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Although mussel beds are common in many intertidal habitats, the ecological significance of the aggregated distribution of mussels has not been examined. The ribbed mussel, Geukensiademissa, is found in dense aggregations on the seaward margin of many salt marshes in New England. Here, we examine the population structure of G. demissa in a New England salt marsh and investigate
We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists\\u000a and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia\\u000a nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels
The ribbed mussel, Geukensiademissa, is highly dependent on the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora for amelioration from environmental stress and substrate stabilization. Spartina alterniflora is a foundation species in marshes, and G. demissa is typically associated with cordgrass beds. Marshes in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence are experiencing erosion and degradation,\\u000a presumably as a result of increases in sea level,
Shelled molluscs frequently exhibit a record of damage on exterior surfaces that can evidence past predation attempts and\\u000a may affect survival and growth. In South Carolina populations of the ribbed marsh mussel, Geukensiademissa, >90% of the individuals and up to 60% of the total shell area are damaged. A trend toward greater amounts of damage occurred\\u000a on mid-marsh compared
We studied particle selection in the ribbed mussel Geukensiademissa, an important suspension-feeding inhabitant of estuaries and intertidal zones of salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of North America. Adult mussels were fed on several mixtures of microalgal cultures (1) in exponential or (2) in stationary phase of growth, and the proportional occurrence of algal species in pseudofeces was examined
Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa; Bassem Allam; Susan E. Ford
The ribbed mussel, Geukensiademissa, is highly dependent on the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora for amelioration from environmental stress and substrate stabilization. Spartina alterniflora is a foundation species in marshes, and G. demissa is typically associated with cordgrass beds. Marshes in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence are experiencing erosion and degradation, presumably as a result of increases in sea level, which increases salinity exposure and negatively impacts S. alterniflora. The population structure of the ribbed mussel, Geukensiademissa, was studied at nine sites in six estuaries in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence in Nova Scotia, Canada, where marsh degradation is occurring. Mussel length was used as a proxy for age of G. demissa in three salt marsh zones characterized by density and elevation of Spartina alterniflora: (1) a lower zone in which the S. alterniflora was dead, but where the basal mat was coherent, (2) a zone of living, but low density S. alterniflora at the margin of the living marsh, and (3) a zone of dense S. alterniflora one to three meters back from the edge. Mussel length was significantly different across the three zones in seven of the nine sites. Mean length decreased as elevation increased, and small mussels (i.e., 1-3 cm) were absent at seven sites. The smallest mussels occurred in the dense S. alterniflora zone, higher in the marsh. Mussel length in the two western sites did not differ between zones, and small mussels (i.e., 1-3 cm) were present, but rare. The absence of small mussels in seven of the nine sites, and the size frequency distribution at remaining sites, suggests a lack of recent recruitment and a long-term threat to the survival of G. demissa. Salt marsh degradation and the death of S. alterniflora have negatively impacted G. demissa recruitment, and population decline is evident.
Watt, Cortney; Garbary, David J.; Longtin, Caroline
We studied the composition of the <25 ?m seston size fraction as a food resource potentially available to suspension feeding ribbed mussels, Geukensiademissa, over an annual cycle in Canary Creek saltmarsh, Delaware Bay. There were significant seasonal variations in the concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), and total carbohydrate, but not cellulose. The concentration of cellulose, measured by hydrolytic cellulase enzyme assay, was relatively low (seasonal range 24 to 35 ?g l -1) and only comprised from 3% of total carbohydrate in May 1996 to 13% in November 1995. We used the biomass of microalgae, estimated from chlorophyll a, and abundance of free-living bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates to calculate each component's equivalent carbon content. Microalgae were the most dominant carbon source (62% annually) among the four identified components (phytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and cellulose) in all seasons except in August 1995 when carbon from bacteria was most abundant (55%). The annual average carbon equivalents of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and cellulose were relatively small (2 and 4%, respectively). The total concentration of POC in the seston was much greater than the carbon derived from the four identified components. The proportions that these identified components contributed to POC varied seasonally and combined only accounted for 8-24% of POC. Based on these estimates, the bulk of the POC in Canary Creek marsh was not associated with any of the four components we identified. We suggest that this uncharacterized material was some type of non-lignocellulosic, amorphous detritus of unknown utility as a food resource for ribbed mussels.
Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensiademissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...
About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish (like tuna ... alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Shellfish Allergy When someone is allergic to shellfish, the body's ...
This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.
... difference in preventing problems. What Is a Shellfish Allergy? You may hear people talk about having a " ... Continue What Happens When Someone Has a Shellfish Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infections. But ...
... as shrimp, crab, and lobster, as well as octopus and squid. Shellfish allergy can cause mild symptoms, ... and abalone Cephalopods, such as squid, cuttlefish and octopus Some people are allergic to only one type ...
Phragmites australis has been invading Spartina-alterniflora-dominated salt marshes throughout the mid-Atlantic. Although, Phragmites has high rates of primary production, it is not known whether this species supports lower trophic levels of a marsh food\\u000a web in the same manner as Spartina. Using several related photochemical and biological assays, we compared patterns of organic matter flow of plant primary\\u000a production through
Karen L. Bushaw-Newton; Danielle A. Kreeger; Sarah Doaty; David J. Velinsky
The invention relates to the cultivation of shellfish. A first type of shellfish capable of securing themselves to a cultch such as by producing byssus are seeded onto a culture rope together with a second type of shellfish which are not capable of securing themselves. The seeding process is carried out using a seeding machine, and the shellfish are retained against the culture rope by way of a seeding stocking. The seeding stocking, the culture rope, and all of the shellfish, are then transferred to a suitable environment for cultivation. The first type of shellfish produce byssus and thereby secure themselves to the culture rope. The second type of shellfish are also secured by way of the byssus produced by the first type of shellfish. The seeding stocking is then no longer required and degrades or is burst by both types of the shellfish.
Text Version... Shucker-Packer (SP) - A person who shucks and packs shellfish. ... ANNETTE ISLAND PACKING CO ... GORDON'S SHELLFISH SNOW HILL 550 SS ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Total coliforms, faecal coliforms, enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria were determined in shellfish samples collected both in the marine environment (at Bacoli and Coroglio in the Bay of Naples) and from the local market. The same bacteriological analyses were carried out on water samples obtained from the shellfish growing areas. The results are considered in relation to standards applied in Italy and elsewhere to shellfish and shellfish cultures. PMID:400220
Aulicino, F A; Zicarelli, M; Tosti, E; Volterra, L
Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States\\u000a on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute\\u000a the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens
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This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.
Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is caused by consumption of shellfish that have accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some strains of phytoplankton. The neurotoxic properties of domoic acid result in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. A serious outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in 1987 and involved 150 reported cases, 19 hospitalisations and 4
B. Jeffery; T. Barlow; K. Moizer; S. Paul; C. Boyle
The ribbed mussel Geukensiademissa inhabits sulfide- rich coastal sediments with a distribution that suggests a preference for exposure to sulfide. Although sulfide is a respiratory poison, it is also a potent reductant. Geukensiademissa gill mitochondria can use sulfide as a respiratory substrate for ATP production, and the gills of this species exhibit sulfide-supported oxygen consumption that matches the
Jeannette E. Doeller; Manfred K. Grieshaber; David W. Kraus
Text VersionPage 1. JANUARY 1, 2009 Interstate Certified Shellfish* Shippers List *Fresh and Frozen Oysters, Clams, Mussels, Whole or Roe-on Scallops ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodsafety
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Text Version... Repacker (RP) - A person other than the original certified shucker-packer who repacks shucked shellfish into other containers. ... DARIEN CT 83 RP ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
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Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...
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This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.
The collection of wild larvae seed as a source of raw material is a major sub industry of shellfish aquaculture. To predict when, where and in what quantities wild seed will be available, it is necessary to track the appearance and growth of planktonic larvae. One of the most difficult groups to identify, particularly at the species level are the
Vitorino Ramos; Jonathan Campbell; John Slater; John Gillespie; Ivan F. Bendezu; Fionn Murtagh
This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.
This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.
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The presence of domoic acid (DA) in Portuguese shellfish is a recurrent event that affects shellfish resources several times a year, mainly in spring and autumn. Levels of domoic acid as high as twice the regulatory level of 20?g DA\\/g tissue are not unusual. When several shellfish species are exploited in the same restricted area, common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and
Ahstruct Clearance of natural bacterioplankton and phytoplankton by Mytihs edulis, Geukensiademissa, and Myu arenuriu was measured in the laboratory. Of the three, only Geukensia proved capable of efficient clearance of bacteria. Field measurements of clearance across a 46-m-wide Myths bed showed substantial removal of phytoplankton but no effect on bnc- terial concentrations. Measurements of the living gill tissue of
RICHARD T. WRIGHT; RICHARD B. COFFIN; CURTIS P. ERSING; DANIEL PEARSON
Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks\\u000a are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks\\u000a are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of contamination will continue to invade shellfish growing waters, and shellfish, by\\u000a their very nature, will continue to bioconcentrate these contaminants, including enteric
Shellfish allergy is a frequent, long-lasting, life-threatening disorder. As shellfish consumption increases, the number of\\u000a allergic reactions to shellfish is expected to continue to rise as well. During the past decade, much has been learned about\\u000a the allergens involved in shellfish allergy. Potential cross-reacting allergens between shellfish and other arthropods have\\u000a been identified. As our knowledge of shellfish allergen improves,
This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.
Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison
Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)
|Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)|
Text Version... the sanitary control of shellfish produced and sold for human ... harvests, buys, or repacks and sells shellstock. ... may also buy, repack, and sell in-shell ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
... Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is presumably caused by a group of high molecular weight polyethers, including okadaic acid, the dinophysis ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/causesofillnessbadbugbook
There are many opportunities for seafood exporters to earn substantial profit in Asian markets. The trade in live shellfish exports to China could be especially lucrative. In many respects, Oregon's shellfish industry is well positioned to meet this deman...
The National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) is concerned with the sanitary control of fresh and frozen molluscan shellfish (oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) offered for sale in interstate commerce. The FDA is responsible for the administration ...
The process of enteric virus bioaccumulation by molluscan shellfish has been widely studied and documented. However, it is not understood why some human enteric viruses, which cannot replicate within shellfish, are selectively retained and remain viable within shellfish tissues for extended periods...
During the months of November and December 2005, a harmful algal bloom in the northwestern region of Spain caused the accumulation of different algal toxins in several types of shellfish. Many of the shellfish were contaminated at levels above European regulatory limit, presenting serious risks for human health. The analysis of mussels sampled in the affected areas to search for lipophilic toxins, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), showed the presence of free okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) as well as esters of these toxins. The results also revealed the presence of minor amounts of 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in the analysed samples, although this toxin has never been reported before in Spain. The combination of different MS modes of operation, just as enhanced MS (EMS) and MS(3) experiments, allowed to confirm the first occurrence of spirolides in Spanish shellfish. PMID:17046040
Villar González, A; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Ben-Gigirey, B; Botana, L M
Changes in cell density and cyst flux of Alexandrium tamarense, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin contents in shellfishes, and environmental parameters were measured in two stations in Daya Bay, South China Sea from March 2005 to July 2006. Vegetative cells of A. tamarense occurred sporadically; however, they presented abundantly during the winter months. Meanwhile, cyst flux reached its maximum level just following the peak abundance of motile cells. The PSP contents in shellfish were generally low, but higher in winter with the maximum of 14,015 ?g STX equiv./kg. The majority of toxins were found in digestive glands, with a maximum of 66,227 ?g STX equiv./kg. There were significant positive relationships between toxin level and vegetative cell density and cyst flux. This indicates that vegetative cells and cysts of Alexandrium significantly influenced PSP level, and could be an important source of PSP toxins in shellfish during winter. PMID:21658755
The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...
This project provides the resources to the Barataria/Terrebonne National Estuary Program to work toward implementation of projects in the four general categories below that will allow the opening of closed shellfish growing waters to harvest. v Connecting poorly operating se...
This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.
Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant
Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater, surface sediments and culture shellfish were investigated in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay from Jan. to Nov. in 2008. Investigation was conducted on the distribution and variation of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and sediments in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay, as well as on the levels and the differences in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations among the shellfish species. In addition, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in the three media was evaluated and the effects of accumulated petroleum hydrocarbon in shellfish on the food safety risk were discussed. The results indicated: 1) Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay were in the range of 3.61 - 98.21 microg/L; the mean values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were in the range of 6.75-25.95 mg/kg; petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in culture shellfish were in the range of 2.14- 42.87 mg/kg; and petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish varied largely among different species, with the mean values in the sequence of clam Venerupis variegata > oyster > scallop; 2) Monthly petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and surface sediments varied significantly in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area, with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater that occurred in July and in August, respectively, and with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in surface sediments that occurred in September and in March, respectively; 3) According to the corresponding evaluation criteria, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in surface sediments in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area was unpolluted but the status in surface seawater was polluted. The culture shellfish was also polluted by petroleum hydrocarbon with different degrees among three species, namely, the pollution degree of clam Venerupis variegata and oyster was more serious than that of scallop Chlamys farreri; 4) The results of linear regression analysis showed that petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish had a significantly positive correlation with the concentrations in seawater, while the linear correlation between the concentrations in shellfish and surface sediments was not obvious; and 5) According to the pollution level of petroleum hydrocarbon in shellfish, the food safety risk of three culture shellfishes in Sanggou Bay was relatively low. PMID:22619968
Investigations of disease outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption have been reported in the scientific literature; however, only few countries systematically collate and report such data through a disease surveillance system. We conducted a systematic review to investigate shellfish-borne viral outbreaks and to explore their distribution in different countries, and to determine if different types of shellfish and viruses are implicated. Six databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic Journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched from 1980 to July 2012. About 359 shellfish-borne viral outbreaks, alongside with nine ProMED reports, involving shellfish consumption, were identified. The majority of the reported outbreaks were located in East Asia, followed by Europe, America, Oceania, Australia and Africa. More than half of the outbreaks (63.6 %) were reported from Japan. The most common viral pathogens involved were norovirus (83.7 %) and hepatitis A virus (12.8 %). The most frequent type of consumed shellfish which was involved in outbreaks was oysters (58.4 %). Outbreaks following shellfish consumption were often attributed to water contamination by sewage and/or undercooking. Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Consumption of contaminated shellfish represents a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities. PMID:23412719
There has been a growing interest in natural ingredients such as chitin, carotenoids, flavorants, enzymes and proteins which could be isolated from shellfish processing discards. Proteins from shellfish may be recovered using a base extraction or enzyme hydrolysis process After demineralization, chitin is produced which could be used directly as a support for enzymes or converted to chitosan and its
The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in tissue of the ribbed mussel (Geukensiademissa) was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Initially, mussels were fed a diet of 15N-enriched algae in the laboratory to determine how the tissue n...
Wheeler Marsh in Milford, Connecticut provides habitat for diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin), a unique estuarine turtle. To assess potential prey availability, the distribution and abundances of marsh snails (Melampus bidentatus), mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta), marsh mussels (Geukensiademissa), and fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) were studied in several sub- habitats (marsh surface, marsh edge, creek bank, and mudflats) of five tidal
A collaborative study was conducted on a microplate format receptor binding assay (RBA) for paralytic e shellfish toxins (PST). The assay quantifies the composite PST toxicity in shellfish samples based on the ability of sample extracts to compete with (3)H saxitoxin (STX) diHCl for binding to voltage-gated sodium channels in a rat brain membrane preparation. Quantification of binding can be carried out using either a microplate or traditional scintillation counter; both end points were included in this study. Nine laboratories from six countries completed the study. One laboratory analyzed the samples using the precolumn oxidation HPLC method (AOAC Method 2005.06) to determine the STX congener composition. Three laboratories performed the mouse bioassay (AOAC Method 959.08). The study focused on the ability of the assay to measure the PST toxicity of samples below, near, or slightly above the regulatory limit of 800 (microg STX diHCl equiv./kg). A total of 21 shellfish homogenates were extracted in 0.1 M HCl, and the extracts were analyzed by RBA in three assays on separate days. Samples included naturally contaminated shellfish samples of different species collected from several geographic regions, which contained varying STX congener profiles due to their exposure to different PST-producing dinoflagellate species or differences in toxin metabolism: blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the U.S. east and west coasts, California mussel (Mytilus californianus) from the U.S. west coast, chorito mussel (Mytilus chiliensis) from Chile, green mussel (Perna canaliculus) from New Zealand, Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima) from the U.S. east coast, butter clam (Saxidomus gigantea) from the west coast of the United States, almeja clam (Venus antiqua) from Chile, and Atlantic sea scallop (Plactopecten magellanicus) from the U.S. east coast. All samples were provided as whole animal homogenates, except Atlantic sea scallop and green mussel, from which only the hepatopancreas was homogenized. Among the naturally contaminated samples, five were blind duplicates used for calculation of RSDr. The interlaboratory RSDR of the assay for 21 samples tested in nine laboratories was 33.1%, yielding a HorRat value of 2.0. Removal of results for one laboratory that reported systematically low values resulted in an average RSDR of 28.7% and average HorRat value of 1.8. Intralaboratory RSDr based on five blind duplicate samples tested in separate assays, was 25.1%. RSDr obtained by individual laboratories ranged from 11.8 to 34.9%. Laboratories that are routine users of the assay performed better than nonroutine users, with an average RSDr of 17.1%. Recovery of STX from spiked shellfish homogenates was 88.1-93.3%. Correlation with the mouse bioassay yielded a slope of 1.64 and correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.84, while correlation with the precolumn oxidation HPLC method yielded a slope of 1.20 and an r(2) of 0.92. When samples were sorted according to increasing toxin concentration (microg STX diHCl equiv./kg) as assessed by the mouse bioassay, the RBA returned no false negatives relative to the 800 microg STX diHCl equiv./kg regulatory limit for shellfish. Currently, no validated methods other than the mouse bioassay directly measure a composite toxic potency for PST in shellfish. The results of this interlaboratory study demonstrate that the RBA is suitable for the routine determination of PST in shellfish in appropriately equipped laboratories. PMID:22816272
Van Dolah, Frances M; Fire, Spencer E; Leighfield, Tod A; Mikulski, Christina M; Doucette, Gregory J
A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted for the microplate receptor binding assay (RBA) for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. The basis of the assay is the competition between [3H]saxitoxin (STX) and STX in a standard or sample for binding to the voltage dependent sodium channel. A calibration curve is generated by the addition of 0.01-1000 nM STX, which results in the concentration dependent decrease in [3H]STX-receptor complexes formed and serves to quantify STX in unknown samples. This study established the LOQ, linearity, recovery, accuracy, and precision of the assay for determining PSP toxicity in shellfish extracts, as performed by a single analyst on multiple days. The standard curve obtained on 5 independent days resulted in a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 2.3 nM STX +/- 0.3 (RSD = 10.8%) with a slope of 0.96 +/- 0.06 (RSD = 6.3%) and a dynamic range of 1.2-10.0 nM. The LOQ was 5.3 microg STX equivalents/100 g shellfish. Linearity, established by quantification of three levels of purified STX (1.5, 3, and 6 nM), yielded an r2 of 0.97. Recovery from mussels spiked with three levels (40, 80, and 120 microg STX/100 g) averaged 121%. Repeatability (RSD(r)), determined on six naturally contaminated shellfish samples on 5 independent days, was 17.7%. A method comparison with the AOAC mouse bioassay yielded r2 = 0.98 (slope = 1.29) in the SLV study. The effects of the extraction method on RBA-based toxicity values were assessed on shellfish extracted for PSP toxins using the AOAC mouse bioassay method (0.1 M HCI) compared to that for the precolumn oxidation HPLC method (0.1% acetic acid). The two extraction methods showed linear correlation (r2 = 0.99), with the HCl extraction method yielding slightly higher toxicity values (slope = 1.23). A similar relationship was observed between HPLC quantification of the HCI- and acetic acid-extracted samples (r2 = 0.98, slope 1.19). The RBA also had excellent linear correlation with HPLC analyses (r2 = 0.98 for HCl, r2 = 0.99 for acetic acid), but gave somewhat higher values than HPLC using either extraction method (slope = 1.39 for HCl extracts, slope = 1.32 for acetic acid). Overall, the excellent linear correlations with the both mouse bioassay and HPLC method and sufficient interassay repeatability suggest that the RBA can be effective as a high throughput screen for estimating PSP toxicity in shellfish. PMID:20166588
Van Dolah, Frances M; Leighfield, Tod A; Doucette, Gregory J; Bean, Laurie; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Rawn, Dorothea F K
Molluscan shellfish bioconcentrate enteric viruses from human wastes that are present in the growing waters. Consequently, the consumption of raw shellfish poses considerable risk for contracting illnesses associated with these viruses. High hydrostatic pressure is a new nonthermal sanitizing proc...
Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.
... benefits. However, nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury. ... Is there methylmercury in all fish and shellfish? Nearly ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers. PMID:23412717
Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S
DNA barcoding has been widely used in species identification and biodiversity research. A short fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence serves as a DNA bio-barcode. We collected DNA barcodes, based on COI sequences from 156 species (529 sequences) of fish, insects, and shellfish. We present results on phylogenetic relationships to assess biodiversity the in the Korean peninsula. Average GC% contents of the 68 fish species (46.9%), the 59 shellfish species (38.0%), and the 29 insect species (33.2%) are reported. Using the Kimura 2 parameter in all possible pairwise comparisons, the average interspecific distances were compared with the average intraspecific distances in fish (3.22 vs. 0.41), insects (2.06 vs. 0.25), and shellfish (3.58 vs. 0.14). Our results confirm that distance-based DNA barcoding provides sufficient information to identify and delineate fish, insect, and shellfish species by means of all possible pairwise comparisons. These results also confirm that the development of an effective molecular barcode identification system is possible. All DNA barcode sequences collected from our study will be useful for the interpretation of species-level identification and community-level patterns in fish, insects, and shellfish in Korea, although at the species level, the rate of correct identification in a diversified environment might be low.
Kim, Dae-Won; Yoo, Won Gi; Park, Hyun Chul; Yoo, Hye Sook; Kang, Dong Won; Jin, Seon Deok; Min, Hong Ki; Paek, Woon Kee; Lim, Jeongheui
Aquaculture structures are responsible for flow disturbances that extend over a large range of scales. In the case of shellfish\\u000a aquaculture, those scales extend from the size of an individual shellfish to the size of a whole farm with intermediate scales\\u000a being the size of a shellfish structure or of a block of shellfish structures. The influence of block spacing
The acres of productive shellfish waters in coastal areas of the United States closed to shellfishing are increasing. Contamination by fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator used to signal if waters are safe for shellfish, is the primary cause of those clo...
Epidemiological evidence linking the transmission of enteric viral disease to shellfish has been known for a long time. A variety of methods have been described for the detection of viral contaminants in shellfish using RT-PCR. However, these methods generally include numerous, often fastidious and time consuming steps for virus release from shellfish tissues and viral RNA isolation. A simplified procedure
O. Legeay; Y. Caudrelier; C. Cordevant; L. Rigottier-Gois; M. Lange
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are highly toxic natural compounds produced by dinoflagellates commonly present in marine phytoplankton. Shellfish contaminated with these toxins create significant public health threat and economic losses to the shellfish industry. For this reason, several methods of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection have been developed in order to gain better knowledge of toxins
P. Rodríguez; A. Alfonso; A. M. Botana; M. R. Vieytes; L. M. Botana
During the last few years the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been observed in shellfish from the Portuguese coast. Most of the commercial bivalves contain DSP toxins in ester forms, either acyl derivatives of okadaic acid (OA) or of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). The stability of these toxins in shellfish tissues and in
S. M. Rodrigues; P. Vale; M. J. Botelho; S. S. Gomes
Fungal diseases are problematic in cultured fish and shellfish, their seeds, and sometimes wild marine animals. In this chapter fungal diseases found in marine animals, especially in Japan, are described. Pathogens in the fungal diseases are divided into two groups. One of them is marine Oomycetes, which cause fungal diseases in marine shellfish and abalones. The diseases caused by the fungi of this group and the fungal characteristics are introduced. The pathogens include members of the genera Lagenidium, Haliphthoros, Halocrusticida, Halioticida, Atkinsiella, and Pythium. On the other hand, some fungal diseases caused by mitosporic fungi are also known in marine fish and shellfish. The diseases caused by these fungi and the fungal characteristics are described. The pathogens include members of the genera Fusarium, Ochroconis, Exophiala, Scytalidium, Plectosporium, and Acremonium. PMID:22222825
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxic amino acid produced by some strains of phytoplankton, is responsible for the human toxic syndrome amnesic shellfish poisoning. This exocitotoxin results in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. Because DA accumulates mostly in shellfish, causing outbreaks in different countries, screening for DA has been carried out with various assays. Although bioassays and immunoassays have been developed, several liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of DA in different matrices such as shellfish, algae, or seawater have been reported. Additionally, other alternative methods such as capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography have been described. This paper summaries the toxicology, the chemistry, and the developed determination methods of DA. PMID:20964434
This is a review of the regional (South America) harmful algae blooms associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) phycotoxin producers. This review provides a survey of the most relevant recorded events known to have been caused by microalgae that are PSP producers in this region. The geographical distribution of harmful species of PSP phycotoxins producers in sea and inland fresh
A database was probed with artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) models to investigate the efficacy of predicting PCR-identified human adenovirus (ADV), Norwalk-like virus (NLV), and enterovirus (EV) presence or absence in shellfish harvested from diverse countries in Europe (Spain, Sweden, Greece, and the United Kingdom). The relative importance of numerical and heuristic input variables to the
Gail Brion; Chandramouli Viswanathan; T. R. Neelakantan; Srinivasa Lingireddy; Rosina Girones; David Lees; Annika Allard; Apostolos Vantarakis
A high-cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, but it is unclear whether all high-cholesterol foods increase the risk of heart disease. The purpose of this study is to determine whether shellfish consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Analysis was performed on the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a
Eric M. Matheson; Arch G. Mainous III; Elizabeth G. Hill; Mark A. Carnemolla
Toxins in shellfish, which are responsible for paralytic poisonings, undergo reductive transformation when incubated with the homogenate of various portions of the scallop, Placopecten magellanicus. The transformation includes the reductive elimination of O-sulfate groups, a change that is most evident in the locomotor tissue homogenates. The commercially important adductor muscles can also inactivate the toxins. PMID:7209548
The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different from the accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.
This map represents the Health Status of beaches in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and beaches to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding beach closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.
Background and Objectives In the present study, isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential against fish and shellfish pathogens were assessed. The Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges namely Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis collected from Vizhinjam port, situated in the South-West coast of India. Materials and Methods The Streptomyces associated with marine sponges were isolated using specific ISP media. The isolates of Streptomyces were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. The strains were cultivated on a lab scale level as shake-flask cultures and the crude extracts of the bioactive compounds obtained with ethyl acetate were screened biologically and chemically. By biological screening, the extracts were analyzed for their activity against fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp, using the disk and agar-well diffusion bioassay method, while by chemical screening the crude culture extracts were analyzed by TLC and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Results Ninety-four isolates were found to be associated with marine sponges, among them only seven strains showed antagonism against fish and shellfish pathogens. Analysis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics suggested that these strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The initial screening of the isolates by spot inoculation method exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. In-vitro screening of the submerge culture extracts showed positive inhibition against the fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp. The screening of bioactive compounds confirmed the production of polyene substances by UV spectrum, which resulted in absorbance peaks ranging from 225 to 245 nm and TLC analysis yielded Rf values ranging from 0.40 to 0.78. Conclusion The results suggest that the seven Streptomyces strains isolated from marine sponges produce potential antibacterial compounds against fish and shellfish pathogens.
