not yet monitored or considered to be detrimental. PMID:21645342

2011-01-01

229

Multiresidue method for determination of algal toxins in shellfish: single-laboratory validation and interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

A method that uses liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed for the highly sensitive and specific determination of amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, and other lipophilic algal toxins and metabolites in shellfish. The method was subjected to a full single-laboratory validation and a limited interlaboratory study. Tissue homogenates are blended with methanol-water (9 + 1), and the centrifuged extract is cleaned up with a hexane wash. LC/MS/MS (triple quadrupole) is used for quantitative analysis with reversed-phase gradient elution (acidic buffer), electrospray ionization (positive and negative ion switching), and multiple-reaction monitoring. Ester forms of dinophysis toxins are detected as the parent toxins after hydrolysis of the methanolic extract. The method is quantitative for 6 key toxins when reference standards are available: azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), domoic acid (DA), gymnodimine (GYM), okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), and yessotoxin (YTX). Relative response factors are used to estimate the concentrations of other toxins: azaspiracid-2 and -3 (AZA2 and AZA3), dinophysis toxin-1 and -2 (DTX1 and DTX2), other pectenotoxins (PTX1, PTX6, and PTX11), pectenotoxin secoacid metabolites (PTX2-SA and PTX11-SA) and their 7-epimers, spirolides, and homoYTX and YTX metabolites (45-OHYTX and carboxyYTX). Validation data have been gathered for Greenshell mussel, Pacific oyster, cockle, and scallop roe via fortification and natural contamination. For the 6 key toxins at fortification levels of 0.05-0.20 mg/kg, recoveries were 71-99% and single laboratory reproducibilities, relative standard deviations (RSDs), were 10-24%. Limits of detection were <0.02 mg/kg. Extractability data were also obtained for several toxins by using successive extractions of naturally contaminated mussel samples. A preliminary interlaboratory study was conducted with a set of toxin standards and 4 mussel extracts. The data sets from 8 laboratories for the 6 key toxins plus DTX1 and DTX2 gave within-laboratories repeatability (RSD(R)) of 8-12%, except for PTX-2. Between-laboratories reproducibility (RSDR) values were compared with the Horwitz criterion and ranged from good to adequate for 7 key toxins (HorRat values of 0.8-2.0). PMID:16001850

McNabb, Paul; Selwood, Andrew I; Holland, Patrick T; Aasen, J; Aune, T; Eaglesham, G; Hess, P; Igarishi, M; Quilliam, M; Slattery, D; Van de Riet, J; Van Egmond, H; Van den Top, H; Yasumoto, T

2005-01-01

230

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Getting Started Browse by Topic Advocacy Anaphylaxis Bullying Spread the Word CDC School Guidelines Diagnosis & Testing ... Resources Getting Started Browse by Topic Advocacy Anaphylaxis Bullying Spread the Word CDC School Guidelines Diagnosis & Testing ...

231

Environmental analysis of polychlorinated terphenyls: distribution in shellfish from the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean).  

PubMed

Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) have characteristics almost identical with those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and have been used for analogous applications, but only sporadic reports of the occurrence of PCTs in the environment have been published. High-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (HRGC-ECD) and mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode was used to analyse samples for PCTs. The homologue distribution of Aroclor 5432, 5460, Leromoll 141 and the PCTs in samples of shellfish from the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) was established, taking into account the contribution of the [M-Cl2]+ fragments. Quantification was achieved by HRGC-ECD. Concentrations were between 790 and 3 ng/g (dry mass). PMID:8360308

Galceran, M T; Santos, F J; Caixach, J; Ventura, F; Rivera, J

1993-07-23

232

Trace metal residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980  

SciTech Connect

Levels of seven heavy metal residues, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were monitored in samples of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). The study was conducted from 1976 through 1980. In cases where the Food and Drug Administration has established action levels, mean and median yearly values were significantly below these levels. In cases where no action level exists, heavy metal residues in the shellfish samples were well below levels which are generally regarded as safe. No significant yearly trends in heavy metal residues were discovered. Apparent increases in arsenic levels merit further study. 22 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

1984-10-01

233

Application of a new zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography column for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

A novel method for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins which is based on the chromatographic separation of the toxins using a zwitterionic (ZIC) hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column is presented. Efficient retention of the polar PSP toxins on the ZIC-HILIC column allowed their selective and sensitive determination by the application of mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection or as derivatives after oxidation prior to fluorescence detection (FD). Low buffer concentrations and the omission of ion-pair reagents decreased the limits of detection (LODs) by MS/MS analysis and showed a good linearity for both methods of detection. This method can be applied for the qualitative and quantitative determination of PSP toxins in various types of phytoplankton, and for the routine analysis of seafood. PMID:17638360

Diener, Marc; Erler, Katrin; Christian, Bernd; Luckas, Bernd

2007-08-01

234

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was examined for the separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using the stationary phase TSK-gel Amide-80. The parameters tested included type of organic modifier and percentage in the mobile phase, buffer concentration, pH, flow rate and column temperature. Using mass spectrometric (MS) detection, the HILIC column allowed the determination of all the major PSP toxins in one 30 min analysis with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity. The high percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase and the omission of ion pairing reagents, both favored in HILIC, provided limits of detection (LOD) in the range 50-100 nM in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode on a single quadrupole LC-MS system. LOD in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode on a sensitive triple quadrupole system were as low as 5-30 nM. Excellent linearity of response was observed. PMID:16038209

Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

2005-07-22

235

Accelerated Sulfur Cycle in Coastal Marine Sediment beneath Areas of Intensive Shellfish Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotes in marine sediments taken from two neighboring semienclosed bays (the Yamada and Kamaishi bays) at the Sanriku coast in Japan were investigated by the culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach coupled with chemical and activity analyses. These two bays were chosen in terms of their similar hydrogeological and chemical characteristics but different usage modes; the Yamada bay has been used for intensive shellfish aquaculture, while the Kamaishi bay has a commercial port and is not used for aquaculture. Substantial differences were found in the phylogenetic composition of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed for the Yamada and Kamaishi sediments. In the Yamada library, phylotypes affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria were the most abundant, and those affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria were the second-most abundant. In contrast, the Kamaishi library was occupied by phylotypes affiliated with Planctomycetes, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, and Crenarchaeota. In the ?-Proteobacteria, many Yamada phylotypes were related to free-living and symbiotic sulfur oxidizers, whereas the Kamaishi phylotype was related to the genus Pseudomonas. These results allowed us to hypothesize that sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have become abundant in the Yamada sediment. This hypothesis was supported by quantitative competitive PCR (qcPCR) with group-specific primers. The qcPCR also suggested that organisms closely related to Desulfotalea in the Desulfobulbaceae were the major sulfate-reducing bacteria in these sediments. In addition, potential sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation rates in the sediment samples were determined, indicating that the sulfur cycle has become active in the Yamada sediment beneath the areas of intensive shellfish aquaculture. PMID:15932986

Asami, Hiroki; Aida, Masato; Watanabe, Kazuya

2005-01-01

236

Contamination of commercially available seafood by key diarrhetic shellfish poisons along the coast of China.  

PubMed

With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products. PMID:25167824

Lin, Chao; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Tan, Cai-Yun; Guo, Yi-Ping; Li, Lin; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Shi-Ying

2015-01-01

237

Development of shellfish removing machine for large-diameter sea-water piping  

SciTech Connect

At nuclear and thermal power plants, the large amount of marine organisms that grow on the inside of condenser cooling, sea-water pipes, such as blue mussels and barnacles, significantly increases the pressure loss of the fluid in the pipes. This causes a deterioration in pumping efficiency and causes damage and corrosion to the paint coating on the inside of the pipes. These marine organisms must be removed, and this takes place by hand during each scheduled outage of the power plants. The working environment within these long lengths of large-diameter pipes is very harsh, requiring a great deal of time and physical labor to remove these organisms. Moreover, finding people to perform this task is becoming difficult. For these reasons. There has been a strong desire to mechanize this task. And this led to the development of a shellfish removing machine for these large-diameter sea-water pipes. The most important considerations in developing this machine were that the removal of the marine organisms be efficient and that the method of removal cause minimum damage to the coating on the inside of the pipes. Good results were obtained using a special cleaning brush that has a removing fixture attached to the end of a wire rope. After several application tests, the machine was used to remove shellfish from condenser cooling sea-water pipes during the sixth scheduled outage of the Japan Atomic Power Company`s Tsuruga No. 2 Unit in September, 1994. There, the capability and reliability of this machine were verified

Murakami, Seiichi [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Mechanical Maintenance Section; Nakazawa, Toyohiko [Genden Engineering Services and Construction Co., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Watanabe, Seiji [Atox Co., Ltd., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Technical Service Div.

1996-08-01

238

Impact of heat processing on the detection of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin in crustaceans and molluscs using specific monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. PMID:23993581

Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L

2013-12-15

239

Most-probable-number loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based procedure enhanced with K antigen-specific immunomagnetic separation for quantifying tdh(+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan Shellfish.  

PubMed

Although thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (tdh(+)) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, the enumeration of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus remains challenging due to its low densities in the environment. In this study, we developed a most-probable-number (MPN)-based procedure designated A-IS(1)-LAMP, in which an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique targeting as many as 69 established K antigens and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were applied in an MPN format. Our IMS employed PickPen, an eight-channel intrasolution magnetic particle separation device, which enabled a straightforward microtiter plate-based IMS procedure (designated as PickPen-IMS). The ability of the procedure to quantify a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels was evaluated by testing shellfish samples in Japan and southern Thailand, where shellfish products are known to contain relatively low and high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The Japanese and Thai shellfish samples showed, respectively, relatively low (< 3 to 11 MPN/10 g) and considerably higher (930 to 110,000 MPN/10 g) levels of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, raising concern about the safety of Thai shellfish products sold to domestic consumers at local morning markets. LAMP showed similar or higher performance than conventional PCR in the detection and quantification of a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. Whereas a positive effect of PickPen-IMS was not observed in MPN determination, PickPen-IMS was able to concentrate tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus 32-fold on average from the Japanese shellfish samples at an individual tube level, suggesting a possibility of using PickPen-IMS as an optional tool for specific shellfish samples. The A-IS(1)-LAMP procedure can be used by any health authority in the world to measure the tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. PMID:24988012

Tanaka, Natsuko; Iwade, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Wataru; Gondaira, Fumio; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2014-07-01

240

Climate change impacts on natural toxins in food production systems, exemplified by deoxynivalenol in wheat and diarrhetic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to affect food and feed safety, including the occurrence of natural toxins in primary crop and seafood production; however, to date, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change effects on mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains cultivated in the terrestrial area of north west Europe, and on the frequency of harmful algal blooms and contamination of shellfish with marine biotoxins in the North Sea coastal zone. The study focused on contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol, and on abundance of Dinophysis spp. and the possible relationship with diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The study used currently available data and models. Global and regional climate models were combined with models of crop phenology, mycotoxin prediction models, hydrodynamic models and ecological models, with the output of one model being used as input for the other. In addition, statistical data analyses using existing national datasets from the study area were performed to obtain information on the relationships between Dinophysis spp. cell counts and contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins as well as on frequency of cereal cropping. In this paper, a summary of the study is presented, and overall conclusions and recommendations are given. Climate change projections for the years 2031-2050 were used as the starting point of the analyses relative to a preceding 20-year baseline period from which the climate change signal was calculated. Results showed that, in general, climate change effects lead to advanced flowering and harvest of wheat, and increased risk of contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol. Blooms of dinoflagellates were estimated to occur more often. If the group of Dinophysis spp. behaves similarly to other flagellates in the future then frequency of harmful algal blooms of Dinophysis spp. may also increase, but consequences for contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish toxins are uncertain. Climate change will also have indirect effects on toxin contamination, which may be equally important. For example, the frequency of cropping of wheat and maize in north Europe was projected to increase under climate change, which will also increase the risk of contamination of the grains with deoxynivalenol. Risk managers are encouraged to consider the entire range of the predictions of climate change effects on food safety hazards, rather than median or average values only. Furthermore, it is recommended to closely monitor levels of mycotoxins and marine biotoxins in the future, in particular related to risky situations associated with favourable climatic conditions for toxin producing organisms. In particular, it is important to pay attention to the continuity of collecting the right data, and the availability and accessibility of databases. On a European level, it is important to stress the need for harmonisation of terminology and data collection. PMID:22891967

van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, J E; Naustvoll, L-J; Friocourt, Y; Mengelers, M J B; Christensen, J H

2012-01-01

241

Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for the identification of organic sulfur compounds in shellfish and fish  

SciTech Connect

The authors determined that the organic sulfur compounds usually contained in crude oil can be used as a marker of oil pollution in shellfish and fish. Short-necked clams and eels were maintained in a controlled laboratory environment in water with suspension of crude oil. Mass spectra and mass chromatograms of short-necked clam extract showed the presence of organic sulfur compounds. Capillary column gas chromatography-mass chromatograms of crude oil and extract from the soft body of a short-necked clam showed the presence of organic sulfur compounds. Besides sulfur components, various other compounds were contained in crude oil and short-necked clam. Mass chromatograms of crude oil and the extract from eel flesh showed the presence of alkyl benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, naphthalene, and alkyl naphthalene. Data indicated that the organic sulfur compounds and polyaromatic compounds could serve as markers of oil pollution in shellfish and fish.

Ogata, M.; Miyake, Y.

1980-11-01

242

Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts  

PubMed Central

Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 ?g AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs. PMID:18728760

Twiner, Michael J.; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp; Doucette, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

243

Determination of decarbamoyl saxitoxin and its analogues in shellfish by prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

Oxidation and chromatographic conditions for detecting the decarbamoyl analogues of several paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins were studied. Prechromatographic oxidation with periodate or hydrogen peroxide under slightly alkaline conditions was used as previously reported for the parent PSP toxins. Both periodate and hydrogen peroxide oxidations produced 2 fluorescent products separable by liquid chromatography for each decarbamoyl (dc) toxin (dc-saxitoxin, dc-neosaxatoxin and dc-gonyautoxins 2 and 3). Decarbamoyl saxitoxin produced the same 2 products as did dc-neosaxitoxin but in different ratios. One of these products was the same as the one obtained with neosaxitoxin after periodate oxidation. Decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (together) produced 2 products, one of which was the same as the major product obtained with gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (together) after periodate oxidation. Decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 1 and 4 were not available for study. The method was used to detect dc-saxitoxin and dc-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 in shellfish extracts. PMID:8823919

Lawrence, J F; Wong, B; Ménard, C

1996-01-01

244

Norovirus Detection in Shellfish Using a Rapid, Sensitive Virus Recovery and Real-Time RT-PCR Detection Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and in-house validation of a method for the detection of noroviruses in shellfish are described. The method\\u000a comprises a simple virus recovery step using proteinase K digestion and extraction of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) followed\\u000a by norovirus detection in separate two-step genogroup I (GI) and II (GII) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain\\u000a reaction assays. The assay can be

Gail E Greening; Joanne Hewitt

2008-01-01

245

A High-Throughput, Microtiter Plate Assay for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons Using the Saxitoxin-Specific Receptor, Saxiphilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isoform of the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-specific receptor saxiphilin, from the tropical centipedeEthmostigmus rubripes,was used as the basis for a radiometric, high-throughput, microtiter plate assay for this group of toxins. Characterization of the assay revealed that it was able to detect several representatives from the various structural PSP subgroups and yet was insensitive toward tetrodotoxin. To test the utility

Lyndon E. Llewellyn; Jason Doyle; Andrew P. Negri

1998-01-01

246

Multidetection of paralytic, diarrheic, and amnesic shellfish toxins by an inhibition immunoassay using a microsphere-flow cytometry system.  

PubMed

The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in seafood is a severe and growing threat to human health. In order to minimize the risks of human exposure, the maximum content of these toxins in seafood has been limited by legal regulations worldwide. The regulated limits are established in equivalents of the main representatives of the groups: saxitoxin (STX), okadaic acid (OA), and domoic acid (DA), for PSP, DSP, and ASP, respectively. In this study a multidetection method to screen shellfish samples for the presence of these toxins simultaneously was developed. Multiplexing was achieved using a solid-phase microsphere assay coupled to flow-fluorimetry detection, based on the Luminex xMap technology. The multidetection method consists of three simultaneous competition immunoassays. Free toxins in solution compete with STX, OA, or DA immobilized on the surface of three different classes of microspheres for binding to specific monoclonal antibodies. The IC50 obtained in the buffer was similar in single- and multidetection: 5.6 ± 1.1 ng/mL for STX, 1.1 ± 0.03 ng/mL for OA, and 1.9 ± 0.1 ng/mL for DA. The sample preparation protocol was optimized for the simultaneous extraction of STX, OA, and DA with a mixture of methanol and acetate buffer. The three immunoassays performed well with mussel and scallop matrixes displaying adequate dynamic ranges and recovery rates (around 90% for STX, 80% for OA, and 100% for DA). This microsphere-based multidetection immunoassay provides an easy and rapid screening method capable of detecting simultaneously in the same sample three regulated groups of marine toxins. PMID:23859142

Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Botana, Luis M

2013-08-20

247

Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion  

PubMed Central

Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year -1 (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation for strong measures to prevent, monitor, and manage the possible invasion of C. maenas. PMID:25408891

Mach, Megan E; Chan, Kai MA

2014-01-01

248

Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

249

Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

250

Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5  

PubMed Central

Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved in the biosynthesis, may also afford the identification of these gene clusters in dinoflagellates, the cause of human mortalities and significant financial loss to the tourism and shellfish industries. PMID:19331657

Mihali, Troco K; Kellmann, Ralf; Neilan, Brett A

2009-01-01

251

Duplex Real Time PCR for the detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish using Feline Calicivirus as a process control.  

