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1

Seawater and shellfish (Geukensia demissa) quality along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland: an area impacted by feral horses and agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

We evaluated the quality of seawater and ribbed mussels (Gukensia demissa) at six sites along the West Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), a barrier island popular with tourists and fishermen. Parameters evaluated were summertime temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite levels for seawater and total heterotrophic plate counts and total Vibrionaceae levels for the ribbed mussels. Approximately 150 feral horses (Equus caballus) are located on ASIS and, combined with agricultural runoff from animals and croplands, local wildlife, and anthropogenic inputs, contribute to nutrient loads affecting water and shellfish quality. The average monthly dissolved oxygen for June was 2.65 mg L(-1), below the minimum acceptable threshold of 3.0 mg L(-1). Along Chincoteague Bay, total phosphorus generally exceeded the maximum level of 0.037 mg L(-1), as set by the Maryland Coastal Bays Program management objective for seagrasses, with a high of 1.92 mg L(-1) in June, some 50-fold higher than the recommended threshold. Total ammonia nitrogen approached levels harmful to fish, with a maximum recorded value of 0.093 mg L(-1). Levels of total heterotrophic bacteria spiked to 9.5 x 10(6) cells g(-1) of mussel tissue in August in Sinepuxent Bay, leading to mussels which exceeded acceptable standards for edible bivalves by 19-fold. An average of 76% of the bacterial isolates were in the Vibrionaceae family. Together, these data suggest poor stewardship of our coastal environment and the need for new intervention strategies to reduce chemical and biological contamination of our marine resources. PMID:19132436

Lambert, Mary S; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Richards, Gary P

2009-08-01

2

The introduced ribbed mussel ( Geukensia demissa ) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in

Mark E. Torchin; Ryan F. Hechinger; Todd C. Huspeni; Kathleen L. Whitney; Kevin D. Lafferty

2005-01-01

3

The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa  

E-print Network

California, biomass, bivalve, clapper rail, Estero de Punta Banda, Geukensia demissa, introduced species and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus presence in clap- per rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range

Bermingham, Eldredge

4

Evidence for intraspecific endocrine disruption of Geukensia demissa (Atlantic ribbed mussel) in an urban watershed.  

PubMed

Populations undergo physiological adaptations in response to environmental stressors. Our 5-year bio-monitoring study of the Bronx River Estuary demonstrates comparatively low dissolved oxygen concentrations in this urbanized watershed. Additionally, our current results establish altered hormonal levels, resulting from endocrine disruption, in Geukensia demissa (Atlantic ribbed mussel) from the Bronx River Estuary. No studies have yet investigated a correlation between low dissolved oxygen and endocrine disruption in field-collected bivalves. Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were collected from male and female mussels in the oxygen depleted Bronx River and well-oxygenated Greenwich Cove. Bronx River mussels exhibited higher testosterone levels and lower estradiol levels than Greenwich Cove mussels. The resulting abnormal hormonal ratio seems to indicate that environmental conditions in the Bronx River facilitate an allosteric inhibition of the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme, which aids conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Low progesterone levels suggest that Bronx River mussels are experiencing a delay in sexual maturation, and morphometric data show a stalling of shell and tissue growth. To confirm that the mussels collected from both sites are the same species, the universal mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was analyzed, through DNA barcoding. Minimal sequential heterogeneity confirmed the mussels are the same species. Such findings suggest intraspecific divergence in various endocrine processes, resulting from environmentally induced stress. PMID:24813673

Halem, Zachery M; Ross, Dustin J; Cox, Rachel L

2014-09-01

5

The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

Torchin, M. E.; Hechinger, R. F.; Huspeni, T. C.; Whitney, K. L.; Lafferty, K. D.

2005-01-01

6

Size and age at first reproduction of the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn) in relation to shore level in a New York salt marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shell lengths and dry body weights of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) at the onset of sexual maturation were determined at two shore levels within the tall Spartina alterniflora zone in a New York City salt marsh. Mussels grow faster at the lower level (marsh edge) than at the higher shore level (15 m upshore of the edge), and have

David R Franz

1996-01-01

7

Isolation and identification of an ice-nucleating bacterium from the gills of the intertidal bivalve mollusc Geukensia demissa.  