Selvakumar, D; Arun, K; Suguna, S; Kumar, D; Dhevendaran, K
A main known culprit causing amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans is domoic acid (DA). The toxin appearance in sea waters (by counting the toxin producing algae) and consequently in shellfish is closely monitored to prevent acute intoxications with gastrointestinal symptoms and neurological signs. However it is assumed that there might be some chronic problems with repetitive exposures to the toxin in animals. In humans this is greatly unknown and it is mostly assessed by relating reported toxin episodes and representative consumption data. Although in Belgium no alarming outbreaks have been reported in recent years, different concentrations of DA have been found in shellfish samples. In this study the human acute and chronic exposure to DA through shellfish consumption was evaluated by linking the data of DA concentrations in samples collected in the scope of the National Food control program in the period 2004-2009 and consumption data obtained from the National Belgian Food Consumption Survey including 3245 adults. The found level of toxin was highest in scallops while lowest in mussels. The mean usual long-term intake of molluscs such as scallops, mussels and oysters for the whole Belgian population was from 0.10 g/day for scallops to 1.21 g/day for mussels. With average portion size estimated to be 56-108 g/day depending on the shellfish source it was calculated that less than 1% of the population would be at risk of acute intoxication. Using a medium bound approach, 5-6% of the population shows chronic exposure exceeding the tolerable daily intake of 0.075 ?g/kg bw per day with scallops being the most probable toxin vector when using lower (68.5%) and medium (45.6%) bound concentrations. PMID:23010255
Andjelkovic, M; Vandevijvere, S; Van Klaveren, J; Van Oyen, H; Van Loco, J
Shellfish restoration is increasingly valued in estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay where oyster populations are known to function as living biofilters, performing critical ecosystem services. Less studied are the services rendered by other suspension-feeding bivalves that reside in fringing marshes around these estuaries, in brackish and freshwater tidal portions, and in freshwater tributaries. The potential benefits contributed by other native bivalves will be discussed with two case studies from the Delaware basin. These are the ribbed mussel (Geukensiademissa ), which is abundant in brackish and marine tidal marshes, and the unionid mussel (Elliptio complanata ), which is abundant in many rivers of the system. Ribbed mussels are abundant enough to filter a large portion of the tidal prism flushing marshes, facilitating the role that these systems play as a sink for suspended solids and nutrients. Similarly, data from the lower Brandywine River suggests that a vestigial community of freshwater unionids remains sufficiently abundant to have a measurable beneficial effect on water quality by removing more than 25 metric tons of suspended particulates per year. Hence, the conservation and propagation of freshwater unionids can yield benefits that extend beyond current interest that is focused on protecting their biodiversity. Future efforts to protect or reclaim water quality and ecosystem integrity may benefit by a basin-wide, holistic approach that promotes integrated "biofiltration services" by native bivalves living from the headwaters to the coastal shelf.
Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea.
Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik
A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.
Introduced pathogens from faecal material can make their way into the aquatic environment from a number of catchment sources. These sources typically include sewage outfalls, seepage from septic tanks, and urban and agricultural runoff. Shellfish as filter feeders are particularly susceptible to contamination in faecally contaminated waters and a range of microbiological indicators have been developed to assess the levels of contamination and likely risks to public health (Hackney and Pierson, 1994). This paper outlines the application of bacterial source tracking (BST) in a shellfish growing area in part of the Port Stephens estuary along the NSW north coast. The approach is based on the premise that bacterial isolates from different faecal sources will have significantly different resistance patterns to the battery of antibiotics and concentrations tested. Faecal streptococci (FS) were isolated from several possible faecal sources: beef and dairy cattle, chickens and humans. The resistance patterns of these isolates to four different concentrations of four antibiotics were compared to those of FS isolates obtained from samples collected upstream and in the vicinity of the oyster leases. Discriminant analysis was performed using the patterns from the known source isolates and the rate of correct classification was determined for each source. The predictive function of discriminant analysis was then used to determine the most probable source of each of the unknown isolates from Tilligerry Creek, the drainage channels to the estuary, and the shellfish leases. Preliminary results are presented here and suggest that there is no single significant source of faecal contamination, rather there are contributions from a range of sources. The findings may have implications for the ways in which land use activities and catchments are managed in similar estuarine locations with a shellfish industry. PMID:12793667
Human fecal wastes contain a large variety of viruses that can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials\\u000a from infected individuals. Despite the high diversity of viruses that are introduced into the environment by human fecal pollution,\\u000a only a few have been recognized to cause disease in association with consumption of contaminated shellfish. To explain bivalve\\u000a mollusks contamination, several
Haifa Maalouf; Monique Pommepuy; Françoise S. Le Guyader
For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.
The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of toxic substances on shellfish. Petroleum products, solvents, sewage, copper, mercury, chromium, dredged materials, and organic chemicals are among the toxic substances studied. Reproductive impairment, molting behavior, and population reduction caused by toxic chemicals are discussed. Shellfish as bioindicators and shellfish tolerance to toxic substances are briefly considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of toxic substances on shellfish. Petroleum products, solvents, sewage, copper, mercury, chromium, dredged materials, and organic chemicals are among the toxic substances studied. Reproductive impairement, molting behavior, and population reduction caused by toxic chemicals are discussed. Shellfish as bioindicators and shellfish tolerance to toxic substances are briefly considered. Shellfish farming and economics are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 108 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)
...conservation and restoration of Puget Sound, has set a priority to reduce...to restore and protect Puget Sound, has set a goal for a net increase...goal, the Northwest Fisheries Science Center is undertaking an economics...shellfish harvesting. The Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish...
Market research undertaken in two European countries during the summer of 1995, enabled a market segmentation approach to benefits sought by shellfish consumers. By randomly stopping people on busy streets in Barcelona, Spain and Hull, UK, interviews were carried out. A cluster analysis was performed on importance ratings for several shellfish selection variables, the clustering method used was K-means. For
Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”,
Eva Cuypers; Angel Yanagihara; Jon D. Rainier; Jan Tytgat
Results of surveys on Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (HCH and DDT) in fish and shellfish from Lake Biwa were summarized from 1987 to 1996. In 1975, fish and shellfish in Lake Biwa were highly contaminated with PCB, HCH and DDT but recently in 1992–1996 the concentrations of these chemicals were very low and nearly constant. In the composition
Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use
A. P. Louppis; P. Katikou; D. Georgantelis; A. V. Badeka; M. G. Kontominas
Several cultured strains of Gymnodiniumcatenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to
Samples of diarrhoeic shellfish poison (DSP) mussels from several parts of the Italian Adriatic coastline were extracted and tested according to a number of different methods presently available, i.e. Yasumoto's mouse biotest, Kat's biotest, the ELISA test and the HPLC method. Results were compared for toxic levels detected in each sample. While a common qualitative result (toxic/non-toxic) was given by all the methods, no clear quantitative agreement was found. The differences between methods and consequent lack of agreement in results are discussed. PMID:8085273
Gucci, P M; Serse, A P; Coccia, A M; Tubaro, A; Della Loggia, R; Gianna, R; Bruno, M; Volterra, L
Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts. Detection of inorganic arsenic can be explained by the conversion of inorganic arsenic to organic arsenic compounds in digestion system in the body may be occurring.
Phycotoxins, secondary phytoplankton metabolites, are considered as an important food safety issue because their accumulation by shellfish may render them unfit for human consumption. However, the likely intakes of phycotoxins via shellfish consumption are almost unknown because both contamination and consumption data are very scarce. Thus, two 1-year surveys were conducted (through the same population: recreational shellfish harvesters and from the same geographical area) to assess: shellfish consumption and contamination by major toxins (domoic acid (DA) group, okadaic acid (OA) group and spirolides (SPXs)). Recreational shellfish harvesters had been targeted as an at-risk subpopulation because they consume more shellfish than general population and because they eat not only commercial shellfish species controlled by official authorities but also their own harvests of shellfish species may be in non-controlled areas and more over shellfish species non-considered in the official control species. Then, these two kinds of data were combined with deterministic and probabilistic approaches for both acute and chronic exposures, on considering the impact of shellfish species and cooking on phycotoxin levels. For acute risk, monitoring programs seem to be adequate for DAs, whereas OAs could be a matter of concern for high consumers (their acute intakes were up to ninefold the acute reference dose (ARfD)). About chronic risk, OAs are a matter of concern. The daily OAs intakes were close to the ARfD, which is, by definition, greater than the tolerable daily intake. Moreover, SPX contamination is low but regular, no (sub)chronic SPX toxicity data exist; but in case of (sub)chronic toxicity, SPX exposure should be considered. PMID:22760440
Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.
Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)
Samples of toxic scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and clam (Saxidomus purpuratus) collected on the northern coast of China from 2008 to 2009 were analysed. High-performance liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection was used to determine the profile of the main paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in these samples and their total toxicity. Hydrophilic interaction liquid ion chromatography with mass spectrometric detection confirmed the toxin profile and detected several metabolites in the shellfish. Results show that C1/2 toxins were the most dominant toxins in the scallop and clam samples. However, GTX1/4 and GTX2/3 were also present. M1 was the predominant metabolite in all the samples, but M3 and M5 were also identified, along with three previously unreported presumed metabolites, M6, M8 and M10. The results indicate that the biotransformation of toxins was species specific. It was concluded that the reductive enzyme in clams is more active than in scallops and that an enzyme in scallops is more apt to catalyse hydrolysis of both the sulfonate moiety at the N-sulfocabamoyl of C toxins and the 11-hydroxysulfate of C and GTX toxins to produce metabolites. This is the first report of new metabolites of PSP toxins in scallops and clams collected in China. PMID:22827221
Li, A; Ma, J; Cao, J; Wang, Q; Yu, R; Thomas, K; Quilliam, M A
This "Two if by Sea" newsletter article highlights proceedings from a workshop in 2000 that focused on shellfish disease, particularly as it relates to the aquaculture industry. Speakers, including pathologists, growers, and industry representatives, delivered a recurring message: shellfish diseases are not only here, they are here to stay. And, most likely, they concur, additional diseases will be discovered in the future. The article discusses the following shellfish diseases: MSX (multinucleated sphere unknown), dermo (short for Dermocystidium marinus, the initial classification of the parasite that causes the disease; the parasite was later found to be of the genus Perkinsus), JOD (juvenile oyster disease), and QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown).
...contamination during growth and harvest (Refs...norovirus-contaminated human fecal material from municipal...including total and fecal coliforms, thereby decreasing...shellfish arising from growth, harvest, and post-harvest...concentration of bacteria/viral...
Information on the impact of dinoflagellate blooms on the shellfish industry exists primarily in the form of government statistics and tables. As such tables generally summarize disastrous situations, included data yield a somewhat distorted picture of th...
... but serve smaller portions. Frequently Asked Questions about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish What is mercury and ... Background information about the advisory 1. What is mercury and methylmercury? Mercury occurs naturally in the environment ...
Bivalve shellfish restoration projects are becoming increasingly common in the United States, spurred by increased public awareness of their important ecological role in coastal waters and increases in funding (primarily federal) available for such effort...
Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.
...species and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or carcass or...regulation promulgated hereunder. (j) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish. ...including, but not limited to, skin, shell, fins, and bones) of...
...species and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or carcass or...regulation promulgated hereunder. (j) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish ...including, but not limited to, skin, shell, fins, and bones) of...
...species and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or carcass or...regulation promulgated hereunder. (j) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish. ...including, but not limited to, skin, shell, fins, and bones) of...
...species and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or carcass or...regulation promulgated hereunder. (j) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish ...including, but not limited to, skin, shell, fins, and bones) of...
Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...
The paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) were, as their name suggests, discovered as a result of human poisoning after\\u000a consumption of contaminated shellfish. More recently, however, the same toxins have been found to be produced by freshwater\\u000a cyanobacteria. These organisms have worldwide distribution and are common in our sources of drinking water, thus presenting\\u000a another route of potential human exposure.
The viruses primarily associated with shellfish-borne illness are norovirus, causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis A virus\\u000a (HAV). Recent years have seen a proliferation of publications on methods for detection of these viruses in shellfish using\\u000a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, currently no standard harmonised procedures have been published. Standardisation\\u000a is necessary before virus methods can be considered for adoption within a
Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC), also called verotoxin-producing E. coli, is a major cause of food-borne illness, capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS). This\\u000a study was carried out to evaluate the presence of (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish and Mediterranean coastal environments of Morocco. The contamination of shellfish and marine environment\\u000a with Shiga toxin-producing E.
The interest of culturing bivalved shellfish (including mussels, clams, oysters etc.), has increased in recent years, but\\u000a the consumption has been hampered both by high levels of heavy metals and toxic algae. The levels of heavy metals (Hg, Cd,\\u000a Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were determined in soft tissues of different shellfish from Zhejiang coastal waters, East China Sea. The
As the official control laboratory for biotoxin testing in England, Wales and Scotland, Cefas employs two approaches for the detection of Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (PSP) in bivalve shellfish: a qualitative HPLC method for oysters, whole king scallops and cockles (with PSP bioassay confirmation of positive HPLC samples) with subsequent quantitation of positive samples by mouse bioassay and a quantitative HPLC method for mussels (no PSP bioassay confirmation required). To aid the validation of the quantitative HPLC method for native oysters, Pacific oysters, cockles and king scallops and ultimately remove the need for the PSP bioassay for these species, appropriate contaminated shellfish matrices were required. As it was not possible to obtain naturally contaminated material for these species, shellfish were contaminated in-house through feeding experiments with high concentrations of Alexandrium species. A number of feeding experiments with two Alexandrium strains were performed successfully. The contaminated shellfish materials generated contained a number of different profiles of PSP toxins. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of these methods for the production of laboratory reference materials in a variety of bivalve shellfish species. Based on this study laboratory reference material production via these methods is now undertaken routinely within Cefas. By running two concurrent feeding trials per year for each species, enough laboratory reference material is produced for approximately 1 year of the programme. This removes the necessity for natural contaminated material which is not always available for reference material production. Additionally, such materials enable both the comparative testing of different PSP methodologies and the ongoing generation of long-term precision data for the HPLC method. PMID:20493202
The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test "pre-harvest" shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer's recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788
Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L; Moore, Leslie K; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L
This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus). Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 ?g g?¹ in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 ?g g?¹), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health. PMID:20938398
Temporal trends in Escherichia coli concentrations in bivalve shellfish were examined using data collected from 57 production areas around the coast of England and Wales during 1999-2008. Downward trends were detected in annual geometric means of E. coli in shellfish from 12% of the sampling points. The percentage of class B areas (E. coli ? 4600/100 g shellfish in 90% of samples) increased from 69% to 86% during the 10-year period. The improvement in the microbial quality of shellfish is associated with sewerage improvement schemes largely implemented during 2000-2005. Upward trends were detected in 9% of the points. The causes of these increases are not known. It is recommended that quantitative sanitary profiling of shellfish waters and cost-benefit appraisal over long-term planning horizons are considered as part of sewerage investment programmes under the Water Framework Directive. This would allow greater scope to secure protection and improvement of shellfish water quality. PMID:23260652
Campos, Carlos J A; Acornley, Richard; Morgan, Owen C; Kershaw, Simon
Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish from French coastal environments. Methods and Results: Shellfish were collected in six growing areas or natural beds (B-category) and non-farming areas (D-category) from July 2002 to August 2004. PCR-detection of stx genes was performed on homogenized whole shellfish
M. Gourmelon; M. P. Montet; S. Lozach; C. Le Mennec; M. Pommepuy; L. Beutin; C. Vernozy-Rozand
Forty-eight composite samples of the most commonly consumed fish and shellfish species were prepared from up to 60 individual subsamples of each species and analysed for chlorinated dioxins (PCDD\\/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These included 24 species of fresh wild fish, seven of farmed fish, seven of fresh shellfish, and ten processed fish and shellfish products. The ISO 17025-accredited analytical
A. R. Fernandes; D. N. Mortimer; M. Rose; T. G. Knowles; S. White; M. Gem
Oil spills in Alaska, California, Maine, and other states have raised concerns regarding potential contamination of fish and shellfish, and have led to temporary closures of seafood harvests while health risks are assessed. Lacking standardized protocols, these assessments are generally ad hoc, site-specific efforts, with significant differences in risk evaluation criteria. This article describes the response of a state health agency to shellfish contamination following an oil spill on the Oregon coast, and discusses some of the factors that can complicate the evaluation of potential health risks from consumption of oil-contaminated shellfish. On 4 February 1999, the Japanese-owned cargo ship M/V New Carissa, carrying an estimated 400,000 gallons of light diesel and heavy fuel oil, ran aground 2 miles north of Coos Bay, Oregon. Damage to the ship's hull from the grounding and pounding surf caused the release of an estimated 25,000 to 70,000 gallons of oil. Concern for potential contamination of local recreational shellfish and commercial oyster beds prompted the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) to close shellfish harvesting in Coos and Douglas counties. ODA requested assistance from the Oregon Health Division in the derivation of risk-based criteria for reopening the shellfish harvest. Criteria were developed for the primary contaminants of concern, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) expressed as total benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) equivalents. "Safe" (<10 microg/kg) and "unsafe" (>45 microg/kg) BaP equivalent levels were derived based on upper end (32.5 g/d) and average (7.5 g/d) estimates of shellfish consumption, respectively. Composite samples of oysters, clams, and mussels (15-20 per composite) were collected from target areas and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Carcinogenic PAHs were converted to total BaP equivalents (wet weight) and compared with criteria. Two oyster samples, collected from a slough off of Coos Bay, contained 33.9 and 34.5 microg/kg BaP equivalents; all other samples had less than 10 microg/kg BaP equivalents. An evaluation of the PAH profiles in the two higher oyster samples indicated a primary source other than the New Carissa oil. Because shellfish sample BaP equivalents attributable to the New Carissa oil spill did not exceed 10 microg/kg, shellfish harvesting was reopened on 4 March 1999. This study revealed some of the inherent difficulties in attempting to quantify health risks from contaminated shellfish following an oil spill and demonstrated the clear need for standardized protocols for responding to such events. PMID:10912585
Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985-2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for designing efficient and effective shellfish monitoring programs along the GoM coast. PMID:23391892
Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present. PMID:23354180
Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L
Common blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus), and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) obtained from various harvesting and commercial production sites along the Norwegian coast were screened for the presence of norovirus by a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR assay and for possible indicators of fecal contamination, i.e., for F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages) by plaque assay and for human adenoviruses and human circoviruses by nested PCR assay. The aims were to obtain relevant information for assessing the risk of transmission of enteric viruses by shellfish and to investigate the potential of various indicator viruses in routine screening. Noroviruses were detected in 6.8% of the samples, and the indicators were detected in 23.8% (F-RNA phages), 18.6% (adenoviruses), and 8.0% (circoviruses) of the samples. A seasonal variation was observed, with the exception of circoviruses, with more positive samples in the winter. A positive correlation was found between F-RNA phages and noroviruses. However, F-RNA phages were present in only 43% of the norovirus-positive samples. The results show that mussels from the Norwegian coast can constitute a risk of infection with enteric viruses and that routine testing of samples may be justified. Advantages and disadvantages of various options for screening are discussed. PMID:15128518
Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada's first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211
We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to analyze brevetoxins, using goat anti-brevetoxin antibodies obtained after immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-brevetoxin conjugates, in combination with a three-step signal amplification process. The procedure, which used secondary biotinylated antibodies, streptavidine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and chromogenic enzyme substrate, was useful in reducing nonspecific background signals commonly observed with complex matrices. This competitive ELISA detected brevetoxins in seawater, shellfish extract and homogenate, and mammalian body fluid such as urine and serum without pretreatment, dilution, or purification. We investigated the application of this technique for shellfish monitoring by spiking shellfish meat with brevetoxins and by analyzing oysters from two commercial shellfish beds in Florida that were exposed to a bloom of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve). We performed brevetoxin analysis of shellfish extracts and homogenates by ELISA and compared it with the mouse bioassay and receptor binding assay. The detection limit for brevetoxins in spiked oysters was 2.5 microg/100 g shellfish meat. This assay appears to be a useful tool for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning monitoring in shellfish and seawater, and for mammalian exposure diagnostics, and significantly reduces the time required for analyses.
Naar, Jerome; Bourdelais, Andrea; Tomas, Carmelo; Kubanek, Julia; Whitney, Philip L; Flewelling, Leanne; Steidinger, Karen; Lancaster, Johnny; Baden, Daniel G
Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 µg AZA\\/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human
Michael J. Twiner; Nils Rehmann; Philipp Hess; Gregory J. Doucette
Between March 7 and April 12, 2008, several bay systems on the east (Gulf of Mexico) coast of Texas, USA were closed to the harvesting of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) due to the presence of the DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) toxin okadaic acid in excess of the 20 microg/100 g tissue FDA regulatory guidance level. This was the first shellfish harvesting closure due to the confirmed presence of DSP toxins in US history. Light microscopic cell counts were performed on water samples collected from numerous sampling sites along the Texas Gulf coast where shellfish harvesting occurs. Ultra performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, selected reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI/SRM/MS) was used to detect DSP toxins in oysters. The closures were associated with an extensive bloom of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis cf. ovum. Only okadaic acid (OA) and OA acyl esters were found in shellfish tissues (max. OA eq. levels 47 microg/100 g tissue). OA was also confirmed in a bloom water sample. No illnesses were reported associated with this event. DSP toxins now add to a growing list of phycotoxins, which include those responsible for PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning), NSP (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning), and ASP (amnesic shellfish poisoning) which must now be monitored for in US coastal waters where shellfish are harvested. PMID:20060850
Deeds, Jonathan R; Wiles, Kirk; Heideman, Gary B; White, Kevin D; Abraham, Ann
Systematic collection of shellfish has been increasingly recognized as an important component of human adaptation to aquatic environments and as part of the archaeological evidence found in association with the appearance of early Homo sapiens. Over the last forty years, South Africa has played a prominent role in recording the earliest evidence of shellfish in and substantial expansion of the
We assessed the capacity of real-time PCR markers to identify the origin of contamination in shellfish. Oyster, cockles or clams were either contaminated with fecal materials and host-associated markers designed from Bacteroidales or Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S RNA genes were extracted from their intravalvular liquid, digestive tissues or shellfish flesh. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the oyster intravalvular liquid with FastDNA spin kit for soil enabled the selected markers to be quantified in 100% of artificially contaminated samples, and the source of contamination to be identified in 13 out of 38 naturally contaminated batches from European Class B and Class C areas. However, this protocol did not enable the origin of the contamination to be identified in cockle or clam samples. Although results are promising for extracts from intravalvular liquid in oyster, it is unlikely that a single protocol could be the best across all bacterial markers and types of shellfish. PMID:23398745
Mauffret, A; Mieszkin, S; Morizur, M; Alfiansah, Y; Lozach, S; Gourmelon, M
The phospholipid molecular species of freshwater (pangasius, Nile perch, trout), marine fish fillets (horse mackerel, European hake, common sole, European anchovy, European pilchard, Atlantic mackerel) and the edible muscle foot of bivalves (clam, mussel, oyster) commonly available in the Italian market during spring and summer were characterized by means of normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled online with positive electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. From principal component analysis (PCA), it was observed that the total fatty acid profile was not suitable to differentiate among the shellfish genera. The fatty acid molecular combinations of phosphatidylcholine, the main phospholipid class, as well as phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine allowed for the differentiation of shellfish from the bony fishes. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen profile allowed for the discrimination of each bony fish or shellfish genus since PS and pPE classes included a large number of fatty acid combinations that were specific for a fish genus or group. PMID:22369175
Boselli, Emanuele; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Frega, Natale G
An inter-laboratory comparison of the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish was carried out among 25 Chinese laboratories to examine the overall performance for PSP testing in China, and to analyze the main factors affecting the performance of this method. The toxic scallop Patinopecten yessoensis collected from coast of Bohai Sea, China, was used as a test sample in the comparison study. The results were reported and evaluated using robust statistical methods. The z scores showed that 80%, 8%, and 12% of laboratories reported satisfactory results, unsatisfactory results, and questionable results, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that the PSP mouse bioassay is an appropriate method for screening and testing PSP toxicity in shellfish. However, it was found that the experience and skill of technicians, as well as the body weight and health status of mice being used significantly affected the accuracy of the method.
This report examines the classification of shellfish growing waters in the Gulf of Mexico as an indicator of bacterial water quality. Information presented includes the status of classified waters, sources of pollution affecting waters that are not classified as approved, and trends in classification between 1971 and 1985. Data were collected by site visits to the five Gulf states, interviews with state personnel, and reference to written materials. Data are used to assess the effectiveness of national efforts to improve bacterial water quality in the past fifteen years since passage of the Clean Water Act. The hypothesis to be tested is that these efforts have not succeeded in reducing fecal coliform concentrations to levels required for approved harvest of shellfish, as established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by mixtures of saxitoxin analogs of which more than eighteen are known. Reliable and sensitive analytical methods and assays for these toxins are essential to protect the consumer and the shellfish industry, but research has been restricted by a shortage of the pure compounds. Only saxitoxin has so far been generally available as a PSP toxin standard, yet sulfated analogs usually occur in higher concentrations than saxitoxin in toxic marine algae and shellfish. Methods are described for the purification of some of the common PSP toxins, in quantities sufficient for the preparation of PSP standards from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium excavatum, the giant sea scallop (Placopecten megallanicus) hepatopancreas, and the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Purity was monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), ionspray mass spectrometry (ISP-MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and proton NMR spectroscopy. PMID:7952941
New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. PMID:22136625
The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 ?g okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013
Trainer, Vera L; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D; Adams, Nicolaus G; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A M; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L
Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important enteric protozoan pathogens for humans and animals, and have been found to contaminate water as well as edible shellfish all over the world. This is the first study to simultaneously investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in inflowing water and harvested shellfish in a geographically closed environment (Varano Lagoon, Southern Italy). Samples of treated wastewater were collected each month - at the outlet from the treatment plant, and downstream at the inlet into the lagoon - from the channels flowing into the Lagoon, together with specimens of Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis from shellfish-farms on the same lagoon. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy in 16 out of 21 samples of treated wastewater and in 7 out of 21 samples from downstream water channels, and viable cysts were also detected by a beta-giardin RT-PCR. G. duodenalis Assemblages A and B were identified by small ribosomal subunit (18S-rDNA) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found by IF in 5 out of 21 wastewater samples, and in 8 out of 21 samples from water channels. Molecular analysis identified the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum by oocyst wall protein (COWP)-PCR and sequencing. Higher concentrations of Giardia cysts than Cryptosporidium oocysts were registered in almost all wastewater and water samples. IF and molecular testing of shellfish gave negative results for both protozoa. Wastewaters carrying Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts are discharged into the Lagoon; however, the shellfish harvested in the same environment were found to be unaffected, thus suggesting that physical, ecological and climatic conditions may prevent contamination of harvested shellfish. PMID:18760378
Giangaspero, Annunziata; Cirillo, Roberta; Lacasella, Vita; Lonigro, Antonio; Marangi, Marianna; Cavallo, Pasqua; Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David; Brandonisio, Olga
In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks.