PubMed

The consumption of bivalve shellfish is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks of viral origin. The evaluation of the sanitary quality of these products, however, is still based on bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (Reg. (EC) No. 2073/2005 and No.1441/2007) even if it is known that they are not reliable indicators of viral contamination. In this study a duplex Real Time PCR method for quantitative detection of hepatitis A (HAV) in shellfish was developed. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) was used as a control for assessing the effectiveness of the concentration and extraction process and the ability to eliminate PCR inhibitors present in the food matrix. The specific primers and probes for detection of HAV and FCV, chosen respectively from the 5'-UTR region and in the ORF1 region, were labeled with two different dyes and detected simultaneously. The method was applied on spiked and non-spiked shellfish from a local market. The amplification of HAV in the presence of FCV showed good linearity (R(2)=0.994) and the sensitivity limit of the reaction was at least 5 x 10(2)TCID(50)g(-1) of an hepatopancreas extract. PMID:19755130

Di Pasquale, Simona; Paniconi, Mara; De Medici, Dario; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Croci, Luciana

2010-01-01

252

Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

2014-09-01

253

Nutrients and Chemical Pollutants in Fish and Shellfish. Balancing Health Benefits and Risks of Regular Fish Consumption.  

PubMed

Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are clearly associated with at least five of the ten leading causes of death, including coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Concerning specifically fish and seafood consumption, its beneficial health effects in humans are clearly supported by an important number of studies performed in the last 30 years. These studies have repeatedly linked fish consumption, especially those species whose contents in omega-3 fatty acids are high, with healthier hearts in the aging population. The nutritional benefits of fish and seafood are also due to the content of high-quality protein, vitamins, as well as other essential nutrients. However, a number of studies, particularly investigations performed in recent years, have shown that the unavoidable presence of environmental contaminants in fish and shellfish can also mean a certain risk for the health of some consumers. While prestigious international associations as the American Heart Association have recommended eating fish at least two times (two serving a week), based on our own experimental results, as well as in results from other laboratories, we cannot be in total agreement with that recommendation. Although a regular consumption of most fish and shellfish species should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers, the specific fish and shellfish species consumed, the frequency of consumption, as well as the meal size, are essential issues for adequately balancing the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption. PMID:25486051

Domingo, José L

2014-12-01

254

Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.  

PubMed

Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). PMID:23792415

Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

2013-09-01

255

Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technology.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin monitoring in shellfish is currently performed using the internationally accredited AOAC mouse bioassay. Due to ethical and performance-related issues associated with this bioassay, the European Commission has recently published directives extending procedures that may be used for official PSP control. The feasibility of using a surface plasmon resonance optical biosensor to detect PSP toxins in shellfish tissue below regulatory levels was examined. Three different PSP toxin protein binders were investigated: a sodium channel receptor (SCR) preparation derived from rat brains, a monoclonal antibody (GT13-A) raised to gonyautoxin 2/3, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody (R895) raised to saxitoxin (STX). Inhibition assay formats were used throughout. Immobilization of STX to the biosensor chip surface was achieved via amino-coupling. Specific binding and inhibition of binding to this surface was achieved using all proteins tested. For STX calibration curves, 0-1000 ng/mL, IC50 values for each binder were as follows: SCR 8.11 ng/mL; GT13-A 5.77 ng/mL; and R895 1.56 ng/mL. Each binder demonstrated a different cross-reactivity profile against a range of STX analogues. R895 delivered a profile that was most likely to detect the widest range of PSP toxins at or below the internationally adopted regulatory limits. PMID:17580984

Campbell, Katrina; Stewart, Linda D; Doucette, Gregory J; Fodey, Terence L; Haughey, Simon A; Vilariño, Natalia; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher T

2007-08-01

256

Improved solid-phase extraction procedure in the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

The analysis of shellfish extracts for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection repeatedly showed the presence of a compound suspected to interfere with gonyautoxin 4. The first aim of this study was to confirm by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry that this compound was not gonyautoxin 4. The second part of this work was to improve a nonvolumetric C(18) solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure to evaluate the removal of the interference associated with the recovery of PSP toxins. The cleanup procedure was modified into a volumetric SPE procedure and proved to efficiently and totally remove the interference while recovering from 78 to 85% of the PSP toxins available as commercial standards (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins 1-4) and considered as major PSP toxins in human intoxication, with 85% recovery for gonyautoxin 4. The efficiency of this cleanup procedure was checked on shellfish extracts containing this interference and originating from France and Turkey. PMID:14558751

Biré, Ronel; Krys, Sophie; Frémy, Jean-Marc; Dragacci, Sylviane

2003-10-22

257

A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.  

PubMed

Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, ? = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction and SPE clean-ups steps may also contribute. By contrast, 9 samples presented a much higher total toxicity by HPLC-FLD than by MBA. These higher results obtained by HPLC-FLD could not only be due to the use of the highest toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) for isomers oxidated into products that coelute when total toxicity of these samples were calculated. Further analyses of results obtained by HPLC-FLD and by MBA with both extracts were done separately. PMID:22683532

Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

2012-10-01

258

Sensitivity of lateral flow tests to mixtures of saxitoxins and applications to shellfish and phytoplankton monitoring.  

PubMed

We have investigated some characteristics of antibodies in the lateral flow format for detecting paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and compared them with the mouse bioassay (MBA). The MBA is still the most reliable test for toxicity in shellfish because it provides an estimate of toxicity directly and can include more than one contaminant. Most other methods, including those involving antibodies, provide estimates of toxin concentration from which toxicity is implied or calculated using conversion factors. Antibody methods suffer from an additional deficiency as sensitivities to the different PSP analogues are unequal. Furthermore, these differences in cross-reactivity are unrelated to differences in specific toxicities. We have addressed the question of what is the toxicity of a sample at the limit of detection (LOD) of the Jellett Rapid Testing Ltd (JRT) lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFI) test. A way to calculate sensitivity to toxicity from toxin profiles is presented and used to examine a variety of PSP toxin mixtures. The calculated values for the sensitivity of the JRT (toxicity at the LOD) for separate PSP toxin analogues may vary over a wide range, but for complex mixtures, typical of natural samples, the range is much narrower. An analysis of PSP toxin profiles of 339 samples from Alaska, Britain, Canada (BC), and USA (Maine) shows the distribution of calculated toxicities at the LOD. The majority (76%) falls within the range 20-50 microg STX eq/100g with a mean at 32 microgSTXeq/100g which is similar to that of the MBA. Observed data from independent parallel studies with the JRT and MBA with a total of 3492 samples from regulatory laboratories in different countries in the period 2003-2007 show close agreement between the two methods. All samples that were found to be positive with the MBA were also positive with the JRT except for one which indicated a false negative rate of less than 0.03% of all samples tested. The JRT for PSP was designed to be more sensitive than the MBA in order to be used as a screen to reduce the high proportion of negative samples encountered in routine monitoring. Toxicity at the LOD varies depending on the mixture of PSP toxins and false positives are therefore inevitable. In this study false positives accounted for between 1.4% and 55% of the total number of samples tested. This would also depend on whether contamination was endemic or rare in the different locations. The data from regulatory monitoring for PSP show that in all areas the majority of samples are negative and so the use of a screen would result in a significant reduction in the use of mice. PMID:19835904

Laycock, Maurice V; Donovan, Mary Anne; Easy, Dorothy J

2010-01-01

259

A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid-ovalbumin conjugate (OA-OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ~5000 ng L-1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L-1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples.A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid-ovalbumin conjugate (OA-OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ~5000 ng L-1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L-1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32146g

Eissa, Shimaa; Zourob, Mohammed

2012-11-01

260

Predictive mechanistic bioenergetics to model habitat suitability of shellfish culture in coastal lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative tools based on mechanistic modelling of functional traits able to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture and most other human activities (i.e. reducing the likelihood of detrimental impacts optimising productions), are especially important factors in the decision to site aquaculture facilities in coastal lakes, ponds and lagoons and, in the case of detrimental impact, to adopt mitigation measures. We tested the ability of mechanistic functional trait based models to predict life history traits of cultivable shellfish in shallow coastal lakes. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models were run to generate spatially explicit predictions of Mytilus galloprovincialis life history (LH) traits (e.g. body size and fecundity). Using fortnightly data of food supply and hourly data of body temperatures, and exploiting the power of mechanistic rules, we estimated the amount of faeces ejected by a fixed quantity of organisms cultivated in two shallow Southern Mediterranean (Sicily) lakes. These differed in terms of temperature and food density, implying large differences in life history traits of mussels in the two study areas. This information could help facilitate the selection of sites where environmental conditions are more suitable for aquaculture and contextually compatible with sustainability. The validation exercise obtained by comparing the predicted and observed data was nearly consistent. Therefore, a mechanistic functional traits-based model seems able to capture the link between habitat characteristics and functional traits of organisms, delineating the fundamental portion of an ecological niche, the possibility of predicting LH traits and potential ecological applications in the management of natural coastal resources.

Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Manganaro, A.; Mazzola, A.; Mirto, S.; Sanfilippo, M.; Sarà, G.

2014-05-01

261

Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: Estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea otters Enhydra lutris can be bycaught and drowned in fishing pots and traps, which may pose a threat to the welfare of otter populations. We explored this potential problem and its solutions using a wide variety of analyses. We exposed live California (USA) sea otters to finfish traps, lobster traps, and mock Dungeness crab traps in captive trials and found that the animals attempted to enter the circular and rectangular fyke openings, with some becoming entrapped. Using both live and dead sea otters, we found that a 3 ?? 9 inch (7.6 ?? 22.9 cm) fyke opening (1 inch narrower than the 4 ?? 9 inch [10.2 ?? 22.9 cm] openings currently used in California's commercial Dungeness crab fishery) would exclude most free-living (i.e. weaned from their mothers) otters while permitting the undiminished capture of crabs. Observer programs do not currently exist in California for these fisheries, so we calculated the effort required by an observer program to document sea otter bycatch over a range of hypothetical levels and evaluated the impact of those mortality rates on population growth. These analyses demonstrate that significant mortality from bycatch might easily go undetected, even with seemingly high levels of observer effort. As sea otters reoccupy portions of their former habitat in California, co-occurrence with finfish and shellfish traps with relatively large fyke openings will increase. ?? Inter-Research 2011.

Hatfield, B.B.; Ames, J.A.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.; Johnson, A.B.; Staedler, M.M.; Harris, M.D.

2011-01-01

262

Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

2014-12-01

263

Marinobacter algicola sp. nov., isolated from laboratory cultures of paralytic shellfish toxin-producing dinoflagellates.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis of cultivable marine bacteria isolated from laboratory cultures of two paralytic shellfish toxin-producing dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense, showed the presence of a novel group of Gram-negative, aerobic, moderately halophilic and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, related to the genus Marinobacter. The strains, designated DG893T, DG1136 and ATAM407-13, grew optimally in media with 3-6 % NaCl and at 25-30 degrees C, and all could utilize n-hexadecane and n-tetradecane as the sole carbon source. The strains had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.2-94.3 % to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus ATCC 27132, and a similarity of 97.5-97.8 % to the closest phylogenetically related type strain, Marinobacter flavimaris DSM 16070T. DNA-DNA hybridization levels to M. flavimaris and other Marinobacter type strains were < or = 42 %, while DNA-DNA reassociation values among DG893T, DG1136 and ATAM407-13 were > or = 83 %. The DNA G + C content was 54-55 mol% and the major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that these three strains represent a novel species, Marinobacter algicola sp. nov. The type strain is DG893T (= DSM 16394T = NCIMB 14009T). PMID:16514021

Green, David H; Bowman, John P; Smith, Elizabeth A; Gutierrez, Tony; Bolch, Christopher J S

2006-03-01

264

Shellfish Dredging Pushes a Flexible Avian Top Predator out of a Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called “marine protected areas” (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica), a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell). From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives. PMID:17105350

van Gils, Jan A; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; Kraan, Casper

2006-01-01

265

Metal concentrations in Maryland`s shellfish: 1970s--1990s  

SciTech Connect

Maryland has been monitoring arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc in bivalve shellfish from state waters since the 1960s. The primary bivalve species monitored in Maryland waters are the oyster, Crassostrea virginica and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. These data have been evaluated for temporal trends. In order to insure that temporal evaluations be based upon data produced using comparable analytical methods, the time period evaluated is not the same for all analytes. For example, while most evaluations are for the period 1974 through 1994, arsenic data were evaluated for the period 1980 through 1994. Data for oyster tissue indicate declines in levels of mercury, cadmium, arsenic, copper and zinc on the order of 70--90%. The major portion of these reductions occurred prior to 1985. These declines are evident from data collected from Maryland`s lower eastern shore, a relatively remote area, as well as from waters closer to larger population centers. Past detection levels for lead and chromium were insufficiently low to detect temporal changes.

Murphy, D.L. [Maryland Dept. of the Environment, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

266

A simple procedure for sulfation and 35S radiolabelling of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) gonyautoxins.  

PubMed

A method is described to sulfate PSP toxins at various positions in the molecule and to prepare 35S labelled compounds using H2(35)SO4 in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). The 11-sulfates of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin, known as gonyautoxins, are often the most abundant of the PSP toxins in algae and contaminated shellfish. Receptor site binding and antibody assays based on these analogues should, therefore, better reflect toxicity than those in which saxitoxin is used. Although the specific activity of 35S-gonyautoxins is lower than that of commercially available 3H-saxitoxin, the label is strongly bound and is not lost through proton exchange with water as occurs with tritiated saxitoxin. The labelling procedure is rapid, inexpensive and can be done on a small scale. Sulfate can be removed from the 11-position of GTX's in methanolic-HCl and from the 21-position by mild acid hydrolysis and H2(35)SO4 added in 5-10-fold excess. Addition or exchange occurs rapidly on mixing DCC in dimethylformamide with dry toxin and sulfate. Reaction conditions were optimized and reaction products identified by capillary electrophoresis, autoradiography and ionspray mass spectrometry. Together with methods for selective removal of sulfate, the sulfation reaction provides an additional way to prepare some of the naturally occurring derivatives of saxitoxin, many of which are sulfates. PMID:9086458

Laycock, M V; Kralovec, J; Richards, R

1997-01-01

267

Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).  

PubMed

For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 ?mol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. PMID:25157803

Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

2014-11-01

268

Interactions of paralytic shellfish toxins with xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rodents.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins known to block voltage-gated sodium channels in intoxicated animals and humans. Their metabolism in mammalian systems and their effects on other receptors are not as well understood. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of two classes of PSTs, gonyautoxin 2/3 (GTX2/3) and C1/2 toxins (C1/2), using rat and mouse liver enzyme preparations. We also analyzed the effects of these toxins on several antioxidant and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mice. These toxins were selected for their prevalence in the coastal waters of Southern China. When the toxins were incubated with liver preparations containing Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and appropriate co-factors, no transformation of the toxins was detectable. When mice were given sub-lethal doses of GTX2/3, a loss of activity was observed in hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, penthoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, but not in glutathione S-transferase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Exposure to the same mouse units of C1/2 caused only a slight reduction in the activity of penthoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione peroxidase. Our results indicated that these toxins may not be metabolized readily in mammals and that they may cause adverse effects other than sodium channel blocking. PMID:14505944

Hong, Hai-zheng; Lam, Paul K S; Hsieh, Dennis P H

2003-09-15

269

Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense by using isotachophoresis/capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Baseline separation of seven paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), namely decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxin-2 (GTX-2), gonyautoxin-3 (GTX-3), gonyautoxin-1 (GTX-1), and gonyautoxin-4 (GTX-4), was achieved by using capillary ITP (CITP)/CE with UV detection. Separation parameters including duration time and voltage in CITP process, separation voltage, and pH and concentration of buffer were optimized. The developed method provided linear responses from 1.3 to 200 microM for the PSTs. The LOD ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 microM. PST extracts from two algal strains of Alexandrium tamarense were analyzed and the toxin concentrations in the samples were quantified with an internal standard method by using NEO as the internal standard. The algal extract of A. tamarense HK9301 contained 332 microM GTX-2 and 224 microM GTX-3, while the PSTs were not detected in the extract of A. tamarense CI01. PMID:16544882

Wu, Youyi; Ho, Alvin Yam Tat; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Cai, Zongwei; Lin, Jin-Ming

2006-02-01

270

Differential accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in the pearl oyster, Pinctada imbricata.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential for differential accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in various tissues of the akoya pearl oyster, Pinctada imbricata, two feeding trials were carried out using the PST-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum. When fed with A. minutum at concentrations between 100 and 1300 cells ml(-1), the maximum clearance by P. imbricata was shown to occur at a density of 300 cells ml(-1). When fed twice daily at this rate for up 12 days, P. imbricata accumulated analogues of gonyautoxins (GTXs): GTXs 1,4 and 2,3. The levels of GTXs in the viscera increased progressively on days 4, 8 and 12 to peak at 17.9+/-4.47 microg STX-equivalent 100 g(-1) biomass. Following 12 days of depuration, in the absence of A. minutum, GTX levels fell by approximately 65% to 6.0+/-2.20 microg STX-equivalent 100 g(-1) biomass. No GTX was found in the oysters at the start of the trial or in untreated controls. The accumulation of GTX was found to be tissue specific. No GTX was detected in the muscle tissue of P. imbricata during the feeding trial. PMID:19375444

Murray, Shauna A; O'Connor, Wayne A; Alvin, Alfonsus; Mihali, Troco K; Kalaitzis, John; Neilan, Brett A

2009-09-01

271

Determination of toxicity equivalent factors for paralytic shellfish toxins by electrophysiological measurements in cultured neurons.  