PubMed

In the fall, freeze tolerant intertidal invertebrates usually produce ice-nucleating proteins that are secreted into the hemolymph. These proteins help protect against freeze damage by insuring that ice formation is limited to extracellular spaces. Geukensia demissa, a freeze tolerant, salt marsh bivalve mollusc was examined for the presence of ice nucleating proteins. The ice-nucleating temperature (INT) of the hemolymph was not significantly different from artificial seawater of the same salinity indicating the lack of an ice nucleating protein in the hemolymph. The palial fluid did have an elevated INT, indicating the presence of an ice nucleator. The INT of the palial fluid was significantly reduced by boiling and filtration through a 0.45-&mgr;m filter. High INT was also observed in the seawater associated with the bivalves, and was demonstrated in water samples collected from salt marshes but not sand and pebble beaches. Moreover, the INT of water samples collected from a salt marsh decreased in the summer. All of these data suggest that the ice-nucleating agents in the hemolymph and the seawater are ice-nucleating bacteria. One species of ice-nucleating bacteria, Pseudomonas fulva was isolated from the gills of Geukensia. These bacteria could perform the same function as hemolymph ice-nucleating proteins by limiting ice formation to extracellular compartments. PMID:11399277

Loomis, S H.; Zinser, M

2001-07-01

8

Particle selection in the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa and the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica: Effect of microalgae growth stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied particle selection in the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa, an important suspension-feeding inhabitant of estuaries and intertidal zones of salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of North America. Adult mussels were fed on several mixtures of microalgal cultures (1) in exponential or (2) in stationary phase of growth, and the proportional occurrence of algal species in pseudofeces was examined by flow cytometry. The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was chosen as a reference. Results showed that both mussels and oysters were able to selectively ingest or reject our experimental microalgae. Moreover, the pre-ingestive particle selection was affected by microalgal growth phase, particularly in mussels. For instance, the sorting efficiency index increased significantly in mussels fed with a blend made of Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis suesica harvested in stationary growth phase, as compared to the same blend made with microalgae in exponential growth phase. Isochrysis sp. and T. suesica were preferentially ingested by both bivalves whereas N. closterium, was preferentially rejected in pseudofeces. These results demonstrate particle selection in ribbed mussel and underline the effect of algae growth phase on the sorting mechanisms.

Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem; Ford, Susan E.

2008-08-01

9

Changes in protein expression in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa: evidence for a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during prolonged aerial exposure  

PubMed Central

During aerial exposure (emersion), most sessile intertidal invertebrates experience cellular stress caused by hypoxia, and the amount and types of hypoxia-induced stress will differ as exposure time increases, likely leading to altered metabolic responses. We examined proteomic responses to increasing emersion times and decreasing recovery (immersion) times in the mussel Geukensia demissa, which occurs in salt marshes along the east coast of North America. Individuals are found above mean tide level, and can be emersed for over 18 h during spring tides. We acclimated mussels to full immersion at 15°C for 4 weeks, and compared changes in gill protein expression between groups of mussels that were continually immersed (control), were emersed for 6 h and immersed during recovery for 18 h (6E/18R), were emersed for 12 h and recovered for 12 h (12E/12R), or were emersed for 18 h with a 6 h recovery (18E/6R). We found clear differences in protein expression patterns among the treatments. Proteins associated with anaerobic fermentation increased in abundance in 6E/18R but not in 12E/12R or 18E/6R. Increases in oxidative stress proteins were most apparent in 12E/12R, and in 18E/6R changes in cytoskeletal protein expression predominated. We conclude that G. demissa alters its strategy for coping with emersion stress over time, relying on anaerobic metabolism for short- to medium-duration exposure, but switching to an air-gaping strategy for long-term exposure, which reduces hypoxia stress but may cause structural damage to gill tissue. PMID:24501137

Fields, Peter A.; Eurich, Chris; Gao, William L.; Cela, Bekim

2014-01-01

10

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TOTAL LIPID, LIPID CLASSES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS (GUKENSIA DEMISSA) OVER AN ANNUAL CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...

11

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Shellfish Allergy A shellfish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish (like tuna ... alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Shellfish Allergy When someone is allergic to shellfish, the body's ...