Objective is to investigate the feasibility of employing food irradiation technology to reduce or eliminate the threat of viral diseases contracted as a result of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish. Several recently published studies warn of the health risks associated with eating of raw shellfish - particularly American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and the hardshelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. This study addresses the possibility of reducing the incidence of molluscanborne diseases through the application of /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation processing to effect the inactivation of pathogenic viruses in live, raw shwllfish. Dosimetry, D/sub 10/ doses, and organoleptic effects were studied.
The aims of this study are to determine prevalence and co-occurrence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among shellfish gatherers\\u000a and its consequences for the use of medicine, health care, and sickness leave and to investigate predictive factors (sociodemographic,\\u000a lifestyle, comorbidity) of MSP in five anatomical areas (neck\\/shoulder\\/higher back, lower back, elbow\\/wrist\\/hand, hip\\/knee,\\u000a and leg\\/ankle\\/foot). Nine hundred twenty-nine shellfish gatherers (94% women)
Beatriz Rodríguez-Romero; Salvador Pita-Fernández; Isabel Raposo-Vidal; Teresa Seoane-Pillado
Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions.
Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan
The Fishery Biology Program of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center provides this resource to assist with age determination of fish and shellfish species from the Northwest Atlantic. Released in its current form in 1997, this resource represents the fruit of many years of accumulated expertise. Techniques for aging sixteen species of fish or shellfish are given here, based on growth marks in scales, otoliths, and shells. From Atlantic Butterfish through Yellowtail Flounder, these detailed descriptions and black-and-white images should be of valuable assistance to researchers.
Dery, L. M.; Penttila, J.; Sheehan, T. F.; Almeida, F. P.
Six years of oceanographic surveys of Alexandrium fundyense concentrations in the Gulf of Maine are combined with shellfish toxicity records from coastal monitoring stations to assess covariations of these quantities on seasonal to interannual time scales. Annual mean gulf-wide cell abundance varies by less than one order of magnitude during the time interval examined (1993-2002). Fluctuations in gulf-wide annual mean cell abundance and shellfish toxicity are not related in a consistent manner. This suggests that interannual variations in toxicity may be regulated by transport and delivery of offshore cell populations, rather than the absolute abundance of the source populations themselves.
McGillicuddy, D. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Solow, A. R.; Townsend, D. W.
A single-laboratory validation is reported for an LC/MS/MS quantification of six brevetoxins in four matrixes (Greenshell mussel, eastern oyster, hard clam, and Pacific oyster). Recovery and precision data were collected from seven analytical batches using shellfish flesh at 0.05 mg/kg. Method recoveries and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 73 to 112%, with an RSD between 14 and 18% for brevetoxin-3, brevetoxin B5, brevetoxin B2, and S-desoxy brevetoxin B2. The recovery and within-laboratory reproducibility for brevetoxin-2 was 61%, with an RSD of 27%. Brevetoxin B1 gave an RSD of 12%, but no reference material was available and this toxin was only recorded in a hard clam sample naturally contaminated with brevetoxins. One naturally contaminated sample of each shellfish matrix, with brevetoxin levels ranging from 0.012 to 9.9 mg/kg, was tested in multiple batches, and the RSDs were similar to those for fortified samples at 0.05 mg/kg. Comparisons with limited data for the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning mouse bioassay for four naturally contaminated shellfish samples showed that the regulatory action limit of 0.8 mg/kg is conservative with respect to the bioassay regulatory limit of 20 mouse units/100 g. PMID:22970578
McNabb, Paul S; Selwood, Andrew I; Van Ginkel, Roel; Boundy, Michael; Holland, Patrick T
The French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins monitoring network (REPHY) recently found positive or dubious negative shellfish samples using lipophilic toxins mouse bioassay. These samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) to detect the following toxins: okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), azaspiracids (AZAs), yessotoxins (YTXs), spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). Over the 2006-2007 period, chemical analyses revealed various lipophilic toxin profiles according to shellfish sampling locations. In addition to OA and/or PTX-2 and their derivatives, several other compounds were found for the first time in France: (1) during the summer of 2006, AZA-1 and AZA-2 in Queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) from Northern Brittany; (2) during the summer of 2007, YTX and its major metabolites (45-hydroxy-YTX, homo-YTX, carboxy-YTX) in shellfish from the Mediterranean coast. Regarding YTX-group, the toxin profiles evolution in mussels during summer showed that: (i) the carboxy-YTX depuration rate was much slower than the YTX and 45-hydroxy-YTX ones; (ii) the homo-YTX concentration, which was initially very weak, increased significantly during the last depuration phase, which seems to reveal a YTX-group high metabolisation level in mussels. This paper reports for the first time on AZA and YTX-groups detection in French shellfish. PMID:18573273
Over the past few decades, phycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by toxic phytoplankton, have seen an increase in their frequency, concentrations, and geographic distribution. As shellfish accumulate phycotoxins making them unfit for human consumption, they are considered as an important food safety issue. Thus, a consumer exposure assessment on phycotoxins is necessary. Exposure assessment requires two types of information: contamination and
C. Picot; T. A. Nguyen; A. C. Roudot; D. Parent-Massin
There is an urgent need for an alternative to the mouse bioassay for the detection of algal toxins in shellfish on both analytical and animal welfare grounds. Several alternative methodologies have been described, but have not gained widespread acceptance to date, because each assay measures only one or a small number of related phycotoxins out of the increasing range that
A. F. Flanagan; K. R. Callanan; J. Donlon; R. Palmer; A. Forde; M. Kane
BACKGROUND: Recommendations about risks and benefits of seafood intake during pregnancy have been published in the last decade, but the specific health effects of the different categories of seafood remain unknown. Fish and shellfish may differ according to their fatty acid content and their concentration of chemical pollutants and toxins. Not taking these particularities into account may result in underestimating
This is a critical review of the global distribution, sources of variation in toxicity, anatomical partitioning, metabolism, and detoxification kinetics of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins (carbamate, TV-sulfocarbamoyl, and decarbamoyl saxitoxin derivatives) in bivalve molluscs. Marked interspecific differences in toxin accumulation are related to differences in toxin sensitivity, determined from neurological, physiological, and behavioral responses. Toxicity also varies considerably with
This paper deals with the correlation between the partition coefficient and the concentration factor of alkyl benzenes in crude oil for gold fish and also the correlation between the partition coefficients and concentration factor of alkyl dibenzothiophene for shellfish reared in oil suspension and that caught in the sea.
Masana Ogata; Kuniyasu Fujisawa; Yasuo Ogino; Emiko Mano
The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in\\/on
A fluorescent zebrafish was the first genetically engineered animal to be marketed, and biotechnologists are developing many transgenic fish and shellfish. Biosafety science is not sufficiently advanced to be able to draw scientifically reliable and broadly trusted conclusions about the environmental effects of these animals. The science is best developed for identifying hazards posed by environmental spread of a transgenic fish or shellfish and least developed for assessing potential ecological harms of spread. Environmental spread of certain transgenic fish or shellfish could be an indirect route of entry into the human food supply. The management of predicted environmental risks is in its infancy and has thus far focused on the first step of the risk management process, i.e. risk reduction, via a few confinement methods. There is a critical need to improve scientific methods of environmental safety assessment and management and to gather empirical data needed to substantiate biosafety conclusions and to effectively manage transgenic fish and shellfish. Scientists and potentially affected parties should participate in prioritising the knowledge gaps to be addressed. PMID:16110898
Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors around the world. Among various kinds of cultivated organisms many marine and freshwater finfish and shellfish species constitute an important industry with their production increasing every year. Recently due to intensive farming practices infectious diseases pose a major problem in aquaculture industry, causing heavy loss to farmers. A number of approaches
In this study, we isolated and characterized Shewanella putrefaciens from shellfish harvested from the West Sea in Korea. For the initial isolation of S. putrefaciens, LB agar plates supplemented with ferrous sulfate and sodium thiosulfate were inoculated with shellfish homogenates, incubated for 24h, and then black colonies were selected. Gram-negative and catalase-positive colonies were subsequently confirmed by PCR assays and API 20E kit test system. The Shewanella-specific 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were used to design S. putrefaciens-specific PCR primers. From 6 species of shellfish tested, 24 S. putrefaciens strains were isolated. These 24 isolates had the following profiles of resistance against 16 antibiotics: all the isolates were resistant to cephalothin and vancomycin and 95.8% were resistant to ampicillin. Here, we report the isolation of S. putrefaciens from shellfish and our results point to a new possible route for exposing healthy individuals to S. putrefaciens. PMID:24125128
Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSPT) produced by certain harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Along the West coast of North America, Mytilus californianus (California sea mussel) has long been used as the primary indicator species for monitoring levels of PSPT in the environment. However, because the natural distribution of this species is limited to
Summary A fluorescent zebrafish was the first genetically engineered animal to be marketed, and biotechnologists are developing many transgenic fish and shellfish. Biosafety science is not sufficiently advanced to be able to draw scientifically reliable and broadly trusted conclusions about the environmental effects of these animals. The science is best developed for identifying hazards posed by environmental spread of a
Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prev- alent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville
W. W. CARMICHAEL; W. R. EVANS; Q. Q. YIN; P. BELL; E. MOCZYDLOWSKI
Hollowed, A. B., Bond, N. A., Wilderbuer, T. K., Stockhausen, W. T., A'mar, Z. T., Beamish, R. J., Overland, J. E., and Schirripa, M. J. 2009. A framework for modelling fish and shellfish responses to future climate change. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 000-000. A framework is outlined for a unified approach to forecasting the implications of climate
Anne Babcock Hollowed; Nicholas A. Bond; Thomas K. Wilderbuer; William T. Stockhausen; Z. T. A'mar; Richard J. Beamish; James E. Overland; Michael J. Schirripa
Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) represents a significant public health problem due to its high persistence in the environment and its transmission through contaminated water and food. Bivalve shellfish are filter feeders that can bioaccumulate human pathogens found in contaminated waters, their consumption being a potential cause of hepatitis A outbreaks. In this work, cultured and wild bivalve shellfish from the Ría de Vigo (Galicia, NW Spain) were analysed for the presence and genotyping of HAV. A total of 160 shellfish samples were collected between March 2004 and December 2006, including 68 samples from cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), 30 from wild clams (Rupitapes decussatus), 31 from wild cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and 31 from wild mussel. HAV detection, carried out by quantitative RT-PCR, was positive for 29 (42.6%) cultured and 40 (43.5%) wild samples, with levels ranging from 3.1 x 10(2) and 1.4 x 10(10) RNA copies/g of shellfish digestive tissue. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1-P2A and VP3-VP1 regions, separately or as concatenated sequences, revealed that all HAV strains analysed belong to subgenotype IB. These results indicate a high prevalence of this subgenotype in the area studied. PMID:20057087
This is the first report on the screening of shellfish from Portugal for the presence of human enteropathogenic viruses. Approximately 2000 shellfish (Curbicula fluminea, Ruditapes decussatus, Tellina crassa, Spisula solida, Dosinia exoleta, Ensis spp., Mytilus spp., Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule), organized in 49 batches, were collected between March 2008 and February 2009. They were tested for norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Bacterial contamination was also evaluated by Escherichia coli counts. Viral contamination was detected throughout the year in all shellfish species and in all collection areas, independently of their harvesting areas classification. Overall, 67% of all analyzed batches were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses while the simultaneous presence of two and three viruses was detected in 22% and 6% batches, respectively. Of the three viruses, NoV was detected in 37% of the batches, followed by EV in 35%, and HAV in 33%. Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV and HAV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.4 and HAV subgenotype 1B. The presence of NoV and HAV in shellfish from "A class" harvesting areas of Portugal can represent a potential health risk. PMID:21569936
Mesquita, João R; Vaz, Lisa; Cerqueira, Sónia; Castilho, Fernanda; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sílvia; Manso, Carmen F; Romalde, Jesus L; Nascimento, Maria São José
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method of detecting noroviruses in artificially and naturally contaminated shellfish. We used 58 fecal samples that tested positive for noroviruses with electron microscopy (EM) to develop an NASBA assay for these viruses. Oligonucleotide primers targeting the polymerase coding region were used to amplify
Xiaoxia Kou; Qingping Wu; Jumei Zhang; Hongying Fan
Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the
J. KEITH JACKSON; RENDI L. MURPHREE; MARK L. TAMPLIN
In order to investigate the toxicity of Ostreopsis species present in Greek coastal waters, cultures of Ostreopsis sp. and Ostreopsis ovata, mixed Ostreopsis field populations and shellfish collected from coastal waters of North Aegean Sea during late summer and autumn periods of 2004, 2005 and 2006 were examined by both mouse bioassay (MBA) and hemolysis neutralization assay (HNA). MBA testing was based on two different extraction protocols, while HNA also included the use of ouabain, a known palytoxin (PLT) antagonist. Results indicated the presence of a compound in both Ostreopsis cells and shellfish tissues, which was strongly toxic to mice. This compound exhibited characteristic symptomatology in mice (death, numbness, waddling gait and blindness) to that of PLT, as well as delayed hemolytic activity, which was neutralized by ouabain. HNA indicated that Ostreopsis cells contained a PLT-like compound (putative PLT, p-PLT) at concentrations ranging between 0.4 and 0.9 pg/cell, whereas concentration in shellfish tissues was estimated to range from about 33.3 to 97.0 microg p-PLT/kg tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of p-PLT contamination of shellfish by natural Ostreopsis species populations in European coastal waters and possibly globally, and also the first evidence on Ostreopsis cells' toxicity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. PMID:18067938
Aligizaki, Katerina; Katikou, Panagiota; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Panou, Alexandra
Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico provide rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those that have been identified as economically and ecologically important. For the Mobile Bay estuary, we developed statistical models to relate distributions of individual species and sp...
Laboratory grazing experiments compared ingestion of two subclones of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium lusitanicum by gastropod veliger larvae (Nassarius sp.). While the two prey subclones originated from the same monoclonal isolate of A. lusitanicum, one possessed the ability to produce paralytic-shellfish-poisoning toxins (PSTs), while the other did not. Ingestion rates on the two Alexandrium subclones were not significantly different over a
Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted the benefits of post-production treatment to prolong the stability of the materials. Work is ongoing to assess the full characteristics of candidate reference materials prepared with these approaches with the aim of producing a homogenous and stable PSP reference material in Pacific oysters. PMID:22921579
Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A
Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr in 240 shellfish including oyster, short-necked clam, razor clam, and mud clam collected from six administrative regions in Xiamen of China were measured. The daily intakes of heavy metals through the consumption of shellfish were estimated based on both of the metal concentrations in shellfish and the consuming amounts of shellfish. In addition, the target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals in shellfish on human body. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in shellfish ranged at the following sequence: Cr > Cd > Pb > Hg. The concentrations of Hg and Pb in most samples were below the limits (0.3 mg kg(-1) for Hg and 0.5 mg kg(-1) for Pb) of national standard (GB 18406.4-2001) set in China. About 57 % of samples were found to contain more than 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Cd, in which the highest level was found in oyster from Xiangan with a value of 1.21 mg kg(-1). The average concentrations of Cd in oyster and mud clam samples were 0.338 and 0.369 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the samples of short-necked clam and razor clam. The highest concentration of Cr was found to present in short-necked clam from Jimei with a value of 10.4 mg kg(-1), but a mean value of 1.95 mg kg(-1) in all the shellfish was observed, and no significant difference was found among the different sampling regions. The calculated daily intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr through consuming the shellfish were 0.005, 0.122, 0.137, and 1.20 ?g kg(-1) day(-1), respectively, which accounted for 2.19, 3.42, 13.7, and 40.1 % of the corresponding tolerable limits suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The THQ values of the four metals were far below 1 for most samples, except for those of Cd and Cr in the four shellfish species with the mean values of 0.132 and 0.385, respectively. The highest THQ values of Cd were observed in the species of oyster (0.719) and mud clam (0.568). But the high THQ values of Cr observed in all the four species were derived from the applied reference dose (RfD) data of Cr(VI) due to the unavailable RfD value of total Cr. The results indicate that the intakes of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen of China do not present an appreciable hazard risk on human health, but attention should be paid to consuming those with relatively high THQ values, such as oyster, mud clam, and short-necked clam. PMID:23054773
Waste shellfish shell stacking with a significant odor and toxicity which are hazardous to human constitutes a serious environmental hazard. For utilization of waste shellfish shell resource, granule of shellfish shell (SS) was prepared from waste shellfish shell by removing cuticle, crushing, grinding and shearing emulsification and was introduced as a filler to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The mechanical behavior of PP/SS composite shows a higher yield strain, yield strength, tensile strength and elongation at break than traditional commercial calcium carbonate (CC) filled PP. Yield strength of PP/SS composite with 2% SS is improved by 11.1% due to the formation of ?-crystalline PP phase. Using waste SS for producing bio-filler for filling PP is an effective and prospective measure to deal with waste SS, which is valuable for industrial production and practical application as fillers for reinforcing polymers. PMID:22476096
More than 500 fish and shellfish samples collected from native Alaskan fishing grounds were analyzed for aromatic contaminants (ACs) from petroleum (alkylated and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons with 2-7 benzenoid rings and dibenzothiophenes). Interti...
U. Varanasi S. L. Chan W. D. MacLeod J. E. Stein D. W. Brown
The Mobile Bay estuary provides rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those identified as economically and ecologically important. The National Estuary Program has focused on restoration of degraded estuarine habitat on which these species depend. To support this ...
In the context of the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins Monitoring Network (REPHY) programme, shellfish samples were harvested from different locations where harmful algae blooms were known to have occurred. For all shellfish samples found positive by the mouse bioassay for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was used to search for the following lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), azaspiracids (AZAs), yessotoxins (YTXs), spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). In order to investigate the presence of acyl-OAs and/or acyl-DTX-1,-2 (DTX-3), alkaline hydrolysis was performed on all samples, and LC/MS analyses were carried out on the samples before and after hydrolysis. The results revealed different lipophilic toxin profiles as a function of the shellfish sampling location. The primary finding was that all of the samples contained OA and acyl-OA. In addition, other lipophilic toxins were found in shellfish samples: DTX-2, acyl-DTX-2 and SPXs (SPX-A, SPX-desMeC) on the Atlantic coast (Southern Brittany, Arcachon), and pectenotoxins (PTX-2, PTX-2-seco-acid and 7-epi-PTX-2-seco-acid) on the Mediterranean coast (Thau lagoon, the island of Corsica). This paper reports on the first detection of PTX-2, SPX-A and their derivatives in French shellfish. PMID:18463732
Amzil, Zouher; Sibat, Manoella; Royer, Florence; Masson, Nadine; Abadie, Eric
Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds. PMID:21347365
Mihali, Troco K; Carmichael, Wayne W; Neilan, Brett A
Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.
Mihali, Troco K.; Carmichael, Wayne W.; Neilan, Brett A.
Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the disease is caused by single or multiple strains found in molluscan shellfish, is unknown. In this work, we studied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of V. vulnificus strains isolated from blood and oysters associated with V. vulnificus disease. Results showed that ca. 10(3) V. vulnificus bacteria/gram of oyster and higher concentrations were associated with human infections and that a single V. vulnificus strain, evidenced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, was isolated from human tissues.
The azaspiracid (AZA) class of phycotoxins has been responsible for extended closures of shellfisheries in various locations around Europe, where levels of AZA1-3 are regulated in shellfish. Since their discovery in 1995, AZAs have been the focus of much research, resulting in the discovery of numerous analogues. During studies of procedures for processing of AZA-contaminated mussels ( Mytilus edulis ), an unusual phenomenon was observed involving AZA3. In uncooked tissues, AZA3 levels would increase significantly when heated for short periods of time in the absence of water loss. A similar increase in AZA3 concentrations occurred during storage of shellfish tissue reference materials for several months at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C. Concentrations of AZA1 and AZA2 did not change during these experiments. Several possible explanations were investigated, including an AZA3-specific matrix effect upon heating of tissues, release of AZA3 from the matrix, and formation of AZA3 from a precursor. Preliminary experiments indicated that toxin conversion was responsible, and more detailed studies focused on this possibility. LC-MS analysis of heating trials, deuterium labeling experiments, and kinetic studies demonstrated that a carboxylated AZA analogue, AZA17, undergoes rapid decarboxylation when heated to produce AZA3. Heat-induced decarboxylation of AZA19, AZA21, and AZA23 to form AZA6, AZA4, and AZA9, respectively, was also demonstrated. This finding is of great significance in terms of procedures used in the processing of shellfish for regulatory analysis, and it exemplifies the role that chemical analysis can play in understanding the contribution of metabolic processes to the toxin profiles observed in shellfish samples. PMID:19055365
McCarron, Pearse; Kilcoyne, Jane; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp
Compared to the well-characterized health threats associated with contamination of fish and shellfish by algal toxins in marine fisheries, the toxicological relevance of the bioaccumulation of toxins from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), as the primary toxigenic algae in freshwater systems, remains relatively unknown. Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico) is a small, tropical lake system specifically characterized by a year-round dominance of the
J. P. Berry; A. Jaja-Chimedza; L. Dávalos-Lind; O. Lind
The re-emergence of Gymnodinum catenatum blooms after a 10 year hiatus of absence initiated the present investigation. This study aims to evaluate the exposure of\\u000a small pelagic fishes to paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) during blooms of G. catenatum. Sardines (Sardina pilchardus) were selected as a representative fish species. In order to assess toxin availability to fish, both intracellular PSTs (toxin\\u000a retained
Pedro Reis Costa; Maria João Botelho; Kathi A. Lefebvre
Marine toxins generated by harmful algal blooms can be transferred through the marine food web and ultimately cause massive\\u000a deaths of piscivorous predators. However, very few studies have explored the processes of accumulation and biotransformation\\u000a of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) within fishes. White seabream (Diplodus sargus) were orally challenged with contaminated cockles (Cerastoderma edule) containing N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins and
Pedro Reis Costa; Sandra Lage; Marisa Barata; Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
Saxidomus giganteus (butter clams), are known to sequester diet-derived paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), highly potent neurotoxins, in their siphons. Captive staghorn sculpins (Leptocotus armatus), a marine fish species known to crop bivalve siphons, developed a significant aversion to siphons from toxic but not non-toxicS. giganteus following a single conditioning feeding of toxic siphon tissues. Control fish showed no aversive response
Compared to the well-characterized health threats associated with contamination of fish and shellfish by algal toxins in marine fisheries, the toxicological relevance of the bioaccumulation of toxins from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), as the primary toxigenic algae in freshwater systems, remains relatively unknown. Lake Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico) is a small, tropical lake system specifically characterized by a year-round dominance of the
J. P. Berry; A. Jaja-Chimedza; L. Dávalos-Lind; O. Lind
Due to the possibility that bacteria could be involved in the clearance of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) from bivalve molluscs, investigations into which, if any, bacteria were able to grow at the expense of PST focused on several common shellfish species. These species were blue mussels, oysters, razor fish, cockles, and queen and king scallops. Bacteria associated with these shellfish were isolated on marine agar 2216 and characterized by their carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG). Selected isolates from groups demonstrating 90% similarity were screened for their ability to metabolize a range of PST (gonyautoxins 1 and 4 [GTX 1/4], GTX 2/3, GTX 5, saxitoxin, and neosaxitoxin) using a novel screening method and confirming its results by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results suggest that molluscan bacteria have different capacities to utilize and transform PST analogues. For example, isolates M12 and R65 were able to reductively transform GTX 1/4 with concomitant production of GTX 2/3, while isolate Q5 apparently degraded GTX 1/4 without the appearance of other GTXs. Other observed possible mechanisms of PST transformations include decarbamoylation by isolate M12 and sulfation of GTXs by isolates Q5, R65, M12, and C3. These findings raise questions as to the possible role of bacteria resident in the shellfish food transport system. Some researchers have suggested that the microflora play a role in supplying nutritional requirements of the host. This study demonstrates that bacteria may also be involved in PST transformation and elimination in molluscan species.
Smith, Elizabeth A.; Grant, Faye; Ferguson, Carolyn M. J.; Gallacher, Susan
Laser ablation inductive coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to analyse minor and trace elements in the hard parts of a shellfish, representing the environmental changes. A large, long-lived bivalve such as Arctica islandica can produce historical records of trace element fluctuations in seawater. Analytical traverses using LA-ICP-MS were performed from the inner to the outer wall of
Angelika Raith; W. T. Perkins; N. J. G. Pearce; T. E. Jeffries
Real-time RT-PCR, combining amplification and detection of virus-specific amplicons, is a promising tool for norovirus detection in environmental or food samples such as shellfish. We developed a real-time RT-PCR assay based on one-step detection using single primer sets and probes for norovirus genogroups I and II. Seventy and seven RT-PCR units of genogroup I and II reference norovirus strains, respectively,
F. Loisy; R. L. Atmar; P. Guillon; P. Le Cann; M. Pommepuy; F. S. Le Guyader
Digestive glands containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were isolated from toxic scallops. Citrate\\/phosphate buffers with the pH values ranging from 3 to 7 were added to achieve predetermined pH levels. The samples were heated at 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130°C using a computer controlled oil bath, and three tubes at each pH level were transferred into an ice
Background. Studies suggest that the rising prevalence of food allergy during recent decades may have stabilized. Although genetics undoubtedly contribute to the emergence of food allergy, it is likely that other factors play a crucial role in mediating such short-term changes. Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68), and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87), resp.) while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61)). Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91)). Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31)). There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04)) and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95)), but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.
Ben-Shoshan, M.; Harrington, D. W.; Soller, L.; Fragapane, J.; Joseph, L.; Pierre, Y. St.; Godefroy, S. B.; Elliott, S. J.; Clarke, A. E.
Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of shellfish-related gastroenteritis all over the world. V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus have previously been detected in water samples from the Oosterschelde, a large inlet on the North Sea, which is used for both recreational purposes and shellfish production. In 2006, oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from a noncommercial oyster bed in the Oosterschelde and oysters bought in Dutch fish shops were tested for the presence of pathogenic Vibrio species; in 2007 and 2008, oysters (C. gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Oosterschelde production areas were examined. Total Vibrio numbers were related to water temperatures to study joint patterns. Vibrio was found in oysters and mussels from the production areas, and levels ranged from 6 to 622 most probable number (MPN) per g in oysters and 6 to 62 MPN/g in mussels. Vibrio levels in oysters from fish shops were 231 to >333 MPN/g, whereas levels in noncommercial oysters ranged from 231 to >2,398 MPN/g. About 80% of the isolated strains were V. alginolyticus, and approximately 10% were identified as V. parahaemolyticus. Vibrio counts in shellfish samples increased with increasing water temperature and declined when water temperatures dropped; Vibrio was not detected when water temperatures declined to <13.5 degrees C. Based on the obtained results and the known high V. parahaemolyticus dose (>10(4) cells per serving of oysters) required for infection, it is concluded that the risk of gastrointestinal infections with V. parahaemolyticus through consumption of shellfish from the Oosterschelde production sites is presumably low. PMID:20377964
Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSP toxins) were detected in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula sandai collected from Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, and marine mussel Septifer virgatus from Mutsu Bay where known causative dinoflagellates and their cysts have never been observed. The toxin profile of C. sandai and S. virgatus was considerably different from suspected causative organisms Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Protogonyaulax spp., respectively. The causative organism(s) responsible for PSP toxins in these waters is at present unknown. PMID:2617541
This study describes the development of a gene-specific DNA microarray coupled with multiplex PCR for the comprehensive detection of pathogenic vibrios that are natural inhabitants of warm coastal waters and shellfish. Multiplex PCR with vvh and viuB for Vibrio vulnificus, with ompU, toxR, tcpI, and hlyA for V. cholerae, and with tlh, tdh, trh, and open reading frame 8 for V. parahaemolyticus helped to ensure that total and pathogenic strains, including subtypes of the three Vibrio spp., could be detected and discriminated. For DNA microarrays, oligonucleotide probes for these targeted genes were deposited onto epoxysilane-derivatized, 12-well, Teflon-masked slides by using a MicroGrid II arrayer. Amplified PCR products were hybridized to arrays at 50 degrees C and detected by using tyramide signal amplification with Alexa Fluor 546 fluorescent dye. Slides were imaged by using an arrayWoRx scanner. The detection sensitivity for pure cultures without enrichment was 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml, and the specificity was 100%. However, 5 h of sample enrichment followed by DNA extraction with Instagene matrix and multiplex PCR with microarray hybridization resulted in the detection of 1 CFU in 1 g of oyster tissue homogenate. Thus, enrichment of the bacterial pathogens permitted higher sensitivity in compliance with the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference guideline. Application of the DNA microarray methodology to natural oysters revealed the presence of V. vulnificus (100%) and V. parahaemolyticus (83%). However, V. cholerae was not detected in natural oysters. An assay involving a combination of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray hybridization would help to ensure rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic vibrios in shellfish, thereby improving the microbiological safety of shellfish for consumers. PMID:15574946
Panicker, Gitika; Call, Douglas R; Krug, Melissa J; Bej, Asim K
To evaluate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in edible farmed shellfish, 1734 shellfish specimens i.e., 109 Crassostrea gigas (6 pools), 660 Mytilus galloprovincialis (22 pools), 804 Tapes decussatus (28 pools) and 161 Tapes philippinarum (6 pools), were collected from the Varano Lagoon (Apulia, Italy).Shellfish from 62 pools were subjected to two molecular techniques: a nested-PCR assay, and a fluorescent amplicon
L. Putignani; L. Mancinelli; F. Del Chierico; D. Menichella; D. Adlerstein; M. C. Angelici; M. Marangi; F. Berrilli; M. Caffara; D. A. Frangipane di Regalbono; A. Giangaspero
There is an urgent need for an alternative to the mouse bioassay for the detection of algal toxins in shellfish on both analytical and animal welfare grounds. Several alternative methodologies have been described, but have not gained widespread acceptance to date, because each assay measures only one or a small number of related phycotoxins out of the increasing range that needs to be detected. A simple cytotoxicity assay using either the HepG2 or ECV-304 cell lines is described with two end-point measurements, which can detect and distinguish between two unrelated classes of phycotoxins. Morphological examination following 3h exposure to the sample enables the detection of the diarrhetic shellfish poisons, including okadaic acid and related toxins. Viability testing using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), following 24h exposure of the same cells to the sample, reveals a second class of toxin, which is most probably the newly-described toxin, azaspiracid. This assay should play an important role in shellfish monitoring in the future. PMID:11223091
Flanagan, A F; Callanan, K R; Donlon, J; Palmer, R; Forde, A; Kane, M
In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 ?p.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT, lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (< 0.26 mg kg-1) or mercury (< 0.003 mg kg-1), has had some non-compliances. Detections for PCBs and dioxins in shellfish were far below the regulatory thresholds in oysters (< 0.6 pg g-l), mussels (< 0.6 pg g-1), and king scallops (< 0.4 pg g-1). The benzo[a]pyrene concentration in marketed mussels and farmed shellfish does not exceed the regulatory threshold. Some monitoring data are available on shellfish flesh contamination for unregulated organic contaminants.Of about 100 existing organo stannic compounds, residues of the mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) and mono-, di-, and triphenyltin (MPT, DPT,and TPT) compounds are the most frequently detected in fishery products. Octyltins are not found in fishery products. Some bivalve mollusks show arsenic levels up to 15.8 mg kg-1. It seems that the levels of arsenic in the environment derive less from bioaccumulation, than from whether the arsenic is in an organic or an inorganic form. In regard to the other metals, levels of zinc and magnesium are higher in oysters than in mussels.To protect shellfish from chemical contamination, programs have been established to monitor water masses along coastal areas. The French monitoring network(ROCCH) focuses on environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and ha
The objectives of this study were to document the spatial and temporal distributions and compositions of bacteria in the sediments and overlying waters of an important urban shellfishing area in the lower Chesapeake Bay region, the Lynnhaven Estuary. Marked fluctuations were observed in the date of many of the physicochemical parameters and the indicator bacteria. The higher-salinity water and coarser sediment of the inlet site showed lower overall bacterial densities than did the headwater sites, where freshwater runoff and decreased tidal action were characteristic. Densities of benthic indicator bacteria, when expressed on a volumetric basis, were significantly greater than counts in the overlying waters. These counts were indicative of a fecally polluted system and were well above the safe maximum limits for shellfish-growing waters. Significantly fewer total and fecal bacteria were observed in both the water and the sediment during the warm months of May, July, and August. The primary sources of the Lynnhaven's bacterial pollution appeared to be typical of urban and agricultural runoff, although failure of septic tank systems was suspected as a problem in the Lynnhaven's western branch. These results illustrated that sediments in shellfishing areas could serve as a reservoir for high densities of indicator bacteria and that, potentially, pathogens could pose a health hazard.
Introductions of non-native species are seen as major threats to ecosystem function and biodiversity. However, invasions of aquatic habitats by non-native species are known to benefit generalist consumers that exhibit dietary switches and prey upon the exotic species in addition to or in preference to native ones. There is, however, little knowledge concerning the population-level implications of such dietary changes. Here, we show that the introduction of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum into European coastal waters has presented the Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus with a new food resource and resulted in a previously unknown predator–prey interaction between these species. We demonstrate, with an individuals-based simulation model, that the presence of this non-native shellfish, even at the current low density, has reduced the predicted over-winter mortality of oystercatchers at one recently invaded site. Further increases in clam population density are predicted to have even more pronounced effects on the density dependence of oystercatcher over-winter mortality. These results suggest that if the Manila clam were to spread around European coastal waters, a process which is likely to be facilitated by global warming, this could have considerable benefits for many shellfish-eating shorebird populations.
Caldow, Richard W.G; Stillman, Richard A; Durell, Sarah E.A. le V. dit; West, Andy D; McGrorty, Selwyn; Goss-Custard, John D; Wood, Philippa J; Humphreys, John
The increased consumption of fish and shellfish has resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions to seafood, emphasizing the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of this condition and exploring reasons for the persistence of this allergy. This review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish and shellfish allergy. New allergens and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. The diagnostic approach may require prick to-prick tests using crude extracts of both raw and cooked forms of seafood for screening seafood sensitization before a food challenge or where food challenge is not feasible. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can be important; mutated less allergenic seafood proteins have been developed for this purpose. The persistence of allergy because of seafood proteins' resistance after rigorous treatment like cooking and extreme pH is well documented. Additionally, IgE antibodies from individuals with persistent allergy may be directed against different epitopes than those in patients with transient allergy. For a topic as important as this one, new areas of technological developments will likely have a significant impact, to provide more accurate methods of diagnosing useful information to patients about the likely course of their seafood allergy over the course of their childhood and beyond. PMID:22554093
Tsabouri, Sophia; Triga, Maria; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Church, Martin K; Priftis, Kostas N
Incidence and circulation of different strains of hepatitis A and Norovirus in shellfish were studied on 235 samples (Tapes philippinarum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea spp. and Chlamys spp.) obtained from different sites, representing the shellfish production areas of the northern Adriatic sea. Shellfish were harvested in the period of one year and, after depuration, were examined for bacterial (Escherichia coli and Salmonella) and viral (HAV and NoV) contamination. Viral contamination was present on average in 22% of samples: specifically, 6% of samples tested positive for HAV, 14% for NoV and 2% for both viruses. None of the samples revealed the presence of Salmonella, and in most of them (93%) the number of E. coli was below the European legislation limit of 230 MPN/100 g. T. philippinarum was the species most often contaminated, as well as being the only species in which the legal limit for E. coli was, in some cases, exceeded. Both HAV and NoV contamination were detected throughout the year; NoV detection was slightly more frequent during winter months, but positive samples were also present in summer. The sequencing of the PCR products showed the circulation of only one HAV genotype (IA) and four different NoV genotypes (Hawaii, Melksham, Lordsdale and GGIIb) with a prevalence of the GGIIb genotype in the second period of the monitoring. PMID:17196284
Croci, Luciana; Losio, Marina Nadia; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Pavoni, Enrico; Di Pasquale, Simona; Fallacara, Francesca; Arcangeli, Giuseppe
More than 200 people in China suffered illness with symptoms of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following consumption of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The event occurred in the cities of Ningbo and Ningde near the East China Sea in May, 2011. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that high concentrations of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and their acyl esters were responsible for the incidents. The total concentration was more than 40 times the EU regulatory limit of 160 ?g OA eq./kg. Pectentoxin-2 and its seco-acids were also present in the mussels. Additionally, yessotoxins were found to be responsible for positive mouse bioassay results on scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and oyster (Crassostrea talienwhanensis) samples collected from the North Yellow Sea in June, 2010. This work shows that high levels of lipophilic toxins can accumulate in shellfish from the Chinese coast and it emphasises that adequate chemical analytical methodologies are needed for monitoring purposes. Further research is required to broaden the knowledge on the occurrence of lipophilic toxins in Chinese shellfish. PMID:22543186
A single filament clonal isolate of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was made from a water bloom sample taken at a small pond near Durham, New Hampshire, in 1980. When batch cultured the strain was toxic to mice and had an i.p. LD50 of about 5.0 mg/kg. Using an extraction procedure originally designed for paralytic shellfish poisons and other neurotoxins of freshwater cyanobacteria, a purification method was developed. The procedure involved acidified water/ethanol extraction of the cells followed by ultrafiltration, gel filtration, use of C18 cartridges to remove pigments, ion-exchange and high performance liquid chromatography using u.v. detection at 220 or 240 nm. Thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography results indicate that Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NH-5 may produce paralytic shellfish poisons, mainly neo-saxitoxin and saxitoxin. Three labile toxins were also detected which were not similar to any of the known paralytic shellfish poisons. PMID:3085292
The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. PMID:23993619
Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth
The application of ultra-performance rapid resolution LC on a 1.8 microm particle-size column coupled with tandem MS (RRLC-MS/MS) is described for the analysis of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in shellfish. Complete resolution among domoic acid (DA) and the isomers was achieved in less than 3 min. The method was intralaboratory validated for direct analysis of crude extracts without further cleanup. It showed LODs ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 mg/kg and a working range that complied with the current regulatory level for DA of 20 mg/kg, and with the level of 4.5 mg/kg recently proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Confirmatory capabilities were demonstrated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The results obtained by RRLC-MS/MS agreed with those provided by the reference LC-UV method, both intralaboratory for the analysis of blind samples (R2 = 0.9751) and interlaboratory through participation in the proficiency test for ASP toxins during 2009 (z-score = -0.962 and 0.177 for low- and high-contaminated samples, respectively). RRLC-MS/MS provided fast analysis and additional confirmatory capabilities for direct analysis of crude extracts while the performance and reliability of the results were maintained, even in very complex matrixes. PMID:21563691
de la Iglesia, Pablo; Barber, Esther; Giménez, Gemma; Rodríguez-Velasco, María Luisa; Villar-González, Adriano; Diogène, Jorge
The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription-PCR-based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983-1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2-trichloro,2,2,1-trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate-glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription-PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR-positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round-structured viruses in shellfish. Images
Aquaculture is viewed as a potential mechanism to meet the growing demand for seafood around the world. The future of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the U.S. hinges on sustainable practices on the part of industry and a more consistent regulatory regime. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture is a recent practice relative to its history in other countries, beginning in the late 1800s
Brett R. Dumbauld; Jennifer L. Ruesink; Steven S. Rumrill
Using manganese dioxide as a solid-phase oxidant, a post-column HPLC reactor for paralytic shellfish poison toxins was constructed and evaluated. Operating parameters such as reaction temperature and pH, flow-rate, reactor column size, and MnO2 particle size were studied. Based on a 3:1 signal-to-noise ratio the limits of detection for the non-hydroxylated toxins were in the sub-nanogram range, while the hydroxylated toxins were ten times less detectable. The limit of detection for saxitoxin was about 0.1 ng per injection. The repeatability of replicate injections was < or = 10% (relative standard deviation). The system was used to analyze extracts of shellfish and plankton yielding results that were in agreement with those obtained by established analytical methods. Extracts of shellfish contaminated at the regulatory limit of 0.8 microgram/g were successfully analyzed. PMID:8997749
Fish and shellfish are exposed to a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) following oil spills at sea, and can become contaminated as a result. Finfish have a more effective mixed-function oxidase enzyme system than shellfish, and are therefore able to metabolise and excrete PAH more effectively than the invertebrates. Thus, contamination by high-molecular weight PAH, including those with carcinogenic potential and so of concern with regard to human consumers, is therefore usually observed in shellfish, and particularly in bivalve molluscs. Oil spills are not the sole source of PAH, however, as parent compounds are also generated by a wide range of combustion processes. In this paper, consideration is given to monitoring data gathered following recent oil spills (both of crude oil and diesel fuel), alongside data from other studies. These include studies conducted around a former gasworks site and downstream of an aluminium smelter in the UK, and from mussel monitoring studies undertaken in the UK and the USA (including the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the National Status and Trends programme), and in other countries in Europe. For comparative purposes the PAH concentrations are summed and also expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalents, their relative concentrations being weighted in relation to the carcinogenic potential of individual PAH compounds using toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Our aim was to assess the utility of this approach in fishery resource monitoring and control following oil spills. Certainly this approach seems useful from the data assessed in this study. and the relative ranking of the various studies seems to reflect the relative degree of concern for human consumers due to the differing contamination sources. As a simple tool for control purposes it is equally applicable to PAH derived from oil spills, and from industrial and combustion sources. PMID:12094932
Law, Robin J; Kelly, Carole; Baker, Kerry; Jones, Jacqueline; McIntosh, Alistair D; Moffat, Colin F
Montargil reservoir, located in a dry flat area in the centre of Portugal, was filled in 1958 to fulfil agricultural, electric and industrial requirements. In May 1996, an intensive bloom of phytoplankton was detected. The algal community was strongly dominated by cyanobacteria with predominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae from May to June and Microcystis aeruginosa from July to August. Extracts of samples collected during the bloom period showed high toxicity by mouse bioassay. During the M. aeruginosa predominance period, the toxicity was ascribed to the presence of hepatotoxins, but clear symptoms of paralytic shellfish poison were observed when A. flos-aquae was the dominant species. In order to confirm the production of neurotoxins a strain of A. flos-aquae was isolated and established in culture. In this manuscript, we show the morphological characteristics and confirm paralytic shellfish toxins production by the strain isolated and maintained in culture. Identification of the saxitoxin analogs was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry technique (LC-MS). The toxins found in the culture extract were GTX5 (64.5 mol%), neoSTX (23.0 mol%), dcSTX (6.1 mol%), STX (5.4 mol%) and GTX6 (1.1 mol%). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of unambiguous evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria in Portugal. The toxin profile is rather different from the previously reported PSP producing A. flos-aquae and demonstrates its diversity in terms of toxin production. PMID:10858510
A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed. The chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins by pre- and postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and enzyme immunoassay.
Gallacher, S; Flynn, K J; Franco, J M; Brueggemann, E E; Hines, H B
Background Shellfish can be a component of a healthy diet due to a low fat and high protein content, but the cholesterol content of some species is often cited as a reason to limit their consumption. Data on levels of non-cholesterol sterols in commonly consumed species are lacking. Objective Shellfish were sampled and analyzed to update sterol data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Design Using a nationwide sampling plan, raw shrimp and sea scallops, canned clams, and steamed oysters, blue crab, and lobster were sampled from 12 statistically selected supermarkets across the United States in 2007–08. For each species, four composites were analyzed, each comprised of samples from three locations; shrimp and scallops from six single locations were also analyzed separately. Using validated analytical methodology, 14 sterols were determined in total lipid extracts after saponification and derivatization to trimethylsilyethers, using gas chromatography for quantitation and mass spectrometry for confirmation of components. Results Crab, lobster, and shrimp contained significant cholesterol (96.2–27 mg/100 g); scallops and clams had the lowest concentrations (23.4–30.1 mg/100 g). Variability in cholesterol among single-location samples of shrimp was low. The major sterols in the mollusks were brassicasterol (12.6–45.6 mg/100 g) and 24-methylenecholesterol (16.7–41.9 mg/100 g), with the highest concentrations in oysters. Total non-cholesterol sterols were 46.5–75.6 mg/100 g in five single-location scallops samples, but 107 mg/100 g in the sixth, with cholesterol also higher in that sample. Other prominent non-cholesterol sterols in mollusks were 22-dehydrocholesterol, isofucosterol, clionasterol, campesterol, and 24-norcholesta-5,22-diene-3?-ol (4–21 mg/100 g). Conclusions The presence of a wide range of sterols, including isomeric forms, in shellfish makes the analysis and quantitation of sterols in marine species more complex than in animal and plant tissues. The detailed sterol composition reported herein provides data that may be useful in research on the impact of shellfish consumption on dietary risk factors.
Phillips, Katherine M.; Ruggio, David M.; Exler, Jacob; Patterson, Kristine Y.
From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week-1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559
Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Angeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a risk to humans upon consumption of contaminated seafood. The PST family is comprised of more than twenty congeners, with each form having a different potency. In order to adequately protect consumers yet reduce unnecessary closures of non-contaminated harvesting areas, a rapid method that allows for analysis of sample toxicity is needed. While a number of PST immunoassays exist, the outstanding challenge is linking quantitative response to sample toxicity, as no single antibody reacts to the PST congeners in a manner that correlates with potency. A novel approach, then, is to combine multiple antibodies of varying reactivity to create a screening assay. This research details our investigation of three currently available antibodies for their reactivity profiles determined using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay. While our study shows challenges with detection of the R1-hydroxylated PSTs, results indicate that using multiple antibodies may provide more confidence in determining overall toxicity and the toxin profile. A multiplexed approach would not only improve biosensor assays but could also be applied to lateral flow immuno-chromatographic platforms, and such a theoretical device incorporating the three antibodies is presented. These improved assays could reduce the number of animal bioassays and confirmatory analyses (e.g., LC/MS), thereby improving food safety and economic use of shellfish resources. PMID:22967609
Yakes, Betsy Jean; Prezioso, Samantha M; DeGrasse, Stacey L
The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.
Human enteric viruses are largely excreted in faeces. These resistance of these viruses in the environment makes their faecal-oral transmission easier. Filter feeder organisms such as the mussels are bio-accumulators of viruses contaminating their aquatic environment. Thus, undercooked shellfish consumption involves sanitary risks. Thirty samples of mussels (Mytilus sp.), were tested, half were from an aquaculture origin, the others were from an area more exposed to faecal pollution. Fifteen sewage samples from this last area were also examined. Viruses were extracted from the digestive tissue by direct elution method in a glycine/NaCl pH 9.5 buffer followed by PEG 8000 precipitation. The PEG pellets were used for DNA extraction by proteinase K and phenol/chloroform. The molecular characterization, by PCR using specific adenovirus primers revealed that shellfish growing on Mohammedia (a town in the Casablanca outskirts) littoral are contaminated whereas those chosen from aquaculture and bought in the central market were not contaminated. PMID:15847929
Karamoko, Y; Ibenyassine, K; Aitmhand, R; Idaomar, M; Ennaji, M M
A multicenter, collaborative trial was performed to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of a previously described method for the detection of Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR (R.L. Atmar, F. H. Neill, J. L. Romalde, F. Le Guyader, C. M. Woodley, T. G. Metcalf, and M. K. Estes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3014-3018, 1995). Virus was added to the stomachs and hepatopancreatic tissues of oysters or hard-shell clams in the control laboratory, the samples were shipped to the participating laboratories, and viral nucleic acids were extracted and then detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 85 and 91%, respectively, when results were determined by visual inspection of ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels; the test sensitivity and specificity improved to 87 and 100%, respectively, after confirmation by hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled, virus-specific probe. We have demonstrated that this method can be implemented successfully by several laboratories to detect Norwalk virus in shellfish tissues.
Atmar, R L; Neill, F H; Woodley, C M; Manger, R; Fout, G S; Burkhardt, W; Leja, L; McGovern, E R; Le Guyader, F; Metcalf, T G; Estes, M K
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins are annually recurrent along the Massachusetts coastline (USA), which includes many small embayments and salt ponds. Among these is the Nauset Marsh System (NMS), which has a long history of PSP toxicity. Little is known, however, about the bloom dynamics of the causative organism Alexandrium fundyense within that economically and socially important system. The overall
Bibiana G. Crespo; Bruce A. Keafer; David K. Ralston; Henry Lind; Dawson Farber; Donald M. Anderson
The dynamic transmission and transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to the cladoceran Moina mongolica and subsequently to the larvae of the fish Sciaenops ocellatus were investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that PSTs could be transferred to S. ocellatus when they preyed on PST-containing M. mongolica. During the experimental period, A. tamarense,
We exposed green-lipped mussels Perna viridis and black sea breams Acanthopagrus schlegeli to toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium fundyense to evaluate the accumulation, distribution, transformation, and elimination of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in a controlled environmental condition. The mussels were fed A. fundyense for 7 days followed by 3 weeks of depuration, and the fish were fed toxic clams (pre-exposed to the
Raymond W. M. Kwong; Wen-Xiong Wang; Paul K. S. Lam; Peter K. N. Yu
During 2006 and 2007, we documented the re-emergence of severe episodes of vibrio- sis caused by Vibrio tubiashii in shellfish hatcheries on the west coast of North America. Lost larval and juvenile production included 3 previously undescribed hosts, Pacific (Crassostrea gigas) and Kumamoto (C. sikamea) oysters and geoduck clams Panope abrupta, with a 2007 decline in larval oyster production of
Ralph A. Elston; Hiroaki Hasegawa; Karen L. Humphrey; Ildiko K. Polyak; Claudia C. Häse
The toxicity of two species of wild Cambodian freshwater pufferfish of the genus Tetraodon, T. turgidus and Tetraodon sp., was investigated. Tetraodon sp. was non-toxic. The toxicity of T. turgidus was localized mainly in the skin and ovary. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), comprising saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), account for ?85% of the total toxicity. Artificially reared specimens of the
Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish
Six metrics characterize annual aspects of the magnitude and timing of shellfish toxicity resulting from dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium at >100 monitoring stations over 21 years (1985–2005) along the coast of Maine, northeastern USA. Climatologies at each station show distinct geographic patterns, generally consistent with previous reports based fewer stations\\/years. Earliest initiation and dates of maxima are at far
Andrew C. Thomas; Ryan Weatherbee; Huijie Xue; Guimei Liu
Volety, Aswani K., S.G. Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Utilizing Shellfish Responses to Set Target Water Quality Conditions for the Restoration of Oyster Reefs in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Presented at the International Workshop on Restoration of Benthic Invertebr...
A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses (HAVs)) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river
SONIA PINA; MONTSERRAT PUIG; FRANCISCO LUCENA; JOAN JOFRE; ROSINA GIRONES
Domoic acid (DA), the neurotoxin produced by diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries is water-soluble and can bioaccumulate, causing mass death of birds and marine mammals worldwide. Humans eating contaminated shellfish most commonly suffer from memory loss but mortalities have been recorded. The fate of particulate and dissolved DA released from the cells or added as standards was studied when incubated
Johannes A. Hagström; Edna Granéli; Isabel Maneiro; Aldo Barreiro; Anika Petermann; Camilla Svensen
The habitat value of modified rack and bag, shellfish aquaculture gear (SAG) used for the grow-out phase of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Zostera marina, and a shallow nonvegetated seabed (NVSB) was comparatively evaluated over a 1-year period in Pt. Judith Pond, a tidal estuary in Southern Rhode Island. Enclosure gear was used to sample the
JOSEPH T. DEALTERIS; BRIAN D. KILPATRICK; ROBERT B. RHEAULT
A recent outbreak of poisoning resulting from the consumption of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from a localized area in Eastern Canada has been attributed to the presence of domoic acid (1), a relatively rare neurotoxic amino acid, previously found only in some algae of the family Rhodomelaceae. Studies on aqueous extracts of shellfish tissue indicated that the toxin
Michael A. Quilliam; P. Greig Sim; Archibald W. McCulloch; A. Gavin McInnes
Shellfish are a nutritious food source whose consumption and commercial value has risen dramatically worldwide. Although bivalve’s consumption can contribute to a healthy diet, some can cause foodborne illnesses. Microbial contamination is chronic and pervasive in harvesting areas and may be passed on to the consumers. Current food safety programs intend to protect consumers. Nevertheless, bivalve’s microbial contamination is underestimated
J. Oliveira; A. Cunha; F. Castilho; J. L. Romalde; M. J. Pereira
This review examines the developments in optical biosensor technology, which uses the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Optical biosensor technology measures the competitive biomolecular interaction of a specific biological recognition element or binder with a target toxin immobilised onto a sensor chip surface against toxin in a sample. Different binders such
K. Campbell; D. F. K. Rawn; B. Niedzwiadek; C. T. Elliott
This report defines the role of nearshore ecosystems, such as wetlands and seagrass meadows, as nurseries for populations of fish and shellfish that may be of commercial value to humans. The ecological value of nursery habitats in relation to the life cycle of many species of fish and invertebrates is mentioned as the nursery-role hypothesis is discussed. Biological, physical, chemical, and landscape factors that contribute to site-specific variation of nurseries are listed. Implications for research, conservation, management and restoration are listed, while highlighting key threats to coastal ecosystems. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 2003.
A simple chemical confirmatory technique has been developed for domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid of marine origin. After extraction with water-methanol, the domoic acid-containing extract is analysed directly by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection at 242 nm. For confirmation of positive results an aliquot of the extract is evaporated to dryness and reacted with butyl isothiocyanate to form a thiourea derivative which elutes later than underivatized domoic acid. No additional sample cleanup is required in order to carry out the derivatization for conformation of domoic acid at the Canadian 20 micrograms/g guideline level in shellfish. In mussel extract, domoic acid was converted to the thiourea derivative with a yield of 86-91% compared to a pure standard carried through the same reaction. The detection limit for the derivative was about 5-10 micrograms/g of equivalent domoic acid in extracts of mussels, clams or oysters. PMID:1774231
Prokaryotes in marine sediments taken from two neighboring semienclosed bays (the Yamada and Kamaishi bays) at the Sanriku coast in Japan were investigated by the culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach coupled with chemical and activity analyses. These two bays were chosen in terms of their similar hydrogeological and chemical characteristics but different usage modes; the Yamada bay has been used for intensive shellfish aquaculture, while the Kamaishi bay has a commercial port and is not used for aquaculture. Substantial differences were found in the phylogenetic composition of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed for the Yamada and Kamaishi sediments. In the Yamada library, phylotypes affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria were the most abundant, and those affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria were the second-most abundant. In contrast, the Kamaishi library was occupied by phylotypes affiliated with Planctomycetes, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, and Crenarchaeota. In the ?-Proteobacteria, many Yamada phylotypes were related to free-living and symbiotic sulfur oxidizers, whereas the Kamaishi phylotype was related to the genus Pseudomonas. These results allowed us to hypothesize that sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have become abundant in the Yamada sediment. This hypothesis was supported by quantitative competitive PCR (qcPCR) with group-specific primers. The qcPCR also suggested that organisms closely related to Desulfotalea in the Desulfobulbaceae were the major sulfate-reducing bacteria in these sediments. In addition, potential sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation rates in the sediment samples were determined, indicating that the sulfur cycle has become active in the Yamada sediment beneath the areas of intensive shellfish aquaculture.
The aims of this study are to determine prevalence and co-occurrence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among shellfish gatherers and its consequences for the use of medicine, health care, and sickness leave and to investigate predictive factors (sociodemographic, lifestyle, comorbidity) of MSP in five anatomical areas (neck/shoulder/higher back, lower back, elbow/wrist/hand, hip/knee, and leg/ankle/foot). Nine hundred twenty-nine shellfish gatherers (94% women) voluntarily took part in a physiotherapy workshop. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess MSP and its consequences. Regression models were performed to determine the factors predicting the presence of MSP. The two most frequently self-reported forms of MSP were neck pain (70.9%) and lower back pain (65.5%). Sixty-four percent of respondents reported contact with their family doctor during the last 12 months due to MSP, and most subjects (88.1%) reported MSP in two or more locations. Hip/knee pain was associated with leg/ankle/foot pain (crude odds ratio?=?3.14). Logistic regression analysis showed that being female and young is associated with lumbar pain, and being older is associated with pain in all areas of the lower limbs. The number of pain sites a person reported significantly predicted the presence of pain in all the anatomical areas studied. Prevalence of MSP and musculoskeletal comorbidity were high. The study shows that the presence of pain reported in one body area is highly dependent on the total number of painful areas. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:21796349
The aim was to measure concentrations of total mercury, total arsenic, lead and cadmium in common edible fresh fish and shellfish from various areas of the Adriatic Sea. Estimates of intake of these elements were made through seafood consumption by the general population. Samples were either wet digested for mercury and arsenic, or dry ashed for lead and cadmium analysis. Mercury was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS) and arsenic, lead and cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Quality control procedures of analytical methods, which included analyses of dogfish muscle-certified reference material DORM-2, confirmed the acceptability of methods. The highest mercury and arsenic concentrations were found in hake (Merluccius merluccius) and the lowest in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). The respective values in hake were 0.373 +/- 0.075 and 23.3 +/- 3.6, and in mackerel 0.153 +/- 0.028 and 1.06 +/- 0.29 mg x kg(-1) fresh weight (mean +/- SD). Lead and cadmium concentrations were about 10 times higher in shellfish than in analysed fish. The highest lead and cadmium concentrations were found in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the lowest in hake. Respective lead and cadmium values in mussel were 0.150 +/- 0.009 and 0.142 +/- 0.017, and in hake were 0.007 +/- 0.004 and 0.002 +/- 0.001 mg x kg(-1) fresh weight. The concentrations of analysed elements were below acceptable levels for human consumption set by the Croatian Ministry of Health, except for total arsenic. The estimated intake of those trace elements included in this study through seafood consumption by the general population did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:12623648
The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. PMID:23993581
Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L
Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurements are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was dir...
To evaluate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in edible farmed shellfish, 1734 shellfish specimens i.e., 109 Crassostrea gigas (6 pools), 660 Mytilus galloprovincialis (22 pools), 804 Tapes decussatus (28 pools) and 161 Tapes philippinarum (6 pools), were collected from the Varano Lagoon (Apulia, Italy). Shellfish from 62 pools were subjected to two molecular techniques: a nested-PCR assay, and a fluorescent amplicon generation (FLAG) real-time PCR assay, both based on the multi-copy B1 target, were performed. One pooled sample of gills from C. gigas and one pooled sample of haemolymphs from T. decussatus were assessed as positive for T. gondii DNA by both techniques. The results demonstrated the presence of T. gondii in edible farmed C. gigas and T. decussatus and indicate that there may be a considerable health threat involved in eating contaminated raw shellfish. PMID:20920501
Putignani, L; Mancinelli, L; Del Chierico, F; Menichella, D; Adlerstein, D; Angelici, M C; Marangi, M; Berrilli, F; Caffara, M; di Regalbono, D A Frangipane; Giangaspero, A
Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use of various detoxification methodologies that should be rapid, efficient, easy to apply, and will not alter the quality and sensory properties of shellfish. In the present study, both ozonation (15 mg kg(-1) for 6 h) and ?-irradiation (6 kGy) were utilised in order to reduce the toxin content of contaminated shucked mussels, collected during the DSP episodes of 2007 and 2009 in Greece. DSP toxicity was monitored using the mouse bioassay (MBA) whilst the determination of toxin content of the okadaic acid (OA) group (both free and esterified forms) was carried out by LC/MS/MS analysis. Toxin reduction using ?-irradiation was in the range of 12-36%, 8-53% and 10-41% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. The appearance and texture of irradiated mussels deteriorated, pointing to a low potential for commercial use of this method. Ozonation of mussels resulted in toxin reduction in the range of 6-100%, 25-83% and 21-66% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. Reduction of OA content was substantially higher in homogenised mussel tissue compared with that of whole shucked mussels. In addition, differences detected with regard to quality parameters (TBA, sensory attributes) between ozonated and control mussels were not considerable. Even though varying percentage reductions in OA and its derivatives were achieved using ozonation under specific experimental conditions tested, it is postulated that upon optimisation ozonation may have the potential for post-harvest commercial DSP detoxification of shucked mussels. PMID:21985774
Louppis, A P; Katikou, P; Georgantelis, D; Badeka, A V; Kontominas, M G
A rapid and simple method for confirmation of the diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSP): okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) using fluorescence detection following derivatization with 9-chloromethylanthracene, has been established as an alternate to LC\\/MS. Exposure of the anthrylmethyl derivatives of OA, DTX-1 and DTX-2 to near UV light (300–400nm) resulted in the loss of these compounds to below
Dorothea F. K. Rawn; Cathie Ménard; Barbara Niedzwiadek; David Lewis; Benjamin P.-Y. Lau; Nathalie Delauney-Bertoncini; Marie Claire Hennion; James F. Lawrence
Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish and shellfish collected in Taihu Lake, China, were determined. All the chemicals were detected in the samples. The concentrations of PBDEs (31.7 - 4303.3 pg\\/g) and PCBs (82.4 - 437.7 pg\\/g) were about two orders of magnitude lower than those of
Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved in the biosynthesis, may also afford the identification of these gene clusters in dinoflagellates, the cause of human mortalities and significant financial loss to the tourism and shellfish industries.
The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of sterile, stable and homogenous shellfish reference materials containing known concentrations of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Pacific oysters were contaminated with toxins following mass culturing of toxic algae and shellfish feeding experiments. Live oysters were shucked and tissues homogenised, before measuring into multiple aliquots, with one batch subjected to gamma irradiation treatment and the other remaining untreated. The homogeneity of both batches of samples was assessed using a pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (Pre-COX LC-FLD) method and shown to be within the limits of normal within-batch repeatability. A twelve-month stability experiment was conducted for both untreated and gamma irradiated batches, specifically examining the effects of long term storage at -20 °C, +4 °C and +40 °C. Results indicated mostly good stability of PSP toxins in both materials when stored frozen at -20 °C, but with the instability of GTX2&3 concentrations in the untreated tissues eliminated in the irradiated tissues. Analysis using a post-column oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD method also showed epimerisation in both GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 epimeric pairs in untreated samples after only 6 months frozen storage. This issue was not present in the tissues irradiated before long term storage. Biological activity testing confirmed the absence of bacteria in the irradiated samples throughout the 12 month study period. With such results there was clear evidence for the potential of increasing the scale of the mass culturing and shellfish feeding for the production of large batches of tissue suitable for the preparation of a certified matrix reference material. Overall results demonstrated the feasibility for production of oyster reference materials for PSTs, with evidence for prolonged stability following gamma irradiation treatment and storage at -20 °C. PMID:23796726
Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Powell, Andy L; Higman, Wendy A
Using manganese dioxide as a solid-phase oxidant, a post-column HPLC reactor for paralytic shellfish poison toxins was constructed and evaluated. Operating parameters such as reaction temperature and pH, flow-rate, reactor column size, and MnO2 particle size were studied. Based on a 3:1 signal-to-noise ratio, the limits of detection for the non-hydroxylated toxins were in the sub-nanogram range, while the hydroxylated
Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of 16 Alexandrium isolates from the Southeast China Sea were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Toxin content and composition of three A. tamarense isolates, ATDH01, ATGX02 and ATMJ02, were also investigated at different growth phases and under various culture conditions. Our results showed that six strains of A. affine were non-toxic, while 10 strains of
Da-Zhi Wang; Shu-Gang Zhang; Hai-Feng Gu; Leo Lai Chan; Hua-Sheng Hong
The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in seafood is a severe and growing threat to human health. In order to minimize the risks of human exposure, the maximum content of these toxins in seafood has been limited by legal regulations worldwide. The regulated limits are established in equivalents of the main representatives of the groups: saxitoxin (STX), okadaic acid (OA), and domoic acid (DA), for PSP, DSP, and ASP, respectively. In this study a multidetection method to screen shellfish samples for the presence of these toxins simultaneously was developed. Multiplexing was achieved using a solid-phase microsphere assay coupled to flow-fluorimetry detection, based on the Luminex xMap technology. The multidetection method consists of three simultaneous competition immunoassays. Free toxins in solution compete with STX, OA, or DA immobilized on the surface of three different classes of microspheres for binding to specific monoclonal antibodies. The IC50 obtained in the buffer was similar in single- and multidetection: 5.6 ± 1.1 ng/mL for STX, 1.1 ± 0.03 ng/mL for OA, and 1.9 ± 0.1 ng/mL for DA. The sample preparation protocol was optimized for the simultaneous extraction of STX, OA, and DA with a mixture of methanol and acetate buffer. The three immunoassays performed well with mussel and scallop matrixes displaying adequate dynamic ranges and recovery rates (around 90% for STX, 80% for OA, and 100% for DA). This microsphere-based multidetection immunoassay provides an easy and rapid screening method capable of detecting simultaneously in the same sample three regulated groups of marine toxins. PMID:23859142
Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Botana, Luis M
Within the French phytoplankton monitoring network (REPHY), domoic acid (DA), the toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, was first detected in samples collected in 1998. Toxin analysis by the official method [liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC\\/DAD)] was performed when Pseudo-nitzschia cell concentration was greater than 1.0×105 cells\\/l. LC\\/DAD results obtained in 1999 and 2000 showed increased DA accumulation
Zouher Amzil; Jaqueline Fresnel; Dominique Le Gal; Chantal Billard
\\u000a A multilevel approach, from whole animal to molecular level, was applied to the study of the biological impact of chemical\\u000a pollution in fish and shellfish populations from the rivers Vero, Cinca, and from the Flix reservoir in the Ebro River. The\\u000a analysis provided a general picture of the health status of the rivers and quantified the physiological effects of different
Benjamin Piña; Demetrio Raldúa; Carlos Barata; Melissa Faria; Anna Navarro; Joana Damasio; Alba Olivares; Laia Quirós; Sergi Pelayo; Marta Casado
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning is a significant food-borne disease caused by potent cyclic polyether toxins (brevetoxins) that accumulate in the flesh of shellfish. Here we report a new procedure for brevetoxin analysis by capillary electrophoresis-based immunoassay (CE-IA) with electrochemical (EC) detection. In this method, after the competitive immunoreaction in liquid phase, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antigen and the bound enzyme-labeled complex were separated and then the system of HRP catalyzing H(2)O(2)-o-aminophenol reaction was adopted. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise = 3) was determined to be 0.1 ng/mL. Intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) for migration time and peak area were 3.6 and 4.5%, respectively. Inter-day RSD was 6.9 and 7.8% for migration time and peak area, respectively. The CE-IA with EC detection provides a sensitive analytical approach, not previously available, for the determination of brevetoxin-B in shellfish samples. PMID:22781183
The consumption of bivalve shellfish is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks of viral origin. The evaluation of the sanitary quality of these products, however, is still based on bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (Reg. (EC) No. 2073/2005 and No.1441/2007) even if it is known that they are not reliable indicators of viral contamination. In this study a duplex Real Time PCR method for quantitative detection of hepatitis A (HAV) in shellfish was developed. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) was used as a control for assessing the effectiveness of the concentration and extraction process and the ability to eliminate PCR inhibitors present in the food matrix. The specific primers and probes for detection of HAV and FCV, chosen respectively from the 5'-UTR region and in the ORF1 region, were labeled with two different dyes and detected simultaneously. The method was applied on spiked and non-spiked shellfish from a local market. The amplification of HAV in the presence of FCV showed good linearity (R(2)=0.994) and the sensitivity limit of the reaction was at least 5 x 10(2)TCID(50)g(-1) of an hepatopancreas extract. PMID:19755130
Di Pasquale, Simona; Paniconi, Mara; De Medici, Dario; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Croci, Luciana
Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods collected by harvested by the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) from 21 First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, in 2008-2009. A significant and negative correlation was observed between Hg concentration and Hg bioaccessibility. Metal bioaccessibility tended to be high; median values ranging between 52% (Mn) and 83% (Cu). The notable exceptions were observed for As in wild game organs (7-19%) and rabbit meat (4%) as well as Hg in salmon eggs (10%). Results of Principal Components Analysis confirmed the unique pattern of bioaccessibility of As and Hg in traditional foods, suggesting that, unlike other metals, As and Hg bioaccessibility are not simply controlled by food digestibility under the operating conditions of the in vitro model. These data provide useful information for dietary contaminant risk assessment and intake assessments of essential trace elements. PMID:23665408
Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie /sup 60/Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.
We evaluated the potential cancer risk to adults from ingesting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and shellfish using an equilibrium partitioning model of PCB bioaccumulation in the aquatic animal. Estimated potential cancer risk to humans increased exponentially with increasing hydrophobicity of the PCB. However, the addition of food-chain sources of PCBs was necessary to cause potential cancer risk to exceed 10(-6). Environmental degradation of the PCB reduced cancer risk by reducing the exposure concentration; 3.3 degradation half-lives were required to reduce cancer risk estimates by one order of magnitude. PCB biotransformation to nongenotoxic metabolites (no increase in the cancer slope factor) by the aquatic animal reduced cancer risk by reducing the steady-state concentration of PCBs in the edible tissue. Even relatively slow biotransformation (e.g., metabolic half-life of 100 days) reduced cancer risk estimates under the default model conditions. Nonequilibrium conditions, such as limited exposure time, reduced potential cancer risk by reducing contaminant concentrations in the aquatic animal. Risk assessment using toxic equivalency factors predicted substantially greater potential risk for specific congeners than for PCB mixtures. Our evaluation demonstrates that deviation from conventional assumptions used in risk assessment (e.g., negligible biotransformation and degradation; steady-state equilibrium) can significantly affect cancer risk estimates. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6.
The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. In the Japanese and EU methods, male mice are designated to be used for MBA. Female mice were described to be less susceptible than male mice. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports on the details of sex differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, female mice are less sensitive to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The mice were observed until 24 hours after injection. Both male and female mice of ICR and ddY strains, which are designated in the Japanese official method, were compared. All the mice were four weeks old and weighed 18–20 g. The experiments were repeated twice. The lethality was 70%–100%. Survival analysis showed no sex differences in susceptibility to OA, but ICR female mice showed significant resistance compared with other groups in one out of two trials. These results indicate that sex differences were not clear but, nonetheless, male mice showed more stable results.
Azaspiracids are a group of lipophilic polyether toxins produced by the small dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum. They may accumulate in shellfish and can result in illnesses when consumed by humans. Research into analytical methods, chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of azaspiracids has been severely constrained by the scarcity of high-purity azaspiracids. Consequently, since their discovery in 1995, considerable efforts have been made to develop methods for the isolation of azaspiracids in sufficient amounts and purities for toxicological studies, in addition to the preparation of standard reference materials. A seven-step procedure was improved for the isolation of azaspiracids-1-3 (1, 2, and 3) increasing recoveries 2-fold as compared to previous methods and leading to isolation of sufficiently purified azaspiracid-6 (6) for structural determination by NMR spectroscopy. The procedure, which involved a series of partitioning and column chromatography steps, was performed on 500 g of Mytilus edulis hepatopancreas tissue containing ~14 mg of 1. Overall yields of 1 (52%), 2 (43%), 3 (43%), and 6 (38%) were good, and purities were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of 6 was determined by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The stability of 6 relative to 1 was also assessed in three solvents in a short-term study that demonstrated the greatest stability in aqueous acetonitrile. PMID:22329755
Kilcoyne, Jane; Keogh, Adela; Clancy, Ger; LeBlanc, Patricia; Burton, Ian; Quilliam, Michael A; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O
Two samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from the southwest of Ireland. One sample contained domoic acid, the other sample contained okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3. Wet and freeze-dried reference materials were prepared from each of the two samples to test for differences in homogeneity, stability and extractability of the analytes in either condition. Wet materials were homogenised, aliquoted and hermetically sealed under argon and subsequently frozen at -80 degrees C. Dry materials were similarly homogenised but frozen in flat cakes prior to freeze-drying. After grinding, sieving and further homogenisation, the resulting powder was aliquoted and hermetically sealed. Domoic acid materials were characterised using HPLC-UV, while LC-MS was used for the determination of lipophilic toxins. The extractabilities of all phycotoxins studied were comparable for wet and freeze-dried materials once a sonication step had been carried out for reconstitution of the freeze-dried materials prior to extraction. Homogeneity was assessed through replicate analysis of the phycotoxins (n = 10), and was found to be similar for wet and freeze-dried materials, for both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins. Water contents were determined for both wet and freeze-dried materials, and particle size was determined for the freeze-dried materials. Stability was evaluated isochronously over eight months at four temperatures (-20, +4, +20 and +40 degrees C). The freeze-dried material containing domoic acid was stable over the whole duration at all temperatures, while in the wet material domoic acid degraded to some extent at all temperatures except -20 degrees C. In freeze-dried and wet materials containing lipophilic toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, azaspiracid-1 and azaspiracid-2 were stable over the whole duration at all conditions, while concentrations of azaspiracid-3 changed significantly in both materials at some storage temperatures. Figure Aliquots of freeze-dried and wet mussel tissue reference materials containing the various shellfish toxins examined in the study. PMID:17256111
Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1). PMID:13129776
Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies. PMID:20048055
Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies.
Some dinoflagellate species within the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium are well-known producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which led to many poisoning incidents around the world. In the northern Yellow Sea, an important mariculture zone for scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, PST have been frequently detected from scallops. However, there is little knowledge concerning PST-producing microalgae in this region so far. In cruises carried out in 2011 and 2012, scallop and phytoplankton samples were collected from the northern Yellow Sea. PST were detected from scallops by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Toxin content and profile were remarkably different among the four tissues, i.e. viscera, adductor muscle, mantle and gonad, suggesting apparent toxin transfer and transformation in scallops. Viscera always had the highest content of PST dominated by low-potency N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, which closely resembled the toxin profiles of net-concentrated phytoplankton samples in spring. Based on the morphological features, cells of Alexandrium spp. in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were picked out and a partial sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) was amplified using a single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cells of both toxic A. tamarense species complex and non-toxic A. affine were identified from the phytoplankton samples based on the partial LSU rDNA sequence information. According to these findings, it is implied that A. tamarense species complex is the major toxic species related to PST contamination in scallops of the northern Yellow Sea. The presence of both toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium spp. in this region requires for a species-specific method to monitor the distribution and dynamics of A. tamarense species complex. PMID:24124903
Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination and risks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15 min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CC? were determined as 12 pg/mL and 20 pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CC? and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10 cells/L. PMID:23102433
Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T
The aims of our investigations were (1) to look for Aichi virus in environmental samples and (2) to compare the Aichi virus strains in both clinical and environmental samples in order to evaluate the role of environmental contamination as a possible vehicle for viral transmission. Aichi virus was detected in 15 (6%) sewage samples and in 4 (6.6%) shellfish samples. Aichi virus was identified for the first time in water samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed several clusters that occurred sequentially in time, suggesting some parallelism in the evolution of environmental and human strains. Aichi virus present in sewage reflects the viruses circulating in the community. PMID:20607319
Sdiri-Loulizi, K; Hassine, M; Aouni, Z; Gharbi-Khelifi, H; Sakly, N; Chouchane, S; Guédiche, M N; Pothier, P; Aouni, M; Ambert-Balay, K
The effect of gamma-irradiation on concentrations of hydrophilic and lipophilic phycotoxins has been investigated by use of HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Pure toxins in organic solvents and toxins in mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissues were irradiated at three different doses. In solution all toxin concentrations were reduced to some extent. Most severe decreases were observed for domoic acid and yessotoxin, for which the smallest dose of irradiation led to almost complete destruction. For pectenotoxin-2 the decrease in concentration was less severe but still continuous with increasing dose. Azaspiracid-1 and okadaic acid were the least affected in solution. In shellfish tissue the decrease in toxin concentrations was much reduced compared with the effect in solution. After irradiation at the highest dose reductions in concentrations were between ca. 5 and 20% for the lipophilic toxins and there was no statistical difference between control and irradiated samples for azaspiracids in tissue. Irradiation of shellfish tissues contaminated with domoic acid led to a more continuous decrease in the amount of the toxin with increasing dose. The effect of irradiation on the viability of microbial activity in shellfish tissues was assessed by using total viable counting techniques. Microbial activity depended on the type of shellfish and on the pretreatment of the shellfish tissues (with or without heat treatment). As far as we are aware this is the first investigation of the effectiveness of irradiation as a technique for stabilising tissue reference materials for determination of phycotoxins. Our results suggest that this technique is not effective for materials containing domoic acid. It does, however, merit further investigation as a stabilisation procedure for preparation of shellfish tissue materials for some lipophilic toxins, in particular azaspiracids. Chemical structures of the toxins investigated in the study. PMID:17205264
McCarron, Pearse; Kotterman, Michiel; de Boer, Jacob; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp
method was developed todetect enterovirus (EV), hepatitis Avirus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV)RNAsinshellfish andsediment. Themethod was first tested underexperimental conditions by using virus-spiked shellfish toevaluate assaysensitivity. TheuseofCC41cellulose was found tobeefficient for removing inhibitors ofRVdetection. Forsediment samples, aSephadex column was usedtoallow thedetection ofEVandHAVRNAs.Thespecificity ofamplified products was controlled byhybridization withdigoxigenin- labeled oligoprobes. Themethod was thenapplied tonaturally contaminated shellfish andsediments. EV, HAV,andRVRNAswere detected in22,14,and20%ooftheshellfish
Within the French phytoplankton monitoring network (REPHY), domoic acid (DA), the toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, was first detected in samples collected in 1998. Toxin analysis by the official method [liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC/DAD)] was performed when Pseudo-nitzschia cell concentration was greater than 1.0 x 10(5) cells/l. LC/DAD results obtained in 1999 and 2000 showed increased DA accumulation in bivalves sampled at different sites along French coasts. The toxin maximum in 1999 was 3.2 microg DA/g of whole tissue, whereas the levels in 2000 (53 microg) were above the sanitary threshold (20 microg DA/g tissue). Phytoplankton samples collected during blooms were observed by both light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Identification of phytoplankton species by SEM analyses confirmed the presence of two known DA-producing species, P. pseudodelicatissima and P. multiseries. LC/DAD results for a mass culture of P. multiseries indicated that this species was involved in DA accumulation in French shellfish. PMID:11306137
The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO2 in the world’s oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO3 shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not clear. Here we present experiments that examined the effects of the ocean’s past, present, and future (21st and 22nd centuries) CO2 concentrations on the growth, survival, and condition of larvae of two species of commercially and ecologically valuable bivalve shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians). Larvae grown under near preindustrial CO2 concentrations (250 ppm) displayed significantly faster growth and metamorphosis as well as higher survival and lipid accumulation rates compared with individuals reared under modern day CO2 levels. Bivalves grown under near preindustrial CO2 levels displayed thicker, more robust shells than individuals grown at present CO2 concentrations, whereas bivalves exposed to CO2 levels expected later this century had shells that were malformed and eroded. These results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations.
In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.
Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.
A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable.
A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) was developed to determine okadaic acid (OA). Concentrations of the capture monoclonal anti-OA antibodies, conjugate of OA-HRP and a composition of blocking buffers were varied to optimize the assay condition. The values of IC10, IC50 and working range (IC20-IC80) for CL-ELISA were 0.01, 0.07, and 0.03-0.2ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the analytical recovery values of CL-ELISA from 3 shellfish spiked samples with OA concentrations of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.2ng/mL ranged from 86.7% to 111.2%. Closely examining the OA concentrations in 19 various shellfish products performed by CL-ELISA revealed that OA concentrations in 6 of the 19 examined samples was undetected, whereas the 13 samples were contaminated with low levels of OA ranging from 1.2 to 8.0ng/g. PMID:24148413
Vdovenko, Marina M; Hung, Chun-Tse; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Yu, Feng-Yih
A new method was developed to quantify domoic acid by capillary electrophoresis-based enzyme immunoassay (CE-EIA) with electrochemical (EC) detection. The method was based on noncompetitive immunoreaction between free domoic acid antigen (Ag) and excessive amount of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antidomoic acid antibody tracer (Ab*) in liquid phase. Then the bound enzyme-labeled complex (Ab*-Ag) and unbound Ab* were separated by CE, and the system of HRP catalyzing H(2)O(2)/o-aminophenol (OAP) reaction was adopted for EC detection. Using CE-EIA with EC detection, equilibrium was reached in 30 min, and the analytical results were obtained within a further 5 min. The linear range and the detection limit were 0.1-50 ng/mL and 0.02 ng/mL, respectively. Analytes recoveries were 89.6-105.8%. The sensitivity of the method was 16 times greater than that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The developed method was applied to quantitatively analysis of domoic acid in contaminated shellfish samples with rapid and simple pretreatment, and the results were consistent with the same samples analyzed through ELISA. The CE-EIA with EC detection provides a valid and sensitive analytical approach, not previously available, for determination of domoic acid in shellfish samples. PMID:22406515
During 2006 and 2007, we documented the re-emergence of severe episodes of vibriosis caused by Vibrio tubiashii in shellfish hatcheries on the west coast of North America. Lost larval and juvenile production included 3 previously undescribed hosts, Pacific (Crassostrea gigas) and Kumamoto (C. sikamea) oysters and geoduck clams Panope abrupta, with a 2007 decline in larval oyster production of approximately 59% in one hatchery. Losses of larval and juvenile bivalves were linked to V. tubiashii blooms in the coastal environment, which were associated with the apparent mixing of unusually warm surface seawater and intermittently upwelled cooler, nutrient- and Vibrio spp.- enriched seawater. The ocean temperature elevation anomaly in 2007 was not clearly linked to an El Niño event, as was a similar episode in 1998. Concentrations of the dominant shellfish-pathogenic vibrios were as high as 1.6 x 10(5) cfu ml(-1) in the cold, upwelled water. The bacteria possessed the genes coding for a protease and hemolysin described for V. tubiashii, and pathogenic isolates secreted these peptides. Lesions resulting from a classic invasive disease and a toxigenic noninvasive disease occurred in oyster and geoduck clam larvae. Management and prevention require reduction of incoming concentrations of the bacteria, reduction of contamination in water and air supplies and in stock chemical solutions, removal of bacterial toxins, and interruption of the cycle of bacterial amplification in the hatchery and in microalgal food supplies. PMID:19149375
Elston, Ralph A; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Humphrey, Karen L; Polyak, Ildiko K; Häse, Claudia C
Ultrasound-assisted extraction of As, Se, Ni and V from fish and shellfish has been applied as a fast and reliable sample pre-treatment method for accurate determination of the four elements by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman (As, Se) or Deuterium (Ni, V) background correction. A multivariate optimization approach has been employed for establishing the effect of variables influencing the
The accumulation of phycotoxins in bivalve mussels associated with mussels feeding on toxic phytoplankton is a well-known phenomenon in Norway. Regular monitoring for 25 years has revealed that accumulation of Diarrhetic Shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in mussels is the main phycotoxin problem along the Norwegian coast. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible trends over time of Dinophysis
Concentrations of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in toxic dinoflagellate cells and in marine planktonic copepods were monitored during the bloom of Alexandrium tamarense in Hiroshima Bay, western Japan. Concentration of the toxins retained by copepods was a function of the ambient toxin concentration, i.e. the product of A. tamarense cell density and cellular toxicity. The toxin concentration in copepods
The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in\\/on
This paper explores a central place foraging model with data on Meriam intertidal shellfish gathering strategies, field processing practices, patterns of resource transport, and consequences of these factors for introducing variability in shell assemblage composition among these Islanders of the eastern Torres Strait, Australia. As a result of differential field processing and shell material transport, we show that some species
Monitoring programmes for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs still rely heavily on the use of mouse bioassays (MBA) for consumer protection. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology (Lawrence method) was implemented in 1996 in the Portuguese monitoring programme as a complementary means of analysis. Comparison between MBA and HPLC was done at the time only by a qualitative
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium synthesize potent neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The grazing responses of two abundant copepod species from the Gulf of Maine, Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora herdmani, were compared using cultured isolates of Alexandrium spp., which differed in toxicity per cell and toxin composition and a non-toxic dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum. Additional experiments were performed
The ability of two Alexandrium species to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in laboratory culture following the generation of bacteria-free cultures was investigated. The dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 were cultured in the presence of antibiotics and tested for residual bacteria. After treatment with a cocktail of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and penicillin G, bacteria could
Georgina L Hold; Elizabeth A Smith; T. Harry Birkbeck; Susan Gallacher
Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a recurrent gastrointestinal illness in Morocco, resulting from consumption of contaminated shellfish. In order to develop a rapid and reliable technique for toxins detection, we have compared the results obtained by a commercial immunoassay-“DSP-Check” kit” with those obtained by LC-MS. Both techniques are capable of detecting the toxins in the whole flesh extract which was subjected to prior alkaline hydrolysis in order to detect simultaneously the esterified and non esterified toxin forms. The LC-MS method was found to be able to detect a high level of okadaic acid (OA), low level of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), and surprisingly, traces of azaspiracids 2 (AZA2) in mussels. This is the first report of a survey carried out for azaspiracid (AZP) contamination of shellfish harvested in the coastal areas of Morocco. The “DSP-Check” kit was found to detect quantitatively DSP toxins in all contaminated samples containing only OA, provided that the parent toxins were within the range of detection and was not in an ester form. A good correlation was observed between the two methods when appropriate dilutions were performed. The immunoassay kit appeared to be more sensitive, specific and faster than LC-MS for determination of DSP in total shellfish extract.
Elgarch, Adra; Vale, Paulo; Rifai, Saida; Fassouane, Aziz
Four species of shellfish (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Chlamis varia and Venus verrucosa) were collected during the autumn 2011 and spring 2012 along the eastern Adriatic coast from six shellfish harvesting areas (all species) and 13 breeding sampling areas (mussels) to assess As, Cd, Hg and Pb levels and the human risks of shellfish consumption. The mean metal concentrations (wet weight) in the examined species ranged from 1.420 to 9.575mg/kg for As, 0.034 to 1.270 for Cd, 0.005 to 0.680 for Hg and 0.140 to 2.072 for Pb. Examination of the spatial distribution of As, Cd, Hg and Pb revealed statistically significant differences among the studied areas. Since the concentrations were below the maximum prescribed by the laws of the EU and Croatia (the concentrations slightly exceeded the upper limits for three samples; Pb, Cd and Hg) and the hazard index, (HI) for Cd, Hg and Pb were below 1 and the target cancer risk (TR) for As was lower than 1×10(-6), there is no human health risk of consumption of shellfish from Croatian waters. PMID:24176332
The detection of toxins in shellfish through reliable methods is essential for human health preservation and prevention of economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Although no human intoxication has been unequivocally linked to gymnodimines or spirolides, these phycotoxins are highly toxic by intraperitoneal injection causing false positives in lipophilic toxin detection by the mouse bioassay. Based on the detection of molecular interactions by fluorescence polarization an inhibition assay was developed using fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes of Torpedo marmorata to detect gymnodimine and 13-desmethyl C spirolide. Both toxins, classified into the cyclic imine group, inhibit the interaction of alpha-bungarotoxin with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nM range. In this study we analyze the matrix effect of four shellfish species on the fluorescence polarization assay. Mussels, clams, cockles and scallops were extracted with acetone and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane and chloroform. The interference of these shellfish extracts with the alpha-bungarotoxin fluorescence or its binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was lower than 11%. The average recovery rates of gymnodimine and 13-desmethyl C spirolide using these solvents were 90.6+/-7.8% and 89.6+/-3.2%, respectively with variations among species. The quantification range of this fluorescence polarization assay for gymnodimine and 13-desmethyl C spirolide in all tested species was 80-2000 microg kg(-1) and 85-700 microg kg(-1) of shellfish meat, respectively. This assay format can be used to detect gymnodimine and 13-desmethyl C spirolide in shellfish as a screening assay. PMID:19951760
Fonfría, Eva S; Vilariño, Natalia; Espiña, Begoña; Louzao, M Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Botana, Luis M
The situation of the environment contaminated by paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) in Leizhou peninsula, China, has attracted more attention since seafood poisoning occurred occasionally. In this study, we examined the toxicities of shore crab Leptodius exaratus, Thalamita crenata and Metopograpsus latifrons by mouse assay, resistance to PST by lethal test injection with PST, and discussed the toxicity neutralization of their hemolymph. The results showed 12% of shore crabs possessed toxicity of 4.3-4.4 MU/g. The 100% lethal dose of PST for M. latifrons was about 2 times of those for the other two crab species. The hemolymphs of the crabs were all able to neutralize PST and tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity in different extent. The above results indicate shore crabs at this area are exposed to an environment potentially contaminated with PST and/or TTX, and the toxicity neutralizing efficacy of their hemolymph directly affects their resistance to the toxins. PMID:22542566
Blooms of Alexandrium species, in particular the species Alexandrium catenella, accounted for more than 50% of algal related, shellfish aquaculture harvest zone closures in New South Wales (NSW) Australia since 2005. While there are indications that species of Alexandrium are more abundant than they were formerly, there is little data available on the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the genus in NSW. A six and a half year dataset comprising a total of 8649 fortnightly samples from 31 estuaries spread over 2000 km of NSW coastline was analysed. The greatest abundances of Alexandrium spp. were observed during the austral Spring and Summer, in estuaries in the mid and southern latitudes of the state. In identifying these high risk zones, we propose variables such as season, temperature, rainfall and estuarine flushing to be targeted in intensive site specific studies, to support the development of predictive tools for resource managers. PMID:23743270
The need for reference materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and reference materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified reference materials for phycotoxins, the main producers currently being the National Research Council Canada and the Japanese Food Research Laboratory. Limited availability of contaminated shellfish and algae, as well as the time and knowledge necessary for the production of adequate reference materials, continuously lead to limited editions of certified reference materials and even more limited production of in-house reference materials. The restricted availability of in-house quality control materials promotes the rapid use of the limited certified reference materials, which in turn hampers the production of the suite of materials required globally for complete protection of public health. This paper outlines the various options that analysts can pursue in the use of reference materials for internal and external quality control, with a view to optimising the efforts of both reference materials users and reference materials producers. For this purpose, the logical sequence is reviewed from the discovery of a new bioactive compound in shellfish, through initial method development up to regulation for food safety purposes including accepted reference methods. Subsequently, the requirements for and efforts typically spent in the production and characterisation of laboratory reference materials, certified reference materials and other test materials used in inter-laboratory studies or proficiency testing, in the area of marine biotoxins are evaluated. Particular emphasis is put on practical advice for the preparation of in-house reference materials. The intricate link between reference material characterisation and method performance is outlined to give guidance on the appropriate in-house method validation in the rapidly developing field of phycotoxins. PMID:17004057
Hess, Philipp; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that are suspected to be of viral origin are on the rise. Thus, there is a need for regulatory agencies entrusted with food safety to develop adequate techniques for the detection of viruses in foods. We have established a general procedure for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish that, with minor modifications, is also applicable to fresh produce such as cilantro. Total RNA was isolated from shellfish or cilantro, followed by isolation of poly(A)-containing RNA. Because HAV genomic RNA contains a poly(A) tail, the isolation of poly(A)-containing RNA also enriches HAV genomic RNA. Reverse transcription was used to convert the RNA to cDNA, and then amplification was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Reamplification with internal primers was used to improve the quality and the quantity of amplified DNA, allowing for post-PCR analysis such as sequence identification of the viral strain. With this procedure, multiple samples could be analyzed in four working days by a single trained individual. The nominal sensitivity of detection of the procedure was 0.15 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) per 0.62 g of tissue with a test virus. The direct RNA isolation protocol avoided pitfalls associated with whole-virus purification procedures by replacing virus precipitation steps involving polyethylene glycol and Procipitate with phenol extraction. The method is straightforward and reliable. We successfully used this procedure to detect naturally occurring HAV in clams involved in a gastroenteritis outbreak, as well as in cilantro artificially contaminated with a test virus. PMID:11858194
Goswami, B B; Kulka, Michael; Ngo, Diana; Istafanos, Phillip; Cebula, Thomas A
Objectives This investigation was undertaken in response to an outbreak of suspected shellfish poisoning in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this project were to confirm the outbreak and to identify the aetiology, source and mode of transmission. Methods A probable case was defined as an individual with diarrhea (?3 times/day) plus at least one of the following symptoms: fever (?37.5°C), vomiting, or abdominal pain after consuming seafood between May 23rd and May 28th, 2011. Using a case-control study design, we compared exposures to suspected seafood items and cooking methods between 61 probable cases and 61 controls. Results Over 220 suspected or probable cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) were identified (incidence of 18 cases per 100,000). The case control study revealed that 100% of cases and 18% of controls had eaten mussels during the exposure period (OR?=??, ?2?=?84.72,P?=?0.000). The number of mussels consumed was related to DSP risk (P?=?0.004, ?2 test for trend). Consumption of other seafood items was not associated with disease. The frequency of diarrhea and vomiting were positively correlated with the number of mussels consumed (r?=?0.424 and r?=?0.562, respectively). The frequency of vomiting and the incubation period were significantly correlated with the total time the mussels were boiled (r?=?0.594 and r?=??0.336, respectively). Mussels from 3 food markets and one family contained Okadaic acid (OA) and Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1). Conclusions This outbreak was attributed to the consumption of mussels contaminated by DSP-toxins (OA and DTX-1) which are produced by different species of dinoflagellates (toxic microalgae) from the genus Dinophysis or Prorocentrum. Suspension of mussel sales and early public announcements were highly effective in controlling the outbreak, although oversight of seafood quality should be a priority to prevent future contamination and outbreaks.
Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensiademissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.
Contamination of shellfish with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST) produced by toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been negatively affecting the shellfish and aquaculture industries worldwide. Therefore, accurate and early identification of toxic phytoplankton species is crucial in HABs surveillance programs that allow fish-farmers to take appropriate preventive measures in shellfish harvesting and other aquaculture activities to overcome the negative impacts of HABs on human health. The identification of toxic dinoflagellates present in the water is currently a time-consuming operation since it requires skillful taxonomists and toxicologists equipped with optical and scanning electron microscopes as well as sophisticated equipment, for example, high-performance liquid chromotography-fluorescence detection. In this paper, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic approach was applied to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic strains of Alexandrium minutum. Variation in morphological features between toxic and nontoxic strains was minimal and not significant. Also, variation in 2-DE protein patterns within either toxic or nontoxic strains was low, but pronounced differences were detected between toxic and nontoxic strains. The most notable differences between these strains were several abundant proteins with pIs ranging from 4.8 to 5.3 and apparent molecular masses between 17.5 and 21.5 kDa. Groups of proteins, namely NT1, NT2, NT3, and NT4, were consistently found in all nontoxic strains, while T1 and T2 were prominent in the toxic strains. These specific protein spots characteristic for toxic and nontoxic strains remained clearly distinguishable irrespective of the various growth conditions tested. Therefore, they have the potential to serve as "taxonomic markers" to distinguish toxic and nontoxic strains within A. minutum. Initial studies revealed that the expression pattern of T1 was tightly correlated to toxin biosynthesis in the examined alga and may be used to serve as a potential toxin indicator. PMID:15800974
Chan, Leo Lai; Hodgkiss, Ivor John; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Chou, Hong-Nong; Lum, John Hon-Kei; Lo, Maria Gar-Yee; Mak, Abby Sin-Chi; Sit, Wai-Hung; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap
France is currently one of theleading shellfish production countries inEurope, harvesting more than 150,000 metrictons of the Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and 60,000 tons ofmussels (Mytilus edulis and M.galloprocincialis) each year. Amongrearing areas, the Charentais Sounds and theMarennes-Oléron Bay rank first in Europe,with an annual production of 40,000 and 15,000tons of oysters and mussels respectively. Morethan a third of
Substantial mortalities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at two aquaculture sites in Long Island Sound, off Grand Manan Island, Bay of Fundy (BoF) (New Brunswick, Canada) in September 2003, were associated with a bloom of Alexandrium fundyense (>3×105cellsL?1), a dinoflagellate alga that produces toxins which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Cells of A. fundyense collected from surface waters while fish
D. H. Sephton; K. Haya; J. L. Martin; M. M. LeGresley; F. H. Page
Juvenile Pacific giant lions-paw scallops Nodipecten subnodosus were fed the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), supplied with Isochrysis galbana (a nontoxic microalgae). Short-term (G. catenatum. Kinetics of PSP was examined in longer-term experiments (>2 days). At high food concentrations, juvenile scallops showed\\u000a production of pseudofeces, partial shell valve closure, and reduction in feeding. According to
Norma A. Estrada; Nestor Lagos; Carlos García; Alfonso N. Maeda-Martínez; Felipe Ascencio
Noroviruses (NoV), which are members of the family Caliciviridae, are the most important cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and are commonly found in shellfish grown in polluted waters. In the present study, we developed broadly reactive one-step TaqMan reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays for the detection of genogroup I (GI) and GII NoV in fecal samples, as well as
Narayanan Jothikumar; James A. Lowther; Kathleen Henshilwood; David N. Lees; Vincent R. Hill; Jan Vinje
A standardized real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay has been developed for an accurate estimation of the number of genome copies of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in clinical and shellfish samples. Real-time procedures were based on the amplification of a fragment of the highly conserved 5 noncoding region and detection through an internal fluorescent probe, including TaqMan and beacon chemistries, in
Quantitative structure-activity relationships were determined for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), OA diol-ester and dinophysistoxin-4 (DTX-4), using a sensitive bioassay procedure with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. OA diol-ester was found to be nearly as toxic as OA. This result contradicted the accepted idea that only the free acid toxins, such as DTX-1 and OA, are potent
Anthony J. Windust; Michael A. Quilliam; Jeffrey L. C. Wright; Jack L. McLachlan
Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups. PMID:21860937
Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna
The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared following incubation of incurred homogenates with optimum proportions of surf clam tissue, resulting in materials containing a large number of PSP toxins. Stability experiments provided good preliminary evidence for the stability of these targeted materials under storage conditions. The work therefore provides both additional information relating to the transformational activity in UK surf clams and highlights a good potential method for the targeted production of reference materials which include a wider range of toxins than normally present in naturally incurred shellfish. PMID:23369833
Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G
Vibrios are a group of major foodborne pathogens widely distributed in marine environment. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus are the pathogenic species of Vibrio that pose the greatest threat to human health. However, other vibrios, e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Grimontia hollisae, apparently less relevant in the group of foodborne pathogens, have been sporadically found in outbreaks. For seafood safety and economic purposes, a rapid and powerful method for the specific identification of harmful Vibrio strains is needed. We developed a PCR-Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (PCR-LDR-UA) assay for the simultaneous identification of pathogenic vibrios and detection of virulence coding genes. The entire procedure was validated on a total of 31 reference strains and isolates from clinical and environmental samples, as well as on bivalve tissue homogenates infected with different strains of target Vibrio species. Twenty-three shellfish samples directed to human consumption were successfully screened, thus demonstrating that the developed microarray-based platform could be a reliable and sensitive detection tool for the identification of harmful Vibrio strains in seafood. PMID:22177227
A comparison was done of 231 strains of birnavirus isolated from fish, shellfish, and other reservoirs in a survey study that began in 1986 in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Reference strains from all of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotypes were included in the comparison, which was done by neutralization tests and agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral genome. The neutralization tests with antisera against the West Buxton, Spajarup (Sp), and Abild (Ab) strains showed that most of the Galician isolates were European types Sp and Ab; however, many isolates (30%) could not be typed. Results from agarose gels did not provided information for grouping of the strains, since all were found to have genomic segments of similar sizes. Analysis of polyacrylamide gels, however, allowed six electropherogroups (EGs) to be differentiated on the basis of genome mobility and separation among segments, and a certain relationship between EGs and serotypes was observed. A wide diversity of electropherotypes was observed among the Galician isolates, and as neutralization tests showed, most of the isolates were included in EGs corresponding to European types Ab and Sp. Only 6.5% of the isolates had the electropherotype characteristic of American strains.
Cutrin, J. M.; Olveira, J. G.; Barja, J. L.; Dopazo, C. P.
This paper describes the use of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for the extraction, cleanup and detection of 10 paralytic shellfish toxins (PSP) in sea food by HILIC-MS/MS with positive ESI. Matrix matched calibration standards were used to compensate for matrix effects. The toxins were extracted with acetonitrile/water (90:10, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid and cleaned by HLB and GCB sorbents. Qualitative and quantitative detection for the analytes were carried out under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ionization mode after chromatography separation on a TSK-gel Amide-80® column (150 mm×2.0 mm×3 ?m). Studies at three fortification levels for the toxins in the range of 8.1-225.5 ?g/kg gave mean recoveries from 71.3% to 104.6% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ? 15.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) was below the recommended regulatory limit of 170 ?gSTX(equ.)/kg and the proposed method fully meets the needs of daily monitoring. PMID:23199998
Graphene is a novel carbonic material with great potentials for the use as sorbent due to its ultrahigh surface area. Herein, we report the use of graphene as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE) using pipette tip as cartridge namely GPT-SPE, together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs), including yessotoxins (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), gymnodimine (GYM), spirolides-1 (SPX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA1) in shellfish. The GPT-SPE procedure was optimized and the performance of graphene was fully validated. Results with high-sensitivity and good reproducibility was obtained and compared with that of other sorbents like C18 silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), commercial Oasis HLB, and Strata-X for the extraction of LMTs, which showed superiority and advantages of graphene, such as good recoveries, stability and compatibility with various solvents. In order to exhibit the potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material, 67 mussel samples from six coastal cities of China were analyzed. OA was found to be the dominant contaminant, while YTX was also detected with low level. PMID:24148472
A laboratory experiment was performed with the clam Ruditapes decussatus, fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum and the non-toxic algae Isochrysis galbana (14 days) and subsequently only with I. galbana (15 days). Individual paralytic shellfish toxins were determined by LC-FLD in G. catenatum cells, whole clam tissues, and particulate organic matter (POM) produced by clams. The toxins dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3 in the algae were less abundant than C1 + 2 and B1, but were predominant in clams during both the exposure and depuration phases. The toxin dcNEO was only detected in clams during a short period, indicating conversion from other compounds. The toxin composition of the POM indicated the export of dcSTX as faeces or pseudo-faeces along the entire experiment (2.5-14 nmol mg(-1)), B1 was present in a short period of the exposure and C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 absent. A mass balance calculation indicated that approximately 95% of C1 + 2 and 85% of B1 supplied to the clams were converted into other toxins or lost in solution. Conversely, the net gain of 512, 61 and 31 nmol for dcSTX, dcGTX2 + 3 and dcNEO, respectively, suggests the conversion from other assimilated compounds by clams during exposure and depuration phases. PMID:22309810
Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Grilo, Rita Velez; Ferreira, João Gomes
The taxonomic position of three bacterial strains, Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, isolated from shellfish in Japan, was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile by gliding and Gram-staining-negative slender rods. Their major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and their predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH, and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.0-42.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains clustered with the genus Persicobacter in the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. DNA-DNA relatedness values were higher than 68% among strains Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, and were lower than 28% between strain Asr22-19T and Persicobacter diffluens NBRC 15940T. The three novel strains could be differentiated from Persicobacter diffluens by several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of these results, the novel species Persicobacter psychrovividus sp. nov. (type strain Asr22-19T=NBRC 101262T=CIP 109100T) is proposed and emended descriptions are given for the genus Persicobacter and for Persicobacter diffluens. PMID:19734280
Surface inland and coastal waters in Ireland were surveyed for the human waterborne enteropathogens; Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by utilizing bivalve mussel species, i.e., Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), Anodonta anatina (duck 'mussel', actually a unionid clam), and the invasive Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) as biomonitors at twelve sites located in three Irish river-basin districts with various water-quality pressures. Biomolecular techniques were utilized to assess the presence and concentration of these pathogens. At least one pathogen species was detected in shellfish at each site. Cryptosporidium, implicated in several recent Irish gastrointestinal epidemics, was recorded at all sites subjected to agricultural runoff and at one sewage discharge site, linking source-track directly to human and animal fecal wastes. G. lamblia was present at eleven of the twelve sites in a range of concentrations. A coastal bay with raw urban sewage discharge was 100% positive for all analyzed enteropathogens. Overall, the results demonstrate long-term human enteropathogen contamination of Irish waters with consequent public-health risk factors for drinking-water abstraction and water-based activities. PMID:18704498
Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology was developed as an effective passive sampling method for dissolved diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater. HP20 and SP700 resins have been reported as preferred adsorption substrates for lipophilic algal toxins and are recommended for use in SPATT testing. However, information on the mechanism of passive adsorption by these polymeric resins is still limited. Described herein is a study on the adsorption of OA and DTX1 toxins extracted from Prorocentrum lima algae by HP20 and SP700 resins. The pore size distribution of the adsorbents was characterized by a nitrogen adsorption method to determine the relationship between adsorption and resin porosity. The Freundlich equation constant showed that the difference in adsorption capacity for OA and DTX1 toxins was not determined by specific surface area, but by the pore size distribution in particular, with micropores playing an especially important role. Additionally, it was found that differences in affinity between OA and DTX1 for aromatic resins were as a result of polarity discrepancies due to DTX1 having an additional methyl moiety. PMID:21300360
The temporal dynamics of carbon and nitrogen isotope values of co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture areas (Normandy, France) were investigated over two years to evaluate the inter-specific trophic partitioning and relative contributions of organic matter sources to benthic suspension-feeders' diet. Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas), mussels ( Mytilus edulis), cockles ( Cerastoderma edule), slipper limpets ( Crepidula fornicata), and sand-mason worms ( Lanice conchilega) were sampled in an estuarine environment (Baie des Veys, east Cotentin, Normandy), while oysters, mussels, slipper limpets, and honeycomb worms ( Sabellaria alveolata) were sampled in an open-marine environment (Lingreville-sur-mer, west Cotentin, Normandy). Whatever the sampling period, the bivalves, C. gigas and M. edulis, exhibited the lowest values of ?13C and ?15N compared with the other species. Feeding relationships among suspension-feeders in both C. gigas culture areas exhibited temporal variations due to the marine/estuarine influence and seasonal changes in food supply. In the open-marine ecosystem, the contribution of phytoplankton remained the most important for all species except S. alveolata, while in the estuarine ecosystem, microphytobenthos and/or macroalgae detritus contributed a larger extent to the organisms' diets. During phytoplankton bloom periods (e.g. May and July) suspension-feeders, except for S. alveolata, relied strongly on phytoplankton; however, the majority of suspension-feeders exhibited different opportunistic behaviour in winter when phytoplankton biomass might be a limiting factor. We hypothesized that differences in particle capture and selection by the suspension-feeders influenced their isotopic values. Feeding ecology of suspension-feeders partly explained why competition was limited and why ecosystems can often support unexpectedly large numbers of suspension-feeders. We also showed that understanding ecosystem characteristics of the organic matter sources is of primary importance to determine the extent to which members of the suspension-feeding guild potentially compete for food.
Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marín Leal, Julio César; Dubois, Stanislas; Orvain, Francis; Blin, Jean-Louis; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Ourry, Alain; Galois, Robert
Fish are recurrently exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding metabolism of PSTs and their toxic effects in fish is scarce. Consequently, the current study aims to investigate the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on PST metabolism in the liver of white seabream (Diplodus sargus), assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were intracoelomically (IC) injected with a nominal dose (expressed as saxitoxin equivalents) of 1.60 ?g STXeq kg?¹ semipurified from a G. catenatum cell culture with previously determined toxin profile. Fish were sacrificed 2 and 6 days after IC injection. PST levels determined in fish liver were 15.2 and 12.2 ?g STXeq kg?¹, respectively, at 2 and 6 days after the injection. Though several PSTs were administered, only dcSTX was detected in the liver after 2 and 6 days. This was regarded as an evidence that most of the N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins were rapidly biotransformed in D. sargus liver and/or eliminated. This was corroborated by a hepatic GST activity induction at 2 days after injection. Hepatic EROD activity was unresponsive to PSTs, suggesting that these toxins enter phase II of biotransformation directly. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was also demonstrated; these toxins were able to induce cytogenetic damage, such as chromosome (or chromatid) breaks or loss and segregational anomalies, measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study pointed out the ecological risk associated with the contamination of fish with PSTs generated by G. catenatum blooms, providing the necessary first data for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring programs aiming to assess the impact of phytoplankton blooms in fish. PMID:22057254
Costa, Pedro Reis; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Nicolau, Lídia; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. The pathogens included Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. carchariae, V. cholerae, V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. harveyi, V. ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. Three types of MAbs were selected. The first important group included MAbs that reacted with only a single species. A second group comprised a number of MAbs that reacted with two, taxonomically closely related Vibrio species. For example, of 22 MAbs raised against V. alginolyticus, 6 recognized a 52-kDa flagellar H antigen common to both V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus; V. anguillarum and V. ordalii also shared antigens. A third group included three genus-specific MAbs that reacted with almost all Vibrio species but did not react with other members of the family Vibrionaceae (e.g., members of the Aeromonas, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas genera) or a wide range of gram-negative bacteria representing many genera. This last group indicated the possible existence of an antigenic determinant common to Vibrio species. Two of these three genus-specific MAbs reacted with heat-stable antigenic determinants of Vibrio species as well as lipopolysaccharide extracted from Vibrio species. The use of the MAbs in blind tests and diagnosis of clinical isolates indicated that three different types of bacteria, viz., live, formalin-fixed, and sodium azide-killed bacteria, were detected consistently. Overall, it was found that the genus-specific MAbs were very useful for rapidly identifying vibrios in the screening of acute infections, while the species-specific MAbs and others were useful for completing the diagnosis. Images
Chen, D; Hanna, P J; Altmann, K; Smith, A; Moon, P; Hammond, L S
A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050048
A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed and fully validated to detect the primary amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin, domoic acid (DA). The performance characteristics of two versions of the test were investigated using spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). The tests provide a qualitative result, to indicate the absence or presence of DA in extracts of shellfish tissues, at concentrations that are relevant to regulatory limits. The new rapid assay (LFIA version 2) was designed to overcome the performance limitations identified in the first version of the assay. The improved test uses an electronic reader to remove the subjective nature of the generated results, and the positive cut-off for screening of DA in shellfish was increased from 10ppm (version 1) to 17.5ppm (version 2). A simple extraction and test procedure was employed, which required minimal equipment and materials; results were available 15min after sample preparation. Stability of the aqueous extracts at room temperature (22°C) at four time points (up to 245min after extraction) and across a range of DA concentrations was 100.3±1.3% and 98.8±2.4% for pre- and post-buffered extracts, respectively. The assay can be used both within laboratory settings and in remote locations. The accuracy of the new assay, to indicate negative results at or below 10ppm DA, and positive results at or above 17.5ppm, was 99.5% (n=216 tests). Validation data were obtained from a 2-day, randomised, blind study consisting of multiple LFIA lots (n=3), readers (n=3) and operators (n=3), carrying out multiple extractions of mussel tissue (n=3) at each concentration (0, 10, 17.5, and 20ppm). No matrix effects were observed on the performance of the assay with different species (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). There was no impact on accuracy or interference from other phycotoxins, glutamic acid or glutamine with various strip incubations (8, 10, and 12min). The accuracy of the assay, using naturally contaminated samples to indicate negative results at or below 12.5ppm and positive results at or above 17.5ppm, was 100%. Variability between three LFIA lots across a range of DA concentrations, expressed as coefficient of variation (% CV), was 1.1±0.4% (n=2 days) based on quantitative readings from the electronic reader. During an 8 week stability study, accuracy of the method with test strips stored at various temperatures (6, 22, 37 and 50°C) was 100%. Validation for both versions included comparisons with results obtained using reference LC-UV methods. PMID:24148459
The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.
Chemicals are widely used in aquaculture and one of the main recipients of these analytes is the aquatic environment. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple and sensitive method for the determination of multiclass chemotherapeutic agents in farmed fish and shellfish using matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Residues of azamethiphos, three avermectins, two carbamates, and two benzoylureas were extracted from samples using silica gel as clean-up adsorbent and 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile as elution solvent. The extraction conditions were investigated and optimized using an experimental design. Mass spectrometry detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple-reaction monitoring scan (except for benzoylurea family). Matrix-matched standards were used for the drugs quantification. Good linearity (R(2) ? 0.996) was observed in the range of 5-500 ?g kg(-1). Limits of detection were in the range of 1.5-3.7 ?g kg(-1). Recoveries from salmon samples spiked with veterinary drugs were in the range 84.9-118%. Precision was satisfactory since relative standard deviations were lower than 10.6%. The method can be successfully applied for the analysis of fish and shellfish from aquaculture. PMID:23034871
Carro, Antonia M; García-Rodríguez, Diego; Gonzalez-Siso, Paula; Lorenzo, Rosa A
A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 ?g/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut. PMID:24025214
This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The antimicrobial spectrum of each strain included several indicator microorganisms, some of them also isolated from seafood. Growth of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and other LAB species were inhibited, although no inhibition of Gram-negative microorganisms was observed. Proteolytic, but not lipolytic or glycolytic enzymes, completely inactivated the antimicrobial effect of both cell-free supernatants confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitors. The antimicrobial activity was maintained after treatment with NaCl, SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80 and EDTA after 2 h or 5 h of exposure and both bacteriocins were stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. Production of bacteriocin by E. faecium (bacALP7) was detected initially at exponential phase and reached a maximum activity of 25,600 AU/ml in the early stationary phase, whereas bacteriocin production by P. pentosaceus ALP57 (bacALP57) reached the maximum at exponential phase with 12,800 AU/ml. The bacteriocins did not kill L. monocytogenes ESB54 nor L. innocua 2030c however, cellular growth was reduced. The partially purified bacteriocins, bacALP7 and bacALP57, were below 6.5 kDa in size as determined by Tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. E. faecium and P. pentosaceus contained DNA fragments corresponding in size to those recorded for enterocin B and pediocin PA-1, respectively. Sequencing of the fragments from both bacteriocins confirmed the homology. To our knowledge, for the first time two LAB producing bacteriocins similar to pediocin PA-1 and enterocin B, were isolated from non-fermented shellfish. The adaptation of the cultures to seafood matrices may be advantageous in terms of application as a biopreservation strategy for reduction of L. monocytogenes levels in seafood products. PMID:19081155
Pinto, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Melissa; Pinto, Cristina; Albano, Helena; Castilho, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A
In this study, a linked model system including the Loading Simulation Program C (LSPC) and the tidal prism water quality model (TPWQM) was proposed as an alternative tool for total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. The feasibility of the model system was tested by a case study in the Nassawadox Creek, a Virginia tidal water shellfish growing area. The watershed
|This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.
The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the
Lorena Cornejo-Ponce; Hugo H. Lienqueo; Bernardo T. Arriaza
Macroinvertebrates were examined on an impounded valley marsh in Stonington, Connecticut, that has changed from a Typha-dominated system to one with typical salt-marsh vegetation during 13 years following the reintroduction of tidal exchange. Animal populations on this restored impounded marsh were evaluated by comparing them with populations on a nearby unimpounded valley marsh of roughly the same size. Populations of the high marsh snail, Melampus bidentatus Say, were quantitatively sampled along transects that extended from the water-marsh edge to the upland; those of the ribbed mussel, Geukensiademissa Dillwyn, were sampled in low marsh areas on transects along the banks of creeks and mosquito ditches. The occurrence of other marsh invertebrates also was documented, but their abundance was not measured. The mean density of Melampus was 332±39.6 SE/m2 on the restored impounded marsh and 712±56.0 SE/m2 on the unimpounded marsh. However, since snails were larger on the restored impounded marsh, the difference in snail biomass was less pronounced than the difference in snail density. Mean Melampus biomass was 4.96±0.52 SE g dry wt/m2 on the restored impounded marsh and 6.96±0.52 SE g dry wt/m2 on the unimpounded marsh. On the two marshes, snail density and biomass varied in relation to plant cover and other factors. The density and biomass of Geukensia at the edge of the marsh were comparable on the restored impounded and unimpounded marshes. Mean mussel densities ranged from 80 to 240/m2 and mean mussel biomass varied from 24.8-64.8 g dry wt/m2 in different low marsh areas. In contrast, below the impoundment dike, mean Geukensia density was 1100±96.4 SE/m2 and mean Geukensia biomass was 303.6±33.28 SE g dry wt/m2. A consideration of all available evidence leads to the conclusion that the impounded marsh is in an advanced phase of restoration.
Peck, Myron A.; Fell, Paul E.; Allen, Elizabeth A.; Gieg, Jennifer A.; Guthke, Carl R.; Newkirk, Michael D.
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The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (?) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low ? is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during periods of low wind stress ranges from 100-700µatm. When strong equatorward winds induce upwelling, pCO2 levels exhibit a higher daily range of 300-2000µatm. The saturation state was calculated from the pCO2/TCO2 measurements of the discrete samples. The ? for calcite and aragonite ranged from 2.07 and 1.15 to 8.58 and 4.69 respectively from April through August. Increased pCO2 and decreased pH have been shown to negatively impact larval development in C. gigas (Kurihara, 2007). Periods of elevated pCO2 in May and June 2010 correlated with commercial losses at WCH. The use of precise pCO2 measurements in real time has proven to be a valuable tool for use in aquaculture. As a commercial practice WCH has elected to only use source water that is below empirical pCO2 thresholds for spawning and culturing larvae. This has resulted in continued production and cost saving in an industry crucial to coast economies. A continuous TCO2/pCO2 monitoring system will be integrated into this long time-series to constrain inorganic carbon providing insight into carbonate chemistry dynamics in Netarts Bay, effects of ocean acidification on bivalve development and possible water treatment approaches for commercial aquaculture.
Increased residential development in coastal watersheds has led to increases in anthropogenic nitrogen inputs into estuaries. Sessile bivalves are good candidate organisms to examine animal condition in nutrient-enriched areas because they contribute significantly to energy flow...
Human poisoning due to consumption of seafood contaminated with phycotoxins is a worldwide problem, and routine monitoring programs have been implemented in various countries to protect human consumers. Following successive episodes of unexplained shellfish toxicity since 2005 in the Arcachon Bay on the French Atlantic coast, a national research program was set up to investigate these atypical toxic events. Part of this program was devoted to fit-for-purpose cell-based assays (CBA) as complementary tools to collect toxicity data on atypical positive-mouse bioassay shellfish extracts. A collaborative study involving five laboratories was conducted. The responses of human hepatic (HepG2), human intestinal (Caco2), and mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cell lines exposed to three known lipophilic phycotoxins-okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2)-were investigated. A screening strategy composed of standard operating procedures and a decision tree for dose-response modeling and assay validation were designed after a round of "trial-and-error" process. For each toxin, the shape of the concentration-response curves and the IC(50) values were determined on the three cell lines. Whereas OA induced a similar response irrespective of the cell line (complete sigmoid), PTX2 was shown to be less toxic. AZA1 induced cytotoxicity only on HepG2 and Neuro2a, but not on Caco2. Intra- and inter-laboratory coefficients of variation of cell responses were large, with mean values ranging from 35 to 54 % and from 37 to 48 %, respectively. Investigating the responses of the selected cell lines to well-known toxins is the first step supporting the use of CBA among the panel of methods for characterizing atypical shellfish toxicity. Considering these successful results, the CBA strategy will be further applied to extracts of negative, spiked, and naturally contaminated shellfish tissues. PMID:22538779
Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12–18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon.
We establish the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and deepen the comparison of isolates using MALDI-TOF MS for the typing of isolates originating from the Khnifiss lagoon (Morocco). Amongst 48 samples from sea water, sediment and shellfish isolated from different sites of Khnifiss lagoon, Morocco, we obtained 22 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus identified by Vitek 2™ System (bioMérieux) and MALDI Biotyper™ (Bruker Daltonics). All isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin and ticarcillin, moderately resistant to cefalotin, but sensitive to 16 other antimicrobials tested. MALDI-TOF MS was used to discriminate between closely related environmental strains of V. parahaemolyticus. A clustering and distribution based on MALDI-TOF spectra were generated using the BioTyper 1.1™ software. Despite low diversity in regard to the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial resistance, the isolates evoke a larger biodiversity when analysed through mass spectra of abundant proteins. Different evaluations of a cut-off value showed that, when placed at a 10% threshold of the whole diversity, isolates differed by at least three mass peaks. PMID:23464928
Malainine, S M; Moussaoui, W; Prévost, G; Scheftel, J-M; Mimouni, R
Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12-18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon. PMID:23676417
Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 ?mol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 ?mol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50-90%). The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated. PMID:21556170
Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ±0.1 ?mol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 ?mol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50–90%). The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated.
To investigate the role of detoxification-related liver genes in amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin metabolism, red sea bream Pagrus major were exposed to domoic acid (DA, 2mugg(-1) wet weight) for 24h. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of AHR, ARNT, CYP1 and GSTs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cytosolic factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) mRNA levels of DA exposure group were substantially enhanced by 113.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Consistent with this result, the phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) was significantly induced. In contrast, the transcriptions of three major phase II XME glutathione S-transferases as well as heat shock protein 70 were not significantly affected by DA exposure. These results suggest a possible role of CYP1A after DA exposure in the toxin metabolism of marine fish, possibly through the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway. PMID:19665739
Wang, Lin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Bing; Mai, Kang-Sen; Huang, Yan; Shen, Dan
The accumulation of phycotoxins in bivalve mussels associated with mussels feeding on toxic phytoplankton is a well-known phenomenon in Norway. Regular monitoring for 25 years has revealed that accumulation of Diarrhetic Shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in mussels is the main phycotoxin problem along the Norwegian coast. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible trends over time of Dinophysis spp. and DSP as well as possible correlation between abundance of Dinophysis spp. and toxin accumulation in mussels, as based on intensive and regular monitoring at the southern coast of Norway at Flødevigen Bay. The main source organism causing a risk of DSP in Norway is Dinophysis acuta. However, it cannot be excluded that other Dinophysis spp., e.g. D. acuminata and D. norvegica, may contribute to the total accumulation of toxins. The variability in the occurrence of these species is high at both short- and long-term; between days and between years. There are, however, some important overall patterns in the occurrence of the species during the last decades. Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica have mainly been abundant from March to December, whereas D. acuta has typically occurred in late summer and autumn (August-December). For all three species we have observed a narrowing of the peak season since 2002 at the same time as they have become less abundant. Coincident with these changes, the problem of the accumulation of DSP toxins in mussels along the southern coast of Norway has declined significantly, but it is still mainly restricted to the autumn. Why the cell concentration of Dinophysis spp. has declined after 2002 is not obvious, but this has occurred in a period with relatively high summer temperatures. The relatively simultaneous changes in physical, chemical and biological factors of the pelagic ecosystem along the southern coast of Norway indicate that complicated ecological interactions may be involved. PMID:22891979
Quantitative structure-activity relationships were determined for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), OA diol-ester and dinophysistoxin-4 (DTX-4), using a sensitive bioassay procedure with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. OA diol-ester was found to be nearly as toxic as OA. This result contradicted the accepted idea that only the free acid toxins, such as DTX-1 and OA, are potent phosphatase inhibitors. Postassay analyses using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of cultures incubated with OA diol-ester showed that the ester had partially decomposed to OA, which explained some but not all of the observed toxicity. The formation of OA during the bioassay raised the possibility that cells exposed to inactive DSP toxin esters could metabolically activate them. This was examined in an additional experiment which showed that the hydrolysis of both DTX-4 and OA diol-ester was spontaneous and apparently not mediated by the presence of T. weissflogii cells. However, cells of T. weissflogii challenged with OA diol-ester rapidly metabolized most of the toxin to a more water-soluble product. From interpretation of mass spectral data obtained using ion-spray LC-MS, the metabolite was identified as an oxygenated diol-ester of OA, implying that it was the product of a monooxygenase-detoxification pathway. It is postulated that OA diol-ester, as a lipid-soluble, uncharged molecule with a propensity to hydrolyse to OA, may facilitate the transfer of OA across cell walls and membranes. PMID:9428106
Windust, A J; Quilliam, M A; Wright, J L; McLachlan, J L
The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1/AZA6 and AZA4/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1?ppm of the theoretical m/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010?µg/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007?µg/g) using CID MS/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n?=?6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n?=?3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS/MS, produced equivalent quantitative data. PMID:20872629
Skrabáková, Zuzana; O'Halloran, John; van Pelt, Frank N A M; James, Kevin J
Most liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometric (MS) methods used for routine monitoring of lipophilic marine toxins focus on the analysis of the 13 toxins that are stated in European Union legislation. However, to date over 200 lipophilic marine toxins have been described in the literature. To fill this gap, a screening method using LC coupled to high resolution (HR) orbitrap MS (resolution 100000) for marine lipophilic toxins has been developed. The method can detect a wide variety of okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) group toxins. To build a library of toxins, shellfish and algae samples with various toxin profiles were obtained from Norway, Ireland, United Kingdom, Portugal and Italy. Each sample extract was analyzed with and without collision induced dissociation fragmentation. Based on their mass and specific fragmentation pattern, 85 different toxins were identified comprising 33 OA, 26 YTX, 18 AZA and 8 PTX group toxins. A major complication of full scan HRMS is the huge amount of data generated (file size), which restricts the possibility of a fast search. A software program called metAlign was used to reduce the orbitrap MS data files. The 200-fold reduced data files were screened using an additional software tool for metAlign: 'Search_LCMS'. A search library was constructed for the 85 identified toxins. The library contains information about compound name, accurate mass, mass deviation (<5 ppm), retention time (min) and retention time deviation (<0.2 min). An important feature is that the library can easily be exchanged with other instruments as the generated metAlign files are not brand-specific. The developed screening procedure was tested by analyzing a set of known positive and blank samples, processing them with metAlign and searching with Search_LCMS. A toxin profile was determined for each of the contaminated samples. No toxins were found in the blank sample, which is in line with the results obtained for this sample in the routine monitoring program (rat bioassay and tandem LC-MS). PMID:21168567
Gerssen, Arjen; Mulder, Patrick P J; de Boer, Jacob
Some organisms that survive in environments rich in hydrogen sulfide possess specific metabolic pathways for sulfide oxidation and subsequent use of reducing equivalents in oxidative phosphorylation, a process called chemolithoheterotrophy. This process is dependent on ambient oxygen partial pressure and environmental sulfide exposure. To define accurately the kinetics of sulfide metabolism and its dependence on cellular conditions, we have developed a polarographic sulfide sensor (PSS) to measure sulfide concentrations directly and continuously under physiological conditions. The ribbed mussel Geukensiademissa, an inhabitant of sulfide-rich coastal sediments, consumes sulfide in a chemolithoheterotrophic metabolic strategy. Gill mitochondria use sulfide as respiratory substrate for ATP production, and sulfide consumption is sufficiently rapid and so kinetically complex that only continuous real-time detection captures these events. Under normoxic conditions, oxygen and sulfide consumption are matched. Under hypoxic to anoxic conditions, however, sulfide consumption continues without commensurate oxygen consumption, and these results can be duplicated at higher oxygen conditions by selective blockade of terminal oxidases. These metabolic capabilities depend on prior environmental sulfide exposure, which suggests substantial mitochondrial metabolic plasticity. The recent finding that endogenous sulfide is a critical cell signaling molecule in all organisms suggests that the metabolic pathways that tightly control cellular sulfide levels are widespread. Sensors that accurately report sulfide concentrations under physiologically relevant conditions are valuable tools with which to explore the expanding role of sulfide in biological systems. PMID:15371475
Washington waters offer a delectable variety of clams, oysters, mussels and scallops, readily available to be gathered and enjoyed. For seafood lovers, opportunities abound at many locales and most seasons of the year. At certain times, however, some shel...
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An integrated multi-trophic aquaculture assessment for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture as a bioremediation strategy in areas impacted by fish farm effluents in Rio San Pedro was assessed by combining geographic information system with carrying capacity models. Sites of 0.44 km(2) were evaluated considering constraints; physical factors, growth and survival factors, environmental quality factors, water and sediment quality criteria, factor suitability ranges, and Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Isleta and Flamenco are promising sites for oyster production, and Dorada is of marginal interest. Carbon and nitrogen removal from the water by algae and through detritus filtration was estimated. The biodeposition of organic material from longline leases was found to have little negative impact on sediment. The eutrophication results indicate that phytoplankton removal had a positive impact on water quality at the Dorada. This case study quantified the direct profitability and bioremediative environmental service advantages that fish-shellfish farms can have relative to fish monocultures. PMID:22310375
Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A
This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).
Specific inhibition of protein-phosphatases by diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSP) of the okadaic acid group, has led to the development of a fluorescent enzyme inhibition assay for these toxins using protein-phosphatase 2A (PP-2A) and fluorogenic substrates of the enzyme. Two different substrates of PP-2A have been previously used in this microplate assay: 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate and fluorescein diphosphate (FDP). In this report, we present the results obtained using a new fluorogenic substrate of PP-2A, the compound dimethylacridinone phosphate (DDAO). A linear relationship between PP-2A concentration and DDAO-induced fluorescence was observed. Okadaic acid (0.0157-9.43 nM)-dependent inhibition of phosphatase activity showed similar results using FDP and DDAO. Recovery percentages obtained with FDP and DDAO in spiked mussel samples (both raw and canned) were very similar and reproducible. Comparative analysis of DSP-contaminated mussel samples by HPLC and FDP/DDAO-PP-2A showed a good correlation among all methods, thus demonstrating that DDAO can be used as a fluorogenic substrate to quantify okadaic acid and related toxins in bivalve molluscs with optimum reliability. PMID:10858520
The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents of 123 Spanish commercial salmon, tuna fish, sardine, oyster, mussel, and clam samples from 1995 to 2003 were investigated. A significant decrease of dioxin and non-ortho PCB concentrations in the studied species was found over the years. The decrease was greater in the case of dioxins than in that of non-ortho PCBs, especially during the early years of the study. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in the years 2001-2003 were comparable to those reported in the literature for similar species collected after 1999. Mean PCB concentrations ranged from 3.46 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) in clams to 100 ng/g of fw in tuna fish. PCDD/F mean current levels ranged from 0.62 pg/g of fw in clams to 2.89 pg/g of fw in oysters. Toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) ranged from 0.05 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in clams to 0.5 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in salmon (in the upper bound determination levels). When coplanar PCBs were included, the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+cop) (PCBs) values increased by a range of 1.7 times in oysters to 14.1 times in tuna fish. The decrease in dioxin concentrations suggests that efforts to control dioxin emissions and to reduce human exposure through foodstuffs are succeeding. The high contribution of PCBs to total WHO-TEQs in the fish and shellfish species investigated suggests that it is important to determine PCBs in foodstuffs, and especially in fish products, and they should be included in further research and future legislation. PMID:16218694
Gómara, B; Bordajandi, L R; Fernández, M A; Herrero, L; Abad, E; Abalos, M; Rivera, J; González, M J
Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish--Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab--Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed musse--Geukensiademissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957
Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensiademissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured.
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The syndrome of immediate type I food hypersensitivity, mediated by tissue-bound IgE antibody and mast cell histamine release, is well recorded in the medical literature. This case study represents a previously undescribed late food hypersensitivity, induced only by strenuous exercise. Identification of this new syndrome illustrates classical epidemiologic analysis, improves medical advice for the allergic and athletically inclined, and raises new questions in the areas of allergy and immunology. PMID:447945
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\\u000a Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate\\u000a in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory\\u000a fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal\\u000a blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing
The major objective of this project was to explore the feasibility of increasing the productivity of a brackish pond, currently used for commercial production of seed oysters (Crassostrea virginica), by means ofan artificial upwelling system. This system,...
Preterm parturition is a syndrome caused by several mechanisms of disease, including intrauterine infection/inflammation, uteroplacental ischemia, uterine overdistension, cervical disease, maternal/fetal stress, abnormal allogeneic responses, allergic reactions, and unknown insults. An allergic-like mechanism was proposed as a potential etiology for the preterm parturition syndrome, based on the observation that eosinophils were present in the amniotic fluid in a fraction of women with preterm labor and a history of allergy, coupled with the observation that conditioned media from degranulated mast cells (the effector cells of type 1 hypersensitivity) induced contractility of human myometrial strips. This communication describes a case of a pregnant woman who had an allergic reaction and regular uterine contractions after the ingestion of lobster meat, to which she was known to be allergic. Preterm labor subsided after the treatment of antihistamines and steroids. The patient subsequently delivered at term. At follow-up, the child was diagnosed with atopy and asthma, and required frequent use of inhaled corticosteroids and beta-2 adrenergic agents.
ROMERO, ROBERTO; KUSANOVIC, JUAN PEDRO; MUNOZ, HERNAN; GOMEZ, RICARDO; LAMONT, RONALD F.; YEO, LAMI
...crab, blue king crab, or Tanner crab in the location; (E) The waters of the Pacific Ocean enclosed by the boundaries of Womens Bay, Gibson Cove, and an area defined by a line1/2mile on either side of the mouth of the Karluk River, and...
...crab, blue king crab, or Tanner crab in the location; (E) The waters of the Pacific Ocean enclosed by the boundaries of Womens Bay, Gibson Cove, and an area defined by a line1/2mile on either side of the mouth of the Karluk River, and...
The Bartol in-air Pixe system has been used to study the elemental composition of many varieties of sea life; the sensitivity for the elements from Na to Sr is good, a reasonable spatial resolution is attainable and little preparation of the samples is required. Two examples are cited. First, the composition of the inner nacreous and prismatic regions of mussels (Mytilus edulis) taken monthly (1981-1982) from the Damariscotta River, Maine, has been measured and, second, the shell and soft tissues of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) grown under laboratory conditions on substrate of compacted residues from coal-fired power plants have been analysed. The mussel study shows a rather large anomaly in the Sr/Ca ratio for the nacreous region for May which suggests a possible connection with the reproduction cycle. Oysters grown on metal-containing coal-ash substrata gave tissue and shell metal concentrations similar to natural oysters, an indication of no anomalous uptake of metals from the coal-ash substrata.
Swann, C. P.; Hansen, K. Mueller; Price, K.; Lutz, R.
This collection of abstracts provides an account of four presentations at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the advancement of Veterninary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA from 10-14 August 2003)in a symposium session on zoonotic protozoan parasites foun...
A number of different compounds with highly diverse chemical structures have been shown to elevate the overall resistance of animals to a number of infectious agents simultaneously. Such compounds, usually called immunostimulants, include bacterial cell wall fragments, ß?1,3?glucans of yeast and mycelial fungi, peptides, and a number of synthetic products. The present review paper describes the chemical structure of various
Effective conservation of threatened species depends on the ability to assess organism physiology and population demography. To develop genomic resources to better understand the dynamics of two ecologically vulnerable species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, larval transcriptomes were sequenced for the pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, and the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida. Based on comparative species analysis the Ostrea lurida transcriptome (41 136 contigs) is relatively complete. These transcriptomes represent the first significant contribution to genomic resources for both species. Genes are described based on biological function with particular attention to those associated with temperature change, oxidative stress and immune function. In addition, transcriptome-derived genetic markers are provided. Together, these resources provide valuable tools for future studies aimed at conservation of Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, Ostrea lurida and related species. PMID:23280275
Timmins-Schiffman, Emma B; Friedman, Carolyn S; Metzger, Dave C; White, Samuel J; Roberts, Steven B
...subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes of propagation, or research related to propagation, at...
Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ?200 to ?50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and "jewelry" become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion. PMID:23776248
...digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and...gear, except when fishing through the ice, when you may substitute for the keg or buoy a stake inscribed with your first...
...digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and...gear, except when fishing through the ice, when you may substitute for the keg or buoy a stake inscribed with your first...
...A mechanical clam digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop...Kegs or buoys attached to subsistence crab pots also must be inscribed with the name or...number of the vessel used to operate the pots. (6) Pots used for subsistence...
This PBS article describes red tide, a phenomenon caused by phytoplankton in coastal waters. The site includes brief summaries of the causes and impacts of red tide, both on health and the tourism industry. A link to a PDF version of the article is provided.
Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was
Joanna Burger; Jennifer Fleischer; Michael Gochfelda
Text Version... week of receipt by SAPB, SAPB shall provide the Specialist with a copy of the country's written response to the evaluation report. 2. Within 3 weeks ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/complianceenforcement
Two samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from the southwest of Ireland. One sample contained domoic acid, the other sample contained okadaic acid,\\u000a dinophysistoxin-2 and azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3. Wet and freeze-dried reference materials were prepared from each of the two\\u000a samples to test for differences in homogeneity, stability and extractability of the analytes in either condition. Wet materials
The purpose of the authors' investigation was to search the literature for information on the partitioning, bioconcentration, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems which could be used to define the connection bet...
The project will document the adverse effects of episodic hypoxia on the biotic integrity of Lake Pontchartrain and provide quantitative data on environmental benefits derived from the restoration of 100 square miles of clam habitat in Lake Pontchartrain. This project will prov...
The following case concerns a soft tissue Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) infection in a fisherman who cut his foot while retrieving his fishing dinghy. It is rare for V. cholerae to cause extraintestinal infection. This V. cholera was identified as a non-toxigenic organism. The patient was successfully treated with medical therapy at Waikato Hospital (Hamilton, New Zealand) and discharged home after 10 days. PMID:24045356
The blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue–green algae) are causing problems in many countries. During a screening of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in Brazil, three strains isolated from the State of São Paulo were found toxic by the mouse bioassay. They all were identified as Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii by a close morphological examination. Extracts of cultured cells caused acute death to mice when
Néstor Lagos; Hideyuki Onodera; Pedro Antonio Zagatto; Dar??o Andrinolo; Sandra M. F. Q Azevedo; Yasukatsu Oshima
The impact of suspended mussel culture (Mytilus edulis, M. trossulus) on the benthos of a small Nova Scotia cove (7 m depth) was assessed using meehods involving both benthic metabolism and\\u000a community structure. Due to deposition of mussel feces and pseudofeces, sedimentation rate was higher under the mussel culture\\u000a lines than at an adjacent reference site of similar sediment texture.
J. Grant; A. Hatcher; D. B. Scott; P. Pocklington; C. T. Schafer; G. V. Winters
A competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) was used to determine the presence of okadaic acid (OA) and/or dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) in mussels. The accuracy and sensitivity of the ELISA method has been checked. The sensitivity of the method (100 ng/g of hepatopancreas) makes it possible to determine OA concentrations ten times lower than the tolerance limits established by the Health Authorities of many countries. For the first time, OA and/or DTX-1 were detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in different stations along the Adriatic Sea coasts. PMID:1519256
Tubaro, A; Sosa, S; Bruno, M; Gucci, P M; Volterra, L; Della Loggia, R
Among the asexual reproductive modes, androgenesis is probably one of the most astonishing and least studied mechanisms. In this ‘paternal monopolization', the maternal nuclear genome fails to participate in zygote development and offspring are paternal nuclear clones. Obligate androgenesis is known in only a few organisms, including multiple species of clam in the genus Corbicula. Corbicula is a good system to review the evolutionary consequences of this ‘all-male asexuality' because the cytological mechanisms of androgenetic reproduction have been described. In Corbicula, sperm are unreduced and, after fertilization, the maternal nuclear chromosomes are extruded as two polar bodies. Hermaphroditic lineages of Corbicula have a worldwide distribution and seem to reproduce through androgenesis, whereas their sexual relatives have restricted ranges. The invasive success of these androgenetic Corbicula lineages may be linked to their asexual mode of reproduction. We review the phenomenon of androgenesis, focusing on evolutionary perspectives, using the genus Corbicula as an exemplar system.
Pigneur, L-M; Hedtke, S M; Etoundi, E; Van Doninck, K
... the harmful effects of mercury. ?? Do not eat: • Shark • Swordfish • King Mackerel • Tilefish They contain high levels ... time to accumulate it. These large fish (swordfish, shark, king mackerel and tilefish) pose the greatest risk. ...
This study evaluates Hg and Se concentrations and bioaccessibility (element solubilised after simulated gastrointestinal digestion) in 16 raw seafood species consumed in Spain. The concentrations varied greatly (Hg, 3.8-1621 ng/g wet weight, ww; Se, 84-1817 ng/g ww). Only one sample of swordfish exceeded the Hg limit permitted in Spain (1mg/kg), and for this sample the Hg/Se molar ratio and Se Health Benefit Value food safety criteria also indicated the presence of a risk. Bioaccessibility of Hg (35-106%) and Se (17-125%) was very variable and the Hg/Se molar ratio in the bioaccessible fraction was less than one for all samples. Transport by Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium model, was also evaluated from the swordfish bioaccessible fraction. Hg and Se transport from the food was less than 14%, and cell retention was much greater for Hg (49-69%) than Se (8-12%). PMID:22634291
...MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Subsistence Taking of Fish and Wildlife...rounded and smooth. ADF&G means the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Airborne...the Federal Aviation Administration's Alaska Airman's Guide and chart...
The solubility of okadaic acid (OA) in supercritical CO2 was measured using a flow-type apparatus with sequential sampling during dynamic nonrecirculating experiments at saturation\\u000a conditions. Methanol and water were used as solvent modifiers of CO2. Collected OA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection after derivatization with\\u000a 1-bromoacetylpyrene to obtain the labeled ester of the toxin. Solubility results
J. C. González; M. R. Vieytes; J. M. Vieites; L. M. Botana
This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus.
Ana Luísa Pinto; Melissa Fernandes; Cristina Pinto; Helena Albano; Fernanda Castilho; Paula Teixeira; Paul A. Gibbs
This article examines the state of current approaches to the governance of common pool resources (CPRs), the impacts of the recent emergence of the partnership paradigm, and the consequences for the management of CPRs. These issues are explored through a case study of the Wash European Marine Site partnership, where a Public Inquiry recently upheld the refusal of the conservation
Project COULD (Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development) was developed as a means of building skills, knowledges, and attitudes on elementary children's previously acquired backgrounds. Children begin to speak the grammar and vocabulary characteristic of the language heard most frequently at home and in the immediate environment. A series…
Coos County Intermediate Education District, North Bend, OR.
Among the asexual reproductive modes, androgenesis is probably one of the most astonishing and least studied mechanisms. In this 'paternal monopolization', the maternal nuclear genome fails to participate in zygote development and offspring are paternal nuclear clones. Obligate androgenesis is known in only a few organisms, including multiple species of clam in the genus Corbicula. Corbicula is a good system to review the evolutionary consequences of this 'all-male asexuality' because the cytological mechanisms of androgenetic reproduction have been described. In Corbicula, sperm are unreduced and, after fertilization, the maternal nuclear chromosomes are extruded as two polar bodies. Hermaphroditic lineages of Corbicula have a worldwide distribution and seem to reproduce through androgenesis, whereas their sexual relatives have restricted ranges. The invasive success of these androgenetic Corbicula lineages may be linked to their asexual mode of reproduction. We review the phenomenon of androgenesis, focusing on evolutionary perspectives, using the genus Corbicula as an exemplar system. PMID:22473310
Pigneur, L-M; Hedtke, S M; Etoundi, E; Van Doninck, K
Forty-seven retail samples of fish (28 species) were tested for levels of free histidine, histamine and aerobic plate counts. Five samples had elevated levels (? 20 mg\\/100 g) of histamine and all had < 100 mg\\/100 g. Three species had free histidine levels of more than 1000 mg\\/l00 g and these have been implicated in scombroid poisoning in New Zealand.
Graham C. Fletcher; Graeme Summers; Robert V. Winchester; Ron J. Wong
...Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs...Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of...Office of Acquisition and Logistics (049A5A), Department of...is necessary for the proper performance of OA&L's...
...Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Office of Acquisition and Logistics (OA&L), Department of Veterans...information is necessary for the proper performance of OA&L's functions,...
People whose immune systems are compromised by liver disease, chemotherapy, etc. are at a substantial risk of contracting a fatal infection from the marine bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus to which they could potentially be exposed by eating raw oysters. It has proven difficult to ge...
Currently, hepatitis A virus (HAV) detection is not yet included in the regulation provided for food safety controls. However,\\u000a the 2073\\/2005\\/EC regulation on microbiological criteria applied to food takes into account the sanitary issue as to viral\\u000a contamination of food but postpones the definition of specific criteria for pathogenetic virus detection until reliable analytical\\u000a methods are available. In this study,
Laura Serracca; Francesca Gallo; Irene Rossini; Alessandro Benedetto; Daniela Lacerenza; Maria Rita Callipo; Milena Monnier; Maria Goria
In five of the seven most important commercial fisheries of Maryland an appreciable portion of the annual variations in catch can be linked with past fluctuations in the physical environment. The harvest figures were compared with appropriate annual characterizations of 40 years of daily environmental records using a variation of the stepwise multiple linear regression technique. The criterion for entry
ROBERT E. ULANOWICZ; MOHAMMED LIAQUAT ALI; ALICE VIVIAN; DONALD R. HEINLE; WILLIAM A. RICHKUS; J. KEVIN SUMMERS
Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) pollutants are chemical contaminants that pose risks to ecosystems and human health. For these reasons, available tissue contaminant data from the US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment were...
Adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, held for 8 d separately in tanks and fed known amounts of cultured cells of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense were held without feeding for an additional 10 d. During the 18 d study, 3 scallops were removed every 2 d and the quantity of of each toxin present was analyzed individually. The toxins released into the
Studies have been conducted on the absorbabihity of individual sterols from a mixture ofoystersterolswhen administered intragastrically to ratswith indwellingcathetersinthe left thoracic duct. In addition, the effect of oyster sterols on cholesterol absorption has been assessed using (4-'4C)cholesterolin the mixture,and comparison againstabsorption of cholesterolalone. The order of absorbabiity (percentage absorption) of individual sterols from the mixture of oyster sterohs was: cholesterol
The Wash, in eastern England, supports internationally important populations of 11 species of shorebird. A major commercial shellfishery provides potential conflict between fishermen and nature conservation interests. During the 1990s, high fishing mortality and low recruitment substantially reduced the stocks of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and mussel (Mytilus edulis). Population models, constructed from estimates of survival and recruitment, indicated that declines
Philip W. Atkinson; Nigel A. Clark; Mike C. Bell; Peter J. Dare; Jacquie A. Clark; Philip L. Ireland
Due to their unique chemical characteristics (including biodegradability to non-toxic products, physiological inertness and hydrophilicity), chitin, chitosan and their derivatives may be expansively utilized in the biotechnological, agricultural, food protection and nutraceutical, medicinal and pharmacological fields and in the areas of bioremediation and gene therapy. Biological actions associated with chitin and shell waste by-products include among others antibacterial, angiotensin-1-converting enzyme-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities, while the chitinolytic microbes and enzymes associated with chitinolysis also play a role in the de novo generation of further bioactivites. In Part B of this review we relate in more detail some of the bioactivities and applications of chitin and shell waste by-products. PMID:18320569
Temperature regulation is a vital component of any aquaculture system. Existing facilities can be retrofitted with extra insulation, waste heat recovery systems and in some cases, active solar water heating. Those aquaculture ventures that seek to raise organisms to market size under controlled conditions are currently hindered by high operating costs, including fuel. These outfits can also benefit from conservation
|Project COULD (Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development) was developed as a means of building skills, knowledges, and attitudes on elementary children's previously acquired backgrounds. Children begin to speak the grammar and vocabulary characteristic of the language heard most frequently at home and in the immediate environment. A…
Coos County Intermediate Education District, North Bend, OR.
The native oyster in estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America, Ostrea conchaphila (prev. Ostrea lurida, Olympia oyster), experienced overexploitation throughout its range in the late 1800’s, resulting in commercial extinction before 1930. Significant harvest restrictions and marine reserv...
There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called “marine protected areas” (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and
Anne Dekinga; Theunis Piersma; Jan A. van Gils; Bernard Spaans; Casper Kraan
Ecosystem-based management (EBM), despite the best efforts of managers, researchers, and policy makers, often falls short of its intended purpose resulting in inadequate protection of resources. Coastal habitats are particularly vulnerable to poor management due to high use and potential for user conflict. EBM can be improved when it is informed by ecological science and considers the socio-economic needs of
Carrie Byron; David Bengtson; Barry Costa-Pierce; John Calanni
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Four different studies were conducted to address important issues and data gaps in the NHEP Monitoring Program. Whereas the different studies had varying levels of success, the work collectively had advanced the level of understanding about the subjects a...
The stable nitrogen isotope ratio in ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissus) tissue was investigated as an indicator of the source of nitrogen inputs to coastal salt marshes. Mussels fed a diet of 15N enriched algae in the laboratory showed an increase in tissue nitrogen isotope rati...
Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in
Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo
Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171
Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antónia M
We discovered an enzyme present in members of the Vibrionaceae family, but not present in non-Vibrio pathogens. This enzyme is a lysyl aminopeptidase associated with phosphoglucose isomerase of all Vibrio species tested to date. A colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) was developed for th...
The Etang de Thau (France) is a shallow lagoon characterised by the semi-intensive farming of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) cultured in suspension on frames. Analysis of the benthic fluxes of inorganic nutrients and oxygen over a period of a year has provided a basis for describing the dynamics of the water–sediment interface in the lagoon. Monthly measurements of fluxes at
...Initial Determination Granting a Joint Motion To Terminate The Investigation as to Respondent...Order No. 26) granting a joint motion to terminate the investigation as to respondent...May 27, 2009, Cargill and ENI filed a motion to terminate the investigation based...
A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organi- zation and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for 2006–2050. Global production of crustaceans (18% yr), molluscs (7.4%), and seaweed (8%) increased rapidly during the 1970–2006 period.
A. F. Bouwman; M. Paw?owski; C. Liu; A. H. W. Beusen; S. E. Shumway; P. M. Glibert; C. C. Overbeek
Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast–Bight of Biafra (Bonny)–belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64±2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07±3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06±2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25±1.93 cfu/g, 5.99±1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84±1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V. cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area.
A liquid chromatography (LC) method is described for the easy determination of the biogenic diamines putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) in canned tuna, frozen tuna loin, fresh mahimahi fillet, frozen raw shrimp, cooked lump crabmeat, and fresh and cold-smoked salmon. The method is also a useful screen for histamine (HTA). The method involves homogenization of fish tissue, extraction of biogenic
Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions fit the observations satisfactorily. Results indicate that food quality and the importance of detritus as a food source are site-specific as well as species-specific. Despite these differences in their calibrated parameter values, both species show a very similar functional response. Compared with other systems, however, the functional responses of mussels in the present study are clearly higher than those of mussels in other systems. This may be explained by the absence of intra-specific competition in the measurement set-up that was used, and therefore supports the idea that the generally small functional response of M. edulis is caused by intra-specific competition.
Troost, T. A.; Wijsman, J. W. M.; Saraiva, S.; Freitas, V.
The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is an exotic parasite of fish that probably came into the United States with the importation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella from Europe. It primarily infects minnows and carps (Cyprinidae) but also is found in fish from several other families....
After almost a century of benign neglect, Canadian aquaculture policy emerged in its modern form after 1984, when the federal government led a complex intergovernmental process of policy renewal. After an initial period in which the foundations for the new policy were laid through intergovernmental agreements, both the federal and provincial governments adopted numerous policies aimed at the promotion of
The incidence of confirmed test, false-positive coliform most-probable-number results was compared with environmental parameters and was found to be inversely related to water temperature. It is concluded that the completed coliform test must be done when water temperatures drop below 15 degrees C.
Background Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by 36% during the past 200 years. One third of all anthropogenic CO2 has been absorbed by the oceans, reducing pH by about 0.1 of a unit and significantly altering their carbonate chemistry. There is widespread concern that these changes are altering marine habitats severely, but little or no attention has been given to the biota of estuarine and coastal settings, ecosystems that are less pH buffered because of naturally reduced alkalinity. Methodology/Principal Findings To address CO2-induced changes to estuarine calcification, veliger larvae of two oyster species, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and the Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) were grown in estuarine water under four pCO2 regimes, 280, 380, 560 and 800 µatm, to simulate atmospheric conditions in the pre-industrial era, present, and projected future concentrations in 50 and 100 years respectively. CO2 manipulations were made using an automated negative feedback control system that allowed continuous and precise control over the pCO2 in experimental aquaria. Larval growth was measured using image analysis, and calcification was measured by chemical analysis of calcium in their shells. C. virginica experienced a 16% decrease in shell area and a 42% reduction in calcium content when pre-industrial and end of 21st century pCO2 treatments were compared. C. ariakensis showed no change to either growth or calcification. Both species demonstrated net calcification and growth, even when aragonite was undersaturated, a result that runs counter to previous expectations for invertebrate larvae that produce aragonite shells. Conclusions and Significance Our results suggest that temperate estuarine and coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to the expected changes in water chemistry due to elevated atmospheric CO2 and that biological responses to acidification, especially calcifying biota, will be species-specific and therefore much more variable and complex than reported previously.
Miller, A. Whitman; Reynolds, Amanda C.; Sobrino, Cristina; Riedel, Gerhardt F.
We coupled the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with a hydrodynamic model in the Daoulas’ catchment and estuary to estimate daily variations in Escherichia coli fluxes due to catchment activities (manure spreading and wastewater treatment plants discharge) and to assess their impact on coastal ...
Two chitosanases (CHSA1 and CHSA2) were purified from the culture supernatant of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus TKU024 with squid pen as the sole carbon\\/nitrogen source. The molecular masses of CHSA1 and CHSA2 determined by SDS-PAGE\\u000a were approximately 27 and 66 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of\\u000a CHSA1 and CHSA2 were (pH 6, 50°C, pH 4–10, <90°C)
The need for reference materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been\\u000a particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and reference\\u000a materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified reference materials for phycotoxins, the\\u000a main producers currently being the National
Philipp Hess; Pearse McCarron; Michael A. Quilliam
BackgroundHuman activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by 36% during the past 200 years. One third of all anthropogenic CO2 has been absorbed by the oceans, reducing pH by about 0.1 of a unit and significantly altering their carbonate chemistry. There is widespread concern that these changes are altering marine habitats severely, but little or no attention has
A. Whitman Miller; Amanda C. Reynolds; Cristina Sobrino; Gerhardt F. Riedel; Zoe Finkel
The toxicity of mercury is well documented and has led to laws and regulations governing its use and disposal; however mercury contamination of coastal and estuarine biota continues to be of public concern. The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program provided da...
Hydrographic and water quality surveys of the Motueka River and its river plume were conducted during a moderate flood event (peak flow of 420 m\\/s) to assess the source and fate of faecal contaminants transported into Tasman Bay. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci concentrations in the river were up to 10000 and 7300 Most Probable Number (MPN)\\/100 ml during
CD Cornelisen; PA Gillespie; M Kirs; RG Young; RW Forrest; PJ Barter; BR Knight; VJ Harwood
The levels and congener patterns of HBCDs (hexabromocyclododecanes) and PFCs (perfluorinated compounds) were determined in filter-feeding molluscs collected in 2008 and 2010 along the coasts of mainland France. ?-HBCD and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) were detected in all samples, revealing widespread contamination of the coastal environment by these emerging contaminants. The spatial distribution of ?-HBCD concentrations showed higher median levels in samples from the Mediterranean Sea and English Channel respectively, i.e. 0.19 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.08 ng g(-1) ww, related to high anthropogenic pressure from urban and industrial activities, while the median concentration was 0.05 ng g(-1) ww in samples from the Atlantic coast. Among PFCs, PFOS was the only compound detected in all samples and PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid) was the second most frequently-detected compound. PFOS median concentrations were 0.18 ng g(-1) ww, 0.09 ng g(-1) ww and 0.04 ng g(-1) ww in samples from the English Channel, the Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean coast respectively. The highest PFOS concentration was found in the Loire estuary, possibly related to local industrial activities. The Mediterranean samples showed a different pattern, with predominant long-chain PFCAs (perfluorocarboxylic acids), suggesting the presence of alternative sources on the Mediterranean coast. The temporal trends studied in archived samples from the Seine estuary site showed a significant exponential increase in HBCD concentrations between 1981 and 2011, with a doubling time of 7 years, while PFOS levels underwent a significant linear decrease over time. These trends are coherent with current regulations on the use of these compounds. The results presented in this paper provide the first data on the contamination of the French coastal marine environment by the selected emerging compounds, and constitute a reference for the future monitoring of French coastal contamination by emerging contaminants. PMID:23375822
Munschy, C; Marchand, P; Venisseau, A; Veyrand, B; Zendong, Z
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also known as stress proteins and extrinsic chaperones, are a suite of highly conserved proteins of varying molecular weight (c. 16-100 kDa) produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stress. They develop following up-regulation of specific genes, whose transcription is mediated by the interaction of heat shock factors with heat shock elements in gene promoter regions. HSPs function as helper molecules or chaperones for all protein and lipid metabolic activities of the cell, and it is now recognized that the up-regulation in response to stress is universal to all cells and not restricted to heat stress. Thus, other stressors such as anoxia, ischaemia, toxins, protein degradation, hypoxia, acidosis and microbial damage will also lead to their up-regulation. They play a fundamental role in the regulation of normal protein synthesis within the cell. HSP families, such as HSP90 and HSP70, are critical to the folding and assembly of other cellular proteins and are also involved in regulation of kinetic partitioning between folding, translocation and aggregation within the cell. HSPs also have a wider role in relation to the function of the immune system, apoptosis and various facets of the inflammatory process. In aquatic animals, they have been shown to play an important role in health, in relation to the host response to environmental pollutants, to food toxins and in particular in the development of inflammation and the specific and non-specific immune responses to bacterial and viral infections in both finfish and shrimp. With the recent development of non-traumatic methods for enhancing HSP levels in fish and shrimp populations via heat, via provision of exogenous HSPs or by oral or water administration of HSP stimulants, they have also, in addition to the health effects, been demonstrated to be valuable in contributing to reducing trauma and physical stress in relation to husbandry events such as transportation and vaccination. PMID:20678104
Roberts, R J; Agius, C; Saliba, C; Bossier, P; Sung, Y Y
Surface inland and coastal waters in Ireland were surveyed for the human waterborne enteropathogens; Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by utilizing bivalve mussel species, i.e., Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), Anodonta anatina (duck ‘mussel’, actually a unionid clam), and the invasive Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) as biomonitors at twelve sites located in three Irish river-basin
Frances E. Lucy; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Leena Tamang; Allen Miraflor; Dan Minchin
The depuration kinetics of the domoic acid of four body fractions (digestive gland, adductor muscle, gonad+kidney and gills+mantle) of the scallop Pecten maximus was studied over 295 days. The scallops, which had acquired the toxins during a Pseudo-nitzschia australis episode that took place the week before the beginning of the experiment, were maintained in tanks with running seawater. All the
J Blanco; C. P Acosta; M Bermúdez de la Puente; C Salgado
In this paper we describe optimization of SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR parameters and testing of a large number of microbial species with vvh-specific oligonucleotide primers to establish a rapid, specific, and sensitive method for detection of Vibrio vulnificus in oyster tissue homogenate and Gulf of Mexico water (gulf water). Selected oligonucleotide primers for the vvh gene were tested for
The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (Omega) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide
The recent discovery of the pollution of the environment with Kepone has resulted in a tremendous interest in the development of residue methodology for the compound. Current multiresidue methods for the determination of the common organochlorinated pesticides do not yield good q...
High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.
...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...2) [Reserved] (3) Farm-raised fish and shellfish (including fillets, steaks...and any other flesh); (4) Wild fish and shellfish (including fillets,...
...documented. LIVE FINFISH/SHELLFISH 93 None documented. FISHERIES: CA finfish and shellfish live trap/hook-and...porpoise, GME/ BF. Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback...Harbor seal, WNA. Shellfish...
...documented LIVE FINFISH/SHELLFISH...FISHERIES: CA finfish and shellfish live 93 None documented trap...Harbor porpoise, GME/BF Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA Shellfish...
...AK Urchin and Other Fish/Shellfish Fishery. Since each of these...fish/ 471 None documented shellfish. CA abalone...Harbor porpoise, GME/BF* Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA Shellfish...
...fish/ 471 None documented shellfish. CA abalone...mechanical collection. WA shellfish aquaculture...Sound, and Estuarine* Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA Shellfish...
...documented. LIVE FINFISH/SHELLFISH FISHERIES: CA finfish and shellfish live 93 None documented...Bays) inshore gillnet. Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA Shellfish...
...documented. Live Finfish/Shellfish Fisheries: CA finfish and shellfish 93 None documented. live...Harbor porpoise, GME/BF. Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA. Shellfish...
...designation of ``Alaska shellfish pot'' to more accurately...pen California finfish and shellfish live trap/hook-and-line...62, 63. Shellfish aquaculture...... unknown...Bays) inshore gillnet. Long Island Sound inshore...
...documented. Live finfish/shellfish fisheries: CA finfish and shellfish live 93 None documented...inshore gillnet. BF.* Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seals, WNA. Shellfish...
...adversely affect fish and shellfish populations. In 1999...such as the Chesapeake Bay, Long Island Sound, or the Gulf of Mexico...bottom-feeder fish and shellfish, distorting the normal...accumulate in edible fish and shellfish, and when toxins...
...documented. Live Finfish/Shellfish Fisheries: CA finfish and shellfish live 93 None documented...inshore gillnet. BF*. Long Island Sound inshore 20 Humpback whale...48 Harbor seal, WNA. Shellfish...
...terms of pounds landed in Long Island Sound, Peconic Bay, and along...the 2010 AD. Atlantic Shellfish Bottom Trawl Fishery The Atlantic shellfish bottom trawl fishery...component of the Atlantic shellfish bottom trawl...
Okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poison, domoic acid, an amnesic shellfish poison, and saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, are three of the best-known marine biotoxins. The mouse bioassay is the method most widely used to detect many of these toxins in shellfish samples, but animal welfare concerns have prompted researchers to seek alternative methods of detection. In this study, three
M. Dubois; L. Demoulin; C. Charlier; G. Singh; S. B. Godefroy; K. Campbell; C. T. Elliott; Ph. Delahaut