PubMed

The establishment of toxicity equivalent factors to develop alternative methods to animal bioassays for marine-toxin detection is an urgent need in the field of phycotoxin research. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the most severe forms of food poisoning. The toxins responsible for this type of poisoning are highly toxic natural compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which bind to voltage-gated Na(+) channels causing the blockade of action potential propagation. In spite of the fact that several standards of PSP toxins are currently commercially available, there is scarcity of data on the biological activity of these toxins, a fact that limits the calculation of their toxicity equivalent factors. We have evaluated the potency of the commercial PSP toxin standards for their ability to inhibit voltage-dependent sodium currents in cultured neuronal cells by electrophysiological measurements. The in vitro potencies of the PSP toxin standards as indicated by their IC(50) values were in the order Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) > decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) > saxitoxin (STX) > gonyautoxin 1,4 (GTX1,4) > decarbamoylneosaxitoxin (dcNeoSTX) > gonyautoxin 2,3 (GTX2,3) > decarbamoylgonyautoxin 2,3 (dcGTX2,3) > gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) > N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and -3 (C1,2). The data obtained in this in vitro analysis correlated well with their previously reported toxicity values. PMID:21619049

Perez, Sheila; Vale, Carmen; Botana, Ana M; Alonso, Eva; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

2011-07-18

272

Differences in Susceptibility to Okadaic Acid, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, between Male and Female Mice  

PubMed Central

The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. In the Japanese and EU methods, male mice are designated to be used for MBA. Female mice were described to be less susceptible than male mice. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports on the details of sex differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, female mice are less sensitive to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The mice were observed until 24 hours after injection. Both male and female mice of ICR and ddY strains, which are designated in the Japanese official method, were compared. All the mice were four weeks old and weighed 18–20 g. The experiments were repeated twice. The lethality was 70%–100%. Survival analysis showed no sex differences in susceptibility to OA, but ICR female mice showed significant resistance compared with other groups in one out of two trials. These results indicate that sex differences were not clear but, nonetheless, male mice showed more stable results. PMID:23271638

Suzuki, Hodaka

2012-01-01

273

Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from map ta phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.  

PubMed

Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45 % of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells. PMID:24986306

Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

2015-01-01

274

Lipophilic toxin profile in Mytilus galloprovincialis during episodes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in the N.E. Adriatic Sea in 2006.  

PubMed

Dinophysis spp. blooms and related shellfish toxicity events of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) have been the most reported toxicity event through the Croatian National monitoring program. With the aim to characterize the DSP toxin profile in shellfish farmed in Croatia, for the first time a complete analysis of the toxin profile of Croatian mussels has been carried out using the LC-MS/MS technique. The obtained results showed okadaic acid (OA) as the main toxin contaminating Croatian mussels at that time. The maximum concentration of OA in shellfish tissue was recorded 12 days after the Dinophysis fortii bloom, thus suggesting that rapid growth of the toxin level in the shellfish occurred in the first week after the bloom while it was slower in the second week. Furthermore, the presence of only OA at concentrations which could endanger human health suggests D. fortii as the main organism responsible for the toxic event that occurred in Lim Bay. The presence of gymnodimine and spirolides in Croatian mussel has been detected for the first time, while the presence of yessotoxin and pectenotoxin-2 is confirmed. PMID:21258296

Nincevic Gladan, Zivana; Ujevic, Ivana; Milandri, Anna; Marasovic, Ivona; Ceredi, Alfiero; Pigozzi, Silvia; Arapov, Jasna; Skejic, Sanda

2011-01-01

275

[Simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin, pectenotoxin and yessotoxin in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yesstoxin (YTX) in shellfish using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. After being extracted with methanol, the extract was cleaned-up by solid phase extraction of a Strata-X cartridge. The separation of the 4 toxins were performed on a XTerra MS C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) using gradient elution of acetonitrile and water both containing ammonium formate and formic acid as eluent modifiers. The qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The OA, DTX-1 and YTX were analyzed in negative ion mode, while PTX-2 in positive ion mode. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for the quantitative analysis. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 2.0 - 200.0 microg/L for OA, DTX-1 and YTX, 1.0 - 100.0 microg/L for PTX-2, with the quantification limits of 1.0 microg/kg and 0.5 microg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries for the toxins were between 83. 1% and 105.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3.16% - 9.29%. The proposed method is sensitive, effective and simple. It was applicable for the determination and confirmation of OA, DTX-1, PTX-2 and YTX in shellfish products. The OA, DTX-1, PTX-2 and YTX in some shellfish samples collected from Yellow Sea were found by the method. PMID:22715690

Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Wu, Haiyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

2012-03-01

276

Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management  

PubMed Central

Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts. PMID:25076815

Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Hickey, J. Michael; Nash, Christopher

2014-01-01

277

Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Michael Hickey, J.; Nash, Christopher

2014-05-01

278

Snapshot of Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in open and closed shellfish beds in Coastal South Carolina and Mississippi.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram negative, halophilic bacterium that is ubiquitous in warm, tropical waters throughout the world. It is a major cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is generally associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. This study presents a snapshot of total V. parahaemolyticus densities in surface waters and shellstock American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from open and closed shellfish harvesting areas, as well as "more rural areas" on two different US coasts, the Atlantic and the Gulf. Sampling was conducted from 2001 to 2003 at five sites near Charleston/Georgetown, SC and at four locations in the Gulfport/Pascagoula, MS area. V. parahaemolyticus numbers were determined by a direct plating method using an alkaline-phosphatase-labeled DNA probe targeting the species-specific thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh) that was used for identification of bacterial isolates. The greatest difference between the two coasts was salinity; mean salinity in SC surface waters was 32.9 ppt, whereas the mean salinity in MS waters was 19.2 ppt, indicating more freshwater input into MS shellfish harvesting areas during the study period. The mean V. parahaemolyticus numbers in oysters were almost identical between the two states (567.4 vs. 560.1 CFU/g). Bacterial numbers in the majority of surface water samples from both states were at or below the limit of detection (LOD?=?<10 CFU/mL). The bacterial concentrations determined during this study predict a low public health risk from consumption of oysters in shellfish growing areas on either the Gulf or the Atlantic US coast. PMID:25106119

Moore, J Gooch; Ruple, A; Ballenger-Bass, K; Bell, S; Pennington, P L; Scott, G I

2014-11-01

279

Development and validation of an ultrasensitive fluorescence planar waveguide biosensor for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination and risks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15 min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CC? were determined as 12 pg/mL and 20 pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CC? and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10 cells/L. PMID:23102433

Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-15

280

Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management.  

PubMed

Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as "significant", "moderately large" or "moderate" to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year's PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined ("Level 1: Limited", "Level 2: Moderate", and "Level 3: Extensive") each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts. PMID:25076815

Kleindinst, Judith L; Anderson, Donald M; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Stumpf, Richard P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Couture, Darcie A; Hickey, J Michael; Nash, Christopher

2014-05-01

281

Plutonium and americium uptake in rats fed with Cumbrian shellfish--implications for estimates of dose to man.  

PubMed

Winkles (Littorina littorea) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected on the Cumbrian coast contain americium-241 and isotopes of plutonium discharged from the nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Shellfish have been fed to rats and measurements made of the gastrointestinal absorption of the actinides. For shellfish collected over a 1-year period from March 1983 to February 1984, the average values for the fractional absorption of plutonium and americium were 9 x 10(-4) and 3 x 10(-4), respectively, for winkles and 1.5 x 10(-3) and 6 x 10(-4), respectively, for mussels. Comparisons with results for winkles collected in December 1981 and mussels collected in July 1982 suggest that there may be considerable seasonal variation in the availability of the actinides for absorption. The results suggest that in calculations of doses to individuals consuming shellfish in west Cumbria, it may be prudent to examine the effect of using the new ICRP gut transfer factor of 1 x 10(-3) for both actinides, in comparison with the value of 5 x 10(-4) recommended previously by NRPB. The use of 1 x 10(-3) would increase the estimate of the committed effective dose equivalent for 1985 intakes, from the value of 0.73 mSv calculated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to 1.29 mSv. However, taking into account up-to-date estimates of the retention of the actinides in liver and bone would reduce this value to 1.07 mSv. If, in addition, allowance is made for the effect of the burial and recycling of actinides in bone, a significant reduction in the dose estimate could result; for example, the use of one proposed dynamic bone model would reduce the value from 1.07 to 0.54 mSv. PMID:3363317

Harrison, J D; Smith, H; David, A J

1988-01-01

282

Investigation of extraction and analysis techniques for Lyngbya wollei derived Paralytic Shellfish Toxins.  

PubMed

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) are highly toxic metabolic by-products of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei produces a unique set of PSTs, including L. wollei toxins (LWT) 1-6. The accurate identification and quantification of PSTs from Lyngbya filaments is challenging, but critical for understanding toxin production and associated risk, as well as for providing baseline information regarding the potential for trophic transfer. This study evaluated several approaches for the extraction and analysis of PSTs from field-collected L. wollei dominated algal mats. Extraction of PSTs from lyophilized Lyngbya biomass was assessed utilizing hydrochloric acid and acetic acid at concentrations of 0.001-0.1 M. Toxin profiles were then compared utilizing two analysis techniques: pre-column oxidation (peroxide and periodate) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Fluorescence (FL) detection and LC coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MS). While both acid approaches efficiently extracted PSTs, hydrochloric acid was found to convert the less toxic LWT into the more toxic decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2&3 (dcGTX2&3) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX). In comparison, extraction with 0.1 M acetic acid preserved the original toxin profile and limited the presence of interfering co-extractants. Although pre-chromatographic oxidation with HPLC/FL was relatively easy to setup and utilize, the method did not resolve the individual constituents of the L. wollei derived PST profile. The LC/MS method allowed characterization of the PSTs derived from L. wollei, but without commercially available LWT 1-6 standards, quantitation was not possible for the LWT. In future work, evaluation of the risk associated with L. wollei derived PSTs will require commercially available standards of LWT 1-6 for accurate determinations of total PST content and potency. PMID:22960450

Foss, Amanda J; Phlips, Edward J; Aubel, Mark T; Szabo, Nancy J

2012-11-01

283

Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (<10 m deep). The temporal distribution of D. caudata was associated with the occurrence of LSTs in bivalve samples, which mostly occurred at the same time as D. caudata blooms, between April and July 2006. All of the cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 ?g okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 ?g OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 ?g OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 ?g OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 ?g OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

2014-01-01

284

Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.  

PubMed

Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

2014-01-01

285

Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poison in the starfish, Asterias amurensis in Kure Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

In May 1996, during surveillance on the toxicity of invertebrates such as bivalves inhabiting the coasts of Hiroshima Bay, the starfish Asterias amurensis collected in the estuary of the Nikoh River was found to contain toxins which showed strong paralytic action in mice; the maximum toxicity (as paralytic shellfish poison, PSP) was 8.0 MU/g for whole body and 28.7 MU/g for viscera throughout the monitoring period, March to July 1996. Attempts were made to identify the paralytic toxins in the starfish. They were extracted with 80% ethanol acidified with acetic acid, followed by defatting with dichloromethane. The aqueous layer obtained was treated with activated charcoal and then applied to a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge. The unbound toxic fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The starfish toxin was rather unexpectedly identified as PSP. It was comprised of high toxic components (gonyautoxin-1; GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, decarbamoyl-GTX3; dcGTX3 and dcSTX) as the major components, which accounted for approximately 77 mole% of all components, along with protogonyautoxin-1, 2, 3 and 4 (PX1-4), which are N-sulfocarbamoyl derivatives. Of the high toxic components, GTX1 was present in the largest amounts. It was concluded that the toxin of starfish collected in the estuary of Nikoh River in May 1996 consisted of PSP, which supposedly came via the food chain from toxic bivalves living in the same area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of PSP in starfish. PMID:9248006

Asakawa, M; Nishimura, F; Miyazawa, K; Noguchi, T

1997-07-01

286

Prevalence of human noroviruses in frozen marketed shellfish, red fruits and fresh vegetables.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs), currently recognised as the most common human food-borne pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment and can be transmitted to humans through multiple foodstuffs. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of human NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII) in 493 food samples including soft red fruits (n = 200), salad vegetables (n = 210) and bivalve mollusc shellfish (n = 83), using the Bovine Enterovirus type 1 as process extraction control for the first time. Viral extractions were performed by elution concentration and genome detection by TaqMan Real-Time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Experimental contamination using hepatitis A virus (HAV) was used to determine the limit of detection (LOD) of the extraction methods. Positive detections were obtained from 2 g of digestive tissues of oysters or mussels kept for 16 h in seawater containing 2.0-2.7 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/L of HAV. For lettuces and raspberries, the LOD was, respectively, estimated at 2.2 and 2.9 log10 PFU per 25 g. Of the molluscs tested, 8.4 and 14.4% were, respectively, positive for the presence of GI NoV and GII NoV RNA. Prevalence in GI NoVs varied from 11.9% for the salad vegetables samples to 15.5% for the red soft fruits. Only 0.5% of the salad and red soft fruits samples were positive for GII NoVs. These results highlight the high occurrence of human NoVs in foodstuffs that can be eaten raw or after a moderate technological processing or treatment. The determination of the risk of infection associated with an RT-qPCR positive sample remains an important challenge for the future. PMID:24923255

Loutreul, Julie; Cazeaux, Catherine; Levert, Delphine; Nicolas, Aline; Vautier, Sandrine; Le Sauvage, Anne Laure; Perelle, Sylvie; Morin, Thierry

2014-09-01

287

Occurrence of legacy and emerging halogenated organic contaminants in marine shellfish along French coasts.  

PubMed

Current contamination levels of selected legacy, currently-used and emerging halogenated contaminants were monitored in marine shellfish along French coastlines. The studied contaminants included polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs).BDE-47, BDE-209, BTBPE, HBB and ?-HBCDD were detected in 100% of the analyzed samples, whereas BB-153, DBDPE and PFOS were detected at frequencies of 97%, 90% and 55%, respectively. Concentrations were in the pg g?1 ww range and varied as follows: PFOS > BDE-47 ? ?-HBCDD > BDE-209 > BTBPE ? DBDPE > HBB ? BB-153. Overall, non-PBDE Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) revealed concentrations between 3 and 59 times lower than those of PBDEs.PBDE pattern was dominated by BDE-47, followed by BDE-99 > BDE-100 > BDE-49 > BDE-209 > BDE-154; these 6 congeners represented 94% of the summed ten PBDEs. PFC pattern determination revealed PFOS as the predominant PFC in samples from the English Channel and Atlantic, whereas perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) prevailed in Mediterranean samples. Temporal trend investigations on archived samples from the Mediterranean coast collected between 1981 and 2012 showed a prevalence of PFOS until 1998; PFCAs subsequently increased and became more abundant than PFOS. High levels of PFCAs were observed until 2008, followed by a decrease and stabilization in 2010–2012. Amongst PFCAs, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) were predominant and exhibited similar time trends, suggesting similar sources at the investigated site, home to major industrial activity. PMID:25463258

Munschy, C; Olivier, N; Veyrand, B; Marchand, P

2015-01-01

288

Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today  

PubMed Central

Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

2014-01-01

289

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in Northeast Germany? †  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies. PMID:20048055

Ballot, Andreas; Fastner, Jutta; Wiedner, Claudia

2010-01-01

290

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in northeast Germany.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies. PMID:20048055

Ballot, Andreas; Fastner, Jutta; Wiedner, Claudia

2010-02-01

291

Kinetics of accumulation and transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins in the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.  

PubMed

Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were fed cultures of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning agent Alexandrium minutum (Strain AL1V) for a 15-day period and, for the next 12 days, they were fed the non-toxic species Tetraselmis suecica, in order to monitor the intoxication/detoxification process. The toxin content in the bivalve was checked daily throughout the experiment. During the time-course of the experiment, the toxin profile of the bivalves changed substantially, showing increasingly greater differences from the proportions found in the toxigenic dinoflagellate used as food. The main processes involved in the accumulation of toxins and in the variation of the toxic profiles were implemented in a series of numerical models and the usefulness of those models to describe the actual intoxication/detoxification kinetics was assessed. Models that did not include transformations between toxins were unable to describe the kinetics, even when different detoxification rates were allowed for the toxins involved. The models including epimerization and reduction provided a good description of the kinetics whether or not differential detoxification was allowed for the different toxins, suggesting that the differences in detoxification rates between the toxins are not an important factor in regulating the change of the toxic profile. The implementation of Michaelis-Menten kinetics to describe the two reductive transformations produced a model that had a poorer fit to the data observed than the model that included only a first order kinetics. This suggests that, it is very unlikely that any enzymatic reaction is involved in the reduction of the hydroxycarbamate (OH-GTXs) to carbamate (H-GTXs) gonyautoxins. PMID:14757209

Blanco, Juan; Reyero, Ma Isabel; Franco, José

2003-12-01

292

Detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in Spanish authorized shellfish harvesting areas.  

PubMed

An 18-month survey was conducted in ten class "B" harvesting areas from two Galician Rias (NW of Spain), the most important bivalve production area in Europe, to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV), including genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Quantification was performed by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), according to the recently developed standard method ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. Four bivalve species were studied, including wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis philippinarum and Venerupis decussata) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Overall, 55.4% of samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, being detected the simultaneous presence of two or three viruses in 11.3% of the cases. NoV GI was the most prevalent virus (32.1%), followed by NoV GII (25.6%) and HAV (10.1%). Cultured mussels showed the highest percentage of positive samples (61.4%), followed by cockles (59.4%), wild mussels (54.3%) and clams (38.7%). Viral contamination levels for most of the positive samples ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) RNA copies/g of digestive tissue (RNAc/g DT). The presence of viral contamination was statistically higher (P<0.0001) in warm months (April to September) than in cold months (October to March). The data presented here may contribute to the development of more representative sampling strategies, in monitoring and management of shellfish growing areas as well as being useful in a future scenario in which viral critical values are adopted in legislation. PMID:25462922

Polo, David; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L

2015-01-16

293

Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs.

Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

2014-05-01

294

Suitability of postcolumn oxidation liquid chromatography method AOAC 2011.02 for monitoring paralytic shellfish toxins in Alaskan shellfish--initial pilot study versus mouse bioassay and in-house validation.  

PubMed

An in-house study was conducted to confirm the suitability of the postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC method, AOAC 2011.02, for regulatory monitoring of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in Alaskan shellfish. The following parameters were evaluated: calibration linearity, linear range, retention time stability, accuracy, repeatability, LOQ, and comparability with AOAC 959.08, the mouse bioassay (MBA) for PSTs. Mean recoveries for oyster homogenate spiked at 66 microg saxitoxin (STX) diHCI eq./100 g and 5 microg STX diHCI eq./100 g were 95 (n = 8) and 104%, respectively. Repeatability (n = 8) was 1.6 and 7% RSD, respectively. LOQ was estimated at 5 microg STX diHCl eq./100 g with S/N = 6 for STX. Comparability with the MBA was evaluated by duplicate analysis of regulatory samples using the original homogenate for both methods. Forty-one samples with MBA results varying between 40 and 500 microg STX diHCl eq./100 g were compared to corresponding PCOX values. The correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.96, with a slope of 2.1. The slope indicates an average 2X higher total toxicity result for PCOX versus MBA, a result that is consistent with prior literature showing low recoveries using the MBA. PMID:24830139

Hignutt, Emanuel

2014-01-01

295

Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

1994-06-01

296

Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish  

PubMed Central

The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO2 in the world’s oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO3 shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not clear. Here we present experiments that examined the effects of the ocean’s past, present, and future (21st and 22nd centuries) CO2 concentrations on the growth, survival, and condition of larvae of two species of commercially and ecologically valuable bivalve shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians). Larvae grown under near preindustrial CO2 concentrations (250 ppm) displayed significantly faster growth and metamorphosis as well as higher survival and lipid accumulation rates compared with individuals reared under modern day CO2 levels. Bivalves grown under near preindustrial CO2 levels displayed thicker, more robust shells than individuals grown at present CO2 concentrations, whereas bivalves exposed to CO2 levels expected later this century had shells that were malformed and eroded. These results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations. PMID:20855590

Gobler, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

297

Spatial distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic microalgae in shellfish farms along the Sardinian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

In this study, the geographical distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic harmful algal species (HAS) were analysed at 18 mussel farms in Sardinia (Italy, North-Western Mediterranean Sea) using data derived from the Sardinian Regional Monitoring Programme (1988-2012). The results showed an increasing number of potentially toxic microalgae over the study period. Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum were the most harmful species detected. From 2002 to 2009, these species caused eight paralytic shellfish poisoning-positive events which temporarily stopped commercial trade of mussels. The statistical analysis indicated that some taxa exhibited temporal increasing trends in their abundance (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia spp.), significant decrements (e.g. Dinophysis sp.), or both increasing and decreasing significant trends (e.g. A. minutum) at different sites, indicating the necessity of further in-depth studies, especially on certain taxa. Overall, the statistical elaboration of the long-term data provided useful signals for early detection of shellfish contamination by different potentially toxic HAS in defined sites. These signals can be used to develop best management practices. PMID:25655125

Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Pulina, Silvia; Padedda, Bachisio M; Satta, Cecilia T; Sechi, Nicola; Lugliè, Antonella

2015-03-01

298

Liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for determination of saxitoxin and decarbamoylsaxitoxin in shellfish.  

PubMed

Saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) were determined by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). A shellfish tissue was extracted with 0.1 mol/l HCl under ultrasonication, and cleanup of extract was accomplished by solid-phase extraction with a C18 cartridge. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with gradient elution of MeOH-H2O (20:80) containing 0.05% heptafluorobutyric acid and MeOH-H2O (15:85) containing 0.05% acetic acid. The protonated molecule [M + H]+ ions at m/z 257 for dcSTX and 300 for STX were selected in precursor ion scanning for Q-TOF MS in the positive electrospray ionizaion mode. Average recoveries and relative standard deviations, by analyzing samples spiked at a level of 0.1, 0.8 or 1.6 microg/g, were 84-92 and 8-14%, respectively. Identification of the presence of the toxins in shellfish tissues was based on the structural information offered by Q-TOF MS. PMID:15146927

Fang, Xiaoming; Fan, Xiang; Tang, Yifeng; Chen, Jiahua; Lu, Jingci

2004-05-21

299

Comparison of seven RNA extraction methods on stool and shellfish samples prior to hepatitis A virus amplification.  

PubMed

When choosing an extraction method, two parameters have to be considered: recovery of the viral material and elimination or inactivation of inhibitory substances. Seven techniques for extracting hepatitis A virus (HAV) from stool and shellfish samples were compared, in order to identify the protocol most suited to both types of sample and with the best extraction yield. The protocols tested were either techniques for the recovery and purification of total RNA, such as RNAzol, PEG-CETAB, GTC-silica and Chelex, or techniques for isolating specifically HAV using a nucleotide probe or a monoclonal antibody. For stool samples, RNAzol, PEG-CETAB, and magnetic beads with antibody allowed detection of the virus in 11/12 and 12/12 of samples. For shellfish samples, three protocols allowed RNA to be extracted in 90% of cases, RNAzol, PEG-CETAB, and GTC-silica. Their rapidity and low cost make RNAzol and GTC-silica the most suitable for routine diagnostic testing. reserved. PMID:10029321

Arnal, C; Ferré-Aubineau, V; Besse, B; Mignotte, B; Schwartzbrod, L; Billaudel, S

1999-01-01

300

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

301

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

302

In silico analysis of putative paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins export proteins in cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt). sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H(+)) or sodium (Na(+)) ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na(+) and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na(+) recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na(+) can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na(+) incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na(+) in toxin export, as well as the motifs L(398)XGLQD(403) (SxtM) and L(390)VGLRD(395) (SxtF) in toxin recognition. PMID:23457475

Soto-Liebe, Katia; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Fuentes-Valdes, Juan José; Stucken, Karina; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Vásquez, Mónica

2013-01-01

303

Temperature effects on kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxin elimination in Atlantic surfclams, Spisula solidissima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfclams, Spisula solidissima, pose a particular health risk for human consumption as they are characterized by accumulation of extremely high levels of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), slow toxin elimination and an extremely high post-ingestive capacity for toxin bioconversion. Surfclam populations experience a wide range of temperatures along the NW Atlantic continental shelf, and are undergoing range contraction that has been attributed to global warming. In this study the influence of temperature (5, 12 and 21 °C) on detoxification kinetics of individual PSP toxins in two tissue compartments of juvenile surfclams (?35 mm shell length) was determined under controlled laboratory conditions, over prolonged (2.4 months) depuration. Clams were toxified with a representative regional Gulf of Maine isolate of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense of known toxin profile, allowing tracking of changes in toxin composition and calculated toxicity in surfclam tissues. The visceral mass detoxified at all temperatures, although toxin loss rate increased with increasing temperature. In contrast, total toxin content and calculated toxicities in other tissues remained constant or even increased during depuration, suggesting a physiological or biochemical toxin-retention mechanism in this tissue pool and temperature-independent detoxification. In vivo toxin compositional changes in surfclam tissues found in this study provide evidence of specific toxin conversion pathways, involving both reductive and decarbamoylation pathways. We conclude that such toxin biotransformations, especially in non-visceral tissues, may introduce a discrepancy in describing kinetics of total toxicity (in saxitoxin equivalents [STXeq]) of S. solidissima over prolonged detoxification. Nevertheless, use of total toxicity values generated by routine regulatory monitoring based upon mouse bioassays or calculated from chemical analytical determination of molar toxin concentrations is adequate for first-order modeling of toxin kinetics in this species. Furthermore, the differential detoxification response of viscera and other tissues in relation to temperature emphasizes the need for two-compartment modeling to describe the fate of PSP toxins in this species. Finally, key parameters were identified that may prove useful in hindcasting the timing of toxic blooms or new toxin input in deep offshore waters where routine monitoring of toxic phytoplankton is impractical.

Monica Bricelj, V.; Cembella, Allan D.; Laby, David

2014-05-01

304

Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), in cats.  

PubMed

Saxitoxin (STX) was the first known and most studied toxic component of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). This toxin blocks neuronal transmission by binding to the voltage-gated Na+ channel. Although the toxin's mechanism of action is well known at the molecular level, there are still many unresolved questions about its pharmacokinetics and the PSP intoxication syndrome in mammals. Some of these questions are addressed in the present paper, which describes an experimental design which allowed us to follow the dynamics of STX poisoning in vivo. Adult cats were anaesthetized and permanently coupled to artificial ventilation, they were then intravenously injected with Low (2.7 microg of STX/kg) and high doses (10 microg of STX/kg) of toxin. Cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure and electrocardiograms were recorded, urine and blood samples were collected during the four hours of experimental time. In order to quantify mass amount of STX, we used the post-column derivatization HPLC method. Urine and blood samples were cleansed using a C-18 Sep-Pack cartridge and ultrafree microcentrifuge filters. At the end of each experiment, the animals were killed and tissue samples from brain, liver, spleen and medulla oblongata were extracted to measure the amount of STX. As compared to control period, Low doses of STX made no difference in hemodynamics parameters. In contrast, high doses drastically reduced blood pressure, produced myocardial failure and finally cardiac arrest. Administration of 2.5 microg/kg x min of dobutamine restored hemodynamics parameters and allowed the animal to overcome the shock. With high doses, the calculated STX renal clearance in cats is 0.81 ml/min x kg(-1). This valued corresponds to 20.25% of the reported inulin renal clearance. Nevertheless with Low doses the STX renal clearance is 3.99 ml/min x kg(-1). This data suggest that in cats with normal cardiovascular parameters and diuresis, the STX excretion mainly involves glomerular filtration. During experimental time, no PSP toxins other than STX was detected in the body fluids and tissue samples analyzed, indicating that the mammals can not metabolize this molecule. STX was found in intensely irrigated organs such as the liver and spleen but also in the central nervous system (brain and medulla oblongata), showing that STX was capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. PMID:10080350

Andrinolo, D; Michea, L F; Lagos, N

1999-03-01

305

In Silico Analysis of Putative Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins Export Proteins in Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt). sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H+) or sodium (Na+) ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na+ and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na+ recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na+ can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na+ incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na+ in toxin export, as well as the motifs L398XGLQD403 (SxtM) and L390VGLRD395 (SxtF) in toxin recognition. PMID:23457475

Soto-Liebe, Katia; López-Cortés, Xaviera A.; Fuentes-Valdes, Juan José; Stucken, Karina; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Vásquez, Mónica

2013-01-01

306

Possible Influence of Natural Events on Heavy Metals Exposure from Shellfish Consumption: A Case Study in the North-East of Italy  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers.

Losasso, Carmen; Bille, Laura; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Lorenzetto, Monica; Binato, Giovanni; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Ferrè, Nicola; Ricci, Antonia

2015-01-01

307

Biological Effects of Suspended Sediments: A Review of Suspended Sediment Impacts on Fish and Shellfish with Relation to Dredging Activities in Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective assessment of the effects of increased concentrations of suspended sediment caused by human activities, such as navigation dredging, on estuarine fish and shellfish requires an integration of findings from biological and engineering studies. Knowledge is needed of (1) the suspended sediment characteristics typical of both ambient and dredging-induced conditions, (2) the biological responses of aquatic organisms to these suspended

Dara H. Wilber; Douglas G. Clarke

2001-01-01

308

These hatchery and nursery operations are supplying molluscan shellfish seed to Florida growers this year. Contact suppliers for information on species, seed sizes, price, color variation and availability.  

E-print Network

Blue Acres - N 1210 Grogan Avenue NE Palm Bay, FL 32907 Contact: Kevin Reinecke (321) 243-2526 (cell) kevin.blueacres@gmail.com Species: HC Cedar Creek Shellfish Farms - H, N 701 Downing Street New Smyrna-3181 or Barry Hurt (863) 604-1891 bhurt@tampabay.rr.com Species: HC Ewan Leighton - H, N 270 Sea Dunes Drive

Florida, University of

309

SOLE FOOD--SPECIALTY FOR SLIMMERS Diet time can be pleasure time with fish and shellfish on the menu. All fishery prod-  

E-print Network

with diet plans. And they are readily available either fresh or frozen. Sole fillets are fine eating70 SOLE FOOD--SPECIALTY FOR SLIMMERS Diet time can be pleasure time with fish and shellfish. The sauce, believe it or not, uses mayonnaise (diet) and chili sauce blended together with celery salt, dry

310

Comparison of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 in the presence and absence of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of two Alexandrium species to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in laboratory culture following the generation of bacteria-free cultures was investigated. The dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 were cultured in the presence of antibiotics and tested for residual bacteria. After treatment with a cocktail of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and penicillin G, bacteria could

Georgina L Hold; Elizabeth A Smith; T. Harry Birkbeck; Susan Gallacher

2001-01-01

311

Simultaneous presence of paralytic and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island, Austral Chilean fjords.  

PubMed

The study shown here provides the first indisputable evidence that shellfish can be contaminated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins during the summer season in the Southern Chilean fjords. Quantitative analysis of the simultaneous presence of PSP and DSP toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island are shown. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis with pre-column derivatization method for DSP toxins and the post-column derivatization methods for PSP toxins, both with fluorescent on-line detections, showed that both type of toxins were concentrated by the filter bivalve Mytilus chilensis in amounts above the international safe limits. The phytoplankton analysis showed the presence of both Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuta in the water column. The data shows stratification of the toxic dinoflagellates in the water column, since the lowest amount of both DSP and PSP toxins were measured in the superficial and deeper levels of the water column. Moreover, the highest toxicities of both types of toxins were shown by the shellfish samples collected at a depth of 6 meters with 190 nanograms of DTX-1 / gram of digestive gland and 709.8 microg of PSP toxins / 100 grams of mussel meat. PMID:15586821

Garcá, Carlos; Mardones, Pamela; Sfeir, Andrea; Lagos, Néstor

2004-01-01

312

Weather outlook for spring and summer 2010: Effects on planting clam seed The new FDA takes a strong stance against raw molluscan shellfish  

E-print Network

a strong stance against raw molluscan shellfish It has now been six months since the U.S. Food and Drug the Alligator Harbor and Gulf Jackson lease areas, while the Indian River lease area averaged 52o F. Colder to neutral conditions until summer. Fortunately, rivers have crested. Spring flood conditions should

Florida, University of

313

Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC OMA 2011.27 [AOAC Official Method 2011.27 Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Shellfish, Receptor Binding Assay. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], further demonstrating successful extension of the LC-FD method to these clinical matrices. Moreover, data generated from this poisoning event reiterated that urine is a preferable clinical matrix, compared to serum, for diagnostic purposes due to higher accumulation and longer residence times in urine.

DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

2014-05-01

314

Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury-selenium balance.  

PubMed

Fish and shellfish are an important source not only of toxic heavy metals, but also of essential elements in the diet. In this study, levels of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for essential elements content. The potential human health risks for the consumers and the nutritional value of the products analyzed were assessed. Furthermore, the mercury-selenium ratios and the selenium health benefit value (Se-HBVs) were calculated. The highest concentrations of Cu were found in crustaceans species (shrimp and prawn) as they have hemocyanin (a copper-containing protein) that functions as an oxygen-transport molecule. Mn levels were higher in canned bivalve molluscs, such as cockle and clam, and in fresh common sole. Concerning Se, two fresh predatory fish species (tuna and swordfish) presented the most remarkable concentrations of this element. The highest concentration of the essential metals analysed was found for Zn, especially in fresh and canned mussels. All the species analyzed showed beneficial Hg:Se ratios and Se-HBVs, except for the shark species (blue shark and cat shark) and gilt-head bream because of their high Hg levels and low Se content, respectively. Nevertheless, the biomagnification usually observed in hazardous metals such as Hg would not occur for the essential elements measured in predatory species. The estimated daily intakes of the elements studied represented very low percentages of their reference values, ranging from 0.1% (Se) to 3.9% (Cu) for person weighting 60 kg, so the intake of these elements through fish and shellfish would not pose any risk for the average consumer. Moreover, the contribution of fish and shellfish products to the recommended daily allowances and adequate intakes of these mineral elements ranges from 2.5% (Mn) to 25.4% (Se). PMID:24007738

Olmedo, P; Hernández, A F; Pla, A; Femia, P; Navas-Acien, A; Gil, F

2013-12-01

315

Evidence of in vitro glucuronidation and enzymatic transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins by healthy human liver microsomes fraction.  

PubMed

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) are endemic components found in filter bivalves in Southern Chile. Post-mortems analysis of fluid and tissue samples has shown biotransformation of PST in humans. The Gonyautoxin 3 (GTX3) and Gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) are the major PST components in the toxin profile found in Chilean shellfish extracts, being as much as 65% of the total content of PST in filter bivalves. Therefore, they are the major accountable components of the human intoxication by shellfish consumption. The aim of this study is to show in vitro glucuronidation and biotransformation of GTX3 and GTX2 when they are incubated with microsomal fraction isolated from healthy human livers. Microsomes fractions isolated from human livers were incubated with GTX3 and GTX2 purified from contaminated mussels. After different incubation times, incubated samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent on line detection and HPLC-MS analysis. The results revealed that GTX3 and GTX2, only when they were incubated with microsomal fraction and appropriated cofactors, showed to be enzymatic transformed in vitro. The glucuronidation of GTX3 and GTX2 followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, resulting in apparent kinetic parameters of Km=39.4+/-0.24 microM and Vmax=6.0x10(-3) pmol/min/mg protein. In addition, the microsomes fraction also oxidized GTX3 and GTX2 into Gonyautoxin 4 (GTX 4) and Gonyautoxin 1 (GTX 1) resulting in 0.339x10(-3) pmol/min/mg protein. In conclusion, this study reports oxidation and glucuronidation of GTX3 and GTX2 when they are incubated with human liver microsomal fraction. The metabolism occurs via a glucuronidation reaction, the basis first step of biotransformation in human liver. Also it is showed that GTX4 and GTX1 came by biotransformation from GTX3 and GTX2 in humans. This data confirm human biotransformation found in human post-mortem fluid and tissue samples described previously. This data is the first evidence of in vitro glucuronidation of PST, given a metabolic pathway of detoxification and excretion of PST in human. PMID:19041885

García, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alberto; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Torres, Rafael; Lagos, Néstor

2009-02-01

316

Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.  

PubMed

In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP toxins went under metabolic transformation during the 3-4 h of human intoxication period, in which PSP toxins showed enzymatic oxidation of N(1) in the tetrahydropurine nucleus, producing neoSTX and GTX4/GTX1 epimers starting from STX and GTX3/GTX2 epimers, respectively. This study conclude, that PSP toxins are metabolically transformed by humans and that they are removed from the body by excretion in the urine and feces like any other xenobiotic compound. PMID:15019474

García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

2004-02-01

317

Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders.  

PubMed

Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, -27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and -1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems. PMID:24461698

Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C

2014-03-15

318

Comparison of Toxicity between Saxitoxin and Decarbamoyl Saxitoxin in the Mouse Bioassay for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins.  

PubMed

The mouse bioassay (MBA) for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been used in the AOAC Official Method and the official Japanese method. In the AOAC Official Method, the saxitoxin (STX) standard provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is used, but no standard is used in the official Japanese method. The objective of this study was to compare the toxicity of decarbamoyl STX (dcSTX), one of the derivatives of STX and a candidate standard for the MBA for PSP toxins in Japan, to that of FDA STX in the MBA platform. In this study, the toxicity of dcSTX was 918.0 ± 44.9 mouse units/µmol, and the relative toxicity ratio of dcSTX to FDA STX based on moles was 0.478. PMID:25213205

Suzuki, Hodaka; Machii, Kenji

2014-12-01

319

Comparison of Toxicity between Saxitoxin and Decarbamoyl Saxitoxin in the Mouse Bioassay for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The mouse bioassay (MBA) for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been used in the AOAC Official Method and the official Japanese method. In the AOAC Official Method, the saxitoxin (STX) standard provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is used, but no standard is used in the official Japanese method. The objective of this study was to compare the toxicity of decarbamoyl STX (dcSTX), one of the derivatives of STX and a candidate standard for the MBA for PSP toxins in Japan, to that of FDA STX in the MBA platform. In this study, the toxicity of dcSTX was 918.0 ± 44.9 mouse units/µmol, and the relative toxicity ratio of dcSTX to FDA STX based on moles was 0.478. PMID:25213205

SUZUKI, Hodaka; MACHII, Kenji

2014-01-01

320

Development and preliminary validation of a microtiter plate-based receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

More than 20 countries have either established or proposed regulatory limits for one or more of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins as they occur in seafood products. PSP toxin levels are generally estimated using the standard AOAC mouse bioassay, yet because of various limitations of this method [e.g. high variability (+/-20%), low sensitivity, limited sample throughput and use of live animals], there remains a need for alternative testing protocols. A sensitive and selective, high capacity assay was developed for the PSP toxins which exploits the highly specific interaction of these toxins with their biological receptor (i.e. voltage-dependent sodium channel) and is thus based on functional activity. This receptor binding assay provides a radioactive endpoint, and is performed in a microtiter filter plate format with results determined by standard liquid scintillation counting within 24 hr. The Ki for the assay is 3.66 +/- 0.86 nM saxitoxin, with a limit of detection of c. 5 ng saxitoxin/ml in a sample extract. Good quantitative agreement of the assay with both mouse bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of crude extracts of contaminated shellfish, as well as PSP toxin-producing algae, was observed. Our findings indicate that the receptor binding assay has a strong predictive value for toxicity determined by mouse bioassay, and that this approach warrants consideration as a rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative to live animal testing for detection and estimation of PSP-related toxicity in seafood and toxic algae. PMID:9203287

Doucette, G J; Logan, M M; Ramsdell, J S; Van Dolah, F M

1997-05-01

321

Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1?mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2013-01-01

322

Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in

W. M. Indrasena; R. G. Ackman; T. A. Gill

1999-01-01

323

Brominated flame retardants in fish and shellfish - levels and contribution of fish consumption to dietary exposure of Dutch citizens to HBCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the contamination with brominated flame retardants (BFR) in fish regularly consumed by Dutch citizens, 44 samples of freshwater fish, marine fish, and shellfish were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and its methylated derivative (me-TBBP-A), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), including its alpha-, beta- and gamma-diastereomers. The highest BFR concentrations were found in pike-perch and eel

Leeuwen van S. P. J; Jacob de Boer

2008-01-01

324

Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to differentiate morphospecies of Alexandrium minutum, a paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing dinoflagellate of harmful algal blooms.  

PubMed

Contamination of shellfish with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST) produced by toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been negatively affecting the shellfish and aquaculture industries worldwide. Therefore, accurate and early identification of toxic phytoplankton species is crucial in HABs surveillance programs that allow fish-farmers to take appropriate preventive measures in shellfish harvesting and other aquaculture activities to overcome the negative impacts of HABs on human health. The identification of toxic dinoflagellates present in the water is currently a time-consuming operation since it requires skillful taxonomists and toxicologists equipped with optical and scanning electron microscopes as well as sophisticated equipment, for example, high-performance liquid chromotography-fluorescence detection. In this paper, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic approach was applied to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic strains of Alexandrium minutum. Variation in morphological features between toxic and nontoxic strains was minimal and not significant. Also, variation in 2-DE protein patterns within either toxic or nontoxic strains was low, but pronounced differences were detected between toxic and nontoxic strains. The most notable differences between these strains were several abundant proteins with pIs ranging from 4.8 to 5.3 and apparent molecular masses between 17.5 and 21.5 kDa. Groups of proteins, namely NT1, NT2, NT3, and NT4, were consistently found in all nontoxic strains, while T1 and T2 were prominent in the toxic strains. These specific protein spots characteristic for toxic and nontoxic strains remained clearly distinguishable irrespective of the various growth conditions tested. Therefore, they have the potential to serve as "taxonomic markers" to distinguish toxic and nontoxic strains within A. minutum. Initial studies revealed that the expression pattern of T1 was tightly correlated to toxin biosynthesis in the examined alga and may be used to serve as a potential toxin indicator. PMID:15800974

Chan, Leo Lai; Hodgkiss, Ivor John; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Chou, Hong-Nong; Lum, John Hon-Kei; Lo, Maria Gar-Yee; Mak, Abby Sin-Chi; Sit, Wai-Hung; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap

2005-04-01

325

Optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and development of solid-phase extraction for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

The combination of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been proposed for use in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, methods for the detection of multiple PSP toxins [saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNEO), gonyautoxins 1-5 (GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5), decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX2 and dcGTX3), and the N-sulfocarbamoyl C toxins (C1 and C2)] were optimized using single (MS) and triple quadrupole (MS/MS) instruments. Chromatographic separation of the toxins was achieved by using a TSK-gel Amide-80 analytical column, although superior chromatography was observed through application of a ZIC-HILIC column. Preparative procedures used to clean up shellfish extracts and concentrate PSP toxins prior to analysis were investigated. The capacity of computationally designed polymeric (CDP) materials and HILIC solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to retain highly polar PSP toxins was explored. Three CDP materials and 2 HILIC cartridges were assessed for the extraction of PSP toxins from aqueous solution. Screening of the CDPs showed that all tested polymers adsorbed PSP toxins. A variety of elution procedures were examined, with dilute 0.01% acetic acid providing optimum recovery from a CDP based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid as the monomer. ZIC-HILIC SPE cartridges were superior to the PolyLC equivalent, with recoveries ranging from 70 to 112% (ZIC-HILIC) and 0 to 90% (PolyLC) depending on the PSP toxin. It is proposed that optimized SPE and HILIC-MS methods can be applied for the quantitative determination of PSP toxins in shellfish. PMID:19202798

Turrell, Elizabeth; Stobo, Lesley; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena

2008-01-01

326

Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene in fish and shellfish contaminated with crude oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method of l-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP) in fish and shellfish. Alkali hydrolysis method in this study was chosen and optimized to the reaction condition for 90 min at 90°C in a 2.0M KOH solution. For five independent determinations at 0.2 and 1.0 ?g/kg, the coefficient of variation was less than 5.1%. This method was used to assess the long-term influence of spilled crude oil on marine ecosystems and analyze fifty-two shellfish samples taken in the near of the accident region of the Hebei Spirit oil spill. 2-NAP and 1-HOP were detected in the mean concentration range of 0.09-12.42 and 0.03-0.06 ?g/kg, respectively. 2-NAP was detected in a high concentration range in shellfishes gathered in 2 months after the accident and it decreased rapidly to 6 months after that. The results showed that 2-NAP might be an important biomarker in biota contaminated with crude oil. PMID:23411178

Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

2013-06-01

327

Rapid and Efficient Extraction Method for Reverse Transcription-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A and Norwalk-Like Viruses in Shellfish  

PubMed Central

As part of an effort to develop a broadly applicable test for Norwalk-like viruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish, a rapid extraction method that is suitable for use with one-step reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based detection methods was developed. The method involves virus extraction using a pH 9.5 glycine buffer, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, Tri-reagent, and purification of viral poly(A) RNA by using magnetic poly(dT) beads. This glycine–PEG–Tri-reagent–poly(dT) method can be performed in less than 8 h on hard-shell clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and, when coupled with RT-PCR-based detection, can yield results within 24 h. Observed sensitivities for seeded shellfish extracts are as low as 0.015 PFU of HAV and 22.4 RT-PCR50 units for Norwalk virus. Detection of HAV in live oysters experimentally exposed to contaminated seawater is also demonstrated. An adaptation of this method was used to identify HAV in imported clams (tentatively identified as Ruditapes philippinarum) implicated in an outbreak of food-borne viral illness. All of the required reagents are commercially available. This method should facilitate the implementation of RT-PCR testing of commercial shellfish. PMID:11526018

Kingsley, David H.; Richards, Gary P.

2001-01-01

328

Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.  

PubMed

The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared following incubation of incurred homogenates with optimum proportions of surf clam tissue, resulting in materials containing a large number of PSP toxins. Stability experiments provided good preliminary evidence for the stability of these targeted materials under storage conditions. The work therefore provides both additional information relating to the transformational activity in UK surf clams and highlights a good potential method for the targeted production of reference materials which include a wider range of toxins than normally present in naturally incurred shellfish. PMID:23369833

Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

2013-04-01

329

Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both columns, with a limit of around 500 injections. This compares to the >3000 cycles routinely obtained with the standard RP-C18 HPLC columns currently in use. Overall, the gain achieved with these columns through shorter analysis time and improved analytical sensitivity is potentially of benefit in a high-throughput environment. For the routine high-throughput screening of shellfish samples, however, an improved column lifetime is desirable. PMID:22970577

Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

2012-01-01

330

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin binders for optical biosensor technology: problems and possibilities for the future: a review  

PubMed Central

This review examines the developments in optical biosensor technology, which uses the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Optical biosensor technology measures the competitive biomolecular interaction of a specific biological recognition element or binder with a target toxin immobilised onto a sensor chip surface against toxin in a sample. Different binders such as receptors and antibodies previously employed in functional and immunological assays have been assessed. Highlighted are the difficulties in detecting this range of low molecular weight toxins, with analogues differing at four chemical substitution sites, using a single binder. The complications that arise with the toxicity factors of each toxin relative to the parent compound, saxitoxin, for the measurement of total toxicity relative to the mouse bioassay are also considered. For antibodies, the cross-reactivity profile does not always correlate to toxic potency, but rather to the toxin structure to which it was produced. Restrictions and availability of the toxins makes alternative chemical strategies for the synthesis of protein conjugate derivatives for antibody production a difficult task. However, when two antibodies with different cross-reactivity profiles are employed, with a toxin chip surface generic to both antibodies, it was demonstrated that the cross-reactivity profile of each could be combined into a single-assay format. Difficulties with receptors for optical biosensor analysis of low molecular weight compounds are discussed, as are the potential of alternative non-antibody-based binders for future assay development in this area. PMID:21623494

Campbell, K.; Rawn, D.F.K.; Niedzwiadek, B.; Elliott, C.T.

2011-01-01

331

Hydroxybenzoate paralytic shellfish toxins induce transient GST activity depletion and chromosomal damage in white seabream (Diplodus sargus).  

PubMed

Fish are routinely exposed to harmful algal blooms that produce noxious compounds and impact the marine food web. This study investigates the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on metabolism of the novel paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the hydroxybenzoate analogues recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains, in the liver of white seabream, assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Additionally, the genotoxic potential of hydroxybenzoate PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were injected with hydroxybenzoate PSTs into the coelomic cavity and sacrificed 2 and 6 days later for biochemical and cytogenetic analyses. While the activity of EROD was unresponsive to toxins, a significant GST activity decrease was observed at 2 days after injection indicating an impairment of this line of the detoxification system. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was demonstrated by the induction of clastogenic/aneugenic effects at 2 days, as measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study contributes to better understand the impact of toxins produced by G. catenatum blooms in fish, revealing effects that, even transitory, point out a risk associated to hydroxybenzoate analogues. PMID:22710085

Costa, Pedro Reis; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

2012-08-01

332

Persicobacter psychrovividus sp. nov., isolated from shellfish, and emended descriptions of the genus Persicobacter and Persicobacter diffluens.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three bacterial strains, Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, isolated from shellfish in Japan, was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile by gliding and Gram-staining-negative slender rods. Their major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and their predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH, and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.0-42.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains clustered with the genus Persicobacter in the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. DNA-DNA relatedness values were higher than 68% among strains Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, and were lower than 28% between strain Asr22-19T and Persicobacter diffluens NBRC 15940T. The three novel strains could be differentiated from Persicobacter diffluens by several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of these results, the novel species Persicobacter psychrovividus sp. nov. (type strain Asr22-19T=NBRC 101262T=CIP 109100T) is proposed and emended descriptions are given for the genus Persicobacter and for Persicobacter diffluens. PMID:19734280

Muramatsu, Yuki; Takahashi, Mai; Kaneyasu, Mika; Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

2010-08-01

333

Immunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins by moving magnetic particles in a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip.  

PubMed

In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps. PMID:25460894

Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung

2015-04-15

334

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

PubMed Central

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

335

Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography procedures for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are produced by certain dinoflagellate species such as Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarensis, during certain periods of the year influenced by several environmental factors, affecting the aquaculture industry and mainly bivalve molluscs. HPLC with fluorescence detection is a powerful analytical technique for the analysis of such toxins; several HPLC alternatives have been developed in order to improve the liquid chromatographic analysis, but due to the complexity of the sample matrix, important work has been focused recently on the clean-up of samples prior to HPLC analysis. Solid-phase extraction procedures offer advantages for this clean-up. In this work we focus on the study of three different clean-up methods prior to HPLC with fluorescence detection analysis of PSP toxin present in contaminated mussel samples; by spiking uncontaminated mussel samples with two different PSP toxin standards and by calculating the recovery values for these experiments. These recoveries must be taken into account in order to quantify the exact amount of PSP toxins present in the contaminated samples. PMID:9580181

Leão, J M; Gago, A; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J A; Aguete, E C; Omil, M M; Comesaña, M

1998-03-01

336

The effect of temperature on growth and production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii C10.  

PubMed

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium which produces either cylindrospermopsine or paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. We studied the effect of temperature on growth and production of PSP toxins by C. raciborskii C10, isolated from a freshwater reservoir in Brazil. We analyzed the extracellular and intracellular content of PSP toxins at two different temperatures: 19 and 25 degrees C. C. raciborskii C10 produces STX, GTX2, and GTX3 at both temperatures. dcSTX was also detected at 25 degrees C in the intracellular extracts obtained at the end of the stationary phase. The growth achieved at 25 degrees C and estimated by optical density at 700 nm was three times greater than at 19 degrees C. However, no significant differences were observed in the content of PSP toxins in either the cells or the extracellular media. The kinetics of accumulation of PSP toxins within the cells rather than in the media suggests an active PSP toxins-export process that is not related to cell lysis. The extracellular accumulation of PSP toxins at 19 degrees C suggested a biotransformation of STX to the epimers GTX2 and GTX3. The stability of the PSP toxins produced by C. raciborskii C10 was high enough for them to remain active in the media after 30 days (at 25 degrees C) or after 50 days (at 19 degrees C). PMID:15450922

Castro, Daniela; Vera, Diana; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos; Vásquez, Mónica

2004-10-01

337

Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles and toxin variability of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Southeast China Sea.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of 16 Alexandrium isolates from the Southeast China Sea were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Toxin content and composition of three A. tamarense isolates, ATDH01, ATGX02 and ATMJ02, were also investigated at different growth phases and under various culture conditions. Our results showed that six strains of A. affine were non-toxic, while 10 strains of A. tamarense and A. catenella were toxic. These toxic isolates grown in the same culture conditions consistently produced an unusually high proportion of the N-sulfocarbamoyl toxin C1/2 (around 60-80% of total toxins) and medium amounts of gonyautoxin GTX5 (around 15-30% of total) with only trace quantities (<5% of total) of other saxitoxin derivatives (i.e. GTX1, GTX3, GTX4 and neoSTX). The toxin composition of three A. tamarense isolates did not vary with the growth phases, although higher toxin contents (Qt, fmolcell(-1)) were found in the exponential phase. Variations in temperature, salinity and nutrient levels affected toxin content of three A. tamarense isolates but they did not have pronounced effects on the toxin composition (mole %). These results indicate that toxin composition remained relatively constant under various culture conditions, suggesting that toxin composition could be used as a stable biomarker for the Alexandrium species in this region. However, comparison of toxin profiles between isolates from different localities require special caution since isolates even from the same region can have distinct toxin profiles. PMID:16859722

Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Gang; Gu, Hai-Feng; Chan, Leo Lai; Hong, Hua-Sheng

2006-08-01

338

Determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in cultured microalgae by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A novel method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed. The fluorescent derivates of neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), saxitoxin (STX), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1+4), and gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2+3) were separated on a muBondapak NH2 column (300 mm x 3.9 mm, 10 microm) using water and acetate buffer (pH 6.5) as the mobile phase (1.00 mL min(-1)) in gradient mode with fluorescence detection at 390 nm (excitation at 330 nm). The linear ranges of neoSTX, STX, GTX1+4 and GTX2+3 were 3.31-331, 0.952-95.2, 3.78-378 and 0.124-12.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. The detection limits of neoSTX, STX, GTX1+4 and GTX2+3 were 1.10, 0.32, 1.26 and 0.041 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PSP toxins in microalgae. The recoveries ranged from 88+/-2% to 107+/-4% and the relative standard deviations were 0.16% to 4.4%. The procedure is also environmentally friendly because no organic solvent is used in the mobile phase. PMID:16231133

He, Hong-Zhi; Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

2005-11-01

339

Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.  

PubMed

The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs. PMID:25097151

Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

2014-12-01

340

Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) profiles and toxification of short-necked clams fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.  

PubMed

As a part of our studies on paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) accumulation kinetics in bivalves, short-necked clam Tapes japonia was experimentally contaminated with PSP by being fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, and the processes of PSP accumulation and bioconversion were investigated: the toxicity level was determined by mouse bioassay and toxin components were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The strain of A. tamarense used in this study possessed a specific toxicity of 186.7 +/- 81 (mean +/- S.D., n = 5) x 10(-6) MU/cell. Total toxin concentration of this strain was 140.4 +/- 61 (mean S.D., n = 5) fmol/cell. The toxicity level of short-necked clams increased almost in parallel with the abundance of A. tamarense, reaching 1.8, 3.2, 3.8, 3.5 and 4.6 MU/g meat for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days of feeding, respectively. The accumulation rates of PSP toxins, which are the ratio of the total amount of toxins accumulated in the bivalves to the estimated intake in each feeding experiment, were 7.5, 8.1, 5.7, 4.2 and 4.4% for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of each exposure period, many undigested algal cells were found in pseudofeces under microscopic observation. There was a remarkable difference in the relative proportions of the predominant toxin components between A. tamarense and short-necked clams. The most notable difference was the change in the relative amounts of C2 (carbamoyl-N-sulfo-11beta-hydroxysaxitoxin sulfate), GTX1 and GTX 4 during the first two days. In the toxic bivalves, the amount of C2, which is dominant in A. tamarense, decreased to below half a percent after being ingested. Subsequently, the amount of GTX1 in the shellfish meat reached 50.1 mol%, while that of GTX4 decreased to about half of that in A. tamarense. As for the configuration of 11-hydroxysulfate, PSP components in A. tamarense exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (GTX3, GTX4, C2 and C4), accounting for 72.8 mol% of the total. This contrasts with the case of the short-necked clams, where the beta-epimers represented 25.8, 33.8, 30.8, 36.8 and 28.5 mol% of the total after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. PSP components seemed to be converted rapidly at an early stage of the feeding of A. tamarense. PMID:16440785

Asakawa, Manabu; Beppu, Rieko; Tsubota, Makiko; Ito, Katsutoshi; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Miyazawa, Keisuke

2005-12-01

341

Assessment of a semiquantitative liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin levels in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.  

PubMed

AOAC Official Method 2005.06 precolumn oxidation LC-fluorescence detection method has been used for many years for the detection and quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs. After extensive single- and multiple-laboratory validation, the method has been slowly gaining acceptance worldwide as a useful and practical tool for official control testing. In Great Britain, the method has become routine since 2008, with no requirement since then for reverting back to the bioassay reference method. Although the method has been refined to be semiautomated, faster, and more reproducible, the quantitation step can be complex and time-consuming. An alternative approach was developed to utilize the qualitative screening results for generating a semiquantitative results assessment. Data obtained over 5 years enabled the comparison of semiquantitative and fully quantitative PSP results in over 15 000 shellfish samples comprising eight different species showed that the semiquantitative approach resulted in over-estimated paralytic shellfish toxin levels by an average factor close to two in comparison with the fully quantified levels. No temporal trends were observed in the data or relating to species type, with the exception of surf clams. The comparison suggested a semiquantitative threshold of 800 microg saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg should provide a safe limit for the determination of samples to be forwarded to full quantitation. However, the decision was taken to halve this limit to include an additional safety factor of 2, resulting in the use of a semiquantitative threshold of 400 microg STX eq/kg. Implementation of the semiquantitative method into routine testing would result in a significant reduction in the numbers of samples requiring quantitation and have a positive impact on the overall turnaround of reported PSP results. The refined method would be appropriate for any monitoring laboratory faced with high throughput requirements. PMID:24830161

Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Baker, Clothilde; Algoet, Myriam

2014-01-01

342

Paralytic shellfish poison (saxitoxin family) bioassays: automated endpoint determination and standardization of the in vitro tissue culture bioassay, and comparison with the standard mouse bioassay.  

PubMed

Mouse neuroblastoma cells swell and eventually lyse upon exposure to veratridine, which, when added together with ouabain, enhances sodium ion influx. In the presence of saxitoxin (STX), which blocks sodium channels, the action of the other two compounds is inhibited and the cells remain morphologically normal. A tissue culture bioassay using mouse neuroblastoma cells, developed by Kogure and colleagues, takes advantage of these principles; in this bioassay, the fraction of the cells protected from the actions of ouabain and veratridine is in direct proportion to the concentration of STX and its analogues. We have modified this bioassay, improving its convenience and speed by eliminating the need to count individual cells to determine the saxitoxin equivalents, and instead have employed a microplate reader for automated determinations of absorbances of crystal violet from stained neuroblastoma cells. When these changes and other minor technical modifications were tested in the tissue culture bioassay systematically, we found the lower detection limit to be around 10 ng STX equivalents (eq) per ml of extract ( = 2.0 micrograms STX eq/100 g shellfish tissue). Our version of the tissue culture bioassay was compared with the standard mouse bioassay using 10 acid extracts of dinoflagellates (Alexandrium excavata and A. fundyense) and 47 AOAC extracts of shellfish tissues. The tissue culture bioassay provided results virtually identical to those obtained with the mouse bioassay (r > 0.96), and moreover, was considerably more sensitive. The results gained from high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of 12 of the same extracts were less consistent when compared with the results from both bioassay methods. The automated tissue culture (neuroblastoma cell) bioassay may be a valid alternative to live animal testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning. PMID:1440621

Jellett, J F; Marks, L J; Stewart, J E; Dorey, M L; Watson-Wright, W; Lawrence, J F

1992-10-01

343

Impact of elevated pCO? on paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin content and composition in Alexandrium tamarense.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect primary producers. Here we investigated the impact of elevated pCO? on paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin (PST) content and composition in two strains of Alexandrium tamarense, Alex5 and Alex2. Experiments were carried out as dilute batch to keep carbonate chemistry unaltered over time. We observed only minor changes with respect to growth and elemental composition in response to elevated pCO?. For both strains, the cellular PST content, and in particular the associated cellular toxicity, was lower in the high CO? treatments. In addition, Alex5 showed a shift in its PST composition from a non-sulfated analogue towards less toxic sulfated analogues with increasing pCO?. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that the ability of A. tamarense to maintain cellular homeostasis is predominantly regulated on the post-translational level rather than on the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, genes associated to secondary metabolite and amino acid metabolism in Alex5 were down-regulated in the high CO? treatment, which may explain the lower PST content. Elevated pCO? also induced up-regulation of a putative sulfotransferase sxtN homologue and a substantial down-regulation of several sulfatases. Such changes in sulfur metabolism may explain the shift in PST composition towards more sulfated analogues. All in all, our results indicate that elevated pCO? will have minor consequences for growth and elemental composition, but may potentially reduce the cellular toxicity of A. tamarense. PMID:24291633

Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Eberlein, Tim; John, Uwe; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn

2014-02-01

344

Seasonal dynamics of trophic relationships among co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture dominated ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal dynamics of carbon and nitrogen isotope values of co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture areas (Normandy, France) were investigated over two years to evaluate the inter-specific trophic partitioning and relative contributions of organic matter sources to benthic suspension-feeders' diet. Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas), mussels ( Mytilus edulis), cockles ( Cerastoderma edule), slipper limpets ( Crepidula fornicata), and sand-mason worms ( Lanice conchilega) were sampled in an estuarine environment (Baie des Veys, east Cotentin, Normandy), while oysters, mussels, slipper limpets, and honeycomb worms ( Sabellaria alveolata) were sampled in an open-marine environment (Lingreville-sur-mer, west Cotentin, Normandy). Whatever the sampling period, the bivalves, C. gigas and M. edulis, exhibited the lowest values of ?13C and ?15N compared with the other species. Feeding relationships among suspension-feeders in both C. gigas culture areas exhibited temporal variations due to the marine/estuarine influence and seasonal changes in food supply. In the open-marine ecosystem, the contribution of phytoplankton remained the most important for all species except S. alveolata, while in the estuarine ecosystem, microphytobenthos and/or macroalgae detritus contributed a larger extent to the organisms' diets. During phytoplankton bloom periods (e.g. May and July) suspension-feeders, except for S. alveolata, relied strongly on phytoplankton; however, the majority of suspension-feeders exhibited different opportunistic behaviour in winter when phytoplankton biomass might be a limiting factor. We hypothesized that differences in particle capture and selection by the suspension-feeders influenced their isotopic values. Feeding ecology of suspension-feeders partly explained why competition was limited and why ecosystems can often support unexpectedly large numbers of suspension-feeders. We also showed that understanding ecosystem characteristics of the organic matter sources is of primary importance to determine the extent to which members of the suspension-feeding guild potentially compete for food.

Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marín Leal, Julio César; Dubois, Stanislas; Orvain, Francis; Blin, Jean-Louis; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Ourry, Alain; Galois, Robert

2009-04-01

345

Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.  

PubMed

The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected. PMID:22326725

Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

2012-04-01

346

Highly toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strain, isolated from São Paulo-Brazil, produce hepatotoxins and paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins.  

PubMed

While evaluating several laboratory-cultured cyanobacteria strains for the presence of paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins, the hydrophilic extract of Microcystis aeruginosa strain SPC777--isolated from Billings's reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil--was found to exhibit lethal neurotoxic effect in mouse bioassay. The in vivo test showed symptoms that unambiguously were those produced by PSP. In order to identify the presence of neurotoxins, cells were lyophilized, and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS. HPLC-FLD analysis revealed four main Gonyautoxins: GTX4(47.6%), GTX2(29.5%), GTX1(21.9%), and GTX3(1.0%). HPLC-MS analysis, on other hand, confirmed both epimers, with positive Zwitterions M(+) 395.9 m/z for GTX3/GTX2 and M(+) 411 m/z for GTX4/GTX1 epimers.The hepatotoxins (Microcystins) were also evaluated by ELISA and HPLC-MS analyses. Positive immunoreaction was observed by ELISA assay. Alongside, the HPLC-MS analyses revealed the presence of [L: -ser(7)] MCYST-RR. The N-methyltransferase (NMT) domain of the microcystin synthetase gene mcyA was chosen as the target sequence to detect the presence of the mcy gene cluster. PCR amplification of the NMT domain, using the genomic DNA of the SPC777 strain and the MSF/MSR primer set, resulted in the expected 1,369 bp product. The phylogenetic analyses grouped the NMT sequence with the NMT sequences of other known Microcystis with high bootstrap support. The taxonomical position of M. aeruginosa SPC777 was confirmed by a detailed morphological description and a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Therefore, co-production of PSP neurotoxins and microcystins by an isolated M. aeruginosa strain is hereby reported for the first time. PMID:20376712

Sant'Anna, Célia L; de Carvalho, Luciana R; Fiore, Marli F; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Lorenzi, Adriana S; Rios, Fernanda R; Konno, Katsuhiro; Garcia, Carlos; Lagos, Nestor

2011-04-01

347

Transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet detection for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel samples.  

PubMed

The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site. PMID:25223612

Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Guijt, Rosanne M; Bolch, Christopher J S; Breadmore, Michael C

2014-10-17

348

Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

1992-07-01

349

Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 ?g/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut. PMID:24025214

Nakajima, Takayuki; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Kanai, Setsuko; Matsushima, Yoko; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro

2013-01-01

350

Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

351

Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.  

PubMed

Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst showing a large suppressive effect of the metals on the MBA. As such, the results show the performance of the official MBA is potentially unsafe for application to the routine monitoring of PSP toxicity in oysters or in any other shellfish found to contain high concentrations of metal ions. PMID:22138287

Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

2012-02-01

352

Liquid chromatography post-column oxidation (PCOX) method for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Sixteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate method performance parameters of a liquid chromatographic method of analysis for paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clams (Mya arenaria), sea scallops (Placopectin magellanicus), and American oysters (Crassostrea virginicus). The specific analogs tested included saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins-1 to -5, decarbamoyl-gonyautoxins-2 and -3, decarbamoyl-saxitoxin, and N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and -3. This instrumental technique has been developed as a replacement for the current AOAC biological method (AOAC Official Method 959.08) and an alternative to the pre-column oxidation LC method (AOAC Official Method 2005.06). The method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (excitation 330 nm and emission 390 nm). The shellfish samples used in the study were prepared from the edible tissues of clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops to contain concentrations of PST representative of low, medium, and high toxicities and with varying profiles of individual toxins. These concentrations are approximately equivalent to 1/2 maximum level (ML), ML, or 2xML established by regulatory authorities (0.40, 0.80, and 1.60 mg STX diHCl eq/kg, respectively). Recovery for the individual toxins ranged from 104 to 127%, and recovery of total toxin averaged 116%. Horwitz Ratio (HorRat) values for individual toxins in the materials included in the study were generally within the desired range of 0.3 to 2.0. For the estimation of total toxicity in the test materials, the reproducibility relative standard deviation ranged from 4.6 to 20%. A bridging study comparing the results from the study participants using the post-column oxidation (PCOX) method with the results obtained in the study director's laboratory on the same test materials using the accepted reference method, the mouse bioassay (MBA; AOAC Official Method 959.08), showed that the average ratio of results obtained from the two methods was 1.0. A good match of values was also achieved with a new certified reference material. The results from this study demonstrated that the PCOX method is a suitable method of analysis for PST in shellfish tissue and provides both an estimate of total toxicity, equivalent to that determined using the MBAAOAC Official Method 959.08, and a detailed profile of the individual toxin present in the sample. PMID:21919349

van de Riet, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Ryan S; Muggah, Patricia M; Rourke, Wade A; MacNeil, James D; Quilliam, Michael A

2011-01-01

353

Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, during 1993-2004 and its PSP profiles.  

PubMed

To assess levels of shellfish intoxication by the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, potential health risks to human shellfish consumers and the possible need for regulatory intervention, yearly variations of maximum cell density of this species were examined from 1993 to 2004 in Kure Bay and Kaita Bay, which are located within Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The seawater temperature was determined concomitantly. In Kure Bay, maximum concentrations of 1,400 and 1,300 cells/mL at 0 and 5 m depths were observed on 21 and 24 April 1997. In Kaita Bay, remarkably high concentrations above 1,000 cells/mL of A. tamarense were observed in two out of three years investigated. These facts suggest that the environment in both bays is favorable for the propagation of A. tamarense. The temperature range at which the natural population of A. tamarense blooms was generally from 12 to 16 degrees C. Four strains (ATKR-94, -95, -97 and -01) from Kure Bay and one strain (ATKT-97) from Kaita Bay were established. The strain ATKR-94, cultured in modified SW-2 medium at 15 degrees C for 15 days, showed a specific toxicity of 33.8 x 10(-6) MU/cell. The toxins in all five strains exist almost exclusively as beta-epimers (C2 (PX2 or GTX8), GTX3, dcGTX3 and GTX4), which accounted for 54.9 to 73.0 mol% of the total. The corresponding a-epimers (C1 (PX1 or epi-GTX8), GTX2, dcGTX2 and GTX1) accounted for 6.0 to 28.9 mol%. The toxin profiles of ATKR-97 and ATKT-97 were characterized by unusually high proportions of low-potency sulfocarbamoyl toxin, which comprised 62.4 and 68.2 mol%, respectively, of total toxins. In the toxic bivalves, the low-toxicity sulfocarbamoyl components, major components of A. tamarense, were present in amounts of only a few percent, suggesting that in vivo conversion of PSP occurs after ingestion. A comparison of the toxin profiles of the causative dinoflagellate and contaminated bivalves showed that PSP components exist in the bivalves in the form of alpha-epimers, presumably owing to accumulation or storage of the toxins. PMID:16440784

Asakawa, Manabu; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Beppu, Rieko; Miyazawa, Keisuke

2005-12-01

354

Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Bivalve, New Jersey, HSRL has over a 100-yr tradition of disseminating research results and working cooperatively with state and federal agencies and the fisheries and aquaculture communities in southern New Jersey. Site features information on the lab history, facilities, faculty, and current and past research. An abundance of information regarding oyster and clam aquaculture, as well as links to additional resources.

355

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... programs (assessing toxin levels in mussels, oysters, scallops, clams) and rapid closures of suspect or demonstrated toxic ... Pacific Coast of North America Mussels, surfclams, softshell clams, sea scallops, butterclams, ocean quahogs, oysters, gastropods, lobsters, ...

356

Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (?) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low ? is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during periods of low wind stress ranges from 100-700µatm. When strong equatorward winds induce upwelling, pCO2 levels exhibit a higher daily range of 300-2000µatm. The saturation state was calculated from the pCO2/TCO2 measurements of the discrete samples. The ? for calcite and aragonite ranged from 2.07 and 1.15 to 8.58 and 4.69 respectively from April through August. Increased pCO2 and decreased pH have been shown to negatively impact larval development in C. gigas (Kurihara, 2007). Periods of elevated pCO2 in May and June 2010 correlated with commercial losses at WCH. The use of precise pCO2 measurements in real time has proven to be a valuable tool for use in aquaculture. As a commercial practice WCH has elected to only use source water that is below empirical pCO2 thresholds for spawning and culturing larvae. This has resulted in continued production and cost saving in an industry crucial to coast economies. A continuous TCO2/pCO2 monitoring system will be integrated into this long time-series to constrain inorganic carbon providing insight into carbonate chemistry dynamics in Netarts Bay, effects of ocean acidification on bivalve development and possible water treatment approaches for commercial aquaculture.

Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

2010-12-01

357

Are fecal stanols suitable to record and identify a pulse of human fecal contamination in short-term exposed shellfish? A microcosm study.  

PubMed

In this study, the capacity of oysters to bioaccumulate fecal stanols and to record a source-specific fingerprint was investigated by the short-term contamination of seawater microcosms containing oysters with a human effluent. Contaminated oysters bioaccumulated the typical fecal stanols coprostanol and 24-ethylcoprostanol and their bioaccumulation kinetics were similar to that of the Fecal Indicator Bacteria Escherichia coli used in European legislation. Although stanol fingerprints of contaminated water allowed the identification of the human specific fingerprint, this was not the case for oysters. This discrepancy is attributed to (i) high concentrations of endogenous cholestanol and sitostanol, responsible for "unbalanced" stanol fingerprints, (ii) different accumulation/depuration kinetics of fecal coprostanol and 24-ethylcoprostanol and (iii) the limits of the analytical pathway used. These results show that fecal stanols bioaccumulated by oysters are useful to record fecal contamination but the usefulness of stanol fingerprints to identify specific sources of contamination in shellfish currently seems limited. PMID:25455370

Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

2014-12-15

358

[Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].  

PubMed

Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution. PMID:24455892

Vale, P

2013-01-01

359

Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6.  

PubMed

The chemical analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) requires standard solutions with accurate concentration. The mouse toxicity in each toxin is also essential knowledge for the introduction of chemical analysis as an alternative method to mouse bioassay (MBA) in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, we developed the quantitative analysis of PSTs by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using tert-butanol as an internal standard. Only proton signals with longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) of less than 2.5 s, including the internal standard, were used for quantitation of toxins. Our method showed good precision (<3%) and accuracy (slope: 1.0038, R(2): 1.0000). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) at 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) was calculated to be 0.16 mM, which corresponded to 67 microg/mL as Saxitoxin (STX) diacetate form, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.04 mM. Gonyautoxin-5 (GTX5) and gonyautoxin-6 (GTX6) isolated from mussels were quantified by our method, and the toxicities of GTX5 and GTX6 were obtained by the MBA in which mice were standardized by STX provided from FDA. The specific toxicities of GTX5 and GTX6 newly calculated by the MBA were 120 MU/micromol (29 microg STX equiv./micromol) and 105 MU/micromol (25 microg STX equiv./micromol), respectively. These results are useful to convert the amount of GTX5 and GTX6 into the mouse toxicity, especially in the areas where the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum predominantly produces both toxins. PMID:20538011

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

2010-09-15

360

Liquid chromatographic post-column oxidation method for analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, clams, scallops, and oysters: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the LC post-column oxidation analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST): saxitoxin (STX); neosaxitoxin (NEO); gonyautoxins (GTX) 1-5; decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX) 2 and 3; decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX); and N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in mussels (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clams (Mya arenaria), scallops (Placopectin magellanicus), and oysters (Crassostrea virginicus). The instrumental technique was developed for the analysis of PST in shellfish as an alternative to the precolumn oxidation method, AOAC Official Method 2005.06, and a replacement for the current AOAC biological method 959.08. The method used reversed-phase LC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Test materials for method recovery were prepared by fortification of blank material with a cocktail of PST. Materials used to determine method repeatability and intermediate precision were prepared by blending blank material with naturally incurred material. The target total toxicity levels evaluated in the study were 0.40, 0.80, and 1.60 mg STX x diHCl equivalents per kilogram [(eq/kg) 1%, 1, and 2 times the regulatory limit]. Linearity, recovery, and within-laboratory precision parameters of the method were evaluated. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for all toxins studied were > 0.99. Total toxin recovery ranged from 94 to 106% at the three levels of interest. Repeatability and intermediate precision RSD ranged from 2 to 7% and 2 to 8%, respectively. The method LOD and LOQ (assuming the presence of all toxins) were determined to be equivalent to 0.18 and 0.39 mg STX x diHCl eq/kg. The method is intended for a regulatory framework and will be submitted for an AOAC collaborative study. PMID:20166587

Van de Riet, Jeffrey M; Gibbs, Ryan S; Chou, Faith W; Muggah, Patricia M; Rourke, Wade A; Burns, Garth; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A

2009-01-01

361

Application of the neuroblastoma assay for paralytic shellfish poisons to neurotoxic freshwater cyanobacteria: interlaboratory calibration and comparison with other methods of analysis.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) are produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and pose a threat to human and animal drinking-water supplies. The wide range of toxin analogues (and the likelihood that further analogues remain to be discovered) means that chromatographic methods are not always reliable indicators of toxicity. Although the mouse bioassay remains the method of choice in the seafood industry, its use is increasingly being questioned on ethical grounds. The cell-based Neuro-2A neuroblastoma toxicity assay is an alternative bioassay validated for testing shellfish extracts, so it was of interest to determine its applicability with the different suite of toxin analogues produced by cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial bloom samples from Australia, Brazil, and France were assayed using the neuroblastoma assay, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection, and the Jellett Rapid Test for PSP. To assess interlaboratory variability, the neuroblastoma assay was set up in laboratories in Paris (France) and Adelaide (Australia). Neuroblastoma and chromatographic methods gave comparable results except in the case of the neurotoxic Brazilian samples: LC-MS/MS did not detect the putative new PSPs contained in these samples. Inter- and intralaboratory variability of the neuroblastoma assay was typical of biological assays but no greater than that found for interassay variability between different chromatographic determinations. The batch of Jellett Rapid Tests for PSP used did not yield quantitative results. Overall, the neuroblastoma assay was useful as a screening assay for determination of toxicity caused by saxitoxin neurotoxins in freshwater cyanobacteria, having the advantage of being sensitive to unidentified toxins that currently cannot be quantified by chromatographic means. PMID:17665694

Humpage, Andrew R; Ledreux, Aurélie; Fanok, Stella; Bernard, Cécile; Briand, Jean-François; Eaglesham, Geoff; Papageorgiou, John; Nicholson, Brenton; Steffensen, Dennis

2007-07-01

362

Assessment of the quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by pre-column derivatization and elimination of interfering compounds by solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

Monitoring programmes for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs still rely heavily on the use of mouse bioassays (MBA) for consumer protection. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology (Lawrence method) was implemented in 1996 in the Portuguese monitoring programme as a complementary means of analysis. Comparison between MBA and HPLC was done at the time only by a qualitative approach due to the scarce number of positive samples tested. More quantitative data were obtained recently when studying toxin profiles in Moroccan shellfish, and the correlation found between these two methodologies is reported here for the first time. Two different matrices were studied: blue mussel and the giant cockle Acanthocardia tuberculatum. A good linear correlation was obtained for both matrices. However, a second-degree polynomial best fitted the data at both low and high extremes of toxicity. According to the HPLC quantitative results, 13% of false-negatives could be obtained by MBA due to an underestimation of toxicity near the limit of detection of the MBA. Difficulties on relying solely on HPLC for consumer protection have been aroused with uncommon matrices, such as imported clams or crustaceans, due to the presence of high concentrations of interfering compounds. The solid-phase extraction step of the Lawrence method was implemented to eliminate an unknown compound that could be mistaken for saxitoxin, and an 80% reduction of another common unknown compound eluting close to decarbamoylsaxitoxin. The implementation of the HPLC methodology achieved so far allows a high degree of consumer protection without the need to resource to animal sacrifice. PMID:16192070

Vale, P; Taleb, H

2005-09-01

363

COMPARISON OF GENKENSIA DEMISSA (DILLWYN) POPULATIONS IN RHODE ISLAND FRINGE MARSHES WITH VARYING NITROGEN LOADS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased residential development in coastal watersheds has led to increases in anthropogenic nitrogen inputs into estuaries. Sessile bivalves are good candidate organisms to examine animal condition in nutrient-enriched areas because they contribute significantly to energy flow...

364

Comparative analyses by HPLC and the sodium channel and saxiphilin 3H-saxitoxin receptor assays for paralytic shellfish toxins in crustaceans and molluscs from tropical North West Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased frequency and distribution of red tides requires the development of high-throughput detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Community ethics also requires that there be a reduced reliance upon the standard mouse bioassay. A biomolecular assay such as the sodium channel 3H-saxitoxin binding assay can satisfy both of these requirements but may be compromised by cross-reactivity with the

Andrew Negri; Lyndon Llewellyn

1998-01-01

365

Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection.  

PubMed

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. A combination of hydrogen and air flow-rates of 50 ml/min and 1.5-2.0 l/min respectively, along with a scan time of 40 s/rod and detector current of 3.0 A (ampere) or above were found to yield the best results for the detection of PSP compounds. Increasing the detector current level to as high as 3.3 A gave about 130 times more FTID response than did flame ionization detection (FID), for PSP components. Quantities of standards as small as 1 ng neosaxitoxin (NEO), 5 ng saxitoxin (STX), 5 ng B1-toxins (B1), 2 ng gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3, 6 ng GTX 1/4 and 6 ng C-toxins (C1/C2) could be detected with the FTID. The method detection limits for toxic shellfish tissues using the FTID were 0.4, 2.1, 0.8 and 2.5 micrograms per g tissue for GTX 2/3, STX, NEO and C toxins, respectively. The FTID response increased with increasing detector current and with increasing the scan time. Increasing hydrogen and air flow-rates resulted in decreasing sensitivity within defined limits. Numerous solvent systems were tested, and, solvent consisting of chloroform: methanol-water-acetic acid (30:50:8:2) could separate C toxins from GTX, which eluted ahead of NEO and STX. Accordingly, TLC/FTID with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) seems to be a promising, relatively inexpensive and rapid method of screening plant and animal tissues for PSP toxins. PMID:10519102

Indrasena, W M; Ackman, R G; Gill, T A

1999-09-10

366

Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area. However, mussel toxicity in the lagoon exceeded values of the coastal area suggesting that high cell density of toxic dinoflagellates resulted from favourable nutrient conditions. We conclude that connectivity between eutrophic lagoons and upwelling systems stimulates the increase of toxic algae and consequently enhancing shellfish toxicity.

Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

2012-10-01

367

In-house validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish using matrix-matched calibration.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish extracts (mussel, oyster, cockle and clam) was validated in-house using European Union (EU) Commission Decision 2002/657/EC as a guideline. The validation included the toxins okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and 13-desmethyl spirolide-C (SPX1). Validation was performed at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the current EU permitted levels, which are 160 microg kg(-1) for OA, AZA1 and PTX2 and 1,000 microg kg(-1) for YTX. For SPX1, 400 microg kg(-1) was chosen as the target level as no legislation has been established yet for this compound. The method was validated for determination in crude methanolic shellfish extracts and for extracts purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Extracts were also subjected to hydrolysis conditions to determine the performance of the method for OA and dinophysistoxin esters. The toxins were quantified against a set of matrix-matched standards instead of standard solutions in methanol. To save valuable standard, methanolic extract instead of the homogenate was spiked with the toxin standard. This was justified by the fact that the extraction efficiency is high for all relevant toxins (above 90%). The method performed very well with respect to accuracy, intraday precision (repeatability), interday precision (within-laboratory reproducibility), linearity, decision limit, specificity and ruggedness. At the permitted level the accuracy ranged from 102 to 111%, the repeatability from 2.6 to 6.7% and the reproducibility from 4.7 to 14.2% in crude methanolic extracts. The crude extracts performed less satisfactorily with respect to the linearity (less than 0.990) and the change in LC-MS/MS sensitivity during the series (more than 25%). SPE purification resulted in greatly improved linearity and signal stability during the series. Recently the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has suggested that to not exceed the acute reference dose the levels should be below 45 microg kg(-1) OA equivalents and 30 microg kg(-1) AZA1 equivalents. A single-day validation was successfully conducted at these levels. If the regulatory levels are lowered towards the EFSA suggested values, the official methods prescribed in legislation (mouse and rat bioassay) will no longer be sensitive enough. The validated LC-MS/MS method presented has the potential to replace these animal tests. PMID:20552174

Gerssen, Arjen; van Olst, Erik H W; Mulder, Patrick P J; de Boer, Jacob

2010-08-01

368

A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella  

PubMed Central

To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

2014-01-01

369

Rapid identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shellfish, sea water and sediments of the Khnifiss lagoon, Morocco, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We establish the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and deepen the comparison of isolates using MALDI-TOF MS for the typing of isolates originating from the Khnifiss lagoon (Morocco). Amongst 48 samples from sea water, sediment and shellfish isolated from different sites of Khnifiss lagoon, Morocco, we obtained 22 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus identified by Vitek 2™ System (bioMérieux) and MALDI Biotyper™ (Bruker Daltonics). All isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin and ticarcillin, moderately resistant to cefalotin, but sensitive to 16 other antimicrobials tested. MALDI-TOF MS was used to discriminate between closely related environmental strains of V. parahaemolyticus. A clustering and distribution based on MALDI-TOF spectra were generated using the BioTyper 1.1™ software. Despite low diversity in regard to the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial resistance, the isolates evoke a larger biodiversity when analysed through mass spectra of abundant proteins. Different evaluations of a cut-off value showed that, when placed at a 10% threshold of the whole diversity, isolates differed by at least three mass peaks. PMID:23464928

Malainine, S M; Moussaoui, W; Prévost, G; Scheftel, J-M; Mimouni, R

2013-05-01

370

Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed. PMID:24960460

García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

2014-06-01

371

Single-laboratory validation of a refined AOAC HPLC method 2005.06 for oysters, cockles, and clams in U.K. shellfish.  

PubMed

In 2009, a refined HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 was developed and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in mussels. A single-laboratory validation study of this method was undertaken here for the analysis of PSP toxins in oysters, cockles, clams, and razor clams. The method was characterized for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, repeatability, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty of measurement. Validation data were utilized to determine method performance characteristics for non-mussel bivalves for all commercially available certified reference toxins, extending the method to dcNEO and dcGTX2,3, where available. A period of parallel testing of oysters, cockles, and clams enabled a comparison of sample toxicities obtained using mouse bioassay (MBA) and HPLC methodologies, although only a very low number of PSP-positive samples were obtained through the United Kingdom official control monitoring program. Results from the MBA and HPLC methods were well-correlated for PSP-negative samples, but the low number of naturally contaminated PSP-positive samples has prevented any comparative statistical assessment of method performance for non-mussels between the two official methods. However, some evidence for potentially significant differences in total saxitoxin equivalents obtained by the two methods in some species has highlighted the need for further comparative testing in non-mussel samples to be conducted prior to implementation of the HPLC method in routine official control monitoring programs. PMID:21140661

Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova-Dhanji, Monika; Norton, Deirdre M; Algoet, Myriam; Lees, David N

2010-01-01

372

Preparation of Calibration Standards of N1-H Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Analogues by Large-Scale Culture of Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04)  

PubMed Central

Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ±0.1 ?mol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 ?mol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50–90%). The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated. PMID:21556170

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

2011-01-01

373

Preparation of calibration standards of N1-H paralytic shellfish toxin analogues by large-scale culture of cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04).  

PubMed

Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 ?mol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 ?mol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50-90%). The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated. PMID:21556170

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

2011-01-01

374

Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12–18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon. PMID:23676417

Laabir, Mohamed; Collos, Yves; Masseret, Estelle; Grzebyk, Daniel; Abadie, Eric; Savart, Véronique; Sibat, Manoella; Amzil, Zouher

2013-01-01

375

Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.  

PubMed

The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment. PMID:17370612

Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

2007-02-01

376

Accumulation and depuration rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the shore crab Telmessus acutidens by feeding toxic mussels under laboratory controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Accumulation and depuration rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSP) in the crab Telmessus acutidens were investigated by feeding toxic and non-toxic mussels under laboratory controlled conditions. The crab accumulated toxins in the hepatopancreas in proportion to the amount of toxic mussels they ingested, and the toxicity in the crab hepatopancreas became 3.2 fold of that in the prey mussels after 20 days of feeding. During depuration, a fast reduction of the total toxicity was observed in the crab, and the retention rate of the toxicity after 5 days depuration with feeding of non-toxic mussels was 45.8+/-18.7%. The reduction of the toxicity was moderated in the later period of depuration, and the retention rates of the total toxicity after 10 and 20 days were 54.1+/-29.8% and 14.5+/-9.0%, respectively. The toxin profiles in the crab and mussel were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography, and reductive conversions of the toxins were observed when the toxins were transferred from the mussel to the crab. Consequently, high concentrations of GTX2 and GTX3, and STX that were not detected in the prey mussels, were found in the crab. PMID:15626365

Oikawa, Hiroshi; Satomi, Masataka; Watabe, Shugo; Yano, Yutaka

2005-02-01

377

Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the single purification on silica gel. This latter led to similar recoveries (ca. 80%) and repeatabilities (ca. 10%) for both spiked standards (coprostanol and sitostanol). This analytical pathway has been applied to oysters collected in a harvesting area in Brittany (France) where fecal contaminations are important and allowed to quantify eight stanols in oysters. The relative proportions of fecal stanols of these oysters were combined with principal component analysis in order to investigate the usefulness of their stanol fingerprints to record a fecal contamination and to distinguish its source between human, porcine and bovine contaminations. Oysters non-fecally contaminated by Escherichia coli did not present specific stanol fingerprints while oysters fecally contaminated had a bovine fingerprint, suggesting a contamination of these samples by bovine sources. As a consequence, the method developed here allows the use of stanol fingerprints of oysters as a microbial source tracking tool that can be applied to shellfish harvesting areas subjected to fecal contaminations in order to identify the different sources of contamination and improve watershed management. PMID:24771549

Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

2014-06-01

378

Contrasting physiological responses of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).  

PubMed

This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves. PMID:25153329

Navarro, Jorge M; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A; Chaparro, Oscar R; Segura, Cristian J; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J; Labarta, Uxio

2014-01-01

379

Monitoring of Dinophysis species and diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Flødevigen Bay, Norway: inter-annual variability over a 25-year time-series.  

PubMed

The accumulation of phycotoxins in bivalve mussels associated with mussels feeding on toxic phytoplankton is a well-known phenomenon in Norway. Regular monitoring for 25 years has revealed that accumulation of Diarrhetic Shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in mussels is the main phycotoxin problem along the Norwegian coast. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible trends over time of Dinophysis spp. and DSP as well as possible correlation between abundance of Dinophysis spp. and toxin accumulation in mussels, as based on intensive and regular monitoring at the southern coast of Norway at Flødevigen Bay. The main source organism causing a risk of DSP in Norway is Dinophysis acuta. However, it cannot be excluded that other Dinophysis spp., e.g. D. acuminata and D. norvegica, may contribute to the total accumulation of toxins. The variability in the occurrence of these species is high at both short- and long-term; between days and between years. There are, however, some important overall patterns in the occurrence of the species during the last decades. Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica have mainly been abundant from March to December, whereas D. acuta has typically occurred in late summer and autumn (August-December). For all three species we have observed a narrowing of the peak season since 2002 at the same time as they have become less abundant. Coincident with these changes, the problem of the accumulation of DSP toxins in mussels along the southern coast of Norway has declined significantly, but it is still mainly restricted to the autumn. Why the cell concentration of Dinophysis spp. has declined after 2002 is not obvious, but this has occurred in a period with relatively high summer temperatures. The relatively simultaneous changes in physical, chemical and biological factors of the pelagic ecosystem along the southern coast of Norway indicate that complicated ecological interactions may be involved. PMID:22891979

Naustvoll, L-J; Gustad, E; Dahl, E

2012-01-01

380

Contrasting Physiological Responses of Two Populations of the Razor Clam Tagelus dombeii with Different Histories of Exposure to Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

PubMed Central

This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves. PMID:25153329

Navarro, Jorge M.; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A.; Chaparro, Oscar R.; Segura, Cristian J.; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J.; Labarta, Uxio

2014-01-01

381

The interaction of human microbial pathogens, particulate material and nutrients in estuarine environments and their impacts on recreational and shellfish waters.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic activities have increased the load of faecal bacteria, pathogenic viruses and nutrients in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas through point and diffuse sources such as sewage discharges and agricultural runoff. These areas are used by humans for both commercial and recreational activities and are therefore protected by a range of European Directives. If water quality declines in these zones, significant economic losses can occur. Identifying the sources of pollution, however, is notoriously difficult due to the ephemeral nature of discharges, their diffuse source, and uncertainties associated with transport and transformation of the pollutants through the freshwater-marine interface. Further, significant interaction between nutrients, microorganisms and particulates can occur in the water column making prediction of the fate and potential infectivity of human pathogenic organisms difficult to ascertain. This interaction is most prevalent in estuarine environments due to the formation of flocs (suspended sediment) at the marine-freshwater interface. A range of physical, chemical and biological processes can induce the co-flocculation of microorganisms, organic matter and mineral particles resulting in pathogenic organisms becoming potentially protected from a range of biotic (e.g. predation) and abiotic stresses (e.g. UV, salinity). These flocs contain and retain macro- and micro- nutrients allowing the potential survival, growth and transfer of pathogenic organisms to commercially sensitive areas (e.g. beaches, shellfish harvesting waters). The flocs can either be transported directly to the coastal environment or can become deposited in the estuary forming cohesive sediments where pathogens can survive for long periods. Especially in response to storms, these sediments can be subsequently remobilised releasing pulses of potential pathogenic organisms back into the water column leading to contamination of marine waters long after the initial contamination event occurred. Further work, however, is still required to understand and predict the potential human infectivity of pathogenic organisms alongside the better design of early warning systems and surveillance measures for risk assessment purposes. PMID:25043898

Malham, Shelagh K; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Howlett, Eleanor; Tuson, Karen E; Perkins, Tracy L; Pallett, Denise W; Wang, Hui; Jago, Colin F; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E

2014-09-20

382

Partitioning of paralytic shellfish toxins in sub-cellular fractions of the digestive gland of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Changes under post-bloom natural conditions.  

PubMed

Concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins (C1+2, B1, dcGTX2+3, dcSTX, GTX2+3 and STX) were determined by LC-FLD in composite samples of digestive glands of the cockle Cerastoderma edule and in each sub-cellular particulate fractions obtained after differential centrifugation (nuclei+debris, mitochondria, lysosomes and microsomes). The specimens were sampled during the exposure to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum (day 0) and in the subsequent 8, 12, 14, 19, 21 and 25 days under natural depuration conditions. Toxin profiles of digestive glands were dominated by C1+2 followed by B1 and dcGTX2+3, although the proportion between C1+2 and B1 contents decreased with the time, indicating a slower elimination of B1. All toxins, except GTX2+3 and STX, were quantified in the four sub-cellular fractions. The content of the quantified toxins decreased most markedly in nuclei+debris and microsomal fractions, during the first eight and 12 days, respectively. Conversely, different patterns were observed among toxins in mitochondrial and lysosomal fractions. The less accentuated decreases of dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX contents in the mitochondrial fraction may have resulted from the conversion of other toxins, like C1+2 and B1, associated with enzymatic activities in that fraction. The largest discrepancy was registered in lysosomal fraction for B1, since its content increased after eight days of post-bloom conditions. Input of B1 may come from the conversion of other toxins, like the abundant B2 and C1+2. These transformations are associated to the major role of lysosomes in the intra-cellular digestive process of materials acquired through vesicular transport. PMID:24736027

Botelho, Maria João; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

2014-06-01

383

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin potency and the influence of the pH of extraction.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the most severe forms of food poisoning. The toxins responsible for this poisoning are natural compounds, which cause the arrest of action potential propagation by binding to voltage-gated Na+ channels. Several standards for PSP toxins are nowadays commercially available; however, there is not accessible data on the biological activity of the toxins present on this standards and their in vivo toxicity. We have developed an in vitro quantification method for PSP toxins using cultured neurons and compared the potency of the commercial PSP toxin standards in this system with their relative toxicity by mouse bioassay. The in vitro potencies of the PSP toxin standards were saxitoxin (STX) > decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) = neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) > gonyautoxins 1, 4 (GTX1,4) > decarbamoylneosaxitoxin (dcNeoSTX) > gonyautoxins 2, 3 (GTX2,3) > decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2, 3 (dcGTX2,3) > gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5). The data in vitro correlated well with the toxicity values obtained by mouse bioassay. Using this in vitro model we also provide the first data evaluating the potencies of PSP toxins after extraction in acidic pHs, indicating that the toxicity of the sample increases in acidic conditions. This observation correlated well with the chemical transformations undergone by contaminated samples treated in several acidic conditions as corroborated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection of the toxins. Therefore, a variation of 2 units in the pH during PSP extraction may lead to large discrepancies regarding sample lethality during official PSP control in different countries. The results presented here constitute the first comprehensive and revised data on the potency of PSP toxins in vitro and their in vivo toxicity. PMID:18232710

Vale, Carmen; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Romarís, Xosé Manuel; Arévalo, Fabiola; Botana, Ana M; Botana, Luis M

2008-03-01

384

Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers  

PubMed Central

The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem. PMID:25071995

Fournier, Alexa M.; Furman, Bradley T.; Carroll, John M.

2014-01-01

385

Paralytic shellfish toxins in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus on Georges Bank: Implications for an offshore roe-on and whole scallop fishery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To protect public health from the potential risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, from the Atlantic offshore U.S. waters of Georges Bank, harvesting of roe-on or whole scallops is banned. Only adductor muscles may be sold if harvested from Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, or the PSP closure areas as far west as 71° West Longitude. Given the limited toxicity data available for sea scallops from this region both prior to and subsequent to implementation of this management strategy, this study sought a more extensive spatial and temporal evaluation of sea scallop gonad and viscera toxicities that would inform management decisions related to the roe-on and whole scallop fishery. Both overall toxicity and toxin composition were measured for sea scallop gonads and viscera collected from 232 stations in 2007 and 23 in 2010. Overall toxicity was assessed using two screening methods: field-deployable Jellett Rapid Tests (JRT) and quantitative, laboratory-based receptor binding assays (in 2007). Additionally, a quantitative liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) method was used to determine toxin composition and overall toxicity (in 2010). The at-sea qualitative JRT screening tool results, whereby a positive indicated the sample contained at least 40 ?g saxitoxin (STX) equivalents 100 g-1, were often inconsistent with results obtained using the quantitative methods. Sea scallop viscera toxicity represented the majority of toxin load in the organism and was often in excess of the regulatory guidance level. Sea scallop gonads accounted for a small percentage of total toxicity, but at times reached unsafe levels. Toxin composition in both the gonads and viscera was dominated by STX and gonyautoxin 2/3, as has been reported in previous studies. No predictive indices of gonad toxicity were found. Results at this time do not support a roe-on or whole scallop fishery on Georges Bank. While access restrictions to whole scallops on Georges Bank are unlikely to change based on these results, it seems plausible that a management strategy requiring at-sea testing of scallop gonads for PSP may be necessary in order for a safe roe-on scallop fishery from this region to be feasible.

DeGrasse, Stacey; Vanegas, Camilo; Conrad, Stephen

2014-05-01

386

Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.  

PubMed

Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in reporting, rather than early detection of a disease outbreak. Both economic compensation and the farmers' non-economic values and perceptions should be considered to improve oyster farmers' reporting compliance and sustainability of the reporting system. Education and participatory approaches could help to change these attitudes and thus improve oyster farmers' compliance with reporting duties, resulting in improved early detection of epidemics and emerging or exotic oyster diseases. PMID:24880624

Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

2014-09-01

387

Complex profiles of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds in Gymnodinium catenatum identified by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The presence of hydrophobic analogues of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) was studied in a Portuguese strain of Gymnodinium catenatum by conventional pre-column oxidation HPLC after a prolonged acetonitrile gradient coupled with fluorescence detection. Prior separation of hydrophobic PSTs analogues from hydrophilic analogues was done by solid-phase extraction (SPE) partitioning on a C18 cartridge. Several unknown oxidation products, with emission spectra similar to known PSTs, appeared after periodate or hydrogen peroxide oxidation. The compounds producing these oxidation products could be grouped into three major sub-groups according to SPE partitioning. The first one eluting with 10 and 20% MeOH, produced the first set of oxidation products observed after the saxitoxin oxidation product. The second one eluting with 30-100% MeOH produced the second set of oxidation products. The third one eluted with acidified 90% MeOH produced the third and last set of oxidation products. Additionally, the oxidation products corresponding to decarbamoyl gonyautoxins and decarbamoyl saxitoxins were also abundant, resulting from ester cleavage of the benzoate side chain of these compounds during the oxidation. Analysis of these fractions by LC-MS demonstrated the second sub-group was constituted by analogues of the 11-hydroxysulfated GC1/GC2, while the third sub-group was constituted by analogues of GC3, which lack the 11-hydroxysulfate. In addition to GC1/GC2 and GC3, novel analogues differing by 16u could be related, respectively, to the N1-hydroxyl analogues of GC1-GC3, designated GC4-GC6. A novel family of GC analogues, differing, by 16u from GC1-GC6, were hypothesized to possess an extra hydroxyl in the benzoate side chain, existing in both N1-hydroxylated and non-N1-hydroxylated variants, and tentatively designated GC1a-GC6a. The first sub-group was hypothesized to constitute an additional novel family of GC analogues with a hydroxysulfate group instead of the hydroxyl group in the benzoate side chain, tentatively designated GC1b-GC6b. PMID:18511059

Vale, Paulo

2008-06-27

388

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and biotransformation of its components in oysters, Crassostrea gigas, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.  

PubMed

As a part of our studies on the mechanism of uptake of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and the kinetics of its accumulation in bivalves, oysters Crassostrea gigas were experimentally contaminated with PSP by being fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Temporal variations in the PSP contents and their profiles in oysters during the feeding experiment were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the toxin profile of the oysters was compared with that of A. tamarense. Toxins excreted from the infested oysters into the seawater for 2 and 10 days were recovered and analyzed by HPLC. PSP toxicity rapidly appeared in the tissues of oysters and their toxicity levels reached 0.6 (0.3), 2.2 (1.1), 1.0 (0.5), 3.4 (1.6) and 1.1 (0.5) MU/g (nmol/g) shucked meat at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The accumulation rates of toxin, calculated from the total amount (nmol) of toxins expressed by the total cell number fed during the exposure period and the toxicity of the oysters, were 14.1, 18.7, 5.1, 14.9 and 3.2% for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. During feeding experiments, the toxin profile of oysters changed substantially, showing marked differences from the proportions found in the toxigenic dinoflagellate used as food. The toxin components in this strain existed almost exclusively as beta-epimers, which accounted for 66.3 mol% of the total. This contrasts with the case of the oysters, where the beta-epimers represented 24.8, 29.8, 25.1, 27.3 and 25.2 mol% of the total at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, respectively. The amount of gonyautoxin-1 (GTX1) accumulated in oysters increased linearly and slowly for 8 days and the maximum content of GTX1 reached 51.3 mol%. The composition of GTX group compounds recovered from the seawater in which the oysters had been reared was a little different from that within the oyster tissues. PMID:16619853

Asakawa, Manabu; Beppu, Rieko; Ito, Katsutoshi; Tsubota, Makiko; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Miyazawa, Keisuke

2006-02-01

389

FISH AND SHELLFISH what's inside  

E-print Network

the Fire, 3 Grilled Spiny Lobster Tails, 4 Whitefish in Foil, 4 Charcoal Grilled Red Snapper Steaks, 4 Savory Grilled Soft-Shell Crabs, 8 Sesame Rainbow Trout, 8 Boiled Lobster, 10 Charcoal Broiled Scallops and the fire is ready. Make the charcoal layer slightly wider than the food to be cooked on the grill. Wood

390

QPX Parasite Shellfish - New Jersey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This State of New Jersey fact sheet (PDF) briefly outlines the ecological and socioeconomic risks associated with Quahog Parasite X (QPX), a parasite that kills hard clams. QPX was first discovered in New Jersey in the 1970s.

Jersey, State O.

391

Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallops.  

PubMed

AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detection (FLD) method is an official alternative to the mouse bioassay for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. To validate the method for species of relevance to the UK official control monitoring program, the method performance characteristics were tested for whole king and queen scallops. Validation showed that, while the performance was generally acceptable for the quantitation of non-N-hydroxylated toxins, poor toxin recovery and sensitivity was evident for the analysis of N-hydroxylated toxins following periodate oxidation. These effects occurred in a range of scallop samples with variable temporal and spatial sources. The effects were also noted in other laboratories following a small interlaboratory study. As a result, the method was refined to improve the recovery and sensitivity of analysis following the periodate oxidation step in the PSP method for scallops. Performance improved through alterations to the preparation of the periodate oxidant, use of higher volumes for C18 cleanup, and injection volumes in combination with the use of a king scallop matrix modifier for oxidation of N-hydroxylated toxin calibration standards. A single-laboratory validation of the refined method showed that the selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, and precision were acceptable and similar to values reported previously for AOAC Official Method 2005.06 in other bivalve species. Results showed the method to be rugged for all parameters investigated, including small changes to the composition of the new periodate reagent utilized in the refined method. The refined scallops LC method was subsequently compared with the European reference method. PSP-positive scallops showed an excellent agreement between the methods for queen and Atlantic scallops, with a small level of positive bias in the LC results for whole king scallops. These differences were related solely to the use of the highest toxicity equivalence factors for toxin epimeric pairs, with gonyautoxin (GTX)1,4 and GTX2,3 in particular present at high concentrations in the king scallops. Overall, the refined LC-FLD method improved the performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for the determination of PSP toxins in whole king and queen scallops, and showed a good overall agreement between the official methodologies. It is, therefore, recommended as a more appropriate option for the routine monitoring of PSP toxins in these species. PMID:22468351

Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G

2012-01-01

392

Database of radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water, fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and shellfish downstream of Hanford`s single-pass production reactors, 1960--1970. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).

Thiede, M.E.; Duncan, J.P.

1994-03-01

393

Restricting Prey Dispersal Can Overestimate the Importance of Predation in Trophic Cascades  

PubMed Central

Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957

Geraldi, Nathan R.; Macreadie, Peter I.

2013-01-01

394

A Mini Review: Cholera Outbreak via Shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Food borne illness occurs all over the world. Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera which is spread by con taminated food, water or direct fecal contact with food handlers. There are also examples of sporadic outbreaks of illness attributed to raw products eat en unprocessed. Consequently, there was a widespread concern that food in international trade

A. S. Abdulamir; Fatimah Abu Bakar; R. Son

2009-01-01

395

Zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The worldwide development of aquaculture and the worldwide transport of live aquaculture products has, apart from many advantages, also worrisome consequences. Among them is the occurrence and increased recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and ...

396

Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally, cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species will at some point become an entirely new industry itself. A successful industry will require integrated practices for sample collection, refrigerated storage, freezing, thawing, rules for use and disposal, transfer agreements, and database development. Indeed the development of this new industry is currently constrained by factors including the technical requirements for scaling-up to commercial operations during the transition from research, and the absence of uniform quality control practices, industry standards, marketing and price structures, and appropriate biosecurity safeguards. PMID:17644987

Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2007-01-01

397

So you are thinkingSo you are thinking about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?  

E-print Network

oysterOlympia oyster Ostrea luridaOstrea lurida yy Crassostrea virginicaCrassostrea virginica #12;ClamsClams Manila clamManila clam Tapes philippinarumTapes philippinarum Hard clam northern quahogHard clam northern quahogPacific littleneck clamPacific littleneck clam Protothaca stamineaProtothaca staminea Hard clam

Florida, University of

398

FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION IN PUBLIC EATING AND DRINKING  

E-print Network

with other protein foods. The data on which the study is based were collected by the Bureau of the Census of the Census definition of eating and drinking places, and questionnaire ... 71 Appendix B Sample design

399

Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

1970-01-01

400

An Economic Valuation of Recreational Shellfishing On Cape Cod  

E-print Network

the excellent help from William Burt of Barnstable County Cooperative Extension. Americorps volunteers Chris Huskey and Tony Gill, who were assigned to Barnstable County Cooperative Extension, were instrumental

Schweik, Charles M.

401

New England Shellfish Beds Reopen After Toxic Red Algae Recedes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS article describes red tide, a phenomenon caused by phytoplankton in coastal waters. The site includes brief summaries of the causes and impacts of red tide, both on health and the tourism industry. A link to a PDF version of the article is provided.

Annie Schleicher

402

Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fish and Shellfish of the Chesapeake Bay  

E-print Network

, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, sealants, and adhesives; as laminates in the fabrication of safety glass stability, high dielectric constant, high specific electrical resistivity, low water solubil- ity, and high

403

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2012-10-01

404

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2014-07-01

405

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2014-10-01

406

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2013-10-01

407

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...2inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2010-10-01

408

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...2inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2010-07-01

409

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2012-07-01

410

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2011-10-01

411

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2011-07-01

412

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. ...inches or greater may be taken or possessed. (6) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of...

2013-07-01

413

Biographic Memoir of Ernest Ingersoll: Naturalist, Shellfish Scientist, and Author  

E-print Network

eries in North America in the 1700'sand 1800's. Early Life Ernest Ingersoll was born in Monroe, Mich he studied scienceand was curator ofthecollege museum; he was graduated in 1871. From the fall into journalism, when he wrote a sketch of Agassiz containing somehighlights ofhisteachings and sub mitted

414

Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa  

PubMed Central

Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ?200 to ?50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and “jewelry” become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion. PMID:23776248

Klein, Richard G.; Steele, Teresa E.

2013-01-01

415

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

2012-10-01

416

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

2011-10-01

417

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

2010-10-01

418

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

2014-10-01

419

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

2013-10-01

420

Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was

Joanna Burger; Jennifer Fleischer; Michael Gochfelda

2003-01-01