12

Shellfish Toxicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

Arnold, Thomas

2010-03-24

13

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... experienced their first allergic reaction as adults. Shrimp, crab and lobster cause most shellfish allergies. Finned fish ... two kinds of shellfish: crustacea (such as shrimp, crab and lobster) and mollusks (such as clams, mussels, ...

14

Shellfish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... difference in preventing problems. What Is a Shellfish Allergy? You may hear people talk about having a " ... Continue What Happens When Someone Has a Shellfish Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infections. But ...

15

The effects of metal and nutrient addition on Ribbed Mussels, Geukensia demissa, in the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh and Eel Pond  

E-print Network

of metal pollution include sewage, lead paint and gasoline, boat paint, and pressure-treated wood. Salt the potential effects of nutrient loading and heavy metal pollution on salt marshes, researchers established long term experiments in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Massachusetts, in which sewage

Vallino, Joseph J.

16

NOAA's Science Supports Shellfish Aquaculture  

E-print Network

B NOAA's Science Supports Shellfish Aquaculture U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic Acidification Research & Shellfish Aquaculture NOAA's ocean acidification research and monitoring efforts have to providing relevant, robust science to support shellfish aquaculture in Washington State and beyond

17

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... in previously unaffected areas. U.S. Finfish, Shellfish and Wildlife Affected by NSP ... commercial and recreational species of fish, sea birds + , sea turtles, manatees + , dolphins *Found to ...

18

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

19

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

20

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... µg/g shellfish meat. However, since fish and crab viscera can also contain domoic acid, the risk ... Sea birds P. australis Washington Oregon Razorclams + Dungeness crabs + *Found to contain algal toxins, or to be ...

21

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

22

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

23

MFR PAPER 1300 Shellfish Diseases  

E-print Network

with other forms of food animal production is discussed. The common shellfish diseases are listed. The experimental optimal and lethal concentrations of bacteria for shellfish larvae are defined. An interrelation, and varying degrees of Louis Leibovitz is with the Depart- ment of Avian and Aquatic Animal Medicine, New York

24

November 2012 Washington Shellfish Initiative  

E-print Network

November 2012 Washington Shellfish Initiative Scientific Summary of Ocean Acidification Panel on Ocean Acidification #12;NOTICE from NOAA Mention of a commercial company or product does and Back Cover Graphic: Acknowledgments: Scientific Summary of Ocean Acidification in Washington State

25

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins  

PubMed Central

Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

2013-01-01

26

Tide pushing shellfishers into red  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USA Today article provides very general information about the 2005 red tide outbreak off the Gulf of Maine. It offers possible explanations for the outbreak, what is being done to protect people from hazards related to red tide, and how the outbreak has devastated local shellfishers.

Hampson, Rick; Today, Usa

27

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

28

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

29

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

30

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

31

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shellfish. (a) Covered species —(1) Regulations in this section apply to subsistence taking of Dungeness crab, king crab, Tanner crab, shrimp, clams, abalone, and other shellfish or their parts. (2) You may take shellfish for...

2012-10-01

32

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shellfish. (a) Covered species (1) Regulations in this section apply to subsistence taking of Dungeness crab, king crab, Tanner crab, shrimp, clams, abalone, and other shellfish or their parts. (2) You may take shellfish for...

2012-07-01

33

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

34

Consumer Expenditure Patterns for Fish and Shellfish  

E-print Network

Consumer Expenditure Patterns for Fish and Shellfish ORAL CAPPS, Jr. Background Asuccessful seafood industry requires coordination between commercial fish- ermen and the ultimate consumers. The marketing system coordinates the pro- duction decisions of producers with the purchase decisions of consumers

35

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

36

Detection and Quantification of Noroviruses in Shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans, and high concentrations of NoVs are discharged into the environment. As these viruses are very resistant to inactivation, the sanitary consequences are contamination of food, including molluscan shellfish. There are four major problems with NoV detection in shellfish samples: low levels of virus contamination, the difficulty of

Francoise S. Le Guyader; Sylvain Parnaudeau; Julien Schaeffer; Albert Bosch; Fabienne Loisy; Monique Pommepuy; Robert L. Atmar

2009-01-01

37

Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!  

PubMed Central

The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

2011-01-01

38

Infectious diseases associated with molluscan shellfish consumption.  

PubMed Central

A history of shellfish-vectored illnesses (i.e., those associated with consumption of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops) occurring in the past nine decades is presented. Typhoid fever was a significant public health problem among consumers of raw molluscan shellfish earlier in this century. The development of more effective sewage treatment procedures and the institution of a national program following these outbreaks led to a series of measures which eventually eliminated shellfish-associated typhoid fever. Present-day problems associated with this food source still involve some wastewaterborne bacterial illnesses. However, the principal public health concerns are with wastewater-derived viral pathogens and with bacterial agents of an environmental origin. The nature, occurrence, and magnitude of these public health problems are described. PMID:7834599

Rippey, S R

1994-01-01

39

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

40

FROZEN PROCESSED FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION  

E-print Network

was conducted in ten selected cities by Cross - ley, S-D Surveys, Inc. , of New York City in order to obtain of establishments using frozen processed sea food in its three forms; fish, shellfish, ajid portions. b. Quantity of purchases of frozen processed sea food; by species and amount of prepreparation. c. Sources of supply

41

FROZEN PROCESSED FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION IN  

E-print Network

FROZEN PROCESSED FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION IN INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC EATING PLACES Atlanta, are published in a series as follows: Circular 66 - Survey Methods and Procedures Circular 67 - Atlanta, Georgia CONSUMPTION IN INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC EATING PLACES ATLANTA, GEORGIA Prepared in the Division of Industrial

42

Storage stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in C toxins (C1- 2), GTX (gonyautoxin) 1-4, STX (saxitoxin) and NEO (neosaxitoxin) in scallop digestive glands and a mixture of purified paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were studied during storage at ?35, 5 and 25°C and at different pH levels. Heated and unheated samples of homogenates and purified toxin mixtures were stored for 1 year and 4 months,

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

2000-01-01

43

What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... smaller portions. Frequently Asked Questions about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish What is mercury and methylmercury? I' ... of fish. 3. Is there methylmercury in all fish and shellfish? Nearly all fish and shellfish contain ...

44

76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to support the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC). The purpose of...enhance the FDA molluscan shellfish sanitation program and provide the public greater...enhance FDA's molluscan shellfish sanitation program and provide the public...

2011-06-28

45

Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

2011-03-01

46

National shellfish register of classified estuarine waters, 1990. Data supplement  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Register summarized data on 3,172 of the Nation's classified shellfish-growing areas. However, State and Federal shellfish officials often need area-specific data to manage their daily operations. The Data Supplement, therefore, provides detailed information about local classified shellfish-growing areas for both the 1985 and 1990 Registers. It also updates relevant information that has become available since the publication of the 1990 Register, specifically in the areas of classifications, pollution sources affecting shellfish-growing waters, harvests, and evolving issues.

Not Available

1992-06-01

47

NOAA Support for Puget Sound Shellfish: Native Oysters, Abalone &  

E-print Network

NOAA Support for Puget Sound Shellfish: Native Oysters, Abalone & a Healthy Marine Habitatnoaa,000 to Rebuild Native Oysters in Puget Sound According to The Nature Conservancy, "shellfish reefs are the most, is a contributing partner to a 10-year endeavor to rebuild dense, breeding populations of Olympia oysters in Puget

48

Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints  

E-print Network

Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints Compiled and edited by John W. Ewart Delaware Sea Grant Program College of Earth, Ocean and Environment (CEOE - Shellfish Aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays Status, Opportunities, and Constraints TABLE OF CONTENTS

Firestone, Jeremy

49

Past trends and future scenarios for environmental conditions favoring the accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in Puget Sound, Washington State, can be assessed by identifying and predicting climate and environmental conditions that are favorable for bloom development and the accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish. When these favorable conditions occur in combination, a harmful algal bloom window of opportunity (HAB-WOO) exists

Stephanie K. Moore; Nathan J. Mantua; Eric P. Salathé

2011-01-01

50

Environmental Transmission of Human Noroviruses in Shellfish Waters  

PubMed Central

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis following consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated with fecal matter. NoV levels can be effectively reduced by some sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge and membrane bioreactors. However, tertiary sewage treatment and substantial sewage dilution are usually required to achieve low concentrations of virus in shellfish. Most outbreaks have been associated with shellfish harvested from waters affected by untreated sewage from, for example, storm overflows or overboard disposal of feces from boats. In coastal waters, NoV can remain in suspension or associate with organic and inorganic matter and be accumulated by shellfish. Shellfish take considerably longer to purge NoV than fecal indicator bacteria when transferred from sewage-polluted estuarine waters to uncontaminated waters. The abundance and distribution of NoV in shellfish waters are influenced by the levels of sewage treatment, proximity of shellfish beds to sewage sources, rainfall, river flows, salinity, and water temperature. Detailed site-specific information on these factors is required to design measures to control the viral risk. PMID:24705321

Lees, David N.

2014-01-01

51

Environmental transmission of human noroviruses in shellfish waters.  

PubMed

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis following consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated with fecal matter. NoV levels can be effectively reduced by some sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge and membrane bioreactors. However, tertiary sewage treatment and substantial sewage dilution are usually required to achieve low concentrations of virus in shellfish. Most outbreaks have been associated with shellfish harvested from waters affected by untreated sewage from, for example, storm overflows or overboard disposal of feces from boats. In coastal waters, NoV can remain in suspension or associate with organic and inorganic matter and be accumulated by shellfish. Shellfish take considerably longer to purge NoV than fecal indicator bacteria when transferred from sewage-polluted estuarine waters to uncontaminated waters. The abundance and distribution of NoV in shellfish waters are influenced by the levels of sewage treatment, proximity of shellfish beds to sewage sources, rainfall, river flows, salinity, and water temperature. Detailed site-specific information on these factors is required to design measures to control the viral risk. PMID:24705321

Campos, Carlos J A; Lees, David N

2014-06-01

52

Proficiency studies on the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins are produced by dinoflagellates. Shellfish filtering these unicellular algae will accumulate the toxins and pose a health risk when consumed by man. In the European Union, paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs are regulated at a maximum content of 80 microg/100 g (91/492/EEC). The current reference method in the European Union is the mouse bioassay, but alternative methods including the liquid chromatography methodology are preferred for ethical reasons. Analyses of suspected shellfish batches revealed, however, unacceptable differences in results reported by a small group of Dutch laboratories all using liquid chromatography methods with precolumn derivatization, followed by fluorescence detection. Therefore, a series of proficiency studies were undertaken among these laboratories. In the first three studies, participants were more or less allowed their own choice of method execution details. This approach yielded unsatisfactory results. A fourth study was then initiated in which a standardized method was mandatory. Two types of test material were used in the fourth study: lyophilized Cardium tuberculatum material containing saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dc-STX), and lyophilized mussel material containing dc-STX. The latter material was investigated in an interlaboratory study involving 15 participants and was considered as the reference material. Among the four laboratories, coefficients of variation (ANOVA) for C. tuberculatum material were 10% (n = 11) and 9% (n = 12) for STX and dc-STX, respectively, and for the reference material was 8% (n = 12) for dc-STX. The joint efforts showed that variability in analysis results between laboratories that all apply more or less the same method can be drastically improved if the methodology is rigorously standardized. PMID:15204557

Van Egmond, H P; Jonker, K M; Poelman, M; Scherpenisse, P; Stern, A G; Wezenbeek, P; Bergwerff, A A; Van den Top, H J

2004-04-01

53

Biological approaches for controlling shellfish-associated pathogens.  

PubMed

As the consumption of seafood and shellfish increases around the world, so is the incidence of associated outbreaks of illness. Various postharvest treatments are effective at killing seafood-associated bacteria, but most of these treatments also kill the mollusks. Because consumer preferences for raw live shellfish persist, biological approaches for promoting microbiological safety of live product are being considered. Applications of probiotic bacteria to reduce human pathogens in live shellfish could augment current practices for preharvest monitoring of water quality. Postharvest, biological controls will be important to remove shellfish-associated commensal Vibrio spp. that are pathogenic to humans. Further investigations will reveal whether combining depuration with chemical disruption of bacterial attachment or cell-to-cell signaling may accomplish this goal. PMID:19342220

Teplitski, Max; Wright, Anita C; Lorca, Graciela

2009-04-01

54

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of...

2010-10-01

55

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of...

2011-10-01

56

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of...

2012-10-01

57

48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish (APR 1984) The bidder certifies that oysters, clams, and mussels will be furnished only from plants approved by and operated under the supervision of...

2013-10-01

58

Paralytic shellfish poisoning --- southeast Alaska, May--June 2011.  

PubMed

On June 6, 2011, the Section of Epidemiology (SOE) of the Alaska Division of Public Health was notified of a case of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in southeast Alaska. In collaboration with local partners, SOE investigated and identified a total of eight confirmed and 13 probable PSP cases that occurred during May--June 2011. Warnings to avoid noncommercially harvested shellfish were broadcast on local radio and television and displayed at beaches and in post offices, government offices, and businesses throughout the region. Commercially harvested shellfish, which are tested for the presence of PSP-causing toxins, were safe. Because the risk for PSP is unpredictable, persons who consume noncommercially harvested Alaskan shellfish should know that they are at risk for PSP, and suspected cases should be reported promptly to SOE to initiate control measures in the affected area. PMID:22089968

2011-11-18

59

2012 Bacteria Data -Shellfish Tributary and Narrow River Sites: Fecal coliform and enterococci Shellfish Waters Tributaries Fecal Coliform Data (see "Rivers" data for enterococci data)  

E-print Network

of bacteria species are used to indicate the presense of human sewage and associated pathogens, or disease the National Shellfish Sanitation Program for shellfish waters and as an indicator of overall water quality Shellfish Waters Tributaries Fecal Coliform Data (see "Rivers" data for enterococci data) Watershed

Rhode Island, University of

60

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

SciTech Connect

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

1990-07-01

61

Detection of noroviruses in shellfish in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Shellfish from oyster farms in the Netherlands and imported from other European countries were examined for viral contamination. A method that allows sequence matching between noroviruses from human cases and shellfish was used. The samples of shellfish (n = 42) were analyzed using a semi-nested RT-PCR that had been optimized for detection of norovirus in shellfish (SR primer sets). In addition, a different genome region was targeted using a second primer set which is routinely used for diagnosis of norovirus infection in humans (JV12Y/JV13I). To improve the detection limit for this RT-PCR a semi-nested test format was developed (NV primer sets). One of 21 oyster samples (4.8%) from Dutch farms was norovirus positive, whereas norovirus was detected in 1 out of 8 oyster samples (12.5%) and 5 out of 13 mussel samples (38.5%) collected directly after importation in the Netherlands. RNA from samples associated with an outbreak of gastro-enteritis in the Netherlands in 2001 was re-analyzed using the NV primer sets. At least one identical sequence (142/142 nt) was found in three fecal and in two oyster samples related to this outbreak. Further surveillance of norovirus by detection and typing of viruses from patients with gastroenteritis and shellfish is warranted to clarify the causes of future outbreaks. PMID:16499983

Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Vennema, Harry; Jonker, Klaas; de Boer, Enne; Koopmans, Marion

2006-05-01

62

December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative  

E-print Network

Planning Bodies that carry out coastal and marine spatial planning under the National Ocean Policy. 5December 2011 http://aquaculture.noaa.gov NOAA's National Shellfish Initiative The goal of the National Shellfish Initiative is to increase shellfish aquaculture for commercial and restoration purposes

63

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards

D. L. Leonard; E. A. Slaughter; B. C. Corning

1990-01-01

64

Literature Review and Analysis of Coastal Urbanization and Microbial Contamination of Shellfish Growing Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water is the key factor for determining the suitability of coastal areas for growing and harvesting shellfish. Clams, oysters and other filter-feeding shellfish can accumulate contaminants that may be present in the coastal environment. Shellfish growing areas are particularly vulnerable to fecal pollution from sewage systems, farm animal wastes, stormwater runoff, wildlife and other sources because of the health

Stuart Glasoe

65

Immunohistochemical localization and radioenzymatic measurements of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in hearts of Aplysia and several bivalve mollusks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin immunoreactivity was localized in hearts of the opisthobranch gastropod, Aplysia californica (sca hare) and several species of bivalve mollusks, the heterodonts, Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog or cherry stone clam), Protothaca staminea (little neck clam), and the pteriomorphs, Hinnites multirugosus (rock scallop), Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster), Mytilus edulis (eastern mussel), and Geukensia demissa (ribbed mussel). In addition, serotonin was assayed in

Joyce K. Ono; Jubal D. R. Hampton; Robert A. Koch

1992-01-01

66

COMPARISON OF RIBBED MUSSEL POPULATIONS IN MARSHES SUBJECT TO INCREASING LAND USAGE AND NUTRIENT LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Narragansett Bay salt marshes of similar geomorphology and hydrology were clustered into low, medium and high human impact based on land use and nutrient inputs. We measured abundance, condition index (CI) and growth of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) from 10 salt ma...

67

Shellfish Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, but it is unclear whether all high-cholesterol foods increase the risk of heart disease. The purpose of this study is to determine whether shellfish consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Analysis was performed on the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a

Eric M. Matheson; Arch G. Mainous III; Elizabeth G. Hill; Mark A. Carnemolla

2009-01-01

68

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH By Philip H. Mitchell  

E-print Network

of dissolved oxygen, leave the apparatus at some constant temperature during a definite period, and then to sample the water in the desiccator so as to compute its decrease in dissolved oxygen. Winkler's wellTHE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH ~ By Philip H. Mitchell 2°7 #12;Blank page retained

69

Evaluating shellfish gathering ( Lucina pectinata) in a tropical mangrove system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish resources are important sources of income and protein to traditional inhabitants of coastal zones. In Garapuá village, the shellfish Lucina pectinata is the main resource exploited in mangroves. This study tests whether if in less explored areas (far from the village) L. pectinata individuals have higher densities and greater lengths, and if there was a decrease in cpue's over

S. F. Rondinelli; F. Barros

2010-01-01

70

East Coast Shellfish Hatchery and Nursery List 2012 Gef Flimlin  

E-print Network

Contact: Kevin Reinecke 1210 Grogan Avenue NE Palm Bay, FL 32907 Cell - 321-243-2526 Phone - 321-733-2704 kevin.blueacres@gmail.com Cedar Creek Shellfish Farm - H, N Contact: Mike Sullivan 859 A Pompano Avenue 33946 Phone - 941-697-3181 or 863-604-18911 bhurt@tampabay.rr.com Ewan Leighton ­ N, H Contact: Ewan

Florida, University of

71

Per Capita Annual Utilization and Consumption of Fish and Shellfish  

E-print Network

. HUDGINS Introduction In 1977, the U.S. per capita con- sumption of edible (meat-weight) fish and shellfish. The total supply was then adjusted to edible weight and di- vided by the population. The result on pounds of edible (meat-weight) fish. Figures for Hawaii in Tables 5-7 are adjusted for foreign 'Based

72

FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for  

E-print Network

with School Lunch Division Consumer and Marketing Service ancl Human Nutrition Research Division Agriculture. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish Buying Guide and Quantity Recipes for Type A School Lunches A-I The Type BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES FOR TYPE A SCHOOL LUNCHES General Information A- I This publication

73

Environmental Impacts of Shellfish Aquaculture: Filter Feeding to Control Eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many areas, coastal residents and others oppose establishment of bivalve molluscan aquaculture projects on the basis of perceived negative environmental impacts. Often overlooked are positive environmental impacts of shellfish aquaculture that can potentially mitigate the impacts of other anthropogenic activities. Filter feeding by populations of bivalve mollusks is reviewed with respect to their ability to act as an estuarine

Michael A. Rice

74

East Coast Shellfish Hatchery and Nursery List 2011 Gef Flimlin  

E-print Network

Cooperative Extension of Ocean County Each year, shellfish growers search for seed suppliers. Some suppliers 33914 Phone ­ 239-549-8014 Cell - 239-246-5820 highimage@mac.com Research Aquaculture - H, N, OY Contact@bellsouth.net Cooperative Extension of Ocean County Extension Center 1623 Whitesville Road Toms River, NJ 08755-1199 njaes

Florida, University of

75

A highly rapid and simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.  

PubMed

Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is simple to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a rapid and simple screening method prior to the MBA. PMID:24874362

Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko

2014-11-01

76

Evolving to the optoelectronic mouse for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish.  

PubMed

Despite ethical and technical concerns, the in vivo method, or more commonly referred to mouse bioassay (MBA), is employed globally as a reference method for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish. This is particularly the case for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and emerging toxin monitoring. A high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for PSP toxin analysis, but due to difficulties and limitations in the method, this procedure has not been fully implemented as a replacement. Detection of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has moved towards LC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, whereas the analysis of the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid is performed by HPLC. Although alternative methods of detection to the MBA have been described, each procedure is specific for a particular toxin and its analogues, with each group of toxins requiring separate analysis utilising different extraction procedures and analytical equipment. In addition, consideration towards the detection of unregulated and emerging toxins on the replacement of the MBA must be given. The ideal scenario for the monitoring of phycotoxins in shellfish and seafood would be to evolve to multiple toxin detection on a single bioanalytical sensing platform, i.e. 'an artificial mouse'. Immunologically based techniques and in particular surface plasmon resonance technology have been shown as a highly promising bioanalytical tool offering rapid, real-time detection requiring minimal quantities of toxin standards. A Biacore Q and a prototype multiplex SPR biosensor have been evaluated for their ability to be fit for purpose for the simultaneous detection of key regulated phycotoxin groups and the emerging toxin palytoxin. Deemed more applicable due to the separate flow channels, the prototype performance for domoic acid, okadaic acid, saxitoxin, and palytoxin calibration curves in shellfish achieved detection limits (IC20) of 4,000, 36, 144 and 46 ?g/kg of mussel, respectively. A one-step extraction procedure demonstrated recoveries greater than 80 % for all toxins. For validation of the method at the 95 % confidence limit, the decision limits (CC?) determined from an extracted matrix curve were calculated to be 450, 36 and 24 ?g/kg, and the detection capability (CC?) as a screening method is ?10 mg/kg, ?160 ?g/kg and ?400 ?g/kg for domoic acid, okadaic acid and saxitoxin, respectively. PMID:25245418

Campbell, Katrina; McNamee, Sara E; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe; Vilarino, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Poli, Mark; Elliott, Christopher T

2014-11-01

77

Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

Duxbury, Mark

2000-10-01

78

Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

Blogoslawski, Walter J.

1992-07-01

79

Impact of Xynthia Tempest on Viral Contamination of Shellfish  

PubMed Central

Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named “Xynthia tempest” destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Come; Noyer, Mathilde

2012-01-01

80

Evaluating shellfish gathering ( Lucina pectinata) in a tropical mangrove system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish resources are important sources of income and protein to traditional inhabitants of coastal zones. In Garapuá village, the shellfish Lucina pectinata is the main resource exploited in mangroves. This study tests whether if in less explored areas (far from the village) L. pectinata individuals have higher densities and greater lengths, and if there was a decrease in cpue's over the last years. Samples were taken monthly in two habitats (mangrove channels and mangrove roots) in six mangrove areas by random squares. The results indicated that closer areas showed significantly lower densities than areas far from the village. Densities were significantly higher in mangrove roots (quizangas) than at channels. There was a significant increase in monthly L. pectinata cpue, from 18.2 dz./shellfish gatherers/day in 2001 to 19.3 in 2007, showing that this stock does not seem to be overexploited. However, (i) a long-term monitoring of Garapuá shellfish gatherers to evaluate if the stock will support an increasing pressure and (ii) several manipulative experiments to better understand ecological processes are suggested.

Rondinelli, S. F.; Barros, F.

2010-10-01

81

N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.  

PubMed

Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms. PMID:24880785

Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

2014-09-01

82

Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: resolving a fishery conflict by  

E-print Network

86 Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: resolving a fishery conflict a large-scale field experiment to test whether clam and oyster harvesting applied alone and in combination on intertidal oyster reefs have impacts on resident shellfish pop- ulations. This experiment was conducted

83

Recent domoic acid closures of shellfish harvest areas in Washington State inland waterways  

E-print Network

by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Domoic acid; Pseudo-nitzschia; Puget Sound; Shellfish closure; Harmful algal bloom Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership formed in 2000, selective closures were possible in 2001 and 2003 (DA) in shellfish have been observed in Puget Sound, Washington State, since 1991. However

Cochlan, William P.

84

Profiles of Alexandrium catenella cysts in Puget Sound sediments and the relationship to paralytic shellfish poisoning events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish and the geographical scope of shellfish closures in Puget Sound have increased in recent decades. PSP, monitored by the Washington Department of Health, has spread from Sequim Bay in the 1950s into central Puget Sound in the 1970s and throughout Puget Sound by the 1990s. Alexandrium catenella, the species responsible

A. M. Cox; D. H. Shull; