Sample records for shellfish geukensia demissa

  1. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Studies of E. coli and Coliform Bacteria Contamination in Mussels (Geukensia demissa) Collected from Guion Creek and Its Correlation to Water Flow Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pretima G. Persad; Anna K. Yeung-Cheung

    2007-01-01

    Ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from a highly contaminated Guion Creek, Mamaroneck Harbor, NY and were compared with Harbor Island Park and Shore Acres Beach, for amounts of bacteria. Mussels were also collected from a pristine beach, Read Sanctuary, Rye. The water flow rate was measured at all sites. The results showed that the amount of E. coli and

  3. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TOTAL LIPID, LIPID CLASSES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS (GUKENSIA DEMISSA) OVER AN ANNUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...

  4. Shellfish Toxicity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Thomas

    This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

  5. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication ... and neurological symptoms predominate. In addition, formation of toxic aerosols by wave action can produce respiratory asthma- ...

  6. Not all shellfish \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee K Woo; Sami L Bahna

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic\\u000a or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on\\u000a degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to\\u000a be more severe than

  7. Is shellfish consumption safe?

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Louisiana provides nearly 40% of domestic seafood production. America's commercial fisheries, especially coastal shellfish fisheries, now face crippling economic and environmental pressures from seafood imports, over-fishing, urban and agricultural wastewater runoff, harmful algal blooms, and coastal wetlands loss. As a result of these ecosystem stresses, seafood-borne disease now causes 37% of all foodborne illness in the United States. Louisiana and other coastal-state physicians can effectively curtail the rising threat of local shellfish-borne disease outbreaks by supporting responsible coastal restoration and regulation of commercial shell-fishing, especially oyster fishing, and by recommending careful selection and preparation of all shellfish and crustaceans. PMID:15366346

  8. Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  9. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022875

  10. Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maneveldt, Gavin W.

    This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

  11. DiarrheticShellfishPoisoningtoxins: thestorybehindarecentcaseofhuman

    E-print Network

    to Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) can occur following the consumption (3.5 %) individuals reported their illness to the relevant food authority. The mussels were by the Food Standards Agency Scotland for marine biotoxins in shellfish) for Norovirus and biotoxin analyses

  12. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  13. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  14. Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

    This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

  15. Freezing Fish and Shellfish.

    E-print Network

    Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

    1980-01-01

    contents may impart off-odors and off flavors to the flesh. Digestive enzymes and bacteria found in the intestinal fluids also can begin to digest the fish flesh before the product freezes. The dark flesh of fish is usually less stable in frozen... means of preserving the fresh-caught quality of fish and shellfish. Why Freeze? Freezing preserves foods by lowering their tem peratures to a point not conducive to bacterial growth and natural enzyme action. Many spoilage bacteria are destroyed...

  16. Tide pushing shellfishers into red

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Hampson

    This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

  17. NOAA's Science Supports Shellfish Aquaculture

    E-print Network

    scientists are developing a sophisticated ocean monitoring system that provides the real-time information effects of ocean acidification. NOAA recently led interagency and regional efforts to collect real-time shellfish growers need to strategically manage hatchery operations, and are continuing laboratory studies

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V

    1977-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in man results from the consumption of mussels, clams, and oysters that have fed on toxic dinoflagellates. Motile, marine protozoa of the dinoflagellate group often produce "blooms," i.e., red tides, which color the sea. Not all genera or species are toxic to fish and mammals, nor are the toxic principles the same in all poisonous protozoa. At least 5 of the group are known to cause poisonings in man. Shellfish poisonings other than PSP are also recognized. The PSP toxin, saxitoxin, is concentrated in the viscera and occasionally in the mantle and syphon of marine bivalves. Cooking does not completely destroy the low molecular weight poisonous factor. Reported mortality ranges from 8.5 to 23.2%. The disease is of significant public health concern in some localities of the world from May to November. PMID:924835

  19. Biomarkers of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Abraham; Steven M. Plakas; Leanne J. Flewelling; Kathleen R. El Said; Edward L. E. Jester; Hudson R. Granade; Kevin D. White; Robert W. Dickey

    2008-01-01

    Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS\\/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites

  20. CONTAMINATION OF ATLANTIC COAST COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shellfish (oysters and/or clams) were obtained from 37 commercial harvesting sites in 12 Atlantic coast states from Maine to Florida and 1 site in New Brunswick, Canada. Gill washings from 25 shellfish at each site were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA) for oocysts of Cryptosporidium. ...

  1. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus and hepatitis A virus contamination are significant threats to the safety of shellfish and other foods. Methods for the extraction and assay of these viruses from shellfish are complex, time consuming, and technically challenging. Here, we itemize some of the salient points in extracting...

  2. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  4. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  5. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS...shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any molluscan shellfish handled or stored in such an...

  6. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS...shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any molluscan shellfish handled or stored in such an...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS...shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any molluscan shellfish handled or stored in such an...

  8. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS...shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any molluscan shellfish handled or stored in such an...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS...shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any molluscan shellfish handled or stored in such an...

  10. December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative

    E-print Network

    December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative The goal of the National Shellfish Initiative is to increase shellfish aquaculture for commercial and restoration purposes by shellfish aquaculture and aims to increase shellfish production and wild shellfish populations in U

  11. Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints Compiled - Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction and Overview of Aquaculture .................................................. 8 2

  12. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. James; Marion Gillman; Mónica Fernández Amandi; Américo López-Rivera; Patricia Fernández Puente; Mary Lehane; Simon Mitrovic; Ambrose Furey

    2005-01-01

    In December 1999, domoic acid (DA) a potent neurotoxin, responsible for the syndrome Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) was detected for the first time in shellfish harvested in Ireland. Two liquid chromatography (LC) methods were applied to quantify DA in shellfish after sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges. Toxin detection was achieved using photodiode array

  13. Infectious diseases associated with molluscan shellfish consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Rippey, S R

    1994-01-01

    A history of shellfish-vectored illnesses (i.e., those associated with consumption of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops) occurring in the past nine decades is presented. Typhoid fever was a significant public health problem among consumers of raw molluscan shellfish earlier in this century. The development of more effective sewage treatment procedures and the institution of a national program following these outbreaks led to a series of measures which eventually eliminated shellfish-associated typhoid fever. Present-day problems associated with this food source still involve some wastewaterborne bacterial illnesses. However, the principal public health concerns are with wastewater-derived viral pathogens and with bacterial agents of an environmental origin. The nature, occurrence, and magnitude of these public health problems are described. PMID:7834599

  14. BARATARIA/TERREBONNE SHELLFISH CHALLENGE INITATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project provides the resources to the Barataria/Terrebonne National Estuary Program to work toward implementation of projects in the four general categories below that will allow the opening of closed shellfish growing waters to harvest. v Connecting poorly operating se...

  15. Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Kane

    This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

  16. PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

    E-print Network

    NOTES PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA: A POSSIBLE CAUSE PSP and Hilliard 1955; Sparks 1966; Neal 1967), it has often been assumed that this species is the cause of PSP by the University of Alaska failed to find a significant correlation between the occurrence of PSP and G. catenella

  17. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  18. New targets for expedient detection of viruses within shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously our laboratory developed an expedient method for extraction of viral RNA from food-borne virus contaminated bivalve shellfish, termed the GPTT protocol. This protocol utilizes either whole shellfish or dissected digestive diverticula. This four step protocol utilizes a high pH glycine or...

  19. An Economic Valuation of Recreational Shellfishing On Cape Cod

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    An Economic Valuation of Recreational Shellfishing On Cape Cod David T. Damery1 and P. Geoffrey holders in 2002 to 2,766 and 2,704 respectively. An individual's valuation of recreational shellfishing valuation, recreational fishing, willingness-to-pay JEL Classification: Q26, Q28, H42

  20. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Landry; J. M. Vaughn; T. J. Vicale; R. Mann

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infaunal (Mercemaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in

  1. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Landry; J. M. Vaughn; T. J. Vicale; R. Mann

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in

  2. Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bellou, M; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2013-03-01

    Investigations of disease outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption have been reported in the scientific literature; however, only few countries systematically collate and report such data through a disease surveillance system. We conducted a systematic review to investigate shellfish-borne viral outbreaks and to explore their distribution in different countries, and to determine if different types of shellfish and viruses are implicated. Six databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic Journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched from 1980 to July 2012. About 359 shellfish-borne viral outbreaks, alongside with nine ProMED reports, involving shellfish consumption, were identified. The majority of the reported outbreaks were located in East Asia, followed by Europe, America, Oceania, Australia and Africa. More than half of the outbreaks (63.6 %) were reported from Japan. The most common viral pathogens involved were norovirus (83.7 %) and hepatitis A virus (12.8 %). The most frequent type of consumed shellfish which was involved in outbreaks was oysters (58.4 %). Outbreaks following shellfish consumption were often attributed to water contamination by sewage and/or undercooking. Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Consumption of contaminated shellfish represents a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities. PMID:23412719

  3. Radioimmunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams and mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.C.; Imagire, S.J.; Yasaei, P.; Ragelis, E.P.; Park, D.L.; Page, S.W.; Carlson, R.E.; Guire, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    Shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) compromise human health. The threat of this contamination results in enormous economic losses in the recreational and commercial exploitation of shellfish resources in the affected areas. Most states deal with the PSP problem either by prohibiting the collection of shellfish during certain time periods or by instituting monitoring programs. The only recognized method of analysis for PSP that is currently and routinely used in monitoring programs is the time-of-death mouse bioassay. Several attempts to develop simple and highly specific biochemical assays for the detection and quantitation of the PSP toxins have been reported. More recently, much improved immunoassays have been developed. To evaluate the validity and usefulness of the immunoassay for the determination of PSP toxins, the authors have used extracts of shellfish gathered from Maine and Connecticut to compare the results of the mouse bioassay and HPLC methods with the radioimmunoassay developed previously.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Bono, James L.; Watson, Michael A.; Needleman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp). PMID:25523764

  5. Lipophilic shellfish toxins in Dinophysis caudata picked cells and in shellfish from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Fan, Lin

    2015-02-01

    We reported previously that okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) incidents due to consuming cultivated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in coastal cities near the East China Sea in May 2011. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and its seco acids were also present in these mussels. Causative species of microalgae were not identified because detailed information on the location of the contaminated shellfish was not recorded. In order to explore potential causes for these poisoning events, the lipophilic toxin profiles in picked cells of Dinophysis and in shellfish samples collected from two mariculture zones in the East China Sea were analyzed in the present study. Single-cell isolates (100 cells total for each location) of Dinophysis were collected from the aquaculture zones of Gouqi Island (Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province) and Qingchuan Bay (Ningde City, Fujian Province) in July and September 2013, respectively, for lipophilic toxin profiling. Shellfish samples collected over the course of a year from the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone and mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected four times from the Qingchuan Bay aquaculture zone were tested for lipophilic toxins by LC-MS/MS. The Dinophysis cells isolated from both sampling sites were identified under the light microscope as Dinophysis caudata. Average quota of PTX2, the predominant toxin in D. caudata isolated from the coastal waters of Gouqi Island and Qingchuan Bay, was 0.58 and 2.8 pg/cell, respectively. Only trace amounts of OA and DTX1 were detected in D. caudata. PTX2, PTX2sa, 7-epi-PTX2sa, OA, and/or DTX1 were found in samples of mussels (M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus coruscus) collected in the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone from the end of May to the beginning of July 2013. PTX2, PTX2sa, and 7-epi-PTX2sa were also detected in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) during that period, but almost no OA and DTX1 were present. Gymnodimine (GYM) was detected in almost all mussel (M. coruscus) samples, with the highest levels occurring in winter. Trace amounts of pectenotoxins (PTXs) and OAs were also found in mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected from Qingchuan Bay. D. caudata is suggested as an important source of PTXs in shellfish cultivated in the East China Sea. This is the first report of toxin profiles for single-cell isolates of Dinophysis in the East China Sea. PMID:25233922

  6. Paralytic shellfish poisoning --- southeast Alaska, May--June 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-18

    On June 6, 2011, the Section of Epidemiology (SOE) of the Alaska Division of Public Health was notified of a case of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in southeast Alaska. In collaboration with local partners, SOE investigated and identified a total of eight confirmed and 13 probable PSP cases that occurred during May--June 2011. Warnings to avoid noncommercially harvested shellfish were broadcast on local radio and television and displayed at beaches and in post offices, government offices, and businesses throughout the region. Commercially harvested shellfish, which are tested for the presence of PSP-causing toxins, were safe. Because the risk for PSP is unpredictable, persons who consume noncommercially harvested Alaskan shellfish should know that they are at risk for PSP, and suspected cases should be reported promptly to SOE to initiate control measures in the affected area. PMID:22089968

  7. Bioactive peptides from marine processing waste and shellfish: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pádraigín A. Harnedy; Richard J. FitzGerald

    Marine organisms such as fish and shellfish are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. Based on emerging evidence of potential health benefits, these components show significant promise as functional food ingredients. Activities including antihypertensive, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-coagulant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, immunostimulatory, calcium-binding, hypocholesteremic and appetite suppression have been reported. Fish and shellfish waste components contain significant levels of high

  8. Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary P. Richards; Catherine McLeod; Françoise S. Le Guyader

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and\\u000a other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting\\u000a in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic. Processing and disinfection methods include shellfish depuration and relaying,\\u000a cooking and heat pasteurization, freezing, irradiation, and high pressure processing. All the methods can

  9. Comparative analysis of viral pathogens and potential indicators in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Muniain-Mujika, I; Calvo, M; Lucena, F; Girones, R

    2003-05-25

    Shellfish can be responsible of outbreaks of infectious diseases and current health measures do not guarantee the absence of viral pathogens in this product. Here we examine the presence of pathogenic viruses and potential indicators in shellfish in a comparative analysis.Sixty shellfish samples collected in three areas with different levels of faecal contamination were analysed for Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, somatic coliphages, F-specific phages of RNA (F-RNA), bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis RYC2056, human adenovirus, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Viruses were eluted in a glycine buffer at pH 10. The overall percentage of viral pathogens detected was 47% for human adenoviruses, 19% for enteroviruses and 24% for HAV. Since all the samples positive for enterovirus and HAV were also positives for human adenovirus, the latter may be considered useful as a molecular index of viral contamination in shellfish. No significant differences in the bioaccumulation of bacteria and bacteriophages for oysters or mussels were observed. It was found that the probability of detection of any of the pathogenic virus decreases as the temperature of shellfish growing waters increases. However, the probability of detecting viruses increases when phages of B. fragilis are found. Although more data are needed in order to fulfil the need of viral indicators for controlling the presence of human viruses in shellfish, the obtained results indicate that phages infecting B. fragilis RYC2056 could be a suitable group of bacteriophages to be used as an indicator of the presence of viruses in shellfish. PMID:12672594

  10. Organochlorine residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1984-10-01

    Shellfish samples, including the American oyster (Craessostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (callinectes sapidus), were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80) and analyzed to determine residue levels of various organochlorine pesticides. Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for a variety of polychlorinated hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study includes the establishment of baseline values for levels of shellfish contamination, utilization of the data as an indicator of probable levels of water and sediment contamination in the vicinity of the sampling site and ensurance that shellfish harvested for human consumption are within U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for organochlorine contamination. All mean values and virtually all individual values were within FDA guidelines. PMID:6501793

  11. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L?1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Seafood safety and human health perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey M. Etheridge

    2010-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne illness associated with the consumption of seafood products contaminated with the neurotoxins known collectively as saxitoxins (STXs). This family of neurotoxins binds to voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby attenuating action potentials by preventing the passage of sodium ions across the membrane. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, headaches, weakness and difficulty breathing. Medical treatment is to

  13. Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are ...

  14. Recreational Shellfish Beach Closures Due to Biotoxins or Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Washington State Department of Health

    This map represents the Health Status of beaches in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and beaches to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding beach closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.

  15. Chlorination for degrading saxitoxins (paralytic shellfish poisons) in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Nicholson; G. R. Shaw; J. Morrall; T. A. Woods; J. Papageorgiou; C. Kapralos; W. Wickramasinghe; B. C. Davis; G. K. Eaglesham; M. R. Moore

    2003-01-01

    Chlorination was investigated as a treatment option for degrading and thus removing saxitoxins (paralytic shellfish poisons, PSPs) produced by cyanobacteria (blue?green algae) from water. It was found to be effective with the order of ease of degradation of the saxitoxins being GTX5 (B1) ? dcSTX > STX > GTX3 ? C2 > C1 > GTX2. However the effectiveness of chlorine

  16. Bioactive potential of Streptomyces against fish and shellfish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, D; Arun, K; Suguna, S; Kumar, D; Dhevendaran, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the present study, isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential against fish and shellfish pathogens were assessed. The Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges namely Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis collected from Vizhinjam port, situated in the South-West coast of India. Materials and Methods The Streptomyces associated with marine sponges were isolated using specific ISP media. The isolates of Streptomyces were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. The strains were cultivated on a lab scale level as shake-flask cultures and the crude extracts of the bioactive compounds obtained with ethyl acetate were screened biologically and chemically. By biological screening, the extracts were analyzed for their activity against fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp, using the disk and agar-well diffusion bioassay method, while by chemical screening the crude culture extracts were analyzed by TLC and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Results Ninety-four isolates were found to be associated with marine sponges, among them only seven strains showed antagonism against fish and shellfish pathogens. Analysis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics suggested that these strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The initial screening of the isolates by spot inoculation method exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. In-vitro screening of the submerge culture extracts showed positive inhibition against the fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp. The screening of bioactive compounds confirmed the production of polyene substances by UV spectrum, which resulted in absorbance peaks ranging from 225 to 245 nm and TLC analysis yielded Rf values ranging from 0.40 to 0.78. Conclusion The results suggest that the seven Streptomyces strains isolated from marine sponges produce potential antibacterial compounds against fish and shellfish pathogens. PMID:22347566

  17. Contribution of Shellfish Consumption to Lower Mercury Health Risk for Residents in Northern Jiaozhou Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fish and marine mammal consumption are an important pathway for human exposure to mercury. The low mercury content in shellfish poses a low mercury health risk to people who consume shellfish. The objectives of this study are to detect mercury concentrations in different species of shellfish and to calculate the mercury health risk from shellfish consumption among traditional residents near northern Jiaozhou Bay. A total of 356 shellfish samples, which comprised 7 species from 5 different places in northern Jiaozhou Bay, were collected from April to June in 2012. The average mercury content in the collected shellfish ranged from 0.024?mg·kg?1 to 0.452?mg·kg?1. A total of 44 shellfish samples (12.36%) had mercury levels exceeding the national pollution-free aquatic products limit (0.3?mg·kg?1). Generally, the viscus had the highest mercury content among all parts of the shellfish. A positive correlation between mercury content and total weight/edible part weight was found in most species of the collected shellfish. The results showed that shellfish consumption resulted in the lower risk of mercury exposure to residents based on the calculation of daily intake (DI) and target hazard quotient (THQ).

  18. Detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish tissue using MIST Alert™, a new rapid test, in parallel with the regulatory AOAC ® mouse bioassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne F Jellett; Raymond L Roberts; Maurice V Laycock; Michael A Quilliam; Richard E Barrett

    2002-01-01

    In parallel trials with the mouse bioassay, MIST Alert™ for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a rapid diagnostic test for PSP, detected 100% of the toxic extracts in over 2100 regulatory samples. Toxic extracts contained at least 80?g saxitoxin equivalents (STX equiv.) in 100g of shellfish tissue, or more, as measured by the regulatory AOAC® mouse bioassay. Only one potentially toxic

  19. A modified HPLC method for analysis of PSP toxins in algae and shellfish from china

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Yu; C. Hummert; B. Luckas; P. Y. Qian; J. Li; M. J. Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Summary  Improvements to an established HPLC method are introduced. The modified method is more efficient for separation and detection\\u000a of the toxins reponsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The PSP toxin cotent of two strains ofAlexandrium tamarense and approximately forty shellfish samples collected from different locations in China have been analyzed with this HPLC method.\\u000a Only one shellfish sample, collected from

  20. Bacterial source tracking and shellfish contamination in a coastal catchment.

    PubMed

    Geary, P M; Davies, C M

    2003-01-01

    Introduced pathogens from faecal material can make their way into the aquatic environment from a number of catchment sources. These sources typically include sewage outfalls, seepage from septic tanks, and urban and agricultural runoff. Shellfish as filter feeders are particularly susceptible to contamination in faecally contaminated waters and a range of microbiological indicators have been developed to assess the levels of contamination and likely risks to public health (Hackney and Pierson, 1994). This paper outlines the application of bacterial source tracking (BST) in a shellfish growing area in part of the Port Stephens estuary along the NSW north coast. The approach is based on the premise that bacterial isolates from different faecal sources will have significantly different resistance patterns to the battery of antibiotics and concentrations tested. Faecal streptococci (FS) were isolated from several possible faecal sources: beef and dairy cattle, chickens and humans. The resistance patterns of these isolates to four different concentrations of four antibiotics were compared to those of FS isolates obtained from samples collected upstream and in the vicinity of the oyster leases. Discriminant analysis was performed using the patterns from the known source isolates and the rate of correct classification was determined for each source. The predictive function of discriminant analysis was then used to determine the most probable source of each of the unknown isolates from Tilligerry Creek, the drainage channels to the estuary, and the shellfish leases. Preliminary results are presented here and suggest that there is no single significant source of faecal contamination, rather there are contributions from a range of sources. The findings may have implications for the ways in which land use activities and catchments are managed in similar estuarine locations with a shellfish industry. PMID:12793667

  1. Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blogoslawski, Walter J.

    1992-07-01

    For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

  2. Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Negri; Christopher J. S. Bolch; Stephanie Geier; David H. Green; Tae-Gyu Park; Susan I. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham produces a newly discovered sub-class of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, saxitoxins) that contain a hydroxybenzoate moiety in place of the carbamoyl group (GC toxins: GC1–GC3). GC toxins bind strongly to sodium channels and their lipophilic nature may increase their potential to bioaccumulate in marine organisms. Cultures Australian G. catenatum strains were found to contain

  3. N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

    2014-09-01

    Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms. PMID:24880785

  4. Comparative analysis of modeled nitrogen removal by shellfish farms.

    PubMed

    Rose, Julie M; Bricker, Suzanne B; Ferreira, Joao G

    2015-02-15

    The use of shellfish aquaculture for nutrient removal and reduction of coastal eutrophication has been proposed. Published literature has indicated that nitrogen contained in harvested shellfish can be accurately estimated from shell length:nitrogen content ratios. The range of nitrogen that could be removed by a typical farm in a specific estuarine or coastal setting is also of interest to regulators and planners. Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model outputs of nitrogen removal at the shellfish farm scale have been summarized here, from 14 locations in 9 countries across 4 continents. Modeled nitrogen removal ranged from 105 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (12 g m(-2) year(-1)) to 1356 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (152 g m(-2) year(-1)). Mean nitrogen removal was 520 lbs acre(-1) year(-1) (58 g m(-2) year(-1)). These model results are site-specific in nature, but compare favorably to reported nitrogen removal effectiveness of agricultural best management practices and stormwater control measures. PMID:25534625

  5. Studies in the use of magnetic microspheres for immunoaffinity extraction of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Raymond; Campbell, Katrina; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N) and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20-300 ng/mL), incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis. PMID:22069687

  6. Species Diversity in Florida's Shellfish Aquaculture Industry Over the past several years there has been an

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    the public about the positive benefits and virtues of filter-feeding bivalve shellfish--clams, oysters monitors and water purifiers. Recent studies have revealed that shellfish farming can improve species molluscs, such as the angel wing, bay scallop, and blood ark, have been studied to determine their culture

  7. Architecture of wireless sensor network for monitoring aquatic environment of marine shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqing Yang; Hongxi Wu; Yong He

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic environment monitoring plays an important role in the artificial breeding of marine shellfish. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an efficient approach for monitoring large-scale coastal beach with densely distributed smart nodes. Combined with a project of aquatic environment monitoring and assessment of marine shellfish in Zhejiang province, China, a new structure of WSN combining network clustering and route enhancing

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning surveillance in California using the Jellett Rapid PSP test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Oshiro; Lucy Pham; Donna Csuti; Mary Dodd; Gregory B. Inami; Rita A. Brenden

    2006-01-01

    In a previous publication, we reported equivalent presence\\/absence results for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) detection using three in vitro assays and the mouse bioassay (MBA). In January of 2004, in response to the summary of actions from the 2003 Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concurred that the Jellett Rapid PSP test (JRPT) may be used

  9. Sensitivity of lateral flow tests to mixtures of saxitoxins and applications to shellfish and phytoplankton monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice V. Laycock; Mary Anne Donovan; Dorothy J. Easy

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated some characteristics of antibodies in the lateral flow format for detecting paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and compared them with the mouse bioassay (MBA). The MBA is still the most reliable test for toxicity in shellfish because it provides an estimate of toxicity directly and can include more than one contaminant. Most other methods, including those involving

  10. MERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. 1. PACIFIC HALIBUT, HIPPOGLOSSUS STENOLEPIS

    E-print Network

    and shellfish taken from marine and inland waters of the United States to determine the extent to which mercuryMERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. 1. PACIFIC HALIBUT, HIPPOGLOSSUS STENOLEPIS.! ABSTRACf A total of 1,227 Pacific halibut, Hippaglossus steoolepis, were analyzed for mercury content

  11. Effect of ozonation and ?-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Louppis; P. Katikou; D. Georgantelis; A. V. Badeka; M. G. Kontominas

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use

  12. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Vaughn; E. F. Landry; T. J. Vicale; M. C. Dahl

    1980-01-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of

  13. Seasonal variation of bacterial communities in shellfish harvesting waters: preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Santos, L; Silva, A P; Silva, Y J; Cunha, A; Romalde, J L; Nunes, M L; Almeida, A

    2015-01-15

    The recurrent emergence of infections outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption is an important health problem, which results in substantial economic losses to the seafood industry. Even after depuration, shellfish is still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new efficient strategies to control the shellfish infection transmission. Phage therapy during the shellfish depuration is a promising approach, but its success depends on a detailed understanding of the dynamics of bacterial communities in the harvesting waters. This study intends to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, disease-causing bacterial populations and bacterial sanitary quality indicators in two authorized harvesting-zones at Ria de Aveiro. During the hot season, the total bacterial community presented high complexity and new prevalent populations of the main shellfish pathogenic bacteria emerged. These results indicate that the spring/summer season is a critical period during which phage therapy should be applied. PMID:25484114

  14. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts. Detection of inorganic arsenic can be explained by the conversion of inorganic arsenic to organic arsenic compounds in digestion system in the body may be occurring.

  15. Low-level radioactivity measurements in an ocean shellfish matrix.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, T

    2000-03-01

    Reference marine biological samples are necessary to test the performance of the analytical methods employed in surveying and monitoring radioactive materials in the sea. The measurement of artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations in ocean shellfish material by nondestructive ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory is reported. The material analysed, a composite material made of Irish Sea and White Sea mussel and Japan Sea oyster, was prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). PMID:10724403

  16. [Carrying capacity of shellfish culture in Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenbin; Du, Qi; Fang, Minjie; Qian, Xiaoming; Cai, Qinghai; Xu, Cuiya

    2005-05-01

    To fully and rationally exploit local living marine resources while have a sustainable, efficient and healthy development of shellfish culture in the Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen, this paper determined and analyzed the related model parameters of this area, including chlorophyll a, primary productivity, phytoplankton organic carbon tent, wild filter feeder yields in subtidal and intertidal zones and suspension culture area, cultured shellfish filtration rate and organic carbon content, shellfish's total weight to fresh meat ratio, and adopted the Nutrient namic Model and Coastal Waters' Energy Flow Analysis Model to estimate the ecological capacity of shellfish this area, from which, the wild filter feeder yields were deducted for estimating shellfish carrying capacity. model established by Fang Jianguang was also used to estimate the shellfish carrying capacity. Statistics analysis was used to estimate the suitable culture area of shellfish and other species, aiming at limiting local shellfish ture and optimizing the culture of various species mollusks. According to the estimation of the three models, shellfish carrying capacity in this area should be 35,248-39,990 tons, with an average of 37,488 tons, 140,008 x 10(4) - 158,850 x 10(4) individuals, averaging 148,903 x 10(4). The theoretically suitable culture area 2 145 hm2, 1,900 hm2 for Ostreidae, 81 hm2 for razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta), 20 hm2 for blood (Tegillarca granosa), and 144 hm2 for musculus (Musculus senhousei). In 2000, the actual culture area of shellfish and other species in the waters around Dadeng surpassed the estimated suitable culture area. It is proposed that some measures should be taken to reduce the overexploited area. PMID:16110680

  17. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  18. Selective Accumulation May Account for Shellfish-Associated Viral Illness

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.

    2000-01-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F+ coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F+ coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters. PMID:10742214

  19. Selective accumulation may account for shellfish-associated viral illness.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, W; Calci, K R

    2000-04-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F(+) coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F(+) coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters. PMID:10742214

  20. A Nested Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Small Round-Structured Viruses in Environmentally Contaminated Molluscan Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Green, J.; Henshilwood, K.; Gallimore, C. I.; Brown, D. W. G.; Lees, D. N.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the evaluation of a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) procedure for the detection of small round-structured viruses (SRSVs) in molluscan shellfish and the application of this assay for the detection of SRSVs in commercially produced shellfish and in shellfish implicated in outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The range of virus strains detected and the sensitivity of detection were evaluated by using a representative panel of 21 well-characterized SRSV strains. The nested RT-PCR detected 15 of 21 SRSVs, demonstrating that the assay detects a broad range of SRSVs including strains from both genogroup I and genogroup II. Seeding experiments showed the nested RT-PCR assay to be 10 to 1,000 times more sensitive than the single-round RT-PCR assay for the detection of SRSV in shellfish. SRSV-contaminated samples were identified by nested RT-PCR for shellfish grown in polluted harvesting areas and for shellfish associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis which were negative by a previously described single-round RT-PCR. The assay was shown to be effective for investigation of virus elimination during commercial shellfish processing procedures such as depuration and relaying and has potential applications for monitoring at-risk shellfish harvesting areas, for investigation of SRSV contamination in shellfish from producers linked to gastroenteritis outbreaks, and for the direct detection of virus in shellfish implicated in outbreaks. PMID:9501426

  1. Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Gian Paolo; Hess, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing a global increase in HABs and seafood contaminations, whose causative factors are only partially understood. Phycotoxins are small to medium-sized natural products and belong to many different groups of chemical compounds. The molecular mass ranges from approximately 300 to over 3000 Da, and the compound classes represented include amino acids, alkaloids and polyketides. Each compound group typically has several main compounds based on the same or similar structure. However, most groups also have several analogues, which are either produced by the algae or through metabolism in fish or shellfish or other marine organisms. The different phycotoxins have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. Saxitoxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, gambierol, palytoxins, domoic acid, and, perhaps, cyclic imines, alter different ion channels and/or pumps at the level of the cell membrane. The normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues is primarily perturbed by these mechanisms, leading to adverse effects in humans. Okadaic acid and related compounds inhibit serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, and disrupt major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Pectenotoxins bind to actin filaments, and alter cellular cytoskeleton. The precise mechanisms of action of yessotoxins and azaspiracids, in turn, are still undetermined. The route of human exposure to phycotoxins is usually oral, although living systems may become exposed to phycotoxins through other routes. Based on recorded symptoms, the major poisonings recognized so far include paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic, diarrheic shellfish poisonings, ciguatera, as well as palytoxin and azaspiracid poisonings. PMID:20358682

  2. Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, George J.

    This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

  3. Anja Robinson Fellowship Purpose: To provide support for graduate students doing shellfish aquaculture

    E-print Network

    aquaculture research at the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport. Approximately $800 will be awarded and potential of proposed research to shellfish aquaculture); use of HMSC facilities; academic and research

  4. PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

  5. Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Humpage; V. F. Magalhaes; S. M. Froscio

    2010-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) were, as their name suggests, discovered as a result of human poisoning after\\u000a consumption of contaminated shellfish. More recently, however, the same toxins have been found to be produced by freshwater\\u000a cyanobacteria. These organisms have worldwide distribution and are common in our sources of drinking water, thus presenting\\u000a another route of potential human exposure.

  6. Evaluation of Potential Indicators of Viral Contamination in Shellfish and Their Applicability to Diverse Geographical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Formiga-Cruz, M.; Allard, A. K.; Conden-Hansson, A.-C.; Henshilwood, K.; Hernroth, B. E.; Jofre, J.; Lees, D. N.; Lucena, F.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Rangdale, R. E.; Tsibouxi, A.; Vantarakis, A.; Girones, R.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the concentration of potential indicators of fecal viral pollution in shellfish was analyzed under diverse conditions over 18 months in diverse geographical areas. These microorganisms have been evaluated in relation to contamination by human viral pathogens detected in parallel in the analyzed shellfish samples. Thus, significant shellfish-growing areas from diverse countries in the north and south of Europe (Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) were defined and studied by analyzing different physicochemical parameters in the water and the levels of Escherichia coli, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis strain RYC2056 in the shellfish produced, before and after depuration treatments. A total of 475 shellfish samples were studied, and the results were statistically analyzed. According to statistical analysis, the presence of human viruses seems to be related to the presence of all potential indicators in the heavily contaminated areas, where E. coli would probably be suitable as a fecal indicator. The F-RNA phages, which are present in higher numbers in Northern Europe, seem to be significantly related to the presence of viral contamination in shellfish, with a very weak predictive value for hepatitis A virus, human adenovirus, and enterovirus and a stronger one for Norwalk-like virus. However, it is important to note that shellfish produced in A or clean B areas can sporadically contain human viruses even in the absence of E. coli or F-RNA phages. The data presented here will be useful in defining microbiological parameters for improving the sanitary control of shellfish consumed raw or barely cooked. PMID:12620843

  7. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry for the determination of yessotoxins in shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Fernández Amandi; A Furey; M Lehane; H Ramstad; K. J James

    2002-01-01

    Yessotoxins are a group of large polyether toxins, produced by marine dinoflagellates, which cause widespread contamination of filter-feeding shellfish. A new, sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method has been developed for the determination of yessotoxin (YTX) and 45-hydroxy-yessotoxin (45-OHYTX), a major metabolite in shellfish. The LC system was coupled, via an electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, to an ion-trap MS in

  8. Determination of perfluorochemicals in fish and shellfish using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Wendy M; South, Paul; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2013-11-20

    This paper reports the validation and application of a method for determination of 10 perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in retail fish and shellfish. The analytes of interest were 7 perfluorinated carboxylates and 3 perfluorinated sulfonates. Fish and shellfish samples were digested with a basic solution of 10 mM sodium hydroxide in methanol before sonication and solid phase extraction through weak anion exchange. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries from spiking five different types of fish and shellfish indicate that the method performs similarly with different fish types, and recoveries were over 90% for all analytes. Forty-six retail samples, collected between 2010 and 2012, including 13 different types of fish and shellfish were analyzed for PFCs. The 13 different types included the top 10 most-consumed fish and shellfish in the United States according to data collected by the National Fisheries Institute. Two Standard Reference Materials were also analyzed. Most fish and shellfish had no detected PFCs; only 11 samples of the 46 tested had detectable concentrations of PFCs. PMID:24144282

  9. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  10. A management strategy to reduce bacterial pollution in shellfish areas: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Stuart R.; Moore, James A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of bacterial pollution in shellfishing areas is not uncommon in the coastal regions of the United States. Bacterial contamination from man's activities can effectively reduce our natural shellfish resource areas by forcing their closure because of high potential risk of diseases being spread by shellfish harvested in these areas. Tillamook Bay, a relatively small, enclosed drainage basin of nonurban character, presents an excellent study area for observing this problem. The high population density of animals, raised on a relatively small floodplain area, represents one of the major sources of pollution in the bay. This paper summarizes the history of the agencies involved with the problem and presents the current approach to alleviate bacterial pollution in the bay without unduly penalizing other industries in the Tillamook basin. The paper also presents some of the legal aspects of reducing water pollution in shellfish harvesting areas and the jurisdiction of federal agencies in these matters. Finally, recommendations are given to reduce bacterial output by the major source categories in the basin, and criteria for bay closure to shellfish harvest are developed to protect the public from bacterially contaminated shellfish.

  11. First isolation of Shiga toxin 1d producing Escherichia coli variant strains in shellfish from coastal areas in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gourmelon; M. P. Montet; S. Lozach; C. Le Mennec; M. Pommepuy; L. Beutin; C. Vernozy-Rozand

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish from French coastal environments. Methods and Results: Shellfish were collected in six growing areas or natural beds (B-category) and non-farming areas (D-category) from July 2002 to August 2004. PCR-detection of stx genes was performed on homogenized whole shellfish

  12. Studies on Freezint of Shell-Fish -II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae Jin; Konagaya, Shiro; Nakamura, Koji; Iida, Haruka; Tanaka, Takeo

    Changes in free amino acid content and compostion, and formation of odor components in ark shell Anadara broughtonii(Shrenk) during frozen storgae were studied in connection with storage temperature. The shucked shell-fish were frozen -40°C and stored at -10, -20 and -40°C, respectively for three months, and the shell flesh were subjected to anyalyses for free amino acids and odor components. The amount of total free amino acids in the shell flesh storedat -10°C was not as large as those in the flesh stored at -20 and -40°C. This finding implies that free amino acids in the shell flesh, when frozen-stored at a relatively high temperature, decrease in amount during storage and/or become liable to be lost along with drip during the course of thawing. As for respective amino acids, a mounts of Tau, ?-Ala, and Gly decreased markedly, while those of Met, Leu and Ile increased to some extent. In addition, it is of particular interest that ?-Ala is likely to be present in the free state. Amounts of volatile compounds such as carbonyl, nitrogenous, and sulfurous compounds have never attained the level where unpleasant or fishy odor could be percieved. However, there was a clear tendency that the higher the storage temperature, the larger amount of these compounds were presen.

  13. Paralytic shellfish toxins inhibit copper uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Wetzel, Randall K; Minkin, Steven C; Dodani, Sheel C; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

    2013-06-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Known targets of these toxins, which typically occur at detrimental concentrations during harmful algal blooms, include voltage-gated ion channels in humans and other mammals. However, the effects of the toxins on the co-occurring phytoplankton community remain unknown. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms of the model photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to saxitoxin exposure as a means of gaining insight into the phytoplankton community response to a bloom. Previous work with yeast indicated that saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake, so experiments were designed to examine whether saxitoxin exhibited a similar mode of action in algae. Expression profiling following exposure to saxitoxin or a copper chelator produced similar profiles in copper homeostasis genes, notably induction of the cytochrome c6 (CYC6) and copper transporter (COPT1, CTR1) genes. Cytochrome c6 is used as an alternative to plastocyanin under conditions of copper deficiency, and immunofluorescence data showed this protein to be present in a significantly greater proportion of saxitoxin-exposed cells compared to controls. Live-cell imaging with a copper-sensor probe for intracellular labile Cu(I) confirmed that saxitoxin blocked copper uptake. Extrapolations of these data to phytoplankton metabolic processes along with the copper transporter as a molecular target of saxitoxin based on existing structural models are discussed. PMID:23423950

  14. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

  15. Development and Validation of a Novel Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) for the Rapid Screening of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) from Shellfish Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Waqass; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-05-19

    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed and validated for the rapid screening of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from a variety of shellfish species, at concentrations relevant to regulatory limits of 800 ?g STX-diHCl equivalents/kg shellfish meat. A simple aqueous extraction protocol was performed within several minutes from sample homogenate. The qualitative result was generated after a 5 min run time using a portable reader which removed subjectivity from data interpretation. The test was designed to generate noncompliant results with samples containing approximately 800 ?g of STX-diHCl/kg. The cross-reactivities in relation to STX, expressed as mean ± SD, were as follows: NEO: 128.9% ± 29%; GTX1&4: 5.7% ± 1.5%; GTX2&3: 23.4% ± 10.4%; dcSTX: 55.6% ± 10.9%; dcNEO: 28.0% ± 8.9%; dcGTX2&3: 8.3% ± 2.7%; C1&C2: 3.1% ± 1.2%; GTX5: 23.3% ± 14.4% (n = 5 LFIA lots). There were no indications of matrix effects from the different samples evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, cockles) nor interference from other shellfish toxins (domoic acid, okadaic acid group). Naturally contaminated sample evaluations showed no false negative results were generated from a variety of different samples and profiles (n = 23), in comparison to reference methods (MBA method 959.08, LC-FD method 2005.06). External laboratory evaluations of naturally contaminated samples (n = 39) indicated good correlation with reference methods (MBA, LC-FD). This is the first LFIA which has been shown, through rigorous validation, to have the ability to detect most major PSTs in a reliable manner and will be a huge benefit to both industry and regulators, who need to perform rapid and reliable testing to ensure shellfish are safe to eat. PMID:25893460

  16. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

  17. Occurrence and profiles of lipophilic toxins in shellfish harvested from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Goya, Alejandra B

    2015-08-01

    The presence of phytoplankton responsible for the production of lipophilic marine biotoxins is well recognised throughout parts of South America. To date, the quantitation of lipophilic toxins in Argentinean shellfish has been limited to select and highly focussed geographical studies. This work reports the analysis for lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish harvested across five regions of Argentina between 1992 and 2012. LC-MS/MS analysis was used for the quantitation of all regulated lipophilic toxins. High concentrations of okadaic acid group toxins were quantified, with a clear dominance of the parent okadaic acid and more than 90% of the toxin present as esters. Results showed DSP toxins in shellfish from the Buenos Aires Province during 2006 and 2007, earlier than previously described. There was also strong evidence linking the presence of okadaic acid to human intoxications. Other lipophilic toxins detected were yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2 and 13-desMeC spirolide. With evidence published recently for the presence of azaspiracid producers, this work reports the detection of low concentrations of azaspiracid-2 in shellfish. As such the data provides the first published evidence for yessotoxins and azaspiracids in Argentinean shellfish and further evidence for the continuing presence of lipophilic marine toxins in Argentinean waters. PMID:26003796

  18. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of domoic acid and analogues in shellfish: effect of pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. López-Rivera; B. A. Suárez-Isla; P. P. Eilers; C. G. Beaudry; S. Hall; M. Fernández Amandi; A. Furey; K. J. James

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a naturally-occurring amino acid that causes a form of human intoxication called amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) following the consumption of shellfish. A rapid and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for analysis of DA and analogues in shellfish without the need for SPE clean-up. Isocratic chromatographic separation of DA and its isomers from shellfish matrix interferences

  19. First U.S. report of shellfish harvesting closures due to confirmed okadaic acid in Texas Gulf coast oysters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Deeds; Kirk Wiles; Gary B. Heideman VI; Kevin D. White; Ann Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Between March 7 and April 12, 2008, several bay systems on the east (Gulf of Mexico) coast of Texas, USA were closed to the harvesting of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) due to the presence of the DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) toxin okadaic acid in excess of the 20 ?g\\/100 g tissue FDA regulatory guidance level. This was the first shellfish harvesting closure due

  20. Formation of a volunteer harmful algal bloom network in British Columbia, Canada, following an outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada's first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

  1. Interannual variability of shellfish toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: Time and space patterns and links to environmental variability

    E-print Network

    Townsend, David W.

    these harmful algal blooms (HABs). Shellfish beds are closed to harvesting if toxicity approaches or exceeds 80 and environmental pro- Harmful Algae 9 (2010) 458­480 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 10 March 2010 Accepted 10 March 2010 Keywords: Gulf of Maine Harmful algal blooms Interannual variability Shellfish

  2. New Jersey has a small but expanding shellfish aquaculture industry. Two species are grown: the hard clam Mercenaria

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    #12;New Jersey has a small but expanding shellfish aquaculture industry. Two species are grown scale until 1997. With the State's initiation of Aquaculture Development Zones and new permitting regulations, New Jersey's shellfish aquaculture industry is poised for expansion. Documentation of the extent

  3. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality. PMID:6337547

  4. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent. PMID:24937222

  5. Abnormal metabolism of shellfish sterols in a patient with sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, R E; Connor, W E; Lin, D S; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis together are a disease characterized by premature cardiovascular disease, and by elevated plasma concentrations of total sterols and of plant sterols, especially sitosterol which is hyperabsorbed. In order to determine whether this abnormal metabolism also involved other sterols, a patient with sitosterolemia was fed a diet high in shellfish that contain significant quantities of noncholesterol sterols, some of which are less well absorbed than cholesterol in humans. Compared with control subjects (n = 8), the sitosterolemic subject had an increased absorption of 22-dehydrocholesterol (71.5% vs. 43.8 +/- 11.4%, mean +/- SD), C-26 sterol (80.6% vs. 49.3 +/- 11.4%), brassicasterol (51.8% vs. 4.8 +/- 4.2%), and 24-methylene cholesterol (60.5% vs. 16.0 +/- 8.3%). This enhanced absorption was associated with an increased plasma total shellfish sterol level (13.1 mg/dl vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl in normals). In the sitosterolemic subject, as in normals, the shellfish sterols were not preferentially concentrated in any lipoprotein class, and 50-65% of these sterols were in the esterified form in plasma. Bile acids and neutral sterols were quantitated in bile obtained by duodenal aspiration. The bile acid composition did not differ significantly in the sitosterolemic subject compared with the normal controls. The sitosterolemic subject, though, was unable to concentrate normally the neutral shellfish sterols in bile. The normal controls concentrated the shellfish sterols in bile 6.3 +/- 1.7-fold relative to the plasma shellfish sterol concentration whereas the study subject was only able to concentrate them 2.1-fold. We propose that sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis occur from a generalized abnormality in the usual ability of the gut mucosa and other tissues of the body to discriminate among many different sterols. This has important implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and for therapeutic recommendations. PMID:3711338

  6. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  7. Trace metal content of fish and shellfishes of the Niger delta area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kakulu, S.E.; Osibanjo, O.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The trace metal contents of various fish and shellfishes from the Niger delta area of Nigeria were determined. The levels in the shellfishes were higher than those in the fish, which could be due to their being bottom feeders. The levels of fish varied from <0.01-0.10 ..mu..g/g for Cd, < 0.05-3.69 ..mu..g/g for Cu, 0.49-16.52 ..mu..g/g for Fe, and 0.08-6.90 ..mu..g/g for Zn. 15 references, 1 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Trace metal content of fish and shellfishes of the Niger delta area of Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Kakulu; O. Osibanjo; S. O. Ajayi

    1987-01-01

    The trace metal contents of various fish and shellfishes from the Niger delta area of Nigeria were determined. The levels in the shellfishes were higher than those in the fish, which could be due to their being bottom feeders. The levels of fish varied from <0.01-0.10 ..mu..g\\/g for Cd, < 0.05-3.69 ..mu..g\\/g for Cu, 0.49-16.52 ..mu..g\\/g for Fe, and 0.08-6.90

  9. IDENTIFYING CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS IN MARYLAND!

    E-print Network

    IDENTIFYING CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS IN MARYLAND! ROBERT. KEVIN SUMMERS6 ABSTRACT In five of the seven most important commercial fisheries of Maryland of the University of Maryland. "University of Maryland, Chesapeake Biological Labora- tory, Solomons, MD 20688. s

  10. artha's Vineyard Shellfish Group is a public nonprofit located on Martha's Vineyard Island

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    is production of shellfish seed. They grow bay scallops, quahogs, and oysters. The species are spawned production for bay scallops, quahogs, and oysters; three commercially important species. Sustainability Briefings are a collection of occasional essays, thought pieces, case studies and research briefings through

  11. Sheep mortality associated with paralytic shellfish poisons from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P Negri; Gary J Jones; Michael Hindmarsh

    1995-01-01

    This is the first report of sheep mortalities associated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst. Fourteen sheep died within 150 m of a farm dam containing a dense bloom of A. circinalis. Extracts from both the cyanobacterium and small intestine from a dead ewe were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain

  12. Short incubation of presumptive media for detection of fecal coliforms in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Hastback, W G

    1981-12-01

    Positive fecal coliform most-probable number results were compiled from 7,701 shellfish samples examined over 9 years. Generally, less than 2% of all positive reactions in EC medium are results of inoculations from presumptive media positive at the maximum (48-h) incubation period. PMID:7316514

  13. Short incubation of presumptive media for detection of fecal coliforms in shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Hastback, W G

    1981-01-01

    Positive fecal coliform most-probable number results were compiled from 7,701 shellfish samples examined over 9 years. Generally, less than 2% of all positive reactions in EC medium are results of inoculations from presumptive media positive at the maximum (48-h) incubation period. PMID:7316514

  14. Spoilage and shelf?life extension of fresh fish and shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. A. Ashie; J. P. Smith; B. K. Simpson; Norman F. Haard

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish?processing industry is actively seeking alternative

  15. Risk assessment of heavy metals in shellfish for the population in Nha Trang City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Massin, Dominique Parent

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article was designed to estimate the dietary intake of lead, cadmium, and mercury due to the shellfish consumption of the population in Nha Trang City, Vietnam. The lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in the shellfish consumed popularly by the Nha Trang population were investigated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry from May 2008 to January 2009. The lead, cadmium, and mercury concentration ranges in shellfish are equal to 0.008-0.083, 0.013-0.056, and 0.028-0.056 mg/kg, respectively. The dietary intake of these elements was determined by a total diet study. The heavy metals intake was estimated for six subpopulation groups: men and women aged 18-29, 30-54, and > or =55. The dietary intakes of lead, cadmium, and mercury by the Nha Trang population are currently well below the provisional tolerable weekly intakes of lead, cadmium, and mercury, respectively. Therefore, no risk exists concerning the levels of exposure of Nha Trang consumers to the contaminants studied due to shellfish consumption. PMID:24645414

  16. New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

  17. Current scientific understanding of the environmental biosafety of transgenic fish and shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Kapuscinski

    2005-01-01

    Summary A fluorescent zebrafish was the first genetically engineered animal to be marketed, and biotechnologists are developing many transgenic fish and shellfish. Biosafety science is not sufficiently advanced to be able to draw scientifically reliable and broadly trusted conclusions about the environmental effects of these animals. The science is best developed for identifying hazards posed by environmental spread of a

  18. High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

  19. Persistence and degradation of cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) in freshwaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Jones; Andrew P. Negri

    1997-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) extracted from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis persisted for over 90 days when incubated in freshwater. The primary transformation reaction was desulfocarbamoylation of the predominant, low toxicity C-toxins, to the more potent decarbamoylgonyautoxins (dc-GTXs). This transformation caused an initial increase in sample toxicity, in spite of an overall decrease in total toxin concentration (on a molar basis)

  20. Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), in cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dar??o Andrinolo; Luis F Michea; Néstor Lagos

    1999-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) was the first known and most studied toxic component of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). This toxin blocks neuronal transmission by binding to the voltage-gated Na+ channel. Although the toxin's mechanism of action is well known at the molecular level, there are still many unresolved questions about its pharmacokinetics and the PSP intoxication syndrome in mammals. Some of these

  1. Occurrence of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and Synergies among Them

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Laura P.; González, Virginia; Martínez, Aníbal; Paz, Beatriz; Lago, Jorge; Cordeiro, Victoria; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G.

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro. PMID:25815891

  2. Chlordane contamination in selected estuarine and coastal marine finfish and shellfish of New Jersey, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Kennish; Bruce E. Ruppel

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of chlordane contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey, USA, indicates consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. Gas chromatographic analysis of tissue samples from four finfish species (American eel, Anguilla rostrata; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; and weakfish,

  3. Evidence that Mortality from Vibrio vulnificus Infection Results from Single Strains among Heterogeneous Populations in Shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. KEITH JACKSON; RENDI L. MURPHREE; MARK L. TAMPLIN

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the

  4. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND HIGH PRESSURE SANITIZATION OF SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly sensitive virus RNA extraction method for shellfish, using Glycine buffer, Polyethylene glycol, Tri-reagent and poly dT magnetic beads, termed the GPTT procedure, has recently been developed which facilitates RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis E (HEV), and Norwalk-like viruses...

  5. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SHELLFISH PRODUCTION ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADOPTION OF INTEGRATED

    E-print Network

    -TROPHIC AQUACULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by Patrick Kitchen Bachelor of Arts with Distinction, McGill University, 2006 PRODUCTION ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADOPTION OF INTEGRATED MULTI- TROPHIC AQUACULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Chair-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) combines fed aquaculture (finfish) with extractive aquaculture (shellfish and seaweeds

  6. SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER

    E-print Network

    SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER FINAL of the aquaculture industry to public Baylor ground, timely information regarding the productivity of these grounds and the ability to support aquaculture would be highly desirable information. In this scenario, public bottom

  7. From the Tides of Puget Sound to Your Plate: Northwest Shellfish

    E-print Network

    in the growth of seagrass habitats like eelgrass. Shellfish can also benefit seagrass habitat through in bare seabed or seabed habitat with eelgrass. In addition, in a two year study of a variety of shoreline habitats, Ferrraro and Cole (2004, 2006) found that eelgrass and commercial oyster flats were equal

  8. Evidence for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. CARMICHAEL; W. R. EVANS; Q. Q. YIN; P. BELL; E. MOCZYDLOWSKI

    1997-01-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prev- alent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville

  9. Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Hua; Yao, Zongli; Jiang, Jianbin; Bergman, Åke

    2015-02-01

    The global contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), or compounds with similar characteristics, is well known. Still there are data gaps for POP concentrations from many areas in the world. The aim of the present study is to assess several legacies POPs and also hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in shellfish from three locations in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The sources of the contaminants are discussed. Pooled samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction and acid and column cleanup prior to analysis by gas chromatogram equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The by far most abundant environmental contaminant originates from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), independent of species analyzed or sampling site. The results indicate ongoing or at least recent discharges of DDT. The second highest concentrations were reported for HBCDD (21-40 ng/g fat) in the shellfish, independent of sampling sites. The two natural products, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 2'-MeO-BDE-68, were also present in the shellfish (1.3-22 and 1-14 ng/g fat, respectively). The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 (0.8-6.5 ng/g fat), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.1-3.6 ng/g fat), and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) (2.3-4.9 ng/g fat) were all higher than the concentrations of other HCH isomers, ?-endosulfan, PBDE congeners, and mirex. Apart from the DDTs and HBCDDs, it is evident that the pollution of shellfish was similar to, or lower than, the contamination of shellfish in other parts of the world. PMID:24958534

  10. Bio-filler from waste shellfish shell: preparation, characterization, and its effect on the mechanical properties on polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Tan, Ye-Qiang; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yun-Xiang; Song, Yi-Hu; Ye, Ying; Xia, Mei-Sheng

    2012-05-30

    Waste shellfish shell stacking with a significant odor and toxicity which are hazardous to human constitutes a serious environmental hazard. For utilization of waste shellfish shell resource, granule of shellfish shell (SS) was prepared from waste shellfish shell by removing cuticle, crushing, grinding and shearing emulsification and was introduced as a filler to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The mechanical behavior of PP/SS composite shows a higher yield strain, yield strength, tensile strength and elongation at break than traditional commercial calcium carbonate (CC) filled PP. Yield strength of PP/SS composite with 2% SS is improved by 11.1% due to the formation of ?-crystalline PP phase. Using waste SS for producing bio-filler for filling PP is an effective and prospective measure to deal with waste SS, which is valuable for industrial production and practical application as fillers for reinforcing polymers. PMID:22476096

  11. ACUTE TOXICITY, SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF CHLORINATION PRODUCTS, VIRUSES, AND BACTERIA IN EDIBLE SHELLFISH: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, synthesizes, and summarizes published scientific data concerning toxicity, sublethal physiological effects, and uptake/depuration rates of chlorine, viruses, and bacteria in edible marine shellfish of the United States. The summary may provide environmental...

  12. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: Co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn R. Mahaffey; Robert P. Clickner; Rebecca A. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Despite many claims of broad benefits, especially for in utero development, derived from the consumption of fish as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, individual species of fish and shellfish provide substantially varied levels of these fatty acids. Likewise, mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations for fish and shellfish species differ by greater than an order of magnitude. Consideration of within-species variability

  13. Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Prem; Kumar, Sreeletha Prem; Nair, G Achuthan

    2009-05-01

    Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin, is evaluated based on its current knowledge and its harmful effects, and is presented under four headings, viz., (1) hazard identification, (2) dose response assessment, (3) exposure assessment and (4) risk characterization. Domoic acid binds the glutamate receptor site of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and causes depolarization of neurons and an increase in cellularcalcium. In nature, domoic acid is produced by the algae, Pseudonitzschia spp. and they enter into the body of shellfish through their consumption. This toxin is reported to cause gastroenteritis, renal insufficiency confusion and memory loss in humans, since it affects the hippocampus of the brain. In rats, intraperitonial and oral administration of domoic acid result in scratching, tremor and convulsions, and in monkeys, the toxic symptoms like mastication, salivation, projectile vomiting, weakness, teeth grinding and lethargy are apparent. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in animals reveals that pure toxin is more effective than those isolated from shellfish. Based on LD50 values, it is found that intraperitonial administration of this toxin in animals is 31 fold more effective than oral administration. Low levels of domoic acid (0.20-0.75 ppm) show no toxic symptoms in non-human primates, but clinical effects are apparent in them and in humans, at a concentration of 1.0 ppm. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) of domoic acid for humans is calculated as 0.075 ppm, whereas for razor clams and crabs, the TDI are 19.4 and 31.5 ppm respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is found to be 2. Being an irreversible neurotoxin, domoic acid has severe public health implications. Death occurs in those above 68 years old. In order to ensure adequate protection to public health, the concentration of domoic acid in shellfish and shellfish parts at point of sale shall not exceed the current permissible limit of 20 microg g(-1) tissue. While processing shellfish, it maybe advisable to pay attention to factors such as environmental conditions, inter-organ variability in concentrations of domoic acid and cross contaminations. PMID:20120452

  14. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  15. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmela Dell’Aversano; Philipp Hess; Michael A. Quilliam

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was examined for the separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using the stationary phase TSK-gel Amide-80®. The parameters tested included type of organic modifier and percentage in the mobile phase, buffer concentration, pH, flow rate and column temperature. Using mass spectrometric (MS) detection, the HILIC column allowed the determination of all the major PSP

  16. Reevaluation of Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxin by Bacteria Associated with Dinoflagellates of the Portuguese Coast

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Claudia A.; Alvito, Paula; Tavares, Maria João; Pereira, Paulo; Doucette, Gregory; Franca, Susana

    2003-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by certain dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial species. The autonomous production of PSTs by bacteria remains controversial. In this study, PST production by two bacterial strains, isolated previously from toxic dinoflagellates, was evaluated using biological and analytical methods. Analyses were performed under conditions determined previously to be optimal for toxin production and detection. Our data are inconsistent with autonomous bacterial PST production under these conditions, thereby challenging previous findings for the same strains. PMID:12957964

  17. Sediment bacterial indicators in an urban shellfishing subestuary of the lower Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Erkenbrecher, C W

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the spatial and temporal distributions and compositions of bacteria in the sediments and overlying waters of an important urban shellfishing area in the lower Chesapeake Bay region, the Lynnhaven Estuary. Marked fluctuations were observed in the date of many of the physicochemical parameters and the indicator bacteria. The higher-salinity water and coarser sediment of the inlet site showed lower overall bacterial densities than did the headwater sites, where freshwater runoff and decreased tidal action were characteristic. Densities of benthic indicator bacteria, when expressed on a volumetric basis, were significantly greater than counts in the overlying waters. These counts were indicative of a fecally polluted system and were well above the safe maximum limits for shellfish-growing waters. Significantly fewer total and fecal bacteria were observed in both the water and the sediment during the warm months of May, July, and August. The primary sources of the Lynnhaven's bacterial pollution appeared to be typical of urban and agricultural runoff, although failure of septic tank systems was suspected as a problem in the Lynnhaven's western branch. These results illustrated that sediments in shellfishing areas could serve as a reservoir for high densities of indicator bacteria and that, potentially, pathogens could pose a health hazard. PMID:7294785

  18. Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Caldow, Richard W.G; Stillman, Richard A; Durell, Sarah E.A. le V. dit; West, Andy D; McGrorty, Selwyn; Goss-Custard, John D; Wood, Philippa J; Humphreys, John

    2007-01-01

    Introductions of non-native species are seen as major threats to ecosystem function and biodiversity. However, invasions of aquatic habitats by non-native species are known to benefit generalist consumers that exhibit dietary switches and prey upon the exotic species in addition to or in preference to native ones. There is, however, little knowledge concerning the population-level implications of such dietary changes. Here, we show that the introduction of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum into European coastal waters has presented the Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus with a new food resource and resulted in a previously unknown predator–prey interaction between these species. We demonstrate, with an individuals-based simulation model, that the presence of this non-native shellfish, even at the current low density, has reduced the predicted over-winter mortality of oystercatchers at one recently invaded site. Further increases in clam population density are predicted to have even more pronounced effects on the density dependence of oystercatcher over-winter mortality. These results suggest that if the Manila clam were to spread around European coastal waters, a process which is likely to be facilitated by global warming, this could have considerable benefits for many shellfish-eating shorebird populations. PMID:17412684

  19. Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish.

    PubMed

    Caldow, Richard W G; Stillman, Richard A; dit Durell, Sarah E A le V; West, Andy D; McGrorty, Selwyn; Goss-Custard, John D; Wood, Philippa J; Humphreys, John

    2007-06-01

    Introductions of non-native species are seen as major threats to ecosystem function and biodiversity. However, invasions of aquatic habitats by non-native species are known to benefit generalist consumers that exhibit dietary switches and prey upon the exotic species in addition to or in preference to native ones. There is, however, little knowledge concerning the population-level implications of such dietary changes. Here, we show that the introduction of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum into European coastal waters has presented the Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus with a new food resource and resulted in a previously unknown predator-prey interaction between these species. We demonstrate, with an individuals-based simulation model, that the presence of this non-native shellfish, even at the current low density, has reduced the predicted over-winter mortality of oystercatchers at one recently invaded site. Further increases in clam population density are predicted to have even more pronounced effects on the density dependence of oystercatcher over-winter mortality. These results suggest that if the Manila clam were to spread around European coastal waters, a process which is likely to be facilitated by global warming, this could have considerable benefits for many shellfish-eating shorebird populations. PMID:17412684

  20. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 ?p.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT, lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (< 0.26 mg kg-1) or mercury (< 0.003 mg kg-1), has had some non-compliances. Detections for PCBs and dioxins in shellfish were far below the regulatory thresholds in oysters (< 0.6 pg g-l), mussels (< 0.6 pg g-1), and king scallops (< 0.4 pg g-1). The benzo[a]pyrene concentration in marketed mussels and farmed shellfish does not exceed the regulatory threshold. Some monitoring data are available on shellfish flesh contamination for unregulated organic contaminants.Of about 100 existing organo stannic compounds, residues of the mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) and mono-, di-, and triphenyltin (MPT, DPT,and TPT) compounds are the most frequently detected in fishery products. Octyltins are not found in fishery products. Some bivalve mollusks show arsenic levels up to 15.8 mg kg-1. It seems that the levels of arsenic in the environment derive less from bioaccumulation, than from whether the arsenic is in an organic or an inorganic form. In regard to the other metals, levels of zinc and magnesium are higher in oysters than in mussels.To protect shellfish from chemical contamination, programs have been established to monitor water masses along coastal areas. The French monitoring network(ROCCH) focuses on environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and ha

  1. Paralytic shellfish poisons produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NH-5.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N A; Carmichael, W W

    1986-01-01

    A single filament clonal isolate of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was made from a water bloom sample taken at a small pond near Durham, New Hampshire, in 1980. When batch cultured the strain was toxic to mice and had an i.p. LD50 of about 5.0 mg/kg. Using an extraction procedure originally designed for paralytic shellfish poisons and other neurotoxins of freshwater cyanobacteria, a purification method was developed. The procedure involved acidified water/ethanol extraction of the cells followed by ultrafiltration, gel filtration, use of C18 cartridges to remove pigments, ion-exchange and high performance liquid chromatography using u.v. detection at 220 or 240 nm. Thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography results indicate that Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NH-5 may produce paralytic shellfish poisons, mainly neo-saxitoxin and saxitoxin. Three labile toxins were also detected which were not similar to any of the known paralytic shellfish poisons. PMID:3085292

  2. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (?arag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal ?arag levels (?arag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable ?arag conditions above the sub-optimal ?arag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this developing Alaskan industry. PMID:26131723

  3. Development of a method for detection of enteroviruses in shellfish by PCR with poliovirus as a model.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, D N; Henshilwood, K; Doré, W J

    1994-01-01

    The application of the PCR to complex samples is hindered by amplification inhibitors. We describe a reverse transcription-PCR-based method capable of inhibitor removal for the detection of enteroviruses in shellfish. Initial virus extraction stages based on a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation technique (G.D. Lewis and T.G. Metcalf, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1983-1988, 1988) were followed by virus purification with 1,1,2-trichloro,2,2,1-trifluoroethane and concentration by ultrafiltration. A guanidine isothiocyanate-glass powder extraction system was utilized for sample lysis, RNase protection, and nucleic acid purification. Removal of PCR inhibitors and method sensitivity were quantified in shellfish (oysters and mussels) seeded with poliovirus. PCR sample tolerance exceeded 4 g for depurated shellfish; however, polluted field samples were more inhibitory. Virus recoveries of 31% for oyster extracts and 17% for mussel extracts and nucleic acid extraction reverse transcription-PCR detection limits down to 1 PFU yielded an overall sensitivity limit of < 10 PFU of poliovirus in up to 5 g of shellfish. PCR-positive results were obtained from a variety of polluted field samples naturally contaminated with human enteroviruses. The methods developed for virus recovery and PCR inhibitor removal should be equally applicable to detection of other RNA viruses such as hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus, and other small round-structured viruses in shellfish. Images PMID:7521997

  4. Distribution of Human Virus Contamination in Shellfish from Different Growing Areas in Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Formiga-Cruz, M.; Tofiño-Quesada, G.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Lees, D. N.; Henshilwood, K.; Allard, A. K.; Conden-Hansson, A.-C.; Hernroth, B. E.; Vantarakis, A.; Tsibouxi, A.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Furones, M. D.; Girones, R.

    2002-01-01

    Viral pollution in shellfish has been analyzed simultaneously across a wide range of geographical regions, with emphasis on the concomitant variations in physicochemical characteristics and social features. The methods for sample treatment and for the detection of human enteric viruses were optimized by the participating laboratories. The second part of this study involves the selection of a protocol for virus detection, which was validated by analyzing the distribution and concentration of human viral pathogens under diverse conditions during an 18-month period in four European countries. Shellfish-growing areas from diverse countries in the north and south of Europe were defined and studied, and the microbiological quality of the shellfish was analyzed. Human adenovirus, Norwalk-like virus, and enterovirus were identified as contaminants of shellfish in all the participating countries. Hepatitis A virus was also isolated in all areas except Sweden. The seasonal distribution of viral contamination was also described. Norwalk-like virus appeared to be the only group of viruses that demonstrated seasonal variation, with lower concentrations occurring during warm months. The depuration treatments currently applied were shown to be adequate for reducing Escherichia coli levels but ineffective for the elimination of viral particles. The human adenoviruses detected by PCR correlate with the presence of other human viruses and could be useful as a molecular index of viral contamination in shellfish. PMID:12450820

  5. Chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Tremblay, Thierry; Rouette, Justine; Cartier, Jacques-François

    2004-06-01

    Shellfish have the capacity to accumulate chemical contaminants found in their biotope and therefore present a potential risk for consumers. This study was conducted to assess the chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary. A survey was carried out on 162 recreational harvesters, and shellfish were sampled for chemical contaminant analysis. We quantified 10 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 10 chlorinated pesticides. We subsequently evaluated cancer and noncancer risks for four consumption scenarios based on our survey results and published results. Soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) were by far the most consumed shellfish species. Of the 56 selected contaminants, 36 were detected in the 23 homogenates of soft-shell clam meat. None of the contaminants found in the soft-shell clams were associated with intakes that exceed the main exposure limit recommendations proposed to prevent noncancer effects. However, several limits must be considered before drawing conclusions about the relative safety of shellfish consumption regarding this end point. Furthermore, inorganic arsenic and PCBs were present in sufficient concentrations to lead to cancer risks exceeding the level often considered acceptable for environmental exposure (1 x 10 (-4) to 1 x 10(-6)) in each of the four scenarios, even for the lowest observed scenario of 15 meals of soft-shell clams per year. PMID:15175177

  6. Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro-

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro- algae that provide a nutritional profile for shellfish. Although the algal cells are intact, the algae are not alive. The diet does not contain

  7. The ecological role of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the estuarine environment: A review with application to oyster and clam culture in West Coast (USA) estuaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is viewed as a potential mechanism to meet the growing demand for seafood around the world. The future of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the U.S. hinges on sustainable practices on the part of industry and a more consistent regulatory regime. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture is a recent...

  8. Comparison of modified A-1 method with standard EC test for recovery of fecal coliform bacteria for shellfish.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D A; Lucas, J P; McClure, F D; Springer, J; Newell, R

    1981-05-01

    This study is one of a series in which variations of the A-1 method for the detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in seawater and foods were evaluated. The tests were conducted jointly by the Food and Drug Administration and state and provincial laboratories that support shellfish control programs in the United States and Canada as part of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program's Microbiology Task Force activities. Results showed significantly higher recovery of fecal coliforms from naturally contaminated shellfish by the AOAC official A-1-M method than by the American Public Health Association standard method. There was no significant difference in recovery of E. coli by the 2 methods. PMID:7016825

  9. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  10. Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui; Costa, Pedro Reis

    2014-01-01

    Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1+2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses' excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms. PMID:24316438

  11. Bacterial influence on the production of paralytic shellfish toxins by dinoflagellated algae.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, W R; Levin, R E

    1997-10-01

    This study investigated the role of intracellular and extracellular bacteria in the production of paralytic shellfish toxins by dinoflagellated algal cells. Three strains of the toxic dinoflagellate species, Alexandrium tamarense, were purified by external bacteria using penicillin G (Pen. G) at levels of 500 and 1000 p.p.m. Levels of toxicity of the resulting purified dinoflagellate cultures were similar to those of the original strains contaminated with external bacteria, indicating that the external bacteria had no influence on toxicity. No bacterial colony forming units (cfu) arose from disruption of algal cells derived from penicillin-treated cultures, indicating that intracellular bacteria were not responsible for the toxicity of cultures. PMID:9351228

  12. In situ detection of hepatitis A virus in cell cultures and shellfish tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Romalde, J L; Estes, M K; Szücs, G; Atmar, R L; Woodley, C M; Metcalf, T G

    1994-01-01

    An in situ transcription method was developed to detect hepatitis A virus RNA in both cell cultures and shellfish tissues. Radiolabeled cDNA copies were synthesized in situ by reverse transcriptase-directed transcription after annealing with a specific primer to the viral RNA. Both tritium (3H) and 35S were useful in the in situ transcription reaction, but the use of 3H resulted in a lower background and finer detail in the localization of viral particles. Application of the method to different organs of oysters which had bioaccumulated hepatitis A virus allowed the first in situ localization of the virus, specifically in stomach and hepatopancreatic tissues. Images PMID:8031087

  13. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

  14. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a mini?m of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption using the mouse bioassay (MBA) prior to its introduction into commerce. This paper presents data from the pilot study, with primary focus on the advantages and challenges of the field kits employed onboard compared to the dockside MBA, which has served as the longstanding regulatory method for PSP toxins. In 2010 alone, the successful pilot study resulted in the safe harvest of over 2.7 million worth of surfclams in an area that has otherwise been unavailable for decades. Due to the success of this pilot study, the Protocol was adopted into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program Model Ordinance as an approved marine biotoxin control strategy for use in federal waters at the 2011 ISSC Biennial Meeting. In January 2013 a portion of Georges Bank was reopened for the harvest of Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs to fishermen following the Protocol.

  15. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

  16. Three-Year Study To Assess Human Enteric Viruses in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, F.; Haugarreau, L.; Miossec, L.; Dubois, E.; Pommepuy, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main pathogenic enteric viruses able to persist in the environment, such as hepatitis A virus (HAV), Norwalk-like virus (NLV), enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and astrovirus (AV), were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and hybridization in shellfish during a 3-year study. Oyster samples (n = 108), occasionally containing bacteria, were less frequently contaminated, showing positivity for AV (17%), NLV (23%), EV (19%), and RV (27%), whereas mussel samples, collected in areas routinely impacted by human sewage, were more highly contaminated: AV (50%), HAV (13%), NLV (35%), EV (45%), and RV (52%). Sequences obtained from HAV and NLV amplicons showed a great variety of strains, especially for NLV (strains close to Mexico, Snow Mountain Agent, or Norwalk virus). Viral contamination was mainly observed during winter months, although there were some seasonal differences among the viruses. This first study of virus detection over a fairly long period of time suggests that routine analysis of shellfish by a molecular technique is feasible. PMID:10919776

  17. Identification of Salmonella serovars isolated from live molluscan shellfish and their significance in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; Hernandez-Cordova, Gustavo; Lozano, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar; Espinosa, Joaquin

    2003-02-01

    A study on the presence of Salmonella spp. in live molluscs was performed, which included a description of the different serovars isolated and their relationship to the marine environment. A total of 2,980 samples of shellfish from Galicia (N.W. Spain) were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. between September 1998 and August 2001. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 1.8% and showed a slight rise during the 3 years of the study. Mussels and oysters presented a higher incidence than clams and cockles, possibly because of their distinct growing habitat. A seasonal pattern was noted for the isolation of Salmonella spp.: 54% of the isolations were detected from September to November. That nearly 67% of the total Salmonella was isolated from shellfish with fecal coliform levels < 300/100 g (the maximum level criteria in the European Communities regulations) supported the view that low levels of fecal coliforms do not necessarily indicate the absence of Salmonella. A total of nine serovars were found in the 54 Salmonella isolated. Salmonella Senftenberg was the most frequent (50%), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (18%) and Salmonella Agona (17%). Salmonella Senftenberg was detected frequently during the year, whereas the remaining serovars were detected only on occasional contamination events. PMID:12597481

  18. Building heat conservation and the feasibility of solar hot water heating in Long Island shellfish hatcheries

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature regulation is a vital component of any aquaculture system. Existing facilities can be retrofitted with extra insulation, waste heat recovery systems and in some cases, active solar water heating. Those aquaculture ventures that seek to raise organisms to market size under controlled conditions are currently hindered by high operating costs, including fuel. These outfits can also benefit from conservation and alternative energy technologies. In addition, the industry may be more willing to cultivate species normally restricted by climatic conditions if a less expensive source of heating were available. This report focuses on three of the bivalve shellfish aquaculture enterprises of Long Island, New York. In the 1978 to 1979 growing season, Long Island shellfish growers collectively burned over 50,000 gallons of heating oil to warm their hatchery waters and buildings. Since then, heating oil prices have doubled. Currently, some growers are limited by these fuel costs from beginning production earlier in the season. In this report, several heat conservation measures are discussed, and the feasibility of active solar hot water is examined.

  19. About Recreational Shellfish Harvesting in Southwest Florida In many northern coastal states it is common for individuals to harvest

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    About Recreational Shellfish Harvesting in Southwest Florida In many northern coastal states designate an area for harvesting. Within a SHA, there are several water classifications. The public is only of a line from the Ferguson River to Indian Key Pass channel marker 7, and north of a line from Cape Romano

  20. UTILIZING SHELLFISH RESPONSES TO SET TARGET WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF OYSTER REEFS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volety, Aswani K., S.G. Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Utilizing Shellfish Responses to Set Target Water Quality Conditions for the Restoration of Oyster Reefs in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Presented at the International Workshop on Restoration of Benthic Invertebr...

  1. Management of productivity, environmental effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture — the Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Ferreira; A. J. S. Hawkins; S. B. Bricker

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a model for assessment of coastal and offshore shellfish aquaculture at the farm-scale. The Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model is directed both at the farmer and the regulator, and has three main uses: (i) prospective analyses of culture location and species selection; (ii) ecological and economic optimisation of culture practice, such as timing and sizes for

  2. Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region

    E-print Network

    Townsend, David W.

    Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region Hannah M. Horecka, Andrew C. Thomas n , Ryan A. Weatherbee School of Marine Sciences, 5706 Aubert Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Gulf of Maine Cobscook Bay Shellfish toxicity a b s t r a c

  3. Vitamin D levels in fish and shellfish determined by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) levels were determined in finfish and shellfish using UV detection at 265nm (combined with auxiliary full scan UV detection) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry (MS), using vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) as an internal standard. Analysis of standard referen...

  4. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-01-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. Images PMID:3662506

  5. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: Implications for risk communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Groth III

    2010-01-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish

  6. Field depuration and biotransformation of paralytic shellfish toxins in scallop Chlamys nobilis and green-lipped mussel Perna viridis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-C. Choi; D. P. H. Hsieh; P. K. S. Lam; W.-X. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the scallop Chlamys nobilis and the mussel Perna viridis were exposed to N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C2 toxin), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST), by feeding a local toxic strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (ATDP) that produced C2 toxin exclusively. The bivalves were subsequently depurated in the field, and their depuration kinetics, biotransformation and toxin distribution were quantified. Depuration

  7. Evaluation of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophage as a Candidate Human Enteric Virus Indicator for Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Doré, William J.; Henshilwood, Kathleen; Lees, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widely utilized indicator of the sanitary quality of bivalve molluscan shellfish sold for human consumption. However, it is now well documented that shellfish that meet the E. coli standards for human consumption may contain human enteric viruses that cause gastroenteritis and hepatitis. In this study we investigated using F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNA bacteriophage) to indicate the likely presence of such viruses in shellfish sold for consumption. FRNA bacteriophage and E. coli levels were determined over a 2-year period for oysters (Crassostrea gigas) harvested from four commercial sites chosen to represent various degrees of sewage pollution. Three sites were classified as category B sites under the relevant European Community (EC) Directive (91/492), which required purification (depuration) of oysters from these sites before sale. One site was classified as a category A site, and oysters from this site could be sold directly without further processing. Samples were tested at the point of sale following commercial processing and packaging. All of the shellfish complied with the mandatory EC E. coli standard (less than 230 per 100 g of shellfish flesh), and the levels of contamination for more than 90% of the shellfish were at or below the level of sensitivity of the assay (20 E. coli MPN per 100 g), which indicated good quality based on this criterion. In contrast, FRNA bacteriophage were frequently detected at levels that exceeded 1,000 PFU per 100 g. High levels of FRNA bacteriophage contamination were strongly associated with harvest area fecal pollution and with shellfish-associated disease outbreaks. Interestingly, FRNA bacteriophage contamination exhibited a marked seasonal trend that was consistent with the trend of oyster-associated gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom. The correlation between FRNA bacteriophage contamination and health risk was investigated further by using a reverse transcription-PCR assay for Norwalk-like virus (NLV). NLV contamination of oysters was detected only at the most polluted site and also exhibited a seasonal trend that was consistent with the trend of FRNA bacteriophage contamination and with the incidence of disease. The results of this study suggest that FRNA bacteriophage could be used as viral indicators for market-ready oysters. PMID:10742200

  8. Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horecka, Hannah M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Weatherbee, Ryan A.

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Maine experiences annual closures of shellfish harvesting due to the accumulation of toxins produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium. Factors controlling the timing, location, and magnitude of these events in eastern Maine remain poorly understood. Previous work identified possible linkages between interannual variability of oceanographic variables and shellfish toxicity along the western Maine coastline but no such linkages were evident along the eastern Maine coast in the vicinity of Cobscook Bay, where strong tidal mixing tends to reduce seasonal variability in oceanographic properties. Using 21 years (1985-2005) of shellfish toxicity data, interannual variability in two metrics of annual toxicity, maximum magnitude and total annual toxicity, from stations in the Cobscook Bay region are examined for relationships to a suite of available environmental variables. Consistent with earlier work, no (or only weak) correlations were found between toxicity and oceanographic variables, even those very proximate to the stations such as local sea surface temperature. Similarly no correlations were evident between toxicity and air temperature, precipitation or relative humidity. The data suggest possible connections to local river discharge, but plausible mechanisms are not obvious. Correlations between toxicity and two variables indicative of local meteorological conditions, dew point and atmospheric pressure, both suggest a link between increased toxicity in these eastern Maine stations and weather conditions characterized by clearer skies/drier air (or less stormy/humid conditions). As no correlation of opposite sign was evident between toxicity and local precipitation, one plausible link is through light availability and its positive impact on phytoplankton production in this persistently foggy section of coast. These preliminary findings point to both the value of maintaining long-term shellfish toxicity sampling and a need for inclusion of weather variability in future modeling studies aimed at development of a more mechanistic understanding of factors controlling interannual differences in eastern Gulf of Maine shellfish toxicity.

  9. A comparison of virus concentration methods for molecular detection and characterization of rotavirus in bivalve shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Kittigul, Leera; Singhaboot, Yutatirat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a method for concentrating rotavirus, to assess the detection rate, and to characterize the genotype of naturally occurring rotavirus in bivalve shellfish species; including oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The results demonstrated that an adsorption-twice elution-extraction method was less-time consuming method of concentrating the spiked rotavirus, yielding high sensitivity of 1.14 genome copies/g of digestive tissues from all three shellfish species, as detected using an RT-nested PCR. In seeding experiments, rotavirus as low as 1.39 genome copies was able to be detected in 4 g of digestive tissues or per sample. In the period of August 2011 to July 2012, of the 300 bivalve shellfish samples collected and tested, 24 (8.0%) were found to be contaminated with rotavirus, the figures being: oysters, 13/100 samples; mussels, 10/100 samples; and cockles, 1/100 samples. By DNA sequencing of the RT-nested PCR products and phylogenetic analysis, the rotaviruses detected were classified into G1, lineage II (4 samples); G3 (10 samples): lineage I (3 samples), lineage IIIc (3 samples), lineage IIId (3 samples), lineage IV (1 sample); G9 (6 samples); and G12, lineage III (1 sample). These findings suggest that this virus concentration method provides high sensitivity for the detection of rotavirus from the three bivalve shellfish species. The prevalence of rotavirus and the identified genotypes contribute to the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in different shellfish species. PMID:25475280

  10. Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history, review of epidemiology, and future implications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between toxic marine microalgae species and climate change has become a high profile and well discussed topic in recent years, with research focusing on the possible future impacts of changing hydrological conditions on Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species around the world. However, there is very little literature concerning the epidemiology of these species on marine organisms and human health. Here, we examine the current state of toxic microalgae species around the UK, in two ways: first we describe the key toxic syndromes and gather together the disparate reported data on their epidemiology from UK records and monitoring procedures. Secondly, using NHS hospital admissions and GP records from Wales, we attempt to quantify the incidence of shellfish poisoning from an independent source. We show that within the UK, outbreaks of shellfish poisoning are rare but occurring on a yearly basis in different regions and affecting a diverse range of molluscan shellfish and other marine organisms. We also show that the abundance of a species does not necessarily correlate to the rate of toxic events. Based on routine hospital records, the numbers of shellfish poisonings in the UK are very low, but the identification of the toxin involved, or even a confirmation of a poisoning event is extremely difficult to diagnose. An effective shellfish monitoring system, which shuts down aquaculture sites when toxins exceed regularity limits, has clearly prevented serious impact to human health, and remains the only viable means of monitoring the potential threat to human health. However, the closure of these sites has an adverse economic impact, and the monitoring system does not include all toxic plankton. The possible geographic spreading of toxic microalgae species is therefore a concern, as warmer waters in the Atlantic could suit several species with southern biogeographical affinities enabling them to occupy the coastal regions of the UK, but which are not yet monitored or considered to be detrimental. PMID:21645342

  11. Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history, review of epidemiology, and future implications.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Stephanie L; Hays, Graeme C; Brooks, Caroline J; Davies, Angharad P; Edwards, Martin; Walne, Anthony W; Gravenor, Mike B

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between toxic marine microalgae species and climate change has become a high profile and well discussed topic in recent years, with research focusing on the possible future impacts of changing hydrological conditions on Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species around the world. However, there is very little literature concerning the epidemiology of these species on marine organisms and human health. Here, we examine the current state of toxic microalgae species around the UK, in two ways: first we describe the key toxic syndromes and gather together the disparate reported data on their epidemiology from UK records and monitoring procedures. Secondly, using NHS hospital admissions and GP records from Wales, we attempt to quantify the incidence of shellfish poisoning from an independent source. We show that within the UK, outbreaks of shellfish poisoning are rare but occurring on a yearly basis in different regions and affecting a diverse range of molluscan shellfish and other marine organisms. We also show that the abundance of a species does not necessarily correlate to the rate of toxic events. Based on routine hospital records, the numbers of shellfish poisonings in the UK are very low, but the identification of the toxin involved, or even a confirmation of a poisoning event is extremely difficult to diagnose. An effective shellfish monitoring system, which shuts down aquaculture sites when toxins exceed regularity limits, has clearly prevented serious impact to human health, and remains the only viable means of monitoring the potential threat to human health. However, the closure of these sites has an adverse economic impact, and the monitoring system does not include all toxic plankton. The possible geographic spreading of toxic microalgae species is therefore a concern, as warmer waters in the Atlantic could suit several species with southern biogeographical affinities enabling them to occupy the coastal regions of the UK, but which are not yet monitored or considered to be detrimental. PMID:21645342

  12. Trace metal residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    Levels of seven heavy metal residues, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were monitored in samples of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). The study was conducted from 1976 through 1980. In cases where the Food and Drug Administration has established action levels, mean and median yearly values were significantly below these levels. In cases where no action level exists, heavy metal residues in the shellfish samples were well below levels which are generally regarded as safe. No significant yearly trends in heavy metal residues were discovered. Apparent increases in arsenic levels merit further study. 22 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Contamination of commercially available seafood by key diarrhetic shellfish poisons along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Tan, Cai-Yun; Guo, Yi-Ping; Li, Lin; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products. PMID:25167824

  14. Long-term study of Vibrio parahaemolyticus prevalence and distribution in New Zealand shellfish.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C D; Hedderley, D; Fletcher, G C

    2015-04-01

    The food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been reported as being present in New Zealand (NZ) seawaters, but there have been no reported outbreaks of food-borne infection from commercially grown NZ seafood. Our study determined the current incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in NZ oysters and Greenshell mussels and the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus tdh and trh strains. Pacific (235) and dredge (21) oyster samples and mussel samples (55) were obtained from commercial shellfish-growing areas between December 2009 and June 2012. Total V. parahaemolyticus numbers and the presence of pathogenic genes tdh and trh were determined using the FDA most-probable-number (MPN) method and confirmed using PCR analysis. In samples from the North Island of NZ, V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 81% of Pacific oysters and 34% of mussel samples, while the numbers of V. parahaemolyticus tdh and trh strains were low, with just 3/215 Pacific oyster samples carrying the tdh gene. V. parahaemolyticus organisms carrying tdh and trh were not detected in South Island samples, and V. parahaemolyticus was detected in just 1/21 dredge oyster and 2/16 mussel samples. Numbers of V. parahaemolyticus organisms increased when seawater temperatures were high, the season when most commercial shellfish-growing areas are not harvested. The numbers of V. parahaemolyticus organisms in samples exceeded 1,000 MPN/g only when the seawater temperatures exceeded 19°C, so this environmental parameter could be used as a trigger warning of potential hazard. There is some evidence that the total V. parahaemolyticus numbers increased compared with those reported from a previous 1981 to 1984 study, but the analytical methods differed significantly. PMID:25616790

  15. A person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell, including people releasing the catch. Also known as a recreational Annual Payroll2

    E-print Network

    #12;Glossary Angler1 A person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell, including people environment dead or alive, or to bring fish on board a vessel dead or alive; 2. The total number (or weight

  16. Growth and reproductive simulation of candidate shellfish species at fish cages in the southern mediterranean: Dynamic energy budget (deb) modelling for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sarà; G. K. Reid; A. Rinaldi; V. Palmeri; M. Troell; S. A. L. M. Kooijman

    A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is used to simulate growth and reproduction of the shellfish Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas in an Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm scenario situated in the Southern Mediterranean (the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily). We modelled the effect of primary production enrichment at fish cages on shellfish growth and life history traits using 4years-hourly temperature

  17. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp; Doucette, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 ?g AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs. PMID:18728760

  18. Bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis by the freshwater mussel Alathyria condola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Negri; Gary J. Jones

    1995-01-01

    The Australian fresh-water mussel Alathyria condola accumulated high levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins when fed the neurotoxic cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis, shown recently to contain high concentrations of C-toxins and gonyautoxins. Significant accumulation (>; 80 ?g\\/100 g of mussel flesh) was detected following 2–3 days exposure to water containing 2 × 105 cells\\/mlA. circinalis. Only trace accumulation of PSP

  19. Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Effect of ozonation and ?-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Louppis, A P; Katikou, P; Georgantelis, D; Badeka, A V; Kontominas, M G

    2011-12-01

    Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use of various detoxification methodologies that should be rapid, efficient, easy to apply, and will not alter the quality and sensory properties of shellfish. In the present study, both ozonation (15 mg kg(-1) for 6 h) and ?-irradiation (6 kGy) were utilised in order to reduce the toxin content of contaminated shucked mussels, collected during the DSP episodes of 2007 and 2009 in Greece. DSP toxicity was monitored using the mouse bioassay (MBA) whilst the determination of toxin content of the okadaic acid (OA) group (both free and esterified forms) was carried out by LC/MS/MS analysis. Toxin reduction using ?-irradiation was in the range of 12-36%, 8-53% and 10-41% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. The appearance and texture of irradiated mussels deteriorated, pointing to a low potential for commercial use of this method. Ozonation of mussels resulted in toxin reduction in the range of 6-100%, 25-83% and 21-66% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. Reduction of OA content was substantially higher in homogenised mussel tissue compared with that of whole shucked mussels. In addition, differences detected with regard to quality parameters (TBA, sensory attributes) between ozonated and control mussels were not considerable. Even though varying percentage reductions in OA and its derivatives were achieved using ozonation under specific experimental conditions tested, it is postulated that upon optimisation ozonation may have the potential for post-harvest commercial DSP detoxification of shucked mussels. PMID:21985774

  1. Biological Effects of Chemical Pollution in Feral Fish and Shellfish Populations from Ebro River: From Molecular to Individual Level Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Piña; Demetrio Raldúa; Carlos Barata; Melissa Faria; Anna Navarro; Joana Damasio; Alba Olivares; Laia Quirós; Sergi Pelayo; Marta Casado

    \\u000a A multilevel approach, from whole animal to molecular level, was applied to the study of the biological impact of chemical\\u000a pollution in fish and shellfish populations from the rivers Vero, Cinca, and from the Flix reservoir in the Ebro River. The\\u000a analysis provided a general picture of the health status of the rivers and quantified the physiological effects of different

  2. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Garc??a; Mar??a del Carmen Bravo; Marcelo Lagos; Néstor Lagos

    2004-01-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7–9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3–4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling

  3. Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5

    PubMed Central

    Mihali, Troco K; Kellmann, Ralf; Neilan, Brett A

    2009-01-01

    Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved in the biosynthesis, may also afford the identification of these gene clusters in dinoflagellates, the cause of human mortalities and significant financial loss to the tourism and shellfish industries. PMID:19331657

  4. Is photosynthesis a requirement for paralytic shellfish toxin production in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum algal–bacterial consortium?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth W. Maas; Heather Joan Linton Brooks

    2010-01-01

    While there is increasing evidence that marine bacteria are involved in the production of paralytic shellfish toxins in algal\\u000a blooms, the exact roles of the bacteria and microalgae have proved elusive. A novel experimental approach to this problem\\u000a involved incubating parallel cultures of toxin producing Alexandrium minutum Anokoha A in the dark and in a natural daylight cycle. High-performance liquid

  5. Mathematical model for viral depuration kinetics in shellfish: an useful tool to estimate the risk for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Polo, David; Feal, Xabier; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-08-01

    Enteric virus depuration from shellfish is a complex biological process that may be influenced by biological properties of the mollusc and/or virus species. On the basis of previous experimental data, a mathematical model was developed to characterize the kinetics of viral elimination during the depuration process. The experimental data consisted on twenty depuration trials, each with 60 kg of Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum) and mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) previously subjected to bioaccumulation with HAV or MNV-1 (as a surrogate for human norovirus), that were performed in an experimental depuration system during 7 days. It was observed that although viral loads decay along depuration, a residual viral load remains at the end of the process suggesting a decomposition of viral load in a diluted load (susceptible of depuration) and a non-diluted load (unavailable to depurate). The model yielded a general equation, which can predict the viral load at any depuration time knowing the specific filtration rate, dependent on the bivalve species, and specific viral properties. The mathematical model can be combined with quantitative risk assessment calculations to determine the safety of the depurated shellfish, which can be very helpful not only for shellfish producers but also to public health authorities. PMID:25846934

  6. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

  7. A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Shimaa; Zourob, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid-ovalbumin conjugate (OA-OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ~5000 ng L-1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L-1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples.A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid-ovalbumin conjugate (OA-OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ~5000 ng L-1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L-1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32146g

  8. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

  9. Predator lipids induce paralytic shellfish toxins in bloom-forming algae

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Kubanek, Julia; Hamberg, Mats; Andersson, Mats X.; Cervin, Gunnar; Pavia, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Interactions among microscopic planktonic organisms underpin the functioning of open ocean ecosystems. With few exceptions, these organisms lack advanced eyes and thus rely largely on chemical sensing to perceive their surroundings. However, few of the signaling molecules involved in interactions among marine plankton have been identified. We report a group of eight small molecules released by copepods, the most abundant zooplankton in the sea, which play a central role in food webs and biogeochemical cycles. The compounds, named copepodamides, are polar lipids connecting taurine via an amide to isoprenoid fatty acid conjugate of varying composition. The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum responds to pico- to nanomolar concentrations of copepodamides with up to a 20-fold increase in production of paralytic shellfish toxins. Different copepod species exude distinct copepodamide blends that contribute to the species-specific defensive responses observed in phytoplankton. The signaling system described here has far reaching implications for marine ecosystems by redirecting grazing pressure and facilitating the formation of large scale harmful algal blooms. PMID:25918403

  10. Depuration of shellfish by irradiation: Final technical report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Beghian, L.E.; Mallett, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Metal concentrations in Maryland`s shellfish: 1970s--1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.L. [Maryland Dept. of the Environment, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Maryland has been monitoring arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc in bivalve shellfish from state waters since the 1960s. The primary bivalve species monitored in Maryland waters are the oyster, Crassostrea virginica and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. These data have been evaluated for temporal trends. In order to insure that temporal evaluations be based upon data produced using comparable analytical methods, the time period evaluated is not the same for all analytes. For example, while most evaluations are for the period 1974 through 1994, arsenic data were evaluated for the period 1980 through 1994. Data for oyster tissue indicate declines in levels of mercury, cadmium, arsenic, copper and zinc on the order of 70--90%. The major portion of these reductions occurred prior to 1985. These declines are evident from data collected from Maryland`s lower eastern shore, a relatively remote area, as well as from waters closer to larger population centers. Past detection levels for lead and chromium were insufficiently low to detect temporal changes.

  12. Differences in susceptibility to okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin, between male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka

    2013-01-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. In the Japanese and EU methods, male mice are designated to be used for MBA. Female mice were described to be less susceptible than male mice. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports on the details of sex differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, female mice are less sensitive to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The mice were observed until 24 hours after injection. Both male and female mice of ICR and ddY strains, which are designated in the Japanese official method, were compared. All the mice were four weeks old and weighed 18-20 g. The experiments were repeated twice. The lethality was 70%-100%. Survival analysis showed no sex differences in susceptibility to OA, but ICR female mice showed significant resistance compared with other groups in one out of two trials. These results indicate that sex differences were not clear but, nonetheless, male mice showed more stable results. PMID:23271638

  13. DDT contamination in selected estuarine and coastal marine finfish and shellfish of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kennish, M J; Ruppel, B E

    1996-08-01

    Analysis of DDT contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey (USA) reveals consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, in bluefish, striped bass, weakfish, and blue crabs collected at 27 stations throughout the state between 1988 and 1991 ranged from <25 to >300 microg/kg wet weight (wet wt). Gas chromatographic analysis of 175 tissue samples from these four species showed that the highest levels of DDTs (DDT plus DDE and DDD), exceeding 300 microg/kg wet wt, occurred in blue crabs (hepatopancreas) from the Hudson-Newark-Raritan Bay complex in the northeast region. Lower mean concentrations of DDTs (<200 microg/kg wet wt) were recorded in tissue samples of these species from all other regions of the state. The lowest levels of DDT contamination (mean <110 microg/kg wet wt) were found in samples from the south coast region. The greatest impact of DDT contamination is nearby metropolitan areas of the state, although the total concentrations of DDT in tissue samples from these areas are far less than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 5,000 microg/kg wet wt for this contaminant. PMID:8781078

  14. Fate of Human Noroviruses in Shellfish and Water Impacted by Frequent Sewage Pollution Events.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Gustar, Nicole; Lowther, James; Powell, Andy; Stockley, Louise; Lees, David N

    2015-07-21

    Knowledge of the fate of human noroviruses (NoV) in the marine environment is key to better controlling shellfish-related NoV gastroenteritis. We quantified NoV and Escherichia coli in sewage from storm tank discharges and treated effluent processed by a UV-disinfection plant following activated sludge treatment and studied the fate of these microorganisms in an oyster harvesting area impacted by frequent stormwater discharges and infrequent freshwater discharges. Oyster monitoring sites were positioned at intervals downstream from the wastewater treatment works (WwTW) outfall impacting the harvesting area. The decay rates of NoV in oysters as a function of the distance from the outfall were less rapid than those for E. coli that had concentrations of NoV of the same order of magnitude and were over 7 km away from the outfall. Levels of E. coli in oysters from more tidally influenced areas of the estuary were higher around high water than around low water, whereas tidal flows had no influence on NoV contamination in the oysters. The study provides comparative data on the contamination profiles and loadings of NoV and E. coli in a commercial oyster fishery impacted by a WwTW. PMID:26125679

  15. Trace metal residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1984-10-01

    Levels of seven heavy metal residues, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were monitored in samples of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercinaria mercinaria) and the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Samples were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80). This study was undertaken to provide an estimate of a baseline for values of trace heavy metals. Also, the oyster, being a non-mobile filter feeder, provides information regarding the level of metal residues in its environment (water and sediment), because heavy metal uptake is related to the surrounding metal concentrations. Additionally, this type of monitoring program is essential to ensure that shellfish sold for human consumption are within safe limits established for toxic substances by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Results of the study are consistent with data from previous years and no statistically significant year-to-year trends were observed over the period of the investigation. PMID:6501792

  16. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    PubMed

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-04-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were significantly lower in claims. Concentrations of Vibrio cholerae rose by approximately 1 log in oysters stored as shellstock after 7 days at 2 degrees C, and Lac+ vibrios increased 2 logs at 8 degrees C. Total counts of bacteria, fungi, coliforms, fecal streptococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and clostridia were significantly higher in shucked oysters than in those stored as shellstock. Fecal coliforms were statistically the same, but V. cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and the Lac+ vibrios were higher in oysters stored as shellstock. The concentrations of all microbial groups were higher in fully processed oysters than in shucked meats, with the exception of the vibrios, which showed no significant difference among the treatments. The results showed that although traditional methods of storing shellfish resulted in an overall increase in the microbial load, vibrio levels increased only in oysters stored as shellstock. Although fecal coliform and total bacterial counts did not correlate with those for vibrios in fresh oysters, strong correlations were observed in oysters stored for 7 days, suggesting that these indicators may be useful in monitoring oyster quality when meats are stored for a limited time as shellstock. PMID:6859844

  17. Effects of storage on microbial loads of two commercially important shellfish species, Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria campechiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The effects of storage on the microbial load in two commercially important species of shellfish were examined. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were stored as shellstock, shucked meats, and fully processed meats at four temperatures for up to 21 days, and clams (Mercenaria campechiensis) were stored only as shellstock. The concentrations of most microbiological groups of organisms increased with the duration and temperature of storage in both shellfish species, although the increases were significantly lower in claims. Concentrations of Vibrio cholerae rose by approximately 1 log in oysters stored as shellstock after 7 days at 2 degrees C, and Lac+ vibrios increased 2 logs at 8 degrees C. Total counts of bacteria, fungi, coliforms, fecal streptococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and clostridia were significantly higher in shucked oysters than in those stored as shellstock. Fecal coliforms were statistically the same, but V. cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and the Lac+ vibrios were higher in oysters stored as shellstock. The concentrations of all microbial groups were higher in fully processed oysters than in shucked meats, with the exception of the vibrios, which showed no significant difference among the treatments. The results showed that although traditional methods of storing shellfish resulted in an overall increase in the microbial load, vibrio levels increased only in oysters stored as shellstock. Although fecal coliform and total bacterial counts did not correlate with those for vibrios in fresh oysters, strong correlations were observed in oysters stored for 7 days, suggesting that these indicators may be useful in monitoring oyster quality when meats are stored for a limited time as shellstock. PMID:6859844

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Haihong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Weixing; Guo, Yunchang; Li, Ning; Liu, Xiumei; Zhu, Jianghui; Xu, Jin; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiugui; Lv, Hong; Zhang, Yiqian; Cai, Te; Chen, Yuzhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g-1 and 10,000 MPN g-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures. PMID:26061712

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Haihong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Weixing; Guo, Yunchang; Li, Ning; Liu, Xiumei; Zhu, Jianghui; Xu, Jin; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiugui; Lv, Hong; Zhang, Yiqian; Cai, Te; Chen, Yuzhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g-1 and 10,000 MPN g-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures. PMID:26061712

  20. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Michael Hickey, J.; Nash, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

  1. Environmental effects of modified clay flocculation on Alexandrium tamarense and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs).

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangyuan; Song, Xiuxian; Yu, Zhiming; Cao, Xihua; Yuan, Yongquan

    2015-05-01

    Among various mitigation strategies for harmful algal blooms (HABs), the flocculation of algal cells by using modified clay (MC) has been widely applied in the field, particularly in Japan, Korea and China. However, to examine the long-term effects and the environmental safety of this method, we investigated alterations in macronutrients and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) induced by the application of MC treatment to a toxic bloom, Alexandrium tamarense. The control, algal cells grew in nature condition (A1), was compared to the only MC flocculation (A2) and the MC-sediment co-matrix systems of A. tamarense (A3). The low-dosage of 0.25 g L(-1) MC could efficiently remove >90% of the A. tamarense cells within 3.5h. The mechanisms underlying the effects elicited by MC flocculation on nutrient cycling, PSTs and Chl-a degradation were also discussed. This study demonstrated that MC treatment was able to significantly remove the macronutrients (43-60% TP removal and 17-30% TN removal) and scavenge most of the PSTs from seawater, thereby speeding up the nutrient settling and the transformation and degradation of PSTs (83% decreasing in A2). Simultaneously, the study firstly demonstrated the potential detoxification of PSTs by using MC treatment, from the high toxicity of gonyautoxin 1 and 4 (GTX1 and GTX4) to the lower toxicity decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX3) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2), particularly within the water-sediment environment during the two month incubation. PMID:25721022

  2. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning. PMID:24988780

  3. Occurrence of faecal bacteria, Salmonella and antigens associated with hepatitis A virus in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Jehl-Pietri, C; Dupont, J; Herve, C; Menard, D; Munro, J

    1991-11-01

    An investigation was carried out over a one year period to examine jointly the occurrence of faecal bacteria, salmonella and the presence of antigens associated with the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in oysters (Crassostrea gigas), mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule), taken from 8 shellfish farming areas or natural beds along the French coast. For the faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS), statistical analysis of the 176 samples examined shows a statistically significant difference between sampling stations (F = 44.39 and F = 26.69 respectively, p less than 0.001): 4 of the 8 stations are more highly contaminated. Salmonella and antigens associated with HAV were detected in 5% and 1.7% respectively of the samples analysed. Frequency of isolation of salmonella is higher for the group of sampling stations where the mean levels of contamination by FC and FS are highest. The presence of HAV associated antigens was detected for the group of stations showing the lowest mean contamination levels. Taking all sample stations together, the percentage of isolation of salmonella differs significantly (chi 2 = 7.28, p less than 0.01) for the two classes of FC established on the basis of the threshold value (300 FC). There is no difference between the two classes of FS. For the HAV-associated antigens, detection percentages are similar for the two classes of results for FC and FS. Within each sampling station, considered independently, no particular correlation was found between the various viral and bacterial markers investigated. PMID:1663750

  4. Detection and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish from Italian production areas.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Mioni, Renzo; Mazzette, Rina; Bordin, Paola; Serratore, Patrizia; Fois, Federica; Piano, Annamaria; Cozzi, Loredana; Croci, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness particularly in Asia, South America and United States. Outbreaks are rarely reported in Europe, but they can occur unexpectedly in relation, among other reasons, to the spread of highly virulent strains. It is known that the risk is proportional to exposure levels to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (i.e. carrying the tdh and/or the trh genes) but currently there is a lack of occurrence data for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish production areas of the Member States. In this study a total of 147 samples of bivalve molluscs, from harvesting areas of two Italian regions (Sardinia and Veneto) were analyzed for Escherichia coli and salmonella, according to Reg 2073/2005, and for detection and enumeration of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strains using a new DNA colony hybridization method. Environmental parameters (water temperature and salinity) were also recorded. Results of E. coli were consistently in agreement with the legislation limits for the harvesting class of origin and Salmonella was detected only in one sample. The average contamination levels for total V. parahaemolyticus were 84 and 73 CFU/g respectively for Sardinia and Veneto, with the highest value reaching 8.7 × 10(3)CFU/g. Nineteen samples (12.9%) resulted positive for the presence of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, with levels ranging between 10 and 120 CFU/g and most of the positive samples (n=17) showing values equal or below 20 CFU/g. A significant correlation (r=0.41) was found between water temperature and V. parahaemolyticus levels, as well as with isolation frequency. The data provided in this study on contamination levels of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, seasonal distribution and correlation with water temperature, will help in defining appropriate monitoring programs and post-harvest policies for this hazard, improving the management of the harvesting areas and the safety of bivalve molluscs. PMID:24810197

  5. Foodborne and indicator bacteria in farmed molluscan shellfish before and after depuration.

    PubMed

    Martínez, O; Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Santos, J A; Otero, A; García-López, M L

    2009-07-01

    Galicia's coast (northwestern Spain) is a major producer of bivalve molluscs. Over an 18-month period, the presence of Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Clostridium botulinum was determined by PCR methods in mussels (22 batches) and infaunal bivalves (31 batches of clams and cockles) before and after depuration. All batches were harvested from Galician class B harvesting areas where bivalve molluscs must not exceed 4,600 Escherichia coli per 100 g of flesh and liquor in 90% of the samples. Virulence-associated genes of Salmonella (invA), Aeromonas (aerA, hlyA, alt, ast, and laf), P. shigelloides (hugA), V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh), and C. botulinum (BoNT) were not detected. The pR72H chromosomal DNA fragment, which is conservative in V. parahaemolyticus strains, was detected in five (4.7%) samples. A number of 192 suspect isolates did not fit the description of clinical Aeromonas phenospecies, pathogenic Vibrio spp., or P. shigelloides. The effectiveness of commercial depuration in reducing bacterial indicators was also examined. E. coli was reduced to < or = 230/100 g of flesh and liquor in 90.9% of mussel lots but in only 70.9% of infaunal bivalve lots. For total coliform elimination, mussels were also more effective. Total counts significantly (P < 0.005) correlated with numbers of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Our data indicate that Salmonella and pathogenic bacteria indigenous to estuarine environments do not appear to be significant hazards in Galician molluscan shellfish. A reason for concern, however, is that clearance of E. coli to acceptable levels was not always achieved especially in infaunal bivalves. PMID:19681267

  6. The mouse bioassay for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning: a gross misuse of laboratory animals and of scientific methodology.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2003-12-01

    The UK shellfish industry has recently been affected by the statutory closure of several cockle beds, following the detection of samples causing rapid and severe reactions in the regulatory approved test for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, the mouse bioassay (MBA). It is contended that these so-called atypical results are due to procedural artefacts of the MBA; so far, several studies have failed to identify their cause. This paper critically assesses the development, regulatory use and methodological deficiencies of the MBA. It also discusses how testing for DSP toxins could and should have been improved and made more humane by applying the Three Rs concept of Reduction, Refinement and Replacement, and by the proper validation of the test method used. It is concluded that the MBA should not have been developed for the routine screening of shellfish samples, as it has a substantially severe endpoint and is not used as part of a tiered-testing strategy with non-animal methods. Moreover, during the UK monitoring programme for DSP toxins, the assay has been used without an optimised and universal protocol, and apparently without due regard to the principles of basic scientific methodology. In view of this, the atypical results obtained for cockle samples cannot be relied on as evidence of a human health hazard. It is recommended that the use of the MBA should be discontinued as soon as possible, in favour of other methods, especially those involving non-animal techniques. In the short-term, these methods should be based on analytical chemical detection systems and the essential availability of the relevant pure toxin standards. The lack of any known toxins in samples should be taken as evidence of lack of contamination. The suitability of the existing non-animal methods needs to be assessed as a matter of urgency. It is crucial that all new methods should be properly validated, and that their acceptability for their stated purposes should be endorsed by recognised criteria and validation centres, before being recommended to, or required by, regulatory agencies. In this way, the possibility that scientifically unsuitable methods will once again be used for monitoring for the contamination of shellfish with toxins can be avoided. This gross misuse of laboratory animals and ill-judged application of science should never be allowed to occur again. PMID:15560749

  7. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: the HAB Index

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978 – 2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions -eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index – a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs. PMID:24948849

  8. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in shellfish and fish of Bonny River and creeks around Okrika in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Marcus, A C; Okoye, C O B; Ibeto, C N

    2013-06-01

    Lead, nickel, vanadium and cadmium were determined in fish and shellfish muscles, to assess contamination levels and identify bio-indicators. Vanadium was not detectable. Lead and cadmium were slightly above legal limits used in South East Asia, but lower than those of Australia and New Zealand. Higher contents of nickel, cadmium and lead in Pachymelania aurita and Crassostrea rhizophorae, lead in Mugil cephalus and cadmium in Periophthalmus koelreuteri, mark these species out as possible bio-indicators for the three metals in aquatic systems. Patterns of bioaccumulation seem to suggest that biophysiological and ecological characteristics influence bioaccumulation of trace metals in fish and shell fish. PMID:23568331

  9. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs.

  10. Detection ofHepatitis A Virus, Rotavirus, andEnterovirus in Naturally Contaminated Shellfish andSediment by Reverse Transcription-Seminested PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. LE GUYADER; E. DUBOIS; D. MENARD

    1994-01-01

    method was developed todetect enterovirus (EV), hepatitis Avirus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV)RNAsinshellfish andsediment. Themethod was first tested underexperimental conditions by using virus-spiked shellfish toevaluate assaysensitivity. TheuseofCC41cellulose was found tobeefficient for removing inhibitors ofRVdetection. Forsediment samples, aSephadex column was usedtoallow thedetection ofEVandHAVRNAs.Thespecificity ofamplified products was controlled byhybridization withdigoxigenin- labeled oligoprobes. Themethod was thenapplied tonaturally contaminated shellfish andsediments. EV, HAV,andRVRNAswere detected in22,14,and20%ooftheshellfish

  11. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  12. Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish.

    PubMed

    Talmage, Stephanie C; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO(2) in the world's oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO(3) shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not clear. Here we present experiments that examined the effects of the ocean's past, present, and future (21st and 22nd centuries) CO(2) concentrations on the growth, survival, and condition of larvae of two species of commercially and ecologically valuable bivalve shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians). Larvae grown under near preindustrial CO(2) concentrations (250 ppm) displayed significantly faster growth and metamorphosis as well as higher survival and lipid accumulation rates compared with individuals reared under modern day CO(2) levels. Bivalves grown under near preindustrial CO(2) levels displayed thicker, more robust shells than individuals grown at present CO(2) concentrations, whereas bivalves exposed to CO(2) levels expected later this century had shells that were malformed and eroded. These results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations. PMID:20855590

  13. Temperature effects on kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxin elimination in Atlantic surfclams, Spisula solidissima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica Bricelj, V.; Cembella, Allan D.; Laby, David

    2014-05-01

    Surfclams, Spisula solidissima, pose a particular health risk for human consumption as they are characterized by accumulation of extremely high levels of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), slow toxin elimination and an extremely high post-ingestive capacity for toxin bioconversion. Surfclam populations experience a wide range of temperatures along the NW Atlantic continental shelf, and are undergoing range contraction that has been attributed to global warming. In this study the influence of temperature (5, 12 and 21 °C) on detoxification kinetics of individual PSP toxins in two tissue compartments of juvenile surfclams (?35 mm shell length) was determined under controlled laboratory conditions, over prolonged (2.4 months) depuration. Clams were toxified with a representative regional Gulf of Maine isolate of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense of known toxin profile, allowing tracking of changes in toxin composition and calculated toxicity in surfclam tissues. The visceral mass detoxified at all temperatures, although toxin loss rate increased with increasing temperature. In contrast, total toxin content and calculated toxicities in other tissues remained constant or even increased during depuration, suggesting a physiological or biochemical toxin-retention mechanism in this tissue pool and temperature-independent detoxification. In vivo toxin compositional changes in surfclam tissues found in this study provide evidence of specific toxin conversion pathways, involving both reductive and decarbamoylation pathways. We conclude that such toxin biotransformations, especially in non-visceral tissues, may introduce a discrepancy in describing kinetics of total toxicity (in saxitoxin equivalents [STXeq]) of S. solidissima over prolonged detoxification. Nevertheless, use of total toxicity values generated by routine regulatory monitoring based upon mouse bioassays or calculated from chemical analytical determination of molar toxin concentrations is adequate for first-order modeling of toxin kinetics in this species. Furthermore, the differential detoxification response of viscera and other tissues in relation to temperature emphasizes the need for two-compartment modeling to describe the fate of PSP toxins in this species. Finally, key parameters were identified that may prove useful in hindcasting the timing of toxic blooms or new toxin input in deep offshore waters where routine monitoring of toxic phytoplankton is impractical.

  14. A person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell, including people releasing the catch. Also known as a recreational fisherman.

    E-print Network

    #12;Glossary Angler1 A person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell, including people reasons. Catch1 1. To undertake any activity that results in taking fish out of its environment dead or alive, or to bring fish on board a vessel dead or alive; 2. The total number (or weight) of fish caught

  15. As, Cd, Hg and Pb in four edible shellfish species from breeding and harvesting areas along the eastern Adriatic Coast, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovi?, Tanja; Ujevi?, Ivana; Sedak, Marija; Listeš, Eddy; Simat, Vida; Petri?evi?, Sandra; Poljak, Vedran

    2014-03-01

    Four species of shellfish (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Chlamis varia and Venus verrucosa) were collected during the autumn 2011 and spring 2012 along the eastern Adriatic coast from six shellfish harvesting areas (all species) and 13 breeding sampling areas (mussels) to assess As, Cd, Hg and Pb levels and the human risks of shellfish consumption. The mean metal concentrations (wet weight) in the examined species ranged from 1.420 to 9.575mg/kg for As, 0.034 to 1.270 for Cd, 0.005 to 0.680 for Hg and 0.140 to 2.072 for Pb. Examination of the spatial distribution of As, Cd, Hg and Pb revealed statistically significant differences among the studied areas. Since the concentrations were below the maximum prescribed by the laws of the EU and Croatia (the concentrations slightly exceeded the upper limits for three samples; Pb, Cd and Hg) and the hazard index, (HI) for Cd, Hg and Pb were below 1 and the target cancer risk (TR) for As was lower than 1×10(-6), there is no human health risk of consumption of shellfish from Croatian waters. PMID:24176332

  16. Possible Influence of Natural Events on Heavy Metals Exposure from Shellfish Consumption: A Case Study in the North-East of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Losasso, Carmen; Bille, Laura; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Lorenzetto, Monica; Binato, Giovanni; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Ferrè, Nicola; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers. PMID:25699249

  17. Detection of Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Azaspiracid Toxins in Moroccan Mussels: Comparison of the LC-MS Method with the Commercial Immunoassay Kit

    PubMed Central

    Elgarch, Adra; Vale, Paulo; Rifai, Saida; Fassouane, Aziz

    2008-01-01

    Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a recurrent gastrointestinal illness in Morocco, resulting from consumption of contaminated shellfish. In order to develop a rapid and reliable technique for toxins detection, we have compared the results obtained by a commercial immunoassay-“DSP-Check” kit” with those obtained by LC-MS. Both techniques are capable of detecting the toxins in the whole flesh extract which was subjected to prior alkaline hydrolysis in order to detect simultaneously the esterified and non esterified toxin forms. The LC-MS method was found to be able to detect a high level of okadaic acid (OA), low level of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), and surprisingly, traces of azaspiracids 2 (AZA2) in mussels. This is the first report of a survey carried out for azaspiracid (AZP) contamination of shellfish harvested in the coastal areas of Morocco. The “DSP-Check” kit was found to detect quantitatively DSP toxins in all contaminated samples containing only OA, provided that the parent toxins were within the range of detection and was not in an ester form. A good correlation was observed between the two methods when appropriate dilutions were performed. The immunoassay kit appeared to be more sensitive, specific and faster than LC-MS for determination of DSP in total shellfish extract. PMID:19172196

  18. Clean and safe supply of fish and shellfish to clear the HACCP regulation by use of clean and cold deep ocean water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Takahashi, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazunori

    2005-07-01

    For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water (DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for salmon, cod, and sea urchin in Town ‘Rausu’ in Hokkaido, Japan. DOW below 2.9’C of an amount of nearly 5 000m3 is planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land. DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of 2005.

  19. Possible influence of natural events on heavy metals exposure from shellfish consumption: a case study in the north-East of Italy.

    PubMed

    Losasso, Carmen; Bille, Laura; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Lorenzetto, Monica; Binato, Giovanni; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Ferrè, Nicola; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers. PMID:25699249

  20. Biological Effects of Suspended Sediments: A Review of Suspended Sediment Impacts on Fish and Shellfish with Relation to Dredging Activities in Estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara H. Wilber; Douglas G. Clarke

    2001-01-01

    Objective assessment of the effects of increased concentrations of suspended sediment caused by human activities, such as navigation dredging, on estuarine fish and shellfish requires an integration of findings from biological and engineering studies. Knowledge is needed of (1) the suspended sediment characteristics typical of both ambient and dredging-induced conditions, (2) the biological responses of aquatic organisms to these suspended

  1. Comparison of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 in the presence and absence of bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgina L Hold; Elizabeth A Smith; T. Harry Birkbeck; Susan Gallacher

    2001-01-01

    The ability of two Alexandrium species to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in laboratory culture following the generation of bacteria-free cultures was investigated. The dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 were cultured in the presence of antibiotics and tested for residual bacteria. After treatment with a cocktail of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and penicillin G, bacteria could

  2. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC OMA 2011.27 [AOAC Official Method 2011.27 Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Shellfish, Receptor Binding Assay. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], further demonstrating successful extension of the LC-FD method to these clinical matrices. Moreover, data generated from this poisoning event reiterated that urine is a preferable clinical matrix, compared to serum, for diagnostic purposes due to higher accumulation and longer residence times in urine.

  3. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C

    2014-03-15

    Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, -27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and -1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems. PMID:24461698

  4. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

    PubMed Central

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay–Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area’s seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006–2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  5. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M; Botana, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay-Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area's seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006-2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  6. Complex profiles of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds in Gymnodinium catenatum identified by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vale

    2008-01-01

    The presence of hydrophobic analogues of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) was studied in a Portuguese strain of Gymnodinium catenatum by conventional pre-column oxidation HPLC after a prolonged acetonitrile gradient coupled with fluorescence detection. Prior separation of hydrophobic PSTs analogues from hydrophilic analogues was done by solid-phase extraction (SPE) partitioning on a C18 cartridge. Several unknown oxidation products, with emission

  7. [Training for female shellfish gatherers on food safety and worker's health: an experience in the community of Ilha do Paty, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Nóbrega, Gabriela Silva; Cardoso, Ryzia de Cassia Vieira; Furtunato, Dalva Maria da Nóbrega; Góes, José Ângelo Wenceslau; Ferreira, Tereza Cristina Braga; Santos, Mary Daiane Fontes; Santos, Sissa Maria Garrido

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an experience in the training of female shellfish gatherers in the fishing community in Ilha do Paty, São Francisco do Conde, within the context of actions to promote health and food safety. This is an intervention study with planning of activities by a multidisciplinary team. The activities were developed in five stages: survey of topics of interest; awareness; female shellfish gatherers' work routine; teaching of best practices in the processing of shellfish; and group conversation. The methodologies included exposure through dialogue, group dynamics, workshops, theater, work with images, directed activities and the distribution of educational materials. At the end, an evaluation by the participants regarding the different aspects was conducted. Overall there was satisfaction among the audience for most indicators, which may relate to both the use of audiovisual resources and strategies that permitted the exchange of experiences regarding the recognition of the importance of training by the target audience. The experiment demonstrates the potential of developing educational activities with the fishing communities, with results that contribute to the bolstering of the local supply chain, with the promotion of food safety and occupational health. PMID:24897221

  8. Stanols as a tool to track the origin of microbial contamination of oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in shellfish areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Runoff of cattle manures (cows, pigs, sheeps) or discharge of effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into aquatic ecosystems can lead to microbiological contamination of waters and living organisms. In coastal ecosystems and particularly in shellfish harvesting areas, the presence of pathogen microorganisms in waters induces fecal contamination of filter feeding bivalves (oysters, mussels, scallops…), therefore leading to human health risks associated to the consumption of these contaminated organisms. Watershed management plans that aim at limiting these risks require the development of tools able to identify fecal contamination sources. The fecal indicator bacteria used in the regulations to determine fecal contamination are not source specific since they are found in the feces of most warm-blooded animals. Thus, microbiological biomarkers have been developed in association with chemical biomarkers as Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods. Fecal stanols, by-products of sterols obtained by human and animal microbial gut flora, are found in considerable amounts in feces with different relative proportions depending on their animal or human source. Recently, in association with microbiological biomarkers, the stanol fingerprint of contaminated waters has been successfully used to determine the main source of fecal contamination (cow, pig or human sources) in rural watersheds (Brittany, France). Up to now, the use of the stanol fingerprint to track the fecal contamination in shellfish tissues, especially bivalves, has been limited to the analysis of coprostanol, a stanol commonly associated to human contamination. Therefore, whether the stanol fingerprint can be used as a MST method in bivalves or not is still unknown. The first aim of this study was to compare several organic extraction procedures of stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas to determine a reliable method for stanol fingerprint analysis in bivalves. Solvent extraction and purification steps have been carried out with attention as they are critical for stanol quantification. Secondly, the evolution of the stanol fingerprint of oysters with time was evaluated during 6 days by artificially contaminating microcosms with two concentrations of a WWTP effluent. In the microcosms, the fingerprint of stanols as a chemical biomarkers of fecal (human) contamination was compared to counts of Escherichia coli, a commonly used microbial indicator. In association with microbial markers, the method developed from the two previous steps will be applied at the watershed scale in order to identify sources of fecal contamination in Brittany and Normandy (France).

  9. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared following incubation of incurred homogenates with optimum proportions of surf clam tissue, resulting in materials containing a large number of PSP toxins. Stability experiments provided good preliminary evidence for the stability of these targeted materials under storage conditions. The work therefore provides both additional information relating to the transformational activity in UK surf clams and highlights a good potential method for the targeted production of reference materials which include a wider range of toxins than normally present in naturally incurred shellfish. PMID:23369833

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxin content is related to genomic sxtA4 copy number in Alexandrium minutum strains

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Guillou, Laure; Figueroa, Rosa I.

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) synthesis. PSTs are small neurotoxic compounds that can accumulate in the food chain and cause serious poisoning incidences when ingested. They are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodium, and Pyrodinium. Here we investigated if the genomic CPN of sxtA4 is related to PST content in Alexandrium minutum cells. SxtA4 is the 4th domain of the sxtA gene and its presence is essential for PST synthesis in dinoflagellates. We used PST and genome size measurements as well as quantitative PCR to analyze sxtA4 CPN and toxin content in 15 A. minutum strains. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the sxtA4 CPN and the total amount of PST produced in actively growing A. minutum cells. This correlation was independent of the toxin profile produced, as long as the strain contained the genomic domains sxtA1 and sxtA4. PMID:25983733

  11. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  12. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

  13. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Luiz L; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L-1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L-1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg-1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals. PMID:26096277

  14. Persicobacter psychrovividus sp. nov., isolated from shellfish, and emended descriptions of the genus Persicobacter and Persicobacter diffluens.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yuki; Takahashi, Mai; Kaneyasu, Mika; Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

    2010-08-01

    The taxonomic position of three bacterial strains, Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, isolated from shellfish in Japan, was determined by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile by gliding and Gram-staining-negative slender rods. Their major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and their predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH, and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.0-42.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains clustered with the genus Persicobacter in the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. DNA-DNA relatedness values were higher than 68% among strains Asr22-19T, NBRC 101035 and NBRC 101041, and were lower than 28% between strain Asr22-19T and Persicobacter diffluens NBRC 15940T. The three novel strains could be differentiated from Persicobacter diffluens by several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of these results, the novel species Persicobacter psychrovividus sp. nov. (type strain Asr22-19T=NBRC 101262T=CIP 109100T) is proposed and emended descriptions are given for the genus Persicobacter and for Persicobacter diffluens. PMID:19734280

  15. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage. PMID:18279989

  16. PP2A Inhibition Assay Using Recombinant Enzyme for Rapid Detection of Okadaic Acid and Its Analogs in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Shihoko; Yoshino, Atsushi; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogs (OAs) responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) strongly inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and thus are quantifiable by measuring the extent of the enzyme inhibition. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the catalytic subunit of recombinant human PP2A (rhPP2Ac) for use in a microplate OA assay. OA, dinophysistoxin-1(DTX1), and hydrolyzate of 7-O-palmitoyl-OA strongly inhibited rhPP2Ac activity with IC50 values of 0.095, 0.104, and 0.135 nM, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation for OA in the digestive gland of scallops and mussels were 0.0348 ?g/g and 0.0611 ?g/g respectively, and, when converted to the whole meat basis, are well below the regulation level proposed by EU (0.16 ?g/g whole meat). A good correlation with LC-MS data was demonstrated, the correlation coefficient being 0.996 with the regression slope of 1.097. PMID:22069554

  17. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Luiz L.; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C.; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L?1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L?1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg?1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals. PMID:26096277

  18. An interlaboratory study to find an alternative to the MPN technique for enumerating Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ogden, I D; Brown, G C; Gallacher, S; Garthwaite, P H; Gennari, M; Gonzalez, M P; Jørgensen, L B; Lunestad, B T; MacRae, M; Nunes, M C; Petersen, A C; Rosnes, J T; Vliegenthart, J

    1998-03-01

    Nine laboratories in eight countries tested 16 batches of common mussels (Mytilus edulis) over a 32 week period in order to find an alternative to the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to enumerate E. coli. The alternatives investigated included the 3M Petrifilm system, the Merck Chromocult agar method and a Malthus conductance technique. The Petrifilm was found to be unsuitable and was subsequently dropped from the trial. After 669 analyses, a correlation of 0.83 was observed for log E. coli counts between the MPN and Chromocult methods and there was no significant evidence that either method tended to give higher readings than the other. The MPN was slightly better than the Chromocult method for repeatability but the Chromocult was slightly better for reproducibility. However, the observed differences are probably too small to be of practical importance. On the basis of these data therefore, the two methods appear equally suitable for E. coli enumeration in shellfish. There were poor correlations between these methods and the Malthus technique. A small but significant number of samples tested positive on the Malthus instrument but were recorded negative on the MPN and Chromocult tests. Subsequent analysis positively identified E. coli from these Malthus assays. After statistical analysis, errors were noted in both the MPN and Chromocult methods but it was found that there would be no statistical differences if the Chromocult agar were used as an alternative to the MPN technique. PMID:9600611

  19. Immunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins by moving magnetic particles in a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps. PMID:25460894

  20. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin binders for optical biosensor technology: problems and possibilities for the future: a review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K.; Rawn, D.F.K.; Niedzwiadek, B.; Elliott, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the developments in optical biosensor technology, which uses the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Optical biosensor technology measures the competitive biomolecular interaction of a specific biological recognition element or binder with a target toxin immobilised onto a sensor chip surface against toxin in a sample. Different binders such as receptors and antibodies previously employed in functional and immunological assays have been assessed. Highlighted are the difficulties in detecting this range of low molecular weight toxins, with analogues differing at four chemical substitution sites, using a single binder. The complications that arise with the toxicity factors of each toxin relative to the parent compound, saxitoxin, for the measurement of total toxicity relative to the mouse bioassay are also considered. For antibodies, the cross-reactivity profile does not always correlate to toxic potency, but rather to the toxin structure to which it was produced. Restrictions and availability of the toxins makes alternative chemical strategies for the synthesis of protein conjugate derivatives for antibody production a difficult task. However, when two antibodies with different cross-reactivity profiles are employed, with a toxin chip surface generic to both antibodies, it was demonstrated that the cross-reactivity profile of each could be combined into a single-assay format. Difficulties with receptors for optical biosensor analysis of low molecular weight compounds are discussed, as are the potential of alternative non-antibody-based binders for future assay development in this area. PMID:21623494

  1. Hydroxybenzoate paralytic shellfish toxins induce transient GST activity depletion and chromosomal damage in white seabream (Diplodus sargus).

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro Reis; Pereira, Patrícia; Guilherme, Sofia; Barata, Marisa; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Fish are routinely exposed to harmful algal blooms that produce noxious compounds and impact the marine food web. This study investigates the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on metabolism of the novel paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the hydroxybenzoate analogues recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains, in the liver of white seabream, assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Additionally, the genotoxic potential of hydroxybenzoate PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were injected with hydroxybenzoate PSTs into the coelomic cavity and sacrificed 2 and 6 days later for biochemical and cytogenetic analyses. While the activity of EROD was unresponsive to toxins, a significant GST activity decrease was observed at 2 days after injection indicating an impairment of this line of the detoxification system. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was demonstrated by the induction of clastogenic/aneugenic effects at 2 days, as measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study contributes to better understand the impact of toxins produced by G. catenatum blooms in fish, revealing effects that, even transitory, point out a risk associated to hydroxybenzoate analogues. PMID:22710085

  2. Graphene based pipette tip solid phase extraction of marine toxins in shellfish muscle followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Gong, Like; Baibado, Joewel T; Dong, Wei; Wang, Yixuan; Dai, Zhiyuan; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-11-15

    Graphene is a novel carbonic material with great potentials for the use as sorbent due to its ultrahigh surface area. Herein, we report the use of graphene as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE) using pipette tip as cartridge namely GPT-SPE, together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs), including yessotoxins (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), gymnodimine (GYM), spirolides-1 (SPX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA1) in shellfish. The GPT-SPE procedure was optimized and the performance of graphene was fully validated. Results with high-sensitivity and good reproducibility was obtained and compared with that of other sorbents like C18 silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), commercial Oasis HLB, and Strata-X for the extraction of LMTs, which showed superiority and advantages of graphene, such as good recoveries, stability and compatibility with various solvents. In order to exhibit the potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material, 67 mussel samples from six coastal cities of China were analyzed. OA was found to be the dominant contaminant, while YTX was also detected with low level. PMID:24148472

  3. Influence of Different Shellfish Matrices on the Separation of PSP Toxins Using a Postcolumn Oxidation Liquid Chromatography Method

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Botana, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The separation of PSP toxins using liquid chromatography with a post-column oxidation fluorescence detection method was performed with different matrices. The separation of PSP toxins depends on several factors, and it is crucial to take into account the presence of interfering matrix peaks to produce a good separation. The matrix peaks are not always the same, which is a significant issue when it comes to producing good, reliable results regarding resolution and toxicity information. Different real shellfish matrices (mussel, scallop, clam and oyster) were studied, and it was seen that the interference is not the same for each individual matrix. It also depends on the species, sampling location and the date of collection. It was proposed that separation should be accomplished taking into account the type of matrix, as well as the concentration of heptane sulfonate in both solvents, since the mobile phase varies regarding the matrix. Scallop and oyster matrices needed a decrease in the concentration of heptane sulfonate to separate GTX4 from matrix peaks, as well as dcGTX3 for oysters, with a concentration of 6.5 mM for solvent A and 6.25 mM for solvent B. For mussel and clam matrices, interfering peaks are not as large as they are in the other group, and the heptane sulfonate concentration was 8.25 mM for both solvents. Also, for scallops and oysters, matrix interferences depend not only on the sampling site but also on the date of collection as well as the species; for mussels and clams, differences are noted only when the sampling site varies. PMID:25884908

  4. Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Melanson, Jeremy E; Purves, Randy W

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their high polarity, large number of analogues and the complex matrix in which they occur. Here we investigate the potential utility of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) as a gas-phase ion separation tool for analysis of PSTs by mass spectrometry. We investigate the separation of PSTs using FAIMS with two divergent goals: using FAIMS as a primary separation tool for rapid screening by electrospray ionization (ESI)-FAIMS-MS or combined with LC in a multidimensional LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS separation. First, a survey of the parameters that affect the sensitivity and selectivity of PST analysis by FAIMS was carried out using ESI-FAIMS-MS. In particular, the use of acetonitrile as a gas additive in the carrier gas flow offered good separation of all PST epimeric pairs. A second set of FAIMS conditions was also identified, which focussed PSTs to a relatively narrow CV range allowing development of an LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS method for analysis of PST toxins in complex mussel tissue extracts. The quantitative capabilities of this method were evaluated by analysing a PST containing mussel tissue matrix material. Results compared favourably with analysis by an established LC-post-column oxidation-fluorescence method with recoveries ranging from 70 to 106%, although sensitivity was somewhat reduced. The current work represents the first successful separation of PST isomers using ion mobility and shows the promise of FAIMS as a tool for analysis of algal biotoxins in complex samples and outlines some critical requirements for its future improvement. PMID:25619987

  5. Amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxin detection in seawater using pure or amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles and SERS.

    PubMed

    Müller, Csilla; Glamuzina, Branko; Pozniak, Iva; Weber, Karina; Cialla, Dana; Popp, Jürgen; Cînt? Pînzaru, Simona

    2014-12-01

    Domoic acid (DA) biotoxin responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) has been unambiguously detected in seawater in a broad range of concentration, with both pure and amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles employed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To achieve this, a comprehensive SERS study on DA dissolved in distilled water has been conducted. SERS of DA dissolved in seawater in concentrations ranging from 3.3 × 10(-4) to 3.3 × 10(-8) mol l(-1) exhibited specific signal, completely different to those of the corresponding DA aqueous solutions, due to the seawater interference in the overall SERS effect. In order to assess the capability of the technique as a cheaper alternative for rapid and unambiguous detection of the DA biotoxin in seawater, three detection schemes have been proposed. DA was detectable at 0.33 nmoll(-1) concentration (0.33) dissolved in distilled water and 0.033 nmol l(-1) (0.033 ppb) in seawater respectively, much lower than the admitted level by the current regulation. A solvent specific interaction of DA with the NPs was concluded, since DA aqueous solution added to Ag nanoparticles provided different SERS signal compared to that of DA directly dissolved in seawater. Employing amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles with 4-aminothiophenol as SERS tag, SERS signal of DA on amino-AgNPs revealed significant specificity associated with the aromatic primary amine interaction of the SERS tag with DA, thus allowing DA detection in seawater at 4.16 × 10(-4) mol l(-1) concentration, much higher than in the case of pure NPs. To highlight the findings, a brief literature review to date on the DA biotoxin detection was also provided. PMID:25159386

  6. Seasonal dynamics of trophic relationships among co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture dominated ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marín Leal, Julio César; Dubois, Stanislas; Orvain, Francis; Blin, Jean-Louis; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Ourry, Alain; Galois, Robert

    2009-04-01

    The temporal dynamics of carbon and nitrogen isotope values of co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture areas (Normandy, France) were investigated over two years to evaluate the inter-specific trophic partitioning and relative contributions of organic matter sources to benthic suspension-feeders' diet. Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas), mussels ( Mytilus edulis), cockles ( Cerastoderma edule), slipper limpets ( Crepidula fornicata), and sand-mason worms ( Lanice conchilega) were sampled in an estuarine environment (Baie des Veys, east Cotentin, Normandy), while oysters, mussels, slipper limpets, and honeycomb worms ( Sabellaria alveolata) were sampled in an open-marine environment (Lingreville-sur-mer, west Cotentin, Normandy). Whatever the sampling period, the bivalves, C. gigas and M. edulis, exhibited the lowest values of ?13C and ?15N compared with the other species. Feeding relationships among suspension-feeders in both C. gigas culture areas exhibited temporal variations due to the marine/estuarine influence and seasonal changes in food supply. In the open-marine ecosystem, the contribution of phytoplankton remained the most important for all species except S. alveolata, while in the estuarine ecosystem, microphytobenthos and/or macroalgae detritus contributed a larger extent to the organisms' diets. During phytoplankton bloom periods (e.g. May and July) suspension-feeders, except for S. alveolata, relied strongly on phytoplankton; however, the majority of suspension-feeders exhibited different opportunistic behaviour in winter when phytoplankton biomass might be a limiting factor. We hypothesized that differences in particle capture and selection by the suspension-feeders influenced their isotopic values. Feeding ecology of suspension-feeders partly explained why competition was limited and why ecosystems can often support unexpectedly large numbers of suspension-feeders. We also showed that understanding ecosystem characteristics of the organic matter sources is of primary importance to determine the extent to which members of the suspension-feeding guild potentially compete for food.

  7. Distribution of virulent and pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in three molluscan shellfish species (Meretrix meretrix, Perna viridis, and Anadara granosa) and their association with foodborne disease in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Soboon, Supatinee; Sunghiran, Wattanee; Kaewpiboon, Sukhon; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Ishibashi, Masanori; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2006-11-01

    Distribution of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood, particularly in molluscan shellfish, and their serological and molecular relationships to clinical strains were examined from Hat Yai City in southern Thailand. During 2000 to 2002, virulent strains (tdh+ or trh+) were isolated from 13 of 230 molluscan shellfish samples using alkaline peptone water enrichment followed by immunomagnetic separation. The isolates included 12 pandemic strains (tdh+, trh-, group-specific PCR positive) from five Oriental hard clam samples, five green mussel samples, and one bloody clam sample. Among the pandemic strains, eight belonged to serogroup O3:K6, three belonged to O1:K25, and one was O1:K untypeable. One hundred eighty-seven strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical specimens obtained from a hospital in this city during 2000 to 2001. The pandemic strains comprised 64 and 68% of the isolates in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Among the serotypes of the pandemic strains, O3:K6 was dominant at 73% in 2000 and 76% in 2001 followed by O1:K25 at 20% in 2000 and 13% in 2001. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the pandemic strains from molluscan shellfish were indistinguishable or very similar to those of patient isolates. Similarity of the serotype distribution and DNA fingerprints occurring between the molluscan shellfish strains and clinical strains suggests that molluscan shellfish may be an important source of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus infection in southern Thailand. For public health, proper cooking of molluscan shellfish in this area is strongly recommended. PMID:17133804

  8. Transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet detection for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel samples.

    PubMed

    Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Guijt, Rosanne M; Bolch, Christopher J S; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-10-17

    The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site. PMID:25223612

  9. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  10. Stimulation of wild strawberry ( Fragaria vesca) arbuscular mycorrhizas by addition of shellfish waste to the growth substrate: interaction between mycorrhization, substrate amendment and susceptibility to red core ( Phytophthora fragariae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Murphy; Susan M. Rafferty; Alan C. Cassells

    2000-01-01

    Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) microplants were inoculated at establishment in the glasshouse with the commercial inoculants Endorize IV, Vaminoc and Glomus mosseae. After 2 weeks, plants were transferred to control peat-based growth substrate and Suppressor®, a commercial peat substrate amended with chitin-containing shellfish waste. Percentage root length colonisation (%RLC) by Vaminoc and G. mosseae, but not Endorize IV, was stimulated

  11. Freezing Fish and Shellfish

    E-print Network

    Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

    1980-01-01

    for drainage. Why Wrap or Glaze? There are two reasons for wrapping or glazing a seafood product. One is to prevent oxidation (ran cidity) and the other is to prevent dehydration (freezer burn). Although fish is nutritious because of its high... under frozen storage longer than fish products. Most of the oxidation problem can be overcome by wrapping or glazing the product to keep the air out, and lowering the temperature as much as possible. Dehydration, or loss of moisture, can create a...

  12. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Area Affected Organisms* Alexandrium spp. Northern Atlantic and Pacific Coast of North America Mussels, surfclams, softshell clams, sea scallops, butterclams, ocean quahogs, oysters, gastropods, lobsters, crabs. Herring, salmon, menhaden, ...

  13. Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (?) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low ? is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during periods of low wind stress ranges from 100-700µatm. When strong equatorward winds induce upwelling, pCO2 levels exhibit a higher daily range of 300-2000µatm. The saturation state was calculated from the pCO2/TCO2 measurements of the discrete samples. The ? for calcite and aragonite ranged from 2.07 and 1.15 to 8.58 and 4.69 respectively from April through August. Increased pCO2 and decreased pH have been shown to negatively impact larval development in C. gigas (Kurihara, 2007). Periods of elevated pCO2 in May and June 2010 correlated with commercial losses at WCH. The use of precise pCO2 measurements in real time has proven to be a valuable tool for use in aquaculture. As a commercial practice WCH has elected to only use source water that is below empirical pCO2 thresholds for spawning and culturing larvae. This has resulted in continued production and cost saving in an industry crucial to coast economies. A continuous TCO2/pCO2 monitoring system will be integrated into this long time-series to constrain inorganic carbon providing insight into carbonate chemistry dynamics in Netarts Bay, effects of ocean acidification on bivalve development and possible water treatment approaches for commercial aquaculture.

  14. Results of a European interlaboratory method validation study for the quantitative determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in raw and cooked shellfish based on high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Part I: collaborative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja These; Christine Klemm; Ingo Nausch; Steffen Uhlig

    2011-01-01

    A European interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted to validate a method for the quantitative determination of lipophilic\\u000a marine biotoxins based on high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. During this study, the diarrhetic\\u000a shellfish poisoning toxins okadaic acid, dinophysis toxin1 and 2 including their esters, the azaspiracids 1-3, pectenotoxin2,\\u000a and the yessotoxins were investigated at concentration levels near the limit of quantification

  15. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-05-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD. PMID:26024751

  16. Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection.

    PubMed

    Indrasena, W M; Ackman, R G; Gill, T A

    1999-09-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. A combination of hydrogen and air flow-rates of 50 ml/min and 1.5-2.0 l/min respectively, along with a scan time of 40 s/rod and detector current of 3.0 A (ampere) or above were found to yield the best results for the detection of PSP compounds. Increasing the detector current level to as high as 3.3 A gave about 130 times more FTID response than did flame ionization detection (FID), for PSP components. Quantities of standards as small as 1 ng neosaxitoxin (NEO), 5 ng saxitoxin (STX), 5 ng B1-toxins (B1), 2 ng gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3, 6 ng GTX 1/4 and 6 ng C-toxins (C1/C2) could be detected with the FTID. The method detection limits for toxic shellfish tissues using the FTID were 0.4, 2.1, 0.8 and 2.5 micrograms per g tissue for GTX 2/3, STX, NEO and C toxins, respectively. The FTID response increased with increasing detector current and with increasing the scan time. Increasing hydrogen and air flow-rates resulted in decreasing sensitivity within defined limits. Numerous solvent systems were tested, and, solvent consisting of chloroform: methanol-water-acetic acid (30:50:8:2) could separate C toxins from GTX, which eluted ahead of NEO and STX. Accordingly, TLC/FTID with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) seems to be a promising, relatively inexpensive and rapid method of screening plant and animal tissues for PSP toxins. PMID:10519102

  17. Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed. PMID:24960460

  18. Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas.

    PubMed

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the single purification on silica gel. This latter led to similar recoveries (ca. 80%) and repeatabilities (ca. 10%) for both spiked standards (coprostanol and sitostanol). This analytical pathway has been applied to oysters collected in a harvesting area in Brittany (France) where fecal contaminations are important and allowed to quantify eight stanols in oysters. The relative proportions of fecal stanols of these oysters were combined with principal component analysis in order to investigate the usefulness of their stanol fingerprints to record a fecal contamination and to distinguish its source between human, porcine and bovine contaminations. Oysters non-fecally contaminated by Escherichia coli did not present specific stanol fingerprints while oysters fecally contaminated had a bovine fingerprint, suggesting a contamination of these samples by bovine sources. As a consequence, the method developed here allows the use of stanol fingerprints of oysters as a microbial source tracking tool that can be applied to shellfish harvesting areas subjected to fecal contaminations in order to identify the different sources of contamination and improve watershed management. PMID:24771549

  19. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Laabir, Mohamed; Collos, Yves; Masseret, Estelle; Grzebyk, Daniel; Abadie, Eric; Savart, Véronique; Sibat, Manoella; Amzil, Zouher

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12–18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon. PMID:23676417

  20. Confirmation of Pinnatoxins and Spirolides in Shellfish and Passive Samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole and High-Resolution Hybrid Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed. PMID:24960460

  1. Influence of environmental factors on the paralytic shellfish toxin content and profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Laabir, Mohamed; Collos, Yves; Masseret, Estelle; Grzebyk, Daniel; Abadie, Eric; Savart, Véronique; Sibat, Manoella; Amzil, Zouher

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12-18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon. PMID:23676417

  2. A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

  3. Comparison of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 in the presence and absence of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hold, G L.; Smith, E A.; Birkbeck, T H.; Gallacher, S

    2001-07-01

    The ability of two Alexandrium species to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in laboratory culture following the generation of bacteria-free cultures was investigated. The dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC 253 and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC 407 were cultured in the presence of antibiotics and tested for residual bacteria. After treatment with a cocktail of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and penicillin G, bacteria could not be detected in either of the treated Alexandrium cultures using 17 different solid and broth bacterial growth media, by epifluorescence microscopy with the dye Sybr green 1, or polymerase chain reaction amplification using universal eubacterial primers designed to target the 16S rRNA gene. Subsequent analysis of A. lusitanicum for PST using high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that the growth rate and toxin profile remained similar in both bacteria-free and control cultures, although the quantity of toxins produced differed with the bacteria-free culture producing generally more of each compound and also having a greater toxin content in terms of saxitoxin equivalents. A. tamarense also retained similarities between the bacteria-free and control cultures in terms of growth rates and toxin profile, although in this instance, depending on the growth stage and the toxin, the control culture produced more of some toxins than the bacteria-free culture. The control culture was also more toxic in terms of saxitoxin equivalents than the axenic culture. These results suggest that bacteria can influence toxin production in laboratory cultures of Alexandrium species although the mechanisms remain unknown. PMID:11451527

  4. Preparation of calibration standards of N1-H paralytic shellfish toxin analogues by large-scale culture of cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

    2011-01-01

    Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 ?mol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 ?mol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50-90%). The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated. PMID:21556170

  5. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST).

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  6. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films in the degradation of domoic acid in aqueous solution: potential for use in molluscan shellfish biotoxin depuration facilities.

    PubMed

    Djaoued, Y; Robichaud, J; Thibodeau, M; Balaji, S; Tchoukanova, N; Bates, S S

    2009-02-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a water-soluble marine neurotoxin produced and released by certain species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Present in coastal waters, it can be a threat to public health and marine life, and can result in severe economic losses to the molluscan shellfish and crustacean harvesting industries. Here we report on the efficiency of nanocrystalline (NC) titania (TiO(2)) thin films used as a photocatalyst in the ultraviolet light photodegradation of DA. Titanium dioxide thin films produced by a sol-gel dip-coating method in the presence of polyethylene glycol of different molecular weights (200, 400 and 600) were deposited on glass substrates and crystallised at 90 degrees C. The films were characterised using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity measurements were carried out by immersing the NC TiO(2) films in a DA solution (2500 ng ml(-1)) and then exposing them for various times at room temperature to UVA irradiation (lambda = approximately 350 nm). The degradation of DA, quantified by HPLC analysis, was not significant when using daylight or ultraviolet light irradiation alone, whereas the NC TiO(2) films prepared at low temperature proved to be a very efficient photocatalyst when used in conjunction with UVA light. The effectiveness of the photodegradation was improved by increasing molecular weight of polyethylene glycol, which increased the thickness of the film. The presence, transformation and degradation of three DA isomers were observed. The approach may eventually be practical for destroying DA in seawater used by aquaculture industry depuration facilities. PMID:19680896

  7. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST)

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E.; Dam, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  8. Metal-organic framework UiO-66 modified magnetite@silica core-shell magnetic microspheres for magnetic solid-phase extraction of domoic acid from shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenmin; Yan, Zhiming; Gao, Jia; Tong, Ping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lan

    2015-06-26

    Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 core-shell magnetic microspheres were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry, nitrogen adsorption porosimetry and zeta potential analyzer. The synthesized Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 microspheres were first used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of domoic acid (DA) in shellfish samples. Combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), a fast, simple and sensitive method for the determination of DA was established successfully. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed short analysis time, good linearity (r(2)=0.9990), low limit of detection (1.45pgmL(-1); S/N=3:1), low limit of quantification (4.82pgmL(-1); S/N=10:1), and good extraction repeatability (RSD?5.0%; n=5). Real shellfish samples were processed using the developed method, and trace level of DA was detected. The results demonstrate that Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 core-shell magnetic microspheres are the promising sorbents for rapid and efficient extraction of polar analytes from complex biological samples. PMID:25997847

  9. Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

    2014-09-01

    Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in reporting, rather than early detection of a disease outbreak. Both economic compensation and the farmers' non-economic values and perceptions should be considered to improve oyster farmers' reporting compliance and sustainability of the reporting system. Education and participatory approaches could help to change these attitudes and thus improve oyster farmers' compliance with reporting duties, resulting in improved early detection of epidemics and emerging or exotic oyster diseases. PMID:24880624

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus on Georges Bank: Implications for an offshore roe-on and whole scallop fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Vanegas, Camilo; Conrad, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    To protect public health from the potential risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, from the Atlantic offshore U.S. waters of Georges Bank, harvesting of roe-on or whole scallops is banned. Only adductor muscles may be sold if harvested from Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, or the PSP closure areas as far west as 71° West Longitude. Given the limited toxicity data available for sea scallops from this region both prior to and subsequent to implementation of this management strategy, this study sought a more extensive spatial and temporal evaluation of sea scallop gonad and viscera toxicities that would inform management decisions related to the roe-on and whole scallop fishery. Both overall toxicity and toxin composition were measured for sea scallop gonads and viscera collected from 232 stations in 2007 and 23 in 2010. Overall toxicity was assessed using two screening methods: field-deployable Jellett Rapid Tests (JRT) and quantitative, laboratory-based receptor binding assays (in 2007). Additionally, a quantitative liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) method was used to determine toxin composition and overall toxicity (in 2010). The at-sea qualitative JRT screening tool results, whereby a positive indicated the sample contained at least 40 ?g saxitoxin (STX) equivalents 100 g-1, were often inconsistent with results obtained using the quantitative methods. Sea scallop viscera toxicity represented the majority of toxin load in the organism and was often in excess of the regulatory guidance level. Sea scallop gonads accounted for a small percentage of total toxicity, but at times reached unsafe levels. Toxin composition in both the gonads and viscera was dominated by STX and gonyautoxin 2/3, as has been reported in previous studies. No predictive indices of gonad toxicity were found. Results at this time do not support a roe-on or whole scallop fishery on Georges Bank. While access restrictions to whole scallops on Georges Bank are unlikely to change based on these results, it seems plausible that a management strategy requiring at-sea testing of scallop gonads for PSP may be necessary in order for a safe roe-on scallop fishery from this region to be feasible.

  11. From shellfish poisoning to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Balle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this issue of Structure, Bourne et al. (2015) report X-ray structures of acetylcholine binding protein with two fast-acting phycotoxins from the pinnatoxin family. The results may pave the way for development of new CNS-penetrant and subtype-selective nAChR antagonists. PMID:26039347

  12. FISH AND SHELLFISH what's inside

    E-print Network

    the Fire, 3 Grilled Spiny Lobster Tails, 4 Whitefish in Foil, 4 Charcoal Grilled Red Snapper Steaks, 4 Savory Grilled Soft-Shell Crabs, 8 Sesame Rainbow Trout, 8 Boiled Lobster, 10 Charcoal Broiled Scallops and the fire is ready. Make the charcoal layer slightly wider than the food to be cooked on the grill. Wood

  13. Levels of total arsenic in edible fish and shellfish obtained from two coastal sectors of the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile: use of non-migratory marine species as bioindicators of sea environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo H; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2011-01-01

    The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the total arsenic content in these products was performed by Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, HG-AAS. The results showed that marine species associated with the CB sector had higher total arsenic levels than the same species in the area of VB, a finding attributed to much higher total arsenic concentrations in the water and soils of CB than VB. The species with the highest total arsenic concentration was the Venus antique (7.50 mg kg (-1)) from the CB, and the lowest total arsenic content was found in Cheilodactylidae variegatus (0.34 mg kg(-1)) from VB. PMID:21879860

  14. Database of radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water, fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and shellfish downstream of Hanford`s single-pass production reactors, 1960--1970. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.; Duncan, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).

  15. Restricting Prey Dispersal Can Overestimate the Importance of Predation in Trophic Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Geraldi, Nathan R.; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2013-01-01

    Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957

  16. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    Initial success in sperm cryopreservation came at about the same time for aquatic species and livestock. However, in the 50-plus years since then cryopreserved sperm of livestock has grown into a billion-dollar global industry, while despite work in some 200 species with well over 200 published reports, cryopreservation of aquatic species sperm remains essentially a research activity with little commercial application. Most research has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmonids, carps, and catfishes, and mollusks such as commercially important oyster and abalone species. However, only a handful of studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in small fishes, such as zebrafish, and in endangered species. Overall, this work has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success around the world. Barriers to expanded application include a diverse and widely distributed literature base, technical problems, small sperm volumes, variable results, a general lack of access to the technology, and most importantly, the lack of standardization in practices and reporting. The benefits of cryopreservation include at least five levels of improvements for existing industries and for creation of new industries. First, cryopreservation can be used to improve existing hatchery operations by providing sperm on demand and simplifying the timing of induced spawning. Second, frozen sperm can enhance efficient use of facilities and create new opportunities in the hatchery by eliminating the need to maintain live males, potentially freeing resources for use with females and larvae. Third, valuable genetic lineages such as endangered species, research models, or improved farmed strains can be protected by storage of frozen sperm. Fourth, cryopreservation opens the door for rapid genetic improvement. Frozen sperm can be used in breeding programs to create improved lines and shape the genetic resources available for aquaculture. Finally, cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species will at some point become an entirely new industry itself. A successful industry will require integrated practices for sample collection, refrigerated storage, freezing, thawing, rules for use and disposal, transfer agreements, and database development. Indeed the development of this new industry is currently constrained by factors including the technical requirements for scaling-up to commercial operations during the transition from research, and the absence of uniform quality control practices, industry standards, marketing and price structures, and appropriate biosecurity safeguards. PMID:17644987

  17. So you are thinkingSo you are thinking about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?about growing shellfish?

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Lease lands, do not purchase ·· No feed, aeration or pumping costsNo feed, aeration or pumping costs ­­ Provides independent lifestyle on the waterProvides independent lifestyle on the water O 900 h llfi h f i U ­­ Moderate to high unit sale priceModerate to high unit sale price #12;OystersOysters From left to right

  18. Activity measurements of a suite of radionuclides (241Am, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 238U, 234U, 235U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 137Cs, 210Pb, 90Sr and 40K) in biota reference material (Ocean Shellfish): CCRI(II)-S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, S.; Karam, L. R.; Inn, K. G. W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the CCRI decided that a comparison undertaken from 2002 to 2008 by the NIST (under the auspices of the Inter-America Metrology System [SIM]) in the development of a new biota (Ocean Shellfish) standard reference material (SRM) was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a supplementary comparison under CCRI(II), with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-S3. This would enable the comparison to be used to support calibration and measurement capability (CMC) claims for radionuclide measurements in reference materials (specifically, animal-based organic materials). Previous comparisons of radionuclides have been of single or multiple nuclides in non-complex matrices and results of such could not be extended to support capabilities to measure the same nuclides in reference materials. The results of this comparison have been used to determine the certified reference value of the SRM. The key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved this approach as a mechanism to link all the results to certified 'reference values' in lieu of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of these specified radionuclides in this type of matrix (shellfish) so as to support CMCs of similar materials submitted by the present participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: unusual toxin dynamics in shellfish and the increased risk of acute human intoxications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. James; M. Lehane; C. Moroney; P. Fernandez-Puente; M. Satake; T. Yasumoto; A. Furey

    2002-01-01

    A number of recent acute human intoxications in Europe from the consumption of Irish mussels have been attributed to the presence of a new class of toxins named azaspiracids. The study demonstrates that azaspiracids behave differently from other polyether toxins, and this accounts for most false-negative results in the mouse bioassay employed by regulatory agencies to detect azaspiracids. Typically, polyether

  20. American Journal of Botany 87(12): 113130. 2000. SPECIES AND SERIES BOUNDARIES OF SOLANUM SERIES

    E-print Network

    Spooner, David

    SERIES LONGIPEDICELLATA (SOLANACEAE) AND PHENETICALLY SIMILAR SPECIES IN SER. DEMISSA AND SER. TUBEROSA potato species are recognized. Key words: phenetics; potato; sect. Petota; Solanaceae; Solanum series

  1. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the

    E-print Network

    (Risebrough et aI., 1968, 1976; Bowes and Jonkel, 1975). Insecticides, such as DDT! and dieldrin, were the I in the same area. Except for sablefish, "lDDT levels in edible tissue exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug

  2. Ocean Acidification Impacts on Shellfish Workshop: Findings and Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Dickson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    ocean acidification (e.g. , daily increment size, stable isotopic composition of shells, ocean acidification on some species  including reduced tolerance to temperature increases, impaired reproduction, inefficient cell  function, impaired growth, larval shell 

  3. Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Steele, Teresa E

    2013-07-01

    Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ?200 to ?50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and "jewelry" become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion. PMID:23776248

  4. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

  5. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

  6. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

  7. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

  8. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Customs port. (2) Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or...

  9. Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

    1970-01-01

    A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

  10. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe ?-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 ?Sv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 ?Sv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 ?Sv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 ?Sv, 22.0 to 38.4 ?Sv and 31.1 to 45.5 ?Sv, being some several times world average values.

  11. Ozone-UV Water Treatment System for Shellfish Quarantine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter J. Blogoslawski; Dudley W. Alleman

    1979-01-01

    An ozone-UV water treatment system was constructed and evaluated for quarantine use. Nonindigenous oyster larvae effluent is ozonized in a 1200 liter holding tank to eliminate all pathogenic bacteria. Effluent is exposed for 80 minutes with an average ozone residual of 1.78 mg\\/liter, after which it is treated with an ultraviolet sanitizer as an added precaution.

  12. New England Shellfish Beds Reopen After Toxic Red Algae Recedes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annie Schleicher

    This PBS article describes red tide, a phenomenon caused by phytoplankton in coastal waters. The site includes brief summaries of the causes and impacts of red tide, both on health and the tourism industry. A link to a PDF version of the article is provided.

  13. Presence of Alexandrium catenella and paralytic shellfish toxins in finfish, shellfish and rock crabs in Monterey Bay, California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rozalind J. Jester; Keri A. Baugh; Kathi A. Lefebvre

    2009-01-01

    The central California coast is a highly productive, biodiverse region that is frequently affected by the toxin-producing\\u000a dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Despite the consistent presence of A. catenella along our coast, very little is known about the movement of its toxins through local marine food webs. In the present study,\\u000a we investigated 13 species of commercial finfish and rock crabs harvested

  14. Phylogeny, evolution, and systematics of the Galea musteloides complex (Rodentia: Caviidae)

    E-print Network

    ) from the central Bolivian Andes, G. m. auceps (Thomas, 1911) from the Altiplano region around Lake Titicaca, and G. m. demissa (Thomas, 1921) from the Bolivian lowlands adjacent to the Andean foothills

  15. Aquatic Toxicology 80 (2006) 8291 The uptake, distribution and elimination of paralytic shellfish

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    toxins in mussels and fish exposed to toxic dinoflagellates Raymond W.M. Kwonga, Wen-Xiong Wanga,, Paul K), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong b Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong proportions of various PSTs in the mussels changed over time, suggesting toxin-specific uptake and elimination

  16. Shellfish AquacultureL E T T E R Vol. VI No. III

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    clams are considered to be a luxury seafood item, demand is on the downside. Is this just a temporary of Southern Living Magazine in an article entitled "Welcome to Clamalot."TheupcomingissueofFloridaMonthlyMagazine clam recipes were featured in the September issue of Gourmet Magazine. Attention to each

  17. Overfishing and the replacement of demersal finfish by shellfish: an example from the English Channel.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Carlotta; Beare, Doug; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920-2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB). Food webs of the Channel ecosystem have been altered, as shown by a significant decline in the mTL of fishery landings whilst increases in the FiB index suggest increased fishing effort and fishery expansion. Large, high trophic level species (e.g. spurdog, cod, ling) have been increasingly replaced by smaller, low trophic level fish (e.g. small spotted catsharks) and invertebrates (e.g. scallops, crabs and lobster). Declining trophic levels in fisheries catches have occurred worldwide, with fish catches progressively being replaced by invertebrates. We argue that a network of fisheries closures would help rebalance the trophic status of the Channel and allow regeneration of marine ecosystems. PMID:25010196

  18. Microbial flora and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan shellfish, water, and sediment

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Charles Albert

    1972-01-01

    was apparent. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express his most sincere gratefulness and appreciation to Dr. C. Vanderzant, not only for the untiring work, counsel, and guidance given during the study and writing of this thesis, but for the help... and Mr. Eddie Dedecke, Texas State Department of Health, La Marque, Texas for their help in the collection of samples for this study. V1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACI'. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES. LIST OF, FIGURES INTRODUCTION. ~ REVIEW...

  19. JOURNAL OF SHELLFISH RESEARCH IVOLUME 25, NUMBER 2 AUGUST ZOO6 1

    E-print Network

    Allam, Bassem

    OYSTER DIS- EASE ON LONG ISLAND AND FLOWIDENSITYI MORTALITY STUDIES. Gregg Rivara, Cornell University hatcheries. In 1994 a flowldensity study was undertaken at the SCMELC with support from NOAA's Oyster Disease Papers of the Juvenile Oyster Disease Sessior~ Island Sound. NY. This site (depth = 2-3 m at low water

  20. 76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...including: 1. Human or animal studies that describe the relationship...Gastroenteritis Associated With Eating Oysters: Implications for Maintaining Safe Oyster Beds,'' Journal of the...and Norwalk-Like Virus in Oysters Relocated to a...

  1. 76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...parahaemolyticus concentrations in Pacific oysters; funding support to conduct an economic...mandating post-harvest treatment of oysters; funding support to conduct a consumer acceptance study of oysters that have been post-harvest...

  2. Microbial flora and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan shellfish, water, and sediment 

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Charles Albert

    1972-01-01

    . 5 60. 0 46. 7 13. 3 10. 0 50. 0 7. 5 15. 0 47. 5 10. 0 10. 0 10. 0 20. 0 Ach romob aeter Acinetobacter Coryneforms Bacillus 2. 6 13. 3 23. 3 3. 3 2. 5 10. 0 2. 5 2. 5 ~St b 1 Alcaligenes 2. 5 2. 5 32 few or absent. A...

  3. Ocean warming, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785

  4. Factors preventing the recovery of a historically overexploited shellfish species, Ostrea conchaphila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native oyster in estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America, Ostrea conchaphila (prev. Ostrea lurida, Olympia oyster), experienced overexploitation throughout its range in the late 1800’s, resulting in commercial extinction before 1930. Significant harvest restrictions and marine reserv...

  5. Human impacts on ancient shellfish: a 10,000 year record from San Miguel Island, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Erlandson; Torben C. Rick; Todd J. Braje; Alexis Steinberg; René L. Vellanoweth

    2008-01-01

    We use measurements of more than 11,000 marine shells from 41 archaeological components to construct a 10,000 year record of human impacts on ancient mussel and abalone stocks on San Miguel Island, California. General reductions in the mean size of mussel and abalone shells gathered through time are attributed to growing human population and predation pressure. Based on comparison with

  6. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment. PMID:1444438

  7. Comparison of Selected Methods for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W. O. K.; De Villiers, J. C.; Schildhauer, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment. PMID:1444438

  8. EDUCATION WORKSHOP FOR THE FLORIDA MEDICAL COMMUNITY ON THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    People whose immune systems are compromised by liver disease, chemotherapy, etc. are at a substantial risk of contracting a fatal infection from the marine bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus to which they could potentially be exposed by eating raw oysters. It has proven difficult to ge...

  9. 78 FR 22366 - Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...FDMS) at www.Regulations.gov; or Sylvester Rainey, OA&L (003A2A), Department...Washington, DC 20420; or email: sylvester.rainey@va.gov. Please refer to...FDMS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sylvester Rainey at (202) 632-5339 or...

  10. Contaminant concentrations in whole-body fish and shellfish from US estuaries.

    PubMed

    Harvey, James; Harwell, Linda; Summers, J Kevin

    2008-02-01

    Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) pollutants are chemical contaminants that pose risks to ecosystems and human health. For these reasons, available tissue contaminant data from the US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment were examined to estimate to what areal extent PBTs are found in US estuarine resources. The data document composite, whole-body tissue chemical concentrations for 736 sampling sites across Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, and West Coast estuaries. Tissue chemical concentrations were compared to US EPA non-cancer risk guidelines for recreational fishers, because of a lack of ecological guidelines for these chemical concentrations. Samples were analyzed for 23 PAH compounds, 21 PCB congeners, 6 DDT derivatives and metabolites, 14 chlorinated pesticides (other than DDT) and 13 metals, including mercury. Total PCBs were found to exceed recreational fisher guidelines most frequently (31% of samples evaluated), followed by mercury (29%), total PAHs (21%), and DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE (11%). Toxaphene, cadmium and dieldrin were found but in fewer than 1% of the samples. PMID:17564799

  11. Antifungal activity and enhancement of plant growth by Bacillus cereus grown on shellfish chitin wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Teish Chang; Yu-Chung Chen; Chia-Ling Jao

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus QQ308 produced antifungal hydrolytic enzymes, comprising chitinase, chitosanase and protease, when grown in a medium containing shrimp and crab shell powder (SCSP) produced from marine waste. The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Pythium ultimum were considerably affected by the presence of the QQ308 culture supernatant. The supernatant inhibited spore germination and germ tube

  12. Effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, C W; Tamplin, M L

    1993-01-01

    Sterilized seawater was used to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of Vibrio vulnificus. In the temperature range of 13 to 22 degrees C, numbers of V. vulnificus increased during the 6-day incubation. Temperatures outside this range reduced the time of V. vulnificus survival in sterile 10-ppt seawater. At these restrictive temperatures, V. vulnificus numbers were reduced by 90% after 6 days of incubation. Incubation between 0.5 and 10.5 degrees C demonstrated that V. vulnificus survives poorly below 8.5 degrees C. At salinities between 5 and 25 ppt and at 14 degrees C, V. vulnificus numbers actually increased or remained unchanged after 6 days of incubation. At salinities of 30, 35, and 38 ppt, numbers of V. vulnificus decreased 58, 88, and 83%, respectively. V. vulnificus could not be recovered from deionized water, indicating lysis. When a rifampin-resistant strain of V. vulnificus was used to inoculate sterilized and unsterilized seawater (20 ppt, 20 degrees C), numbers increased in sterile seawater but decreased to undetectable levels in 14 days in the unsterilized seawater, indicating that biological factors may play a role in the survival of V. vulnificus in the environment. Since our studies demonstrated sensitivity to low temperatures, the survival of V. vulnificus in naturally contaminated oysters at temperatures of 0, 2, and 4 degrees C was also determined. Numbers of endogenous V. vulnificus in oyster shellstock increased by more than 100-fold in shellstock stored at 30 degrees C but were reduced approximately 10- and 100-fold after 14 days at 2 to 4 degrees C and 0 degrees C, respectively. We conclude that both biological and physicochemical factors are important to the survival of V. vulnificus in the environment and that temperature is critical to controlling its growth in oyster shellstock. PMID:8368832

  13. POLLUTION-ASSOCIATED DISEASES AND ABNORMALITIES OF FISH AND SHELLFISH: A REVIEW

    E-print Network

    or abnormalities (such as certain neoplasms and skeletal anomalies) for which a relationship with pollution between a noxious stimulus and a biological system"). Disfunction and death due to the activity of in diseases include such phenomena as environmentally induced skeletal anomalies, genetic abnormalities

  14. Predicting the carrying capacity of bivalve shellfish culture using a steady, linear food web model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weimin Jiang; Mark T. Gibbs

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the potential carrying capacity of suspended bivalve culture was undertaken using a linear food web model. The investigation involved configuring the model for the present state using all available information, and then perturbing the food web by introducing the bivalve culture until pre-determined carrying capacity limits were achieved. These carrying capacity trigger levels were defined by the

  15. PROBING NORWALK-LIKE VIRUS PRESENCE IN SHELLFISH WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS. (R829784)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN WHOLE-BODY FISH AND SHELLFISH FROM U.S. ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) pollutants are chemical contaminants that pose risks to ecosystems and human health. For these reasons, available tissue contaminant data from the US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment were...

  17. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating impacts of shellfish aquaculture on benthic communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Grant; A. Hatcher; D. B. Scott; P. Pocklington; C. T. Schafer; G. V. Winters

    1995-01-01

    The impact of suspended mussel culture (Mytilus edulis, M. trossulus) on the benthos of a small Nova Scotia cove (7 m depth) was assessed using meehods involving both benthic metabolism and\\u000a community structure. Due to deposition of mussel feces and pseudofeces, sedimentation rate was higher under the mussel culture\\u000a lines than at an adjacent reference site of similar sediment texture.

  18. Failure to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in certified shellfish from New England.

    PubMed

    Koff, R S; Connelly, L J

    1976-02-01

    In this study, hard- and soft-shell clams harvested during a one-year period from state approved (certified) clam beds in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island were tested for HBsAg by radioimmunoassay. HBsAg could not be detected in clam viscera. The role of bivalve mollusk ingestion in transmission of Hepatitis B remains speculative. PMID:1251953

  19. Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in

  20. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish by Use of Multiplexed Real-Time PCR with TaqMan Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Linda N.; Bej, Asim K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a multiplexed real-time PCR assay using four sets of gene-specific oligonucleotide primers and four TaqMan probes labeled with four different fluorophores in a single reaction for detection of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, including the pandemic O3:K6 serotype in oysters. V. parahaemolyticus has been associated with outbreaks of food-borne gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood and therefore is a concern to the seafood industry and consumers. We selected specific primers and probes targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and tdh-related hemolysin gene (trh) that have been reported to be associated with pathogenesis in this organism. In addition, we targeted open reading frame 8 of phage f237 (ORF8), which is associated with a newly emerged virulent pandemic serotype of V. parahameolyticus O3:K6. Total V. parahaemolyticus was targeted using the thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh). The sensitivity of the combined four-locus multiplexed TaqMan PCR was found to be 200 pg of purified genomic DNA and 104 CFU per ml for pure cultures. Detection of an initial inoculum of 1 CFU V. parahaemolyticus per g of oyster tissue homogenate was possible after overnight enrichment, which resulted in a concentration of 3.3 × 109 CFU per ml. Use of this method with natural oysters resulted in 17/33 samples that were positive for tlh and 4/33 samples that were positive for tdh. This assay specifically and sensitively detected total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and is expected to provide a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional detection methods by reducing the analysis time and obviating the need for multiple assays. PMID:16517652

  1. Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

  2. Biomonitoring of surface and coastal water for Cryptosporidium , Giardia , and human-virulent microsporidia using molluscan shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances E. Lucy; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Leena Tamang; Allen Miraflor; Dan Minchin

    2008-01-01

    Surface inland and coastal waters in Ireland were surveyed for the human waterborne enteropathogens; Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by utilizing bivalve mussel species, i.e., Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), Anodonta anatina (duck ‘mussel’, actually a unionid clam), and the invasive Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) as biomonitors at twelve sites located in three Irish river-basin

  3. Lambert et al, 2003 (Fish & shellfish immunology 15, 225-240) Measurement of Crassostrea gigas hemocyte oxidative

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , known or suspected to be pathogenic for bivalves. Keywords: Hemocytes; Oysters; Crassostrea gigas; Flow production in bivalve hemocytes has been studied by chemiluminescence with luminol [18­20] but to the best to measure ROI production (H2O2) in hemocytes of the oyster C. gigas and to evaluate the interaction of some

  4. Lipid contents and fatty acid composition of some New Zealand freshwater finfish and marine finfish, shellfish, and roes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Vlieg; Denis R. Body

    1988-01-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 6 freshwater finfish, 60 marine finfish, 9 molluscs, 3 crustaceans, and 6 fish roes from the New Zealand fishing area were determined. Marine wax esters were detected in the fillet of orange roughy (Hoplosthetus atlanticus), black oreo dory (Neocyttus rhomboidalis), and smooth oreo dory (Pseudocyttus maculatus), and in all finfish

  5. Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Vance; B. R. Hales

    2010-01-01

    The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (Omega) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide

  6. Detecting the shellfish killer Heterocapsa circularisquama (Dinophyceae) by measuring bivalve valve activity with a Hall element sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyohito Nagai; Tsuneo Honjo; Jyoji Go; Hiroyasu Yamashita; Seok Jin Oh

    2006-01-01

    We developed a system for the early detection of noxious dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama blooms by utilizing the response of Akoya pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata) to H. circularisquama cells. The system is based on valve movement activity in bivalves. The movements were measured by means of a magnet on one valve to a Hall element sensor on the other valve connected

  7. An interlaboratory study to find an alternative to the MPN technique for enumerating Escherichia coli in shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D Ogden; G. C Brown; Susan Gallacher; P. H Garthwaite; M Gennari; M. Pilar Gonzalez; L. B Jørgensen; B. T Lunestad; Marion MacRae; M. Celeste Nunes; A. C Petersen; J. T Rosnes; J Vliegenthart

    1998-01-01

    Nine laboratories in eight countries tested 16 batches of common mussels (Mytilus edulis) over a 32 week period in order to find an alternative to the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to enumerate E. coli. The alternatives investigated included the 3M Petrifilm system, the Merck Chromocult agar method and a Malthus conductance technique. The Petrifilm was found to be unsuitable

  8. The kiss of death: a severe allergic reaction to a shellfish induced by a good-night kiss.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P

    2003-02-01

    True (IgE-mediated) allergic reactions to crustaceans are relatively common and can be serious. A young woman with a clinical history of multiple urticarial reactions after touching shrimp and lobster dishes was seen in an emergency department of a Mayo Clinic-affiliated hospital for an anaphylactic reaction that developed immediately after she kissed her boyfriend. The boyfriend had eaten several shrimp just before the kiss. It is important to warn susceptible patients that food does not actually have to be eaten to trigger an allergic reaction; touching the offending food and kissing or touching someone who has recently eaten the food can be enough to cause a major reaction. PMID:12583533

  9. Shellfish mariculture facility which employs passive solar heating and heat pump systems. Performance and cost analysis study. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Zoto; M. H. Krabach

    1984-01-01

    This report incorporates operations data such as clam growth rates, clam biomass buildup, water volume, and algal food requirements compiled while developing a year-round production schedule for production of hard clam seed. The facility includes a passive solar hatchery and heat pump. Three major areas which affect development of energy-efficient mariculture are addressed: biological operation parameters, energy requirements, and system

  10. ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF KEPONE (TRADEMARK) RESIDUES IN FISH, SHELLFISH, AND HI-VOL AIR FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent discovery of the pollution of the environment with Kepone has resulted in a tremendous interest in the development of residue methodology for the compound. Current multiresidue methods for the determination of the common organochlorinated pesticides do not yield good q...

  11. The Indexes of Exvessel Prices table (to the right) presents the annual dockside price of fish and shellfish

    E-print Network

    119 96 145 Pink 33 44 55 68 126 100 151 Sockeye 64 79 75 83 88 89 123 Coho 64 72 100 94 122 90 108 crabs 172 168 167 203 125 125 125 American lobster 182 205 185 201 170 137 157 Oysters 205 232 316 256

  12. The Indexes of Exvessel Prices table (to the right) presents the annual dockside price of fish and shellfish

    E-print Network

    103 Salmon: Chinook 65 101 112 142 163 179 120 Chum 42 45 55 67 75 119 96 Pink 209 33 44 55 68 126 100 176 141 187 210 187 American lobster 172 182 205 185 201 170 137 Oysters 197 205 232 316 256 310 273

  13. Cultivation of the benthic microalga Prorocentrum lima for the production of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in a vertical flat photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Chen, Junhui; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Yanlong; Fu, Boqiang; Han, Xiaotian; Zheng, Li

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the cultivation conditions of Prorocentrum lima, including temperature, nutrient concentration, photoperiod, and salinity were observed, and then an effective method for the large-volume cultivation of P. lima using a vertical flat photobioreactor was developed for the first time. The maximum cell concentrations and toxin contents of P. lima cultured in the photobioreactor were reached after a 35 days cultivation. Moreover, a step-wise double-sedimentation centrifugation method was used to harvest the microalgae cells, with the harvest rate of 89%. Toxin analysis of dry microalgal powder indicated that OA and DTX1 contents were 15.2 and 21.6 mg g(-1), respectively. These results verify that the culture method using the proposed photobioreactor is effective to massively produce DSP toxin-containing P. lima. This study may serve as a guide for the large-scale production of toxin-producing red-tide benthic microalgae. PMID:25545093

  14. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    E-print Network

    McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

    10 days apart. If copper sulfate is applied under poor drying conditions or later than silver tip cluster. -PP Oil Sprays: One of the first and most impor- tant parts of a good insect and mite manage to die of suffocation. Oil sprays should be applied between 1/2 inch green and tight cluster. Apply a 2

  15. A new method for preconcentration and determination of mercury in fish, shellfish and saliva by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; dos Santos, Liz Oliveira

    2014-04-15

    The development of a method using solid phase extraction for preconcentration and determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. Hg (II) ions are sorbed on a minicolumn packed with Amberlite XAD-4 sorbent functionalised with 2-(2'-benzothiazolylazo)-p-cresol (BTAC). Then, a reducing solution was used for desorption and the transport of the analyte for subsequent detection. The assay presented a limit of detection of 0.011 ?g L?¹ (0.011 ?g g?¹, for solid samples), a limit of quantification of 0.038 ?g L?¹ (0.038 ?g g?¹, for solid samples), a precision of 0.50% (1.000 ?g L?¹ Hg solution) and an enrichment factor of 46. The proposed method was applied to the determination of mercury in human saliva (0.055-0.200 ?g L?¹). The following seafood collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil was also analysed: bass (0.169-0.195 ?g g?¹), mullet (0.043-0.361 ?g g?¹), shrimp (0.075-0.374 ?g g?¹) and mussel (0.206-0.397 ?g g?¹). PMID:24295696

  16. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  17. Assessing Nation-wide Distributions of Contaminant Levels in Selected Finfish and Shellfish from the Estuaries of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of mercury is well documented and has led to laws and regulations governing its use and disposal; however mercury contamination of coastal and estuarine biota continues to be of public concern. The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program provided da...

  18. 74 FR 9428 - In the Matter of Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-03-04

    ...Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Cargill, Incorporated of Wayzata, Minnesota. A letter supplementing...investigation shall be served: (a) The complainant is--Cargill, Incorporated, 15407 McGinty Rd. W., Wayzata,...

  19. Molluscan shellfish biomarker study of the Quebec, Canada, Saguenay Fjord with the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria.

    PubMed

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Pellerin, J; Hansen, P-D; Trottier, S

    2002-01-01

    A spatial and temporal survey of six sites in the Saguenay Fjord and of one adjacent site in the St. Lawrence River estuary (Quebec, Canada) was undertaken to study the possible effects of anthropogenic contaminant input on soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) populations. Bivalve sampling sites were selected because they reflected a range of areas representative of either no known (or apparent) pollution sources or of areas potentially influenced by different gradients and types of contamination sources. The most upstream site selected in the Saguenay Fjord, nearest to a highly populated and industrialized sector, and the most downstream site, near its mouth with the St. Lawrence River estuary, spanned a distance of some 70 km and encompassed the entire intertidal area suitable for Mya arenaria habitat. To measure effects in collected animals, we used a comprehensive battery of biomarkers composed of metallothionein-like proteins (MT), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD), DNA damage (DD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitellinlike proteins (Vn), phagocytosis (PHAG), nonspecific esterase (NspE) activity, and condition factor (weight-to-length ratio of clams). Vn, PHAG, DD, and NspE biomarkers were assayed in hemolymph (or hemocytes), whereas others (MT, EROD, LPO) were determined in the digestive gland. Whole-tissue metal content was also quantified in clams collected in the spatial survey. The spatial survey conducted in June 1997 showed significant effects at all sites, and principal component analysis indicated in addition that the more important responses were linked to the MT, LPO, and NspE biomarkers. Clams collected from sites closest to the upstream reaches of the fjord generally displayed higher levels of tissue metals (cadmium, manganese), as well as greater responses of NspE activity, MT, LPO, and PHAG. Animals collected from sites influenced by municipal wastewaters had higher levels of Vn, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. The results of the temporal survey (six monthly samplings of clams at three sites from May through October, 1997) showed that the bivalve reproductive cycle (vitellogenesis and spawning) can modulate the expression of several biomarkers. Vn levels, for example, were positively correlated with DD and EROD and negatively correlated with MT, suggesting that reproduction can influence the susceptibility of clams to some contaminants. Discrimination analysis over the 6 months of sampling revealed that the mean value of the discriminant function changed significantly over time, suggesting important changes in the relative contribution of each biomarker. In short, this study has provided evidence that clam populations in the Saguenay Fjord are impacted by multiple sources of contamination whose effects can be modulated by reproduction. PMID:12112625

  20. Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunn

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of

  1. Effect of pH on the oxidation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins for analysis by liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Gago-Mart??nez; Susana Aldea Moscoso; J. Manuel Leão Martins; Jose-Antonio Rodriguez Vázquez; Barbara Niedzwiadek; James F Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pH on the oxidation of individual PSP toxins using both periodate and peroxide oxidations was studied. It was found that the optimum pH for individual toxins varied considerably. For periodate oxidations, pH 8.2 produced the maximum yield of fluorescent products for neosaxitoxin and GTX1\\/GTX4 while the non-hydroxylated toxins (saxitoxin, GTX2\\/GTX3, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, GTX5) showed optimum pHs from

  2. Effect of pH on the oxidation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins for analysis by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gago-Martínez, A; Moscoso, S A; Leão Martins, J M; Rodriguez Vázquez, J A; Niedzwiadek, B; Lawrence, J F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pH on the oxidation of individual PSP toxins using both periodate and peroxide oxidations was studied. It was found that the optimum pH for individual toxins varied considerably. For periodate oxidations, pH 8.2 produced the maximum yield of fluorescent products for neosaxitoxin and GTX1/GTX4 while the non-hydroxylated toxins (saxitoxin, GTX2/GTX3, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, GTX5) showed optimum pHs from about pH 10-11.5. Neosaxitoxin and GTX1/GTX4 did not produce significant fluorescent oxidation products with peroxide oxidation at any of the pHs studied (pH 8.2-12.8). The non-hydroxylated toxins all showed optimum pHs above pH 12 with peroxide oxidation. Yields of fluorescent products of these toxins decreased substantially at pHs below pH 12. Neosaxitoxin and GTX1/GTX4 each produced three product peaks at pH 8.2 with periodate oxidation. There was no pH where these toxins produced predominantly a single oxidation product. Decarbamoyl saxitoxin always produced two oxidation products with both oxidation reactions at the pHs studied. However, the relative yields of the products changed with pH. At low pH the second eluting product predominated, while at higher pH values the first eluting product predominated. This pattern was observed for both oxidation reactions. The other non-hydroxylated toxins produced mainly single unique products with both oxidation reactions over the pH range studied. No single pH was found optimum for the oxidation of both hydroxylated and non-hydroxylated toxins without a significant compromise in yield of oxidation products. This has implications for the post column oxidation liquid chromatographic methods, since small changes in pH of the post column oxidant can both positively and negatively affect the yields of oxidation products of toxin mixtures leading to increased error in the subsequent quantitation of these compounds. PMID:11206805

  3. NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA FLORA DE LA PROVINCIA DE CUENCA, XXI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo MATEO SANZ; Olga MAYORAL GARCÍA-BERLANGA; Miguel Ángel GÓMEZ-SERRANO

    RESUMEN: Se comunica la presencia de 22 táxones pertenecientes a plantas vas- culares autóctonas o naturalizadas recolectadas en la provincia de Cuenca, que resultan raras o poco conocidas en la misma, destacando como novedades provinciales Carex demissa Hornem., Epilobium palustre L., Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficaria y Senecio viscosus L. Por otro lado, Cardamine flexuosa With. no se conocía en

  4. Salt Marsh

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

  5. A person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell, including people releasing the catch. Also known as a recreational fisherman.

    E-print Network

    people releasing the catch. Also known as a recreational fisherman. Annual Payroll2 Total payroll environment dead or alive, or to bring fish on board a vessel dead or alive; 2. The total number (or weight

  6. Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification3 of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas4

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lipids:1 2 Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas, France8 9 Keywords : Stanol analysis; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Oysters, Fecal10 was to study the effects of washing and purification steps18 on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal

  7. English title: Estimation of the Cd intake in the human dietary from the shellfish caught in the seashore of Charente-Maritime (France)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the seashore of Charente-Maritime (France) French title: Estimation du taux de Cd dans l'alimentation humaine à partir de coquillages et crustacés ramassés dans les eaux littorales de la Charente- Maritime (France. 2 DDASS Charente Maritime, 2 Avenue Fétilly, F-17000 La Rochelle Email : pmiraman@univ-lr.fr hal

  8. Soletchnik et al, 2005 (Journal of Shellfish Research, Vol. 24, No. 1, 197207) SUMMER MORTALITY OF CRASSOSTREA GIGAS (THUNBERG) IN RELATION TO

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    % to 65%, termed "shallow") were studied to compare biologic performance and maturation status of oysters-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, 14 032 Caen cedex, France ABSTRACT : The purpose of this study is to investigate summer mortality of the cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in relation to culture practices

  9. Shellfish production in Washington is a $60 million a year industry. Several major pests plague this industry, resulting in major crop loss. One of the most important

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    burrowing shrimp. These shrimp bioturbate (stir up) the sediment, causing the oysters to sink and die agencies have been resistant to management of eelgrass until more studies are conducted on the ecological

  10. Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France): influence of biodeposition by shellfish farming activities

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -water interface in relation to organic matter (OM) sedimentation and degradation. Two stations inside (C51 Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France of the present work was to evaluate the role of this activity on nutrient exchange at the sediment

  11. Improvement of the quantitation method for the tdh (+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan shellfish based on most-probable- number, immunomagnetic separation, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Maldonado, Oscar; Kayali, Ahmad Y; Yamazaki, Wataru; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism that can cause seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. The infection can be spread and has become a pandemic through the international trade of contaminated seafood. Strains carrying the tdh gene encoding the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or the trh gene encoding the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are considered to be pathogenic with the former gene being the most frequently found in clinical strains. However, their distribution frequency in environmental isolates is below 1%. Thus, very sensitive methods are required for detection and quantitation of tdh (+) strains in seafood. We previously reported a method to detect and quantify tdh (+) V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. This method consists of three components: the most-probable-number (MPN), the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) targeting all established K antigens, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the tdh gene. However, this method faces regional issues in tropical zones of the world. Technicians have difficulties in securing dependable reagents in high-temperature climates where we found MPN underestimation in samples having tdh (+) strains as well as other microorganisms present at high concentrations. In the present study, we solved the underestimation problem associated with the salt polymyxin broth enrichment for the MPN component and with the immunomagnetic bead-target association for the IMS component. We also improved the supply and maintenance of the dependable reagents by introducing a dried reagent system to the LAMP component. The modified method is specific, sensitive, quick and easy and applicable regardless of the concentrations of tdh (+) V. parahaemolyticus. Therefore, we conclude this modified method is useful in world tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate zones. PMID:25914681

  12. [Influence of environmental factors on the infection rates of fishes and shellfishes by trematodes of the Opisthorchidae family in the Krotovaya Lyaga Lake].

    PubMed

    Sous', S M

    2006-01-01

    The relationship of the annual trends in the infection of crucians (Carassius carassius) (L.) with Opisthorchis felineus metacercariae, in that of verkhovkas (Leucasplius delineatus) (Hackel), and in that of lake minnows (Phoxinus percnurus) (L.) with O. felineus and Metorchis billis to the environmental factors under natural fluctuations of the level of water and under the man-made effects on the water regime of the reservoir was studied. When the level of water naturally changes, the infection of crucians with Metorchis was found to be affected by their size, water temperature, and environmental pH values, and the human Opisthorchis affliction depends on the severity of infection of commercial-sized crucians by metacercariae. The infestation of the verkhovka was determined by the temperature of water and that of the lake minnow was by its size and the increased areas of the lake with the depths salubrious to its existence. With man-made effects (dewatering for watering agricultural lands) on the water regime of the reservoir, the infestation of the lake minnow depended on its size in the shallow water and on the level of water. Environmental factors, such as pH values, the area of shallow waters, and the size of mollusks, positively affected the higher extensiveness of infestation of mollusks with the parthenitae of opisthorchid flukes. PMID:16562750

  13. These hatchery and nursery operations are supplying molluscan shellfish seed to Florida growers this year. Contact suppliers for information on species, seed sizes, price, color variation and availability.

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    this year. Contact suppliers for information on species, seed sizes, price, color variation and availability://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Aquaculture, click on Laws and Regulations, Chapter 5L-3. HC - Hard Clam OY - Oyster SRV - Sunray Venus BS - Bay

  14. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Sockeye salmon overescapement. Fish/shellfish study number 27

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The authors examined the effects of large escapements of sockeye salmon in to the Kenai River and into Red and Akalura Lakes on Kodiak Island. Estimated smolt numbers outmigrating from the Kenai River decreased from 30 million in 1989 to under 500,000 in 1992. Decreased overwintering survival of age-0 juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in Skilak and Kenai lakes is the major contributor to this decline. Preliminary examination of limnological data from Skilak and Kenai Lakes provided no obvious explanation for this major decline in winter survival of juvenile sockeye. Due to differences in diel vertical migration of zooplankton among glacial lakes on the Kenai Peninsula with varying planktivores levels, the authors hypothesize that behavioral changes of zooplankton induced by predation may be a major contributor to the juvenile sockeye decline.

  15. Shellfish consumption and intertidal occupancy review, Sellafield, 2004. This note describes a review of public radiation exposure pathways due to liquid radioactive

    E-print Network

    out during July 2004, specifically targeted mollusc and crustacean consumption and intertidal was conducted in 2003 (Clyne et al, 2004). Prior to this, annual reviews of crustacean and mollusc consumption to mollusc and crustacean consumption data the interviews also provided some observations for fish

  16. Effect of the industrial steaming on the toxicity, estimated by LC-MS/MS, of mussels exposed for a long time to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2015-06-15

    The effect of industrial steaming on mussels that had been naturally exposed to DSP toxins for a long time was studied using LC-MS/MS. The estimated toxicity increased with steaming by a percentage that cannot be explained by weight loss. The estimated toxin content per mussel increased substantially with the treatment, which can only be explained by an incorrect estimation by the technique (at the extraction or analytical level) or by the presence of unknown derivatives or analogues. Direct alkaline hydrolysis of the mussel meat yielded more toxin than the standard hydrolysis (hydrolysis of the methanolic extracts), suggesting that extraction was, at least in part, responsible for the increase of toxin content. In situations as the one described in this work, it can be expected that mussels with toxicities well below the regulatory limit could easily surpass that level after industrial steaming, thus producing important losses for food processors. PMID:25660882

  17. Antibiotic resistance in the shellfish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from the coastal water and sediment of Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; McArthur, J V; Tuckfield, R Cary; Najarro, Michael; Lindell, Angela H; Gooch, Jan; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2008-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative pathogen commonly encountered in estuarine and marine environments, and a common cause of seafood-related gastrointestinal infections. We isolated 350 V. parahaemolyticus strains from water and sediment at three locations along the Atlantic coast of Georgia and South Carolina during various seasons. These isolates were tested for susceptibility to 24 antibiotics. Isolate virulence was determined through PCR of tdh and trh genes. The breadth of resistance to antibiotics was unexpectedly high, with 24% isolates demonstrating resistance to 10 or more agents. A significant fraction of isolates were resistant to diverse beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and other classes of antibiotics. Fifteen of the 350 strains possessed virulence genes, with no apparent correlation between virulence and site, sample type, or season of isolation. Antibiotic resistance was slightly reduced among the virulent strains. This study represents one of the largest surveys to date of the virulence and antibiotic resistance in environmental V. parahaemolyticus strains. The observed antibiotic susceptibility patterns suggest that current guidelines for the antibiotic treatment of non-cholerae Vibrio should be reevaluated and extended. PMID:19244914

  18. Journal of Shellfish Research Vol. 16, No. I , 187-203. 1997. THE EFFECTS OF DREISSENA POLYMORPHA (PALLAS) INVASION ON AQUATIC

    E-print Network

    Padilla, Dianna

    abundance decreases, the biomass of benthophage fish increases,and a greater percentage of the primary basin) (Star- obogatov and Andreeva 1994), and the canal that connected the Dnieper and Zapadnyi Bug in eastern Prussia (Star- obogatov and Andreeva 1994). Zebra mussels continued to spread rapidly through

  19. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nm

  20. Development of microbial and chemical MST tools to identify the origin of the faecal pollution in bathing and shellfish harvesting waters in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gourmelon; M. P. Caprais; S. Mieszkin; R. Marti; N. Wéry; E. Jardé; M. Derrien; A. Jadas-Hécart; P. Y. Communal; A. Jaffrezic; A. M. Pourcher

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of coastal or river waters can be affected by faecal pollution from human or animal sources. An efficient MST (Microbial Source Tracking) toolbox consisting of several host-specific markers would therefore be valuable for identifying the origin of the faecal pollution in the environment and thus for effective resource management and remediation. In this multidisciplinary study, after having

  1. Beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Réveillon, Damien; Abadie, Eric; Séchet, Véronique; Brient, Luc; Savar, Véronique; Bardouil, Michèle; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher

    2014-01-01

    ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. It was reported to be produced by cyanobacteria, but also found in edible aquatic organisms, thus raising concern of a widespread human exposure. However, the chemical analysis of BMAA and its isomers are controversial, mainly due to the lack of selectivity of the analytical methods. Using factorial design, we have optimized the chromatographic separation of underivatized analogues by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. A combination of an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, appropriate chromatographic resolution and the use of specific mass spectral transitions allowed for the development of a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure to identify and quantify BMAA and its isomers (in both free and total form) in cyanobacteria and mollusk matrices (LOQ of 0.225 and 0.15 µg/g dry weight, respectively). Ten species of cyanobacteria (six are reported to be BMAA producers) were screened with this method, and neither free nor bound BMAA could be found, while both free and bound DAB were present in almost all samples. Mussels and oysters collected in 2009 in the Thau Lagoon, France, were also screened, and bound BMAA and its two isomers, DAB and AEG, were observed in all samples (from 0.6 to 14.4 µg/g DW), while only several samples contained quantifiable free BMAA. PMID:25405857

  2. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.145 Canned oysters. (a...Ed. (1980), Table 1, “Nominal Dimensions of Standard Test Sieves (U.S.A. Standard Series),”...

  3. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in copper, such as shellfish liver mushrooms nuts chocolate People should not eat these foods during the ... in copper, such as shellfish liver mushrooms nuts chocolate A person cannot prevent Wilson disease; however, people ...

  4. Fish Consumption Advisories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... document entitled “What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish.” The proposed update makes ... answers about the draft advice FDA Table of Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish General Advisory ...

  5. 46 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation or an activity that can reasonably...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation. (g) Fish processing...

  6. 46 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation or an activity that can reasonably...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation. (g) Fish processing...

  7. 46 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation or an activity that can reasonably...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation. (g) Fish processing...

  8. 46 CFR 221.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation or an activity that can reasonably...taking, or harvesting of fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation. (g) Fish processing...

  9. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Microbiology

    E-print Network

    McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

    are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds

  10. An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

  11. Gille-STPA 35 1 Disgusted by the complexities of San Diego sewage, you have moved to a small town

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    seafood, and after a day exploring the Maine coastline, almost everyone craves a bowl of your homemade to the shellfish that consume it but can accumulate in their muscle tissue and cause paralytic shellfish poisoning about paralytic shellfish poisoning? (3) What issues should you consider in deciding whether to buy

  12. Impacts of harmful algae on seafarming in the Asia-Pacific areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhodora A. Corrales; Jay L. Maclean

    1995-01-01

    Seafarming to produce human food has recently intensified, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. Disastrous impacts of harmful phytoplankton blooms, however, have been experienced during the past 20 years. In extreme cases, these render shellfish and finfish toxic or cause massive fish and shrimp kills. Problems from marine algae in the region include paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, ciguatera, tetrodotoxin

  13. Do saxitoxin?like substances have a role in scombrotoxicosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Clifford; R. Walker; P. Ijomah; J. Wright; C. K. Murray; R. Hardy; E. P. Märtlbauer; E. Usleber; G. Terplan

    1992-01-01

    Evidence is presented which establishes that mackerel fed in captivity can, by relay from contaminated shellfish via sand eels, accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) in the edible flesh at a level (250 ?g saxitoxin equivalents per kg) similar to that in the contaminated shellfish. Data from ELISAs performed independently in two laboratories show that commercial mackerel fillets which have been

  14. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  15. Injury to salmon eggs and preemergent fry in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharr, S.; Bue, B.G.; Moffitt, S.D.; Craig, A.K.; Evans, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    Pink salmon embryo mortality was elevated in oil contaminated streams during the falls of 1989, 1990, and 1991. Increased embryo mortality was detected in the lower intertidal zones in 1989 while elevated mortalities were observed at the highest intertidal zone in 1990. These findings were consistent with how stream oiling was expected to take place: all intertidal zones were contaminated in 1989 with the remaining oil being deposited in the highest intertidal zone in 1990. Embryo mortality was significantly higher in all zones for the oil contaminated streams in 1991. No difference in embryo to preemergent fry survival was detected for the 1989, 1990, or 1991 brood years.

  16. The NMFS research vessel 'Del aware II' sails from Woods Hole, Mass., to assess shellfish resources south of New Engl a nd. See c ruis e r eport page 9.

    E-print Network

    the growing menace of pollution. Secretary Morton said Federal fish hatch- eries and laboratories will hold BIOLOGISTS BELIEVE It has been generally accepted among fish - ery biologists that the average life span that they live considerably longer. Past longevity estimates were based on s ize distribution studies, body

  17. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in Chesapeake Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Morgan; P. Guerry; R. R. Colwell

    1976-01-01

    Water and shellfish samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay during February and March 1975, for bacteriological analyses,\\u000a which included enumeration and identification of coliform bacteria resistant to multiple antibioties. Water samples were analyzed\\u000a using eosin-methylene blue (EMB) agar supplemented with antibiotics. Shellfish samples were analyzed following accepted methods\\u000a for examination of shellfish for coliforms and fecal coliforms. Pure cultures were

  18. Okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin 2 have differential toxicological effects in hepatic cell lines inducing cell cycle arrest, at G0\\/G1 or G2\\/M with aberrant mitosis depending on the cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rubiolo; H. López-Alonso; F. V. Vega; M. R. Vieytes; L. M. Botana

    Okadaic acid is one of the toxins responsible for the human intoxication known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, which appears\\u000a after the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The main diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins are okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1,\\u000a -2, and -3. In vivo, after intraperitoneal injection, dinophysistoxin-2 is approximately 40% less toxic than okadaic acid\\u000a in mice. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of

  19. Natural Resource Damage Assessment Overview Presentation to the FKNMS Science Advisory Council

    E-print Network

    Activities RESTORATION PLANNING Injury Assessment Restoration Selection Field Studies Data Evaluation of: · Wetlands · Coral Reefs and Seagrass · Oysters and Other Shellfish · Stream Channels and Banks

  20. 15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...rivers, streams, lakes, aquifers, submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles, and coastal resources of national significance. Coastal uses and...

  1. 15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...rivers, streams, lakes, aquifers, submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles, and coastal resources of national significance. Coastal uses and...

  2. 15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...rivers, streams, lakes, aquifers, submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles, and coastal resources of national significance. Coastal uses and...

  3. Life cycle studies of the red tide dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense

    E-print Network

    Brosnahan, Michael L. (Michael Lewis)

    2011-01-01

    Blooms of toxic species within the algal dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense may cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, a significant and growing environmental threat worldwide. However, blooms of closely ...

  4. Pharmaceutical relationships : intersections of illness, fantasy, and capital in the age of direct-to-consumer marketing

    E-print Network

    Greenslit, Nathan P

    2007-01-01

    Blooms of toxic species within the algal dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense may cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, a significant and growing environmental threat worldwide. However, blooms of closely ...

  5. Toxicity of lindane (?-hexachloroxiclohexane) in Sparus aurata, Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Luisa González De Canales; Milagrosa Oliva; Carmen Garrido

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to research the sublethal and\\/or lethal effects produced by the exposure of fish and shellfish to the ? isomer of lindane, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). The teleostean fish Sparus aurata and the shellfish Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana, were exposed to 16 ? g\\/L of lindane for 15 days. Samples of different fish (liver, kidney

  6. Waste excretion characteristics of Manila clams ( Tapes philippinarum) under different temperature conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songming Zhu; Brooks Saucier; James Durfey; Shulin Chen; Bill Dewey

    1999-01-01

    Water recirculating systems have been used in the shellfish industry for depuration and wet-storage. Knowledge of shellfish excretion characteristics is critical to recirculating system design. In this study, the excretion rate of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) from Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) were investigated under both laboratory and commercial conditions. The

  7. Differences in the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities among fish and bivalves living in waters near industrial and non-industrial areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Oshima; K. Kobayashi; C. Hidaka; S. Izu; N. Imada

    1994-01-01

    Fish and shellfishes, living in coastal areas receiving agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewaters, have been exposed to various chemicals. Identifing the various harmful chemicals in the environments and accumulated in aquatic organisms is difficult. Even if concentrations of pollutants are low so that no mortality of fish and shellfishes occurs, the pollutants may affect the biochemistry and physiology of aquatic

  8. WIDESPREAD OUTBREAKS OF CLAM- AND OYSTER-ASSOCIATED GASTROENTERITIS: ROLE OF NORWALK VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumption of raw shellfish has long been known to be associated with individual cases and sporadic outbreaks of enteric illness. However, during 1982, outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with eating raw shellfish reached epidemic proportions in New York State. Between May 1...

  9. Report to Industry 2004 - 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Mann; David A. Evans; David Bushek; Donnia Richardson; M. Yvonne Bobo; Loren D. Coen; Melissa Southworth; Juliana M. Harding; James Wesson

    This publication is offered to members of the US commercial shellfish harvesting and aquaculture industry to inform them of work which has been published or presented in the National Shellfisheries Association's Journal of Shellfish Research or at the Annual Meeting either as a formal talk or as a poster. These items have been selected because they may have the most

  10. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the only effective method to prevent allergic reactions to shellfish is complete avoidance; however, if processing methods could be employed to minimize shellfish allergens before products reach consumers, illness could be substantially lessened. Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food...

  11. Stable Isotopes from Marine Shells, Ancient Environments, and Human Subsistence on Middle Holocene Santa Rosa Island, California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben C. Rick; John A. Robbins; Kurt M. Ferguson

    2006-01-01

    We report the analysis of stable isotopes on a suite of marine and estuarine shellfish, along with faunal data, from a Middle Holocene red abalone midden (CA-SRI-191) on Santa Rosa Island, California. Our research suggests that people harvested red abalones, mussels, and estuarine shellfish at about 6000 cal BP. Later in time around 4300 cal BP, people relied on California

  12. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the western Gulf of Maine in 1993 and 1994: A comparative modeling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Stock; Dennis J. McGillicuddy Jr; Donald M. Anderson; Andrew R. Solow; Richard P. Signelle

    2007-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense commonly occur in the western Gulf of Maine but the amount of toxin observed in coastal shellfish is highly variable. In this study, a coupled physical–biological model is used to investigate the dynamics underlying the observed A. fundyense abundance and shellfish toxicity in 1993 (a high toxicity year) and 1994 (low toxicity year).

  13. Reference materials for domoic acid, a marine neurotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Hardstaff; W. D. Jamieson; J. E. Milley; M. A. Quilliam; P. G. Sire

    1990-01-01

    Domoic acid was recognized recently [1, 2] to be a marine neurotoxin associated with shellfish harvested or cultured for use as human food. Evidence about the occurrence of domoic acid and its importance to shellfish industries is reviewed. The preparation and certification of two reference materials for the determination of domoic acid, an instrument calibration solution (DACS-1, released by the

  14. SEN 01 Investigating the complex problem of different environmental conditions that induce the production of Domoic Acid with feedback control system

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    are mainly located in hippocampus, explaining the most striking effect of DA poisoning which is short the marine food chain by shellfish such as mussels when they uptake and filter their food out of water is consumed by other animals such as sea birds and sea lions which lead to Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP

  15. Advances in the detection of phycotoxins and cyanotoxins J.F. Humbert

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (notably shellfish...). The numerous poisoning events that have resulted from the consumption of contaminated water or food throughout the world have led to monitoring programs to survey potentially toxic. focuses on Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins (PSTs), which have been involved in numerous human

  16. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish. These eight foods account for 90% of food allergies. Most people ... outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soybean products and wheat, not all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish ... Anaphylaxis Network Questions to Ask Your ...

  17. Cefas Certificate of Analysis for PO PST CRM 1101 Rev 1.0 Page 1 of 15

    E-print Network

    PACIFIC OYSTER PSP TOXIN MATRIX CRM (PO PST CRM 1101) (Rev1 ­ April 2013) 1. Product Specification 1 Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins 1.2. Relevant identified uses of the mixture and uses advised against Use of important and prevalent paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. This material has been prepared at Cefas

  18. For small entity compliance guides, this bulletin complies with section 212 of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement and Fairness Act of 1996. This notice is authorized by the Regional Administrator of the National

    E-print Network

    that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), the temporary PSP closure areas are extended for another year the number above. When will the PSP closure areas be opened? Due to the size of the area and the nature Temporary PSP Closure Area Closed to harvest of bivalve molluscan shellfish fishing, with the exception

  19. Damages on mussel farms potentially caused by fish predation—Self service on the ropes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Šegvi?-Bubi?; Leon Grubiši?; Nikola Karaman; Vjekoslav Ti?ina; Krstina Mišlov Jelavi?; Ivan Katavi?

    2011-01-01

    A dramatic decline has been recorded in Croatian shellfish production in recent years. Among the many factors that may have contributed to the decline of mussel production, i.e. EU import barriers and consequently small domestic market, great variability in larval dispersion and settlement, it is suspected that fish predation plays an important role in shellfish sustainability. Following this hypothesis, the

  20. Rapid extraction of virus-contaminated hemocytes from oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid viral detection methods are necessary to employ diagnostic testing for viral contamination in shellfish to prevent and control foodborne illness. Current shellfish viral RNA extraction methods, which are time-consuming and not applicable for routine monitoring, require the testing of whole or ...

  1. Am. I. imp. Med Hyg.. 42(3), 1990, pp. 267"271(89-262) Copyright C 1990 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

    E-print Network

    of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene LETHAL PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN GUATEMALA DANIEL C. RODRIGUE, RUTH A de Alimentos y Medicamentos, Guatemala City, Guatemala; and Guatemala Ministry of Health, Guatemala City, Guatemala Abstract. An outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning occurred in Champerico

  2. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 4. An assessment of exposure to mercury in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Mahaffey; G. E. Rice

    1997-01-01

    This volume assesses exposure of the U.S. general population to methylmercury through consumption of fish and shellfish. Analyses of patterns of fish consumption by humans were based on contemporary food consumption surveys of nationally representative populations in the United States, and for subpopulations identified as consumers of substaintially higher amounts of fish\\/shellfish than are more typical consumers. These subpopulations include:

  3. CHAPTER 7NOAA Research & Development CHAPTER 7 NOAA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    effects of harmful algal blooms. In E. Graneli and J. Turner, eds., Ecology of Harmful Algae. Ecology HARMFUL ALGAE EVENTS PROTECTS SHELLFISH INDUSTRY AND CONSUMERS NOAA is working to establish a national harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring and forecasting system to protect shellfish consumers around

  4. Toward detection of harmful algae blooms by in situ surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien LAURENT; Florent COLAS; M. Hamelin; M.-P. Crassous; E. Antoine; M. Lehaitre; C. Compere

    2009-01-01

    Among marine algae species, Alexandrium minutum produces a phycotoxin called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) that is introduced in the food chain through the ingestion of phytoplankton by shellfishs, and later by human consumers. Thus, in situ monitoring of A. minutum proliferation in coastal seawater is of great economical importance for marine resources exploitation. Here, we propose a rapid test for

  5. Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    AquacultureL E T T E R Vol. VI No. II July 2002 A Newsletter for the Shellfish Aquaculture Industry in Florida 2001 Florida Aquaculture Survey: Clam Sales Down Slightly Results from the aquaculture survey conducted are highlights of the 2001 production year which may be of interest to the Florida shellfish aquaculture industry

  6. Morphometrics and estimates of force generation by the chelae of a North American population of the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Mitchell; S. M. Kennedy; P. J. Williams; M. E. DeMont

    2003-01-01

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is an invasive species in eastern North America and has the potential to significantly impact wild and aquaculture shellfish in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. To examine potential predation effects on local shellfish and assess the appropriateness of extrapolating results from studies conducted elsewhere, the morphometry of chelae from a recently established

  7. Origin of Saxitoxin Biosynthetic Genes in Cyanobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Moustafa; Jeannette E. Loram; Jeremiah D. Hackett; Donald M. Anderson; F. Gerald Plumley; Debashish Bhattacharya; Jason E. Stajich

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundParalytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal syndrome associated with the consumption of shellfish that have accumulated saxitoxin (STX). STX is produced by microscopic marine dinoflagellate algae. Little is known about the origin and spread of saxitoxin genes in these under-studied eukaryotes. Fortuitously, some freshwater cyanobacteria also produce STX, providing an ideal model for studying its biosynthesis. Here we

  8. Elimination of laboratory-acquired cadmium by the oyster Crassostrea virginica in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mowdy, D.E.

    1981-03-01

    Many productive shellfish-growing areas along the coast of the United States are closed because of pollution from domestic and industrial wastes. Many estuarine areas that are closed to shellfish harvesting because of bacterial pollution contain productive shellfish beds. These shellfish can be used as commercial food products after they have been relayed to approved growing waters and allowed to eliminate the polluting organisms. Relaying is not presently applied to shellfish contaminated with toxic metals for several reasons: There are no standards to control metal pollution (other than mercury) in seafood; few public health problems in this country involve toxic levels of trace metals in oysters; and not enough information is available to indicate the feasibility of such a project. This study demonstrates the feasibility of relaying cadmium-contaminated oysters to observe cadmium elimination. Because oysters containing naturally acquired cadmium were not readily available, oysters containing laboratory-incurred cadmium were studied.

  9. Visible Fluorescence Chemosensor for Saxitoxin

    PubMed Central

    Gawley, Robert E.; Mao, Hua; Haque, M. Mahbubul; Thorne, John B.; Pharr, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Absorption spectra of a number of shellfish extracts have been obtained, and reveal prominent absorptions in all samples at 210 and 260 nm, and at 325 nm in some of them. These absorptions preclude the use of chromophores with similar absorptions in testing of shellfish samples for paralytic shellfish toxins. Two crown ether chemosensors featuring a boron azadipyrrin chromophore have been synthesized; both have absorption maxima at 650 nm, where all the shellfish extracts are transparent. The synthetic sensors feature either 18- or 27-membered crown-ether rings, and have been evaluated as visible sensors for the paralytic shellfish toxin saxitoxin. The binding constant for one of them is in the range of 3 - 9 × 105 M-1, and exhibits a fluoresence enhancement of over 100% at 680 nm, in the presence of 40 ?M saxitoxin. PMID:17298099

  10. Worst New England Harmful Algal Bloom in 30 Years

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

    This online 2005 article reports the most severe bloom since 1972 of the microscopic alga, Alexandrium fundyense, which spread from Maine to Massachusetts, resulting in extensive commercial and recreational shellfish harvesting closures to protect humans from paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The article discusses harmful algal blooms (HABs) and reports how NOAA-funded research is addressing the problem. It includes links to research programs, up-to-date information about shellfish closures, images of the causative microbes, related press releases and legislation, and other informational sources.

  11. Impact of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez on survival and growth of dolly varden and cutthroat trout in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Fish/shellfish study number 5 (restoration study number 90). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hepler, K.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Bernard, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    Five emigrating populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were intercepted in 1989-1991 during seaward migration to Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill; two into the spill area, three into non-spill areas. Study populations were comprised of tagged adults and subadults. Survival rates were estimated with log-linear models of capture histories of tagged fish. We used a two-stage simulation based on bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques to compare average survival rates in study populations that were and were not associated with spilled oil. Growth and survival rates were significantly lower in study populations associated with spilled oil. Results are consistent with the occurrence of a deleterious impact on growth and survival of emigrating species, although unable to be confirmed as results emanated from observation, not experiment.

  12. 48 CFR 812.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...incorporated by reference. (25) 852.270-1, Representatives of contracting officers. (26) 852.270-2, Bread and bakery products—quantities. (27) 852.270-3, Purchase of shellfish. (28) 852.271-72, Time spent by counselee...

  13. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  14. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, oyster, mussels, others); ... water pills'); estrogen-containing contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, and injections); or estrogen replacement therapy. Your ...

  15. Brevetoxin: How Is It Made and Why 

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Natalie

    2012-10-19

    Karenia brevis is the major harmful algal bloom-forming species in the Gulf of Mexico, and produces neurotoxins, known as brevetoxins, that cause large fish kills, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and human respiratory ...

  16. MARSHLAND UPWELLING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF SEWAGE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased coastal development has resulted in increased coastal water degradation due to the release of improperly or untreated domestic wastewaters. While global damage is occurring within the wetlands, quantifiable impacts can be determined by looking at the shellfish industry...

  17. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    shellfish, arises from the fact that they are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antibiotic and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry,...

  18. 4degree programs 371D.V.M. students

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    , from shellfish to marine mammals. The CVM is internationally recognized for its world-class basic on the health, management and conservation of a wide range of free-living, captive and farmed aquatic animals

  19. 21 CFR 123.28 - Source controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...microbiological contamination, chemical contamination, natural toxins, and related food safety hazards, processors shall include in their HACCP plans how they are controlling the origin of the molluscan shellfish they process to ensure that the conditions of...

  20. Statewide Clam Industry Task Force addresses research and educational needs New Research Program 1

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    is legitimized by the contribution aquaculture makes to the nation's economy in food produced and jobs created- tant to the long-term preservation and enhance- ment of our shellfish aquaculture industry." A steering methods, Faster te

  1. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin —(1) Maine mahogany quahog zone. The Maine mahogany quahog zone is closed to fishing for...areas of the zone that are tested by the State of Maine and deemed to be within the...

  2. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin —(1) Maine mahogany quahog zone. The Maine mahogany quahog zone is closed to fishing for...areas of the zone that are tested by the State of Maine and deemed to be within the requirements...

  3. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin —(1) Maine mahogany quahog zone. The Maine mahogany quahog zone is closed to fishing for...areas of the zone that are tested by the State of Maine and deemed to be within the requirements...

  4. 50 CFR 648.76 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin —(1) Maine mahogany quahog zone. The Maine mahogany quahog zone is closed to fishing for...areas of the zone that are tested by the State of Maine and deemed to be within the...

  5. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Mdit., 38, 2007 OYSTER TRANSFERS: A MAJOR VECTOR FOR MACROPHYTE INTRODUCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Boudouresque, Charles F.

    above the shipping and the opening of the Suez Canal. Keywords : Algae, Aquaculture, Lagoons, Strait lagoons we studied, 67 exotic macro- phytes (78% from the Pacific and 94% via shellfish transfer) have

  6. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Volume 24, Number 2, 2007

    E-print Network

    Caron, David

    (Falkowski, 1994), while archaea, bacteria, and heterotrophic protists (protozoa) consume or degrade much AQUATIC MICROORGANISMS (viruses, archaea, bacte- ria, microalgae, protozoa) play fundamental roles and recreational fisheries (particularly shellfish resources) and tourism (Anderson et al., 2000). Similarly

  8. 30 CFR 256.19 - Periodic consultation with interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...19 Section 256.19 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...in any activity in or on the OCS, including those involved in fish and shellfish recovery, and recreational activities....

  9. 886 Fishery Bulletin 98(4) 1 Intrapopulation structure of winter-spawned Argentine

    E-print Network

    75 A biological reference point based on the Leslie matrix, by Daniel B. Hayes 86 Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: resolving a fishery conflict by ecological experimentation, by Hunter

  10. Effect of Organic Enrichment and Hypoxia on the Biodiversity of Benthic Communities in Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive input of nitrogen to coastal waters leads to eutrophication and hypoxia that reduce biodiversity and impair key ecosystem services provided by benthic communities; for example, fish and shellfish production, bioturbation, nutrient cycling, and water filtration. Hypoxia ...

  11. 15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles, and coastal resources of national significance. Coastal uses and resources also includes uses and resources...

  12. 15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles, and coastal resources of national significance. Coastal uses and resources also includes uses and resources...

  13. 78 FR 16512 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...Certificate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Information Management, Food and Drug Administration...the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). NSSP...program to promote the safety of molluscan...

  14. 75 FR 4087 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...Certificate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Management (HFA-710), Food and Drug Administration...the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). NSSP...program to promote the safety of molluscan...

  15. 77 FR 68129 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration...Information Management, Food and Drug Administration...the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). NSSP...program to promote the safety of molluscan...

  16. united States Department of the Interior, J . A. Krug, Secre ary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert M. Da y , Director

    E-print Network

    STORAGE OF FISH AND SHELLFISH By Martin Heerdt, Chemist; Dorris L. Buoher, Formerly Chemist; and Maurioe E. Stansby, Chemist-in-Charge ; Seattle Fishery Teohnological Laboratory, Branoh of Commeroial Fisheries

  17. Stable Isotope Dynamics in Cownose Rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) within the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    St. Clair, Katherine I

    2014-07-25

    The cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) is a durophagous mesopredator that exerts for top-down control on commercial shellfish stocks along the Atlantic coast. Although the trophic ecology of this elasmobranch has been the subject of extensive...

  18. My Pregnancy Plate Choose large portions of

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    , such as leafy greens, broccoli, carrots, peppers or cabbage. Choose a variety of whole fruits. Limit juice shellfish and sushi · Unpasteurized milk, juice and soft cheeses such as feta, bleu cheese, brie and queso

  19. C. GRAHAM HURLBURT and SARAH W. HURLBURT MFR PAPER 1162 exposed at low tide, but when cov-

    E-print Network

    the mollusks. Monitoring of the shellfish areas will prevent human consumption when accumulation rises above- tion to this delectable ocean food. The mussel is a mollusk with two equal shells. The inside lining

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  1. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diet,” in which patients avoid all common allergenic foods, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, peanuts and other nuts, and fish and shellfish. Read more about EoE and food allergy . Some people with EoE require a stricter ...

  2. The Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Ostrea lurida Larvae Kaiko'o Victor 1, Susan L. Williams 2, Gary Cherr 2

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    and switch secretion to calcite. · Aragonite is less stable and 37% more soluble than calcite. Free swimming Shellfish Growers Association, satellite image: NASA Decreased pH = Harm to Calcifiers Methods Oyster

  3. 26 CFR 54.9815-2719AT - Patient protections (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the child's severe shellfish allergies. B wishes to refer A's child...provide coverage for treatment of food allergies, nor does it have an allergist...the exclusion of treatment for food allergies is in accordance with the...

  4. 29 CFR 2590.715-2719A - Patient protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the child's severe shellfish allergies. B wishes to refer A' s...provide coverage for treatment of food allergies, nor does it have an allergist...the exclusion of treatment for food allergies is in accordance with the...

  5. 45 CFR 147.138 - Patient protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the child's severe shellfish allergies. B wishes to refer A' s...provide coverage for treatment of food allergies, nor does it have an allergist...the exclusion of treatment for food allergies is in accordance with the...

  6. 29 CFR 2590.715-2719A - Patient protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the child's severe shellfish allergies. B wishes to refer A' s...provide coverage for treatment of food allergies, nor does it have an allergist...the exclusion of treatment for food allergies is in accordance with the...

  7. 45 CFR 147.138 - Patient protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the child's severe shellfish allergies. B wishes to refer A' s...provide coverage for treatment of food allergies, nor does it have an allergist...the exclusion of treatment for food allergies is in accordance with the...

  8. 15 CFR 917.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...such living resource, the coastal space, the ecosystems, the nutrient rich areas, and the other components of the marine environment...conservation values. Living resources include natural and cultured plant life, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and...

  9. 15 CFR 917.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...such living resource, the coastal space, the ecosystems, the nutrient rich areas, and the other components of the marine environment...conservation values. Living resources include natural and cultured plant life, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and...

  10. For Release: IMMEDIATE Contact: Lori Severino Thursday, September 4, 2014 (518) 402-8000

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    and that portion of Huntington Bay lying south of a line extending easterly from Target Rock, near Lloyd Neck onboard their harvest boats. Shellfish should be stored in self-draining containers, never in standing

  11. 19 CFR 10.530 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Parties; (5) Goods (fish, shellfish and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...partially comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has the same life expectancy and meets the same performance standards as a new...

  12. 19 CFR 10.809 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (6) Goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has a similar life expectancy to, and meets the same performance standards as,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.769 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (6) Goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has a similar life expectancy to, and meets the similar performance standards...

  14. 19 CFR 10.872 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (6) Goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has a similar life expectancy to a like good that is new; and (3) Enjoys...

  15. 19 CFR 10.872 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (6) Goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has a similar life expectancy to a like good that is new; and (3) Enjoys...

  16. 19 CFR 10.809 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (6) Goods (fish, shellfish, and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has a similar life expectancy to, and meets the same performance standards as,...

  17. 19 CFR 10.530 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Parties; (5) Goods (fish, shellfish and other marine life) taken from the sea by vessels registered or recorded...partially comprised of recovered goods; (2) Has the same life expectancy and meets the same performance standards as a new...

  18. EFFECTS OF ALTERED HABITATS ON COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES OF THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research emphasizes the role of critical estuarine habitats to species that provide an ecosystem service, namely those fish and shellfish of economic importance. Vegetated habitats are examined for their capacity to provide and sustain commercially important shrimp, oyster, ...

  19. Hives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dander (especially cats) Insect bites Medicines Pollen Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and other foods Hives may also develop as a result of: Emotional stress Extreme cold or sun exposure Excessive perspiration Illness, including lupus , ...

  20. New Tools and Insight for Recognition of Pseudo-Nitzschia Bloom and Toxic Incidence

    E-print Network

    Quay, Jenny Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    sentinel mussels collected during the height of the bloom event (sentinel shellfish stocks during toxic blooms and subsequent marine bird and mammal mass mortality events.event. Introduction suspended in the water column alongside sentinel

  1. 75 FR 16509 - Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...Erythropoietin). (3) Document No. GC-10-034 concerning Inv. No. 337-TA-668 (Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same). In accordance with Commission policy, subject matter listed above, not disposed of...

  2. 75 FR 17956 - Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...Erythropoietin). (3) Document No. GC-10-034 concerning Inv. No. 337-TA-668 (Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same). In accordance with Commission policy, subject matter listed above, not disposed of...

  3. 75 FR 13573 - Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...Erythropoietin). (3) Document No. GC-10-034 concerning Inv. No. 337-TA-668 (Certain Non-Shellfish Derived Glucosamine and Products Containing Same). In accordance with Commission policy, subject matter listed above, not disposed of...

  4. 40 CFR 109.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...shellfish, wildlife, and public and private property, shorelines, and beaches. (d) Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, earthquake, drought, fire, or other catastrophe...

  5. 40 CFR 109.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...shellfish, wildlife, and public and private property, shorelines, and beaches. (d) Major disaster means any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, earthquake, drought, fire, or other catastrophe...

  6. 29 CFR 784.101 - The section 13(b)(4) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements of the Act and applies to “any employee employed in the canning, processing, marketing, freezing, curing, storing, packing for shipment, or distributing of any kind of fish shellfish, or other aquatic forms of animal or vegetable...

  7. 29 CFR 784.101 - The section 13(b)(4) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements of the Act and applies to “any employee employed in the canning, processing, marketing, freezing, curing, storing, packing for shipment, or distributing of any kind of fish shellfish, or other aquatic forms of animal or vegetable...

  8. 77 FR 53164 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...quahogs since 1990 due to red tide blooms that cause paralytic shellfish...These toxins are produced by the alga Alexandrium fundyense, which can form blooms commonly referred to as red tides, or harmful algal blooms, and can produce toxins...

  9. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 830-841; doi:10.3390/md11030830 Marine Drugs

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    : okadaic acid; Harmful Algae Blooms; mussels; chromatin; database; Mytilus galloprovincialis 1 in Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins produced during Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), representing accumulations of algae in the marine environment [1]. Quite often, massive algal proliferations include blooms

  10. Redfish, Whitefish, and Bluefish .... The 6,000 tagged 6-inch redfish

    E-print Network

    Disease of European oysters which they believe is in the same group of shellfish patho- gens as MSX. Perkins is presently in- vestigating the comparative biology of MSX in relation to the Aber disease

  11. 33 CFR 148.405 - What are the procedures for notifying the Commandant (CG-5) of proposed site evaluation and pre...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the sampling does not adversely affect shellfish beds, marine mammals, or an endangered species, or if the sampling is permitted...measurements, including the setting of instruments; and (7) Small diameter core sampling to determine foundation...

  12. 33 CFR 148.405 - What are the procedures for notifying the Commandant (CG-5) of proposed site evaluation and pre...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the sampling does not adversely affect shellfish beds, marine mammals, or an endangered species, or if the sampling is permitted...measurements, including the setting of instruments; and (7) Small diameter core sampling to determine foundation...

  13. Intelligence Sixth-generation Computer Technology Series. John Wiley, New York, pp. 211229.

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    main categories: the most toxic are the carbamate toxins (e.g. saxitoxin and gonyautoxins), followed and behavioral responses of shellfish to PSP-producing dinoflagellates are highly species specific (e.g. Shumway

  14. Induction of Shrimp Tropomyosin-Specific Hypersensitivity in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S. C. Leung; Yuen Shan Lee; Chi Yan Tang; Wing Yee Kung; Ya-Hui Chuang; Bor-Luen Chiang; Ming Chiu Fung; Ka Hou Chu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Shellfish hypersensitivity is amongst the most common food allergies. The major shellfish allergen was identified as tropomyosin. Here, we investigated the immediate hypersensitivity responses, IgE and cell-mediated immune response in mice sensitized with recombinant shrimp tropomyosin. Methods: Shrimp tropomyosin was cloned and expressed as a His-tagged fusion recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Three- to 4-week-old BALB\\/c mice were sensitized

  15. Beyond the Monospecific Approach to Animal Aquaculture—The Light of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Chopin; Charles Yarish; Glyn Sharp

    The focus of present-day aquaculture is typically monospecific animal culture. Even the development of “alternative” species\\u000a for aquaculture usually refers to alternative species of fish or shellfish. However, although introducing another species\\u000a of fish or shellfish may have short-term benefits, rarely does it balance energetically and ecologically in the long term.\\u000a What is needed is appropriate proportions of different cocultured

  16. Dissolved saxitoxin causes transient inhibition of sensorimotor function in larval Pacific herring ( Clupea harengus pallasi )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathi A. Lefebvre; Nancy E. Elder; Paul K. Hershberger; Vera L. Trainer; Carla M. Stehr; Nathaniel L. Scholz

    2005-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) spawning sites in Puget Sound, Washington overlap spatially and temporally with blooms of Alexandrium catenella, a toxic dinoflagellate species responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Consequently, newly hatched herring larvae\\u000a may be regularly exposed to the suite of dissolved paralytic shellfish toxins that are released into the water column from\\u000a toxic cells during blooms. To date, virtually

  17. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  18. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  19. A Salt Marsh Erosion Model: Interplay Between Biotic and Physical Factors at the Seaward Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, M. E.; Gilbert, L. A.; Alves, C. L.; Poole, P. A.; Schleicher, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new model to monitor the cycle of erosion occurring on the seaward edge of salt marshes as sea level rises. In our model, a southern New England salt marsh edge is stable when the bank edge exhibits a normal slope, is fringed by the low-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora, and the ribbed mussel Guekensia demissa is abundant. As erosion proceeds, the seaward bank becomes vertical (Stage 1), then undercut (Stage 2), then slumped (Stage 3), and finally a detached island (Stage 4) to expose a new vertical bank. If erosion progresses relatively slowly, S. alterniflora will dominate and G. demissa will be abundant. We applied this model to four sites at the Barn Island Salt Marsh in southeastern Connecticut. The central headland of the heavily mosquito-ditched Headquarters Marsh appears to be the most rapidly retreating: from 2006 to 2014, the seaward bank advanced two erosional stages and lost 3 m horizontally. This headland is dominated by low-marsh S. alterniflora, with mid-marsh grasses Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens also present on the seaward edge. By comparison, the nearby seaward edge of Wequetequock Point has only S. alterniflora and bare patches with no mid-marsh species. Wequetequock Point also appears more stable, with about one quarter of the seaward bank on a normal slope and abundant mussels (mean 4,500 m-2; max 20,000 m-2). Repeat surveys since 2006 show mussel vacancy rate is related to the rate of erosion. Open holes appear in normal slope banks due to wave erosion of rocks and other material embedded in the exposed peat. Banks that remain in the same erosion stage for multiple years show increased mussel occupation of these holes. In contrast, rapidly eroding banks at Barn Island Marsh have very few mussels (<100 m-2) and are typically fringed by grasses other than S. alterniflora. Much of the Barn Island Marsh bank is eroding too rapidly for mussel settlement and growth and normal marsh grass succession. In addition to documenting the recent rates and mechanisms of marsh loss, using a model that combines multiple indicators of marsh edge stability can help us assess the vulnerability of salt marshes to sea level rise and storms.

  20. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Matt A.M.; Devos, Nicolas; Patiño, Jairo; Brown, Elizabeth A.; Orme, Andrew; Elgey, Michael; Wilson, Trevor C.; Gray, Lindsey J.; von Konrat, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R. buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to Western Australia in R. buccinifera, and at least one west-east dispersal from Australia to New Zealand in R. australiana. Another west-east dispersal event from Australia to Norfolk Island may have led to the budding speciation of R. anisotoma. In contrast, Radula demissa is phylogeographically subdivided into strongly supported clades either side of the Tasman Sea, suggesting long distance dispersal is infrequent in this species. PMID:24223490

  1. Effectiveness of standard UV depuration at inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from spiked Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Sunnotel, O; Snelling, W J; McDonough, N; Browne, L; Moore, J E; Dooley, J S G; Lowery, C J

    2007-08-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 x 10(6) oocysts liter (-1)) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P < 0.05; ninefold) the number of viable oocysts recovered from oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17574996

  2. Effectiveness of Standard UV Depuration at Inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum Recovered from Spiked Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)?

    PubMed Central

    Sunnotel, O.; Snelling, W. J.; McDonough, N.; Browne, L.; Moore, J. E.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Lowery, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 × 106 oocysts liter ?1) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P < 0.05; ninefold) the number of viable oocysts recovered from oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17574996

  3. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are not only important marine primary producers and grazers, but also the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. It has been reported that many dinoflagellate species can produce various natural toxins. These toxins can be extremely toxic and many of them are effective at far lower dosages than conventional chemical agents. Consumption of seafood contaminated by algal toxins results in various seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (ASP). Most of these poisonings are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission. Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically. They vary in both chemical structure and mechanism of action, and produce very distinct biological effects, which provides a potential application of these toxins in pharmacology and toxicology. This review summarizes the origin, structure and clinical symptoms of PSP, NSP, CFP, AZP, yessotoxin and palytoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:18728731

  4. Contamination by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Virulent Strains in Seafood Marketed in Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Infections by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are frequently reported in Southeast Asia. This is due to the frequent seafood contamination by virulent strains. In this study conducted from 2008 to 2011, seafood like fish, shrimp, squid, crab, and molluscan shellfish were purchased from provinces in Thailand and three Southeast Asian countries and examined for the prevalence of three genetic markers of V. parahaemolyticus (species-specific gene: toxR gene, virulence genes: tdh and trh genes). An enrichment culture of seafood was examined for these markers using PCR methods. Molluscan shellfish showed a high frequency of contamination in Thailand. The shellfish harvested from the Gulf of Thailand were significantly more contaminated with virulence genes than those from the Andaman Sea. The seafood purchased from three Southeast Asian countries was positive for the three markers of V. parahaemolytcus at differing frequencies. The virulence markers (tdh and trh markers) were frequently detected in molluscan shellfish from Vietnam (17.9 and 8.0%, respectively), Malaysia (11.1 and 16.7%), and Indonesia (9.1 and 13.6%). These data suggest that the molluscan shellfish sold in Southeast Asian markets are highly contaminated with virulent strains of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:24155650

  5. Reduction of species in the wild potato Solanum section Petota series Longipedicellata: AFLP, RAPD and chloroplast SSR data.

    PubMed

    Van Den Berg, G.; Bryan, J.; Del Rio, A.; Spooner, M.

    2002-12-01

    Species boundaries were assessed with three molecular markers [AFLPs, RAPDs and chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs)] for all six species of wild potatoes ( Solanum section Petota) assigned to ser. Longipedicellata: Solanum fendleri, S. hjertingii, S. matehualae, S. papita, S. polytrichon and S. stoloniferum. These tetraploid (2n = 4 x = 48) species grow in the southeastern United States ( S. fendleri) and Mexico (all six species), and a recent morphological analysis supported only three species: (1) S. polytrichon, (2) S. hjertingii (including S. matehualae) and (3) S. stoloniferum (including S. fendleri and S. papita). We analyzed all six species of ser. Longipedicellata (tetraploid) and also analyzed diploids in ser. Bulbocastana, ser. Pinnatisecta, ser. Polyadenia and ser. Tuberosa; tetraploids in ser. Acaulia and hexaploids in ser. Demissa. Concordant with morphological data, AFLP and RAPD results support the synonymy of S. hjertingii and S. matehualae, and completely intermix S. papita and S. fendleri. However, accessions of S. stoloniferum have a tendency to cluster but with exceptions, and S. polytrichon is completely intermixed with S. fendleri and S. papita. The cpSSRs fail to distinguish any of the species in ser. Longipedicellata. Combined morphological and molecular data support only two species in ser. Longipedicellata: S. hjertingii and S. stoloniferum. PMID:12582888

  6. High selective and sensitive capillary electrophoresis-based electrochemical immunoassay enhanced by gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Li, Xiaolin; Ge, Anqing; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Xuemei; Li, Xuemei

    2013-03-15

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based electrochemical (EC) immunoassay (IA) enhanced by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed for the determination of shellfish toxins. After competitive immunoreaction between shellfish toxin antigen (Ag), horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antigen (Ag*), and limited antibody (Ab), the immune sample was introduced into capillary and conjugated with AuNPs. The presence of AuNPs modifies the mobilities of analytes and improves separation resolution between analytes. Furthermore, the AuNPs were used as multianalyte carriers of the excess signaling Ag* and the bound enzyme-labeled complex (Ag*-Ab) to achieve an amplification of EC signal. Enhanced resolution and sensitivity were obtained by using bioconjugates featuring HRP labels linked to AuNPs. The four shellfish toxins were baseline separated by using AuNPs. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the migration time were 1.3-3.5% for intraday and 3.1-4.6% for interday, respectively. The RSDs of the peak area were 2.8-4.6% for intraday and 4.1-6.9% for interday, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were in the range of 3.1-36.7 ng/L. The enhanced CE based EC-IA with AuNPs labels was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of four shellfish toxins in shellfish samples. With high resolving power and sensitivity, the proposed method has shown great potential to become an attractively alternative method for simultaneous determination of diverse red tide poisons in shellfish samples. PMID:23062557

  7. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    PubMed

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters. PMID:9925633

  8. Glycine betaine and glycine betaine analogues in common foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. de Zwart; S. Slow; R. J. Payne; M. Lever; P. M. George; J. A. Gerrard; S. T. Chambers

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have surveyed the betaine content of a wide range of foods commonly found in the western diet. Glycine betaine, proline betaine (stachydrine), trigonelline and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the only betaines to be found at ?150 ?g\\/g. Glycine betaine was primarily found in shellfish, flour, and some vegetables, such as beetroot, spinach and silverbeet. Proline betaine was

  9. Source tracking faecal contamination in an urbanised and a rural waterway in the Nelson-Tasman region, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kirs; VJ Harwood; AE Fidler; PA Gillespie; WR Fyfe; AD Blackwood; CD Cornelisen

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination of New Zealand's rivers, lakes and coastal waters can pose a risk to human health through both recreational contact and the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods provide a means to identify potential contaminant sources, which can lead to high faecal indicator bacteria concentrations and elevated human health risk because of associated pathogens. Eight MST

  10. Promoting environmental sensitivity within the fishing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Greenbaum

    1983-01-01

    The traditional fishing and shellfishing industries of New England depend on the vitality and renewability of the marine environment for their economic health, yet they have historically overfished species to near-depletion, resisted attempts to manage their resources, and discharged their wastes into coastal waters. In 1979, the Massachusetts Audubon Society established Resources for Cape Ann, a local program based in

  11. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  12. Owen, R.B., Sandhu, N., 2000. Heavy metal accumulation and anthro-pogenic impacts on Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40,

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    .H., Hong, S.H., Shim, W.J., Oh, J.R., Chang, M., 2005. Spatio- temporal distribution and characteristic of paralytic shellfish toxins in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis K.N. Yu a,*, Raymond W.M. Kwong b , Wen and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong c Department of Biology and Chemistry, City

  13. LESLIE N. STURMER ANNUAL REPORT OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR 2009

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    -county area, including Brevard, Charlotte, Collier, Dixie, Franklin, Indian River, Lee, and Levy Counties, such as water quality monitoring, shellfish harvesting waters classification, restoration, and citizen posters, which are updated annually, and a "mini" clam farm. Presented at Florida State University's Open

  14. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Island Sound is an estuary, a place where salt water from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers and the land. Like other estuaries, Long Island Sound (the Sound) abounds in fish, shellfish, and waterfowl. It provides feeding, breeding, nesting, and nursery areas for d...

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BAITS FOR ORAL RABIES VACCINATION OF RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel B. Linhart; F. Sherman; Gary J. Dasch; Jerry D. Roberts; Richard M. Engeman; Joseph J. Esposito; John H. Shaddock; George M. Baer

    Captive raccoons were offered a variety of vaccine containers and bait components in a series of three-choice tests. Paraffin wax ampules were the most readily accepted vaccine container. Preferred bait components included corn and shellfish oils, deep fried corn meal batter, and egg, apple and buttermilk flavorings. These results, together with factors including ease of bait formulation, cost, and suitability

  16. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1979-1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. McLean; T. E. Magette; S. G. Zobel

    1983-01-01

    The Power Plant Siting Program conducts radiological analyses of environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay. These studies were initiated in 1979 to determine the radioecological impact of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station on the Maryland environment. Collections of sediments, finfish, shellfish, aquatic mammals, aquatic vegetation and waterfowl

  17. Toxicity of lindane (gamma-hexachloroxiclohexane) in Sparus aurata, Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez De Canales, Maria Luisa; Oliva, Milagrosa; Garrido, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to research the sublethal and/or lethal effects produced by the exposure of fish and shellfish to the gamma isomer of lindane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH). The teleostean fish Sparus aurata and the shellfish Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana, were exposed to 16 micro g/L of lindane for 15 days. Samples of different fish (liver, kidney and gills) and shellfish (gills, gut, digestive gland and mantle) tissues were extracted and processed for histopathological observations. Although mortality was not detected during the bioassay, sublethal effects (histopathological alterations) were observed. Vacuolization in the liver cells and lamellar fusion in gills from exposed fish were observed. Disorganization of normal gill structure, epithelial desquamation with the disappearance of apical ciliature in intestine, and inflammatory response in mantle from exposed shellfish were also observed. Thus, it can be concluded that the lindane concentration employed in the present research did not produce lethal effects in the exposed organisms but it caused sublethal effects. Lindane has time-dependent multiple toxic effects in S. aurata, C. angulata and S. plana, which were more severe at the end of the experimental time. The toxicological implications arising from these results are subjects for further multiconcentration tests dealing with lethal responses (mortality) or with sublethal responses (cellular/molecular biomarkers) of the aforementioned species. PMID:19130367

  18. INTEGRATED MONITORING OF MARINE DISEASE AND MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been apparent increases over the last several decades in disease and mortality of marine and estuarine organisms, including shellfish, presumably due to greater anthropogenic stress generated both in watersheds and coastal areas. These events are investigated from a lo...

  19. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of ...

  20. 50 CFR 679.25 - Inseason adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ii), or (iii) of this section must be based on a determination that such adjustments are necessary to prevent: (A) Overfishing of any species or stock of fish or shellfish; (B) Harvest of a TAC for any groundfish species or the taking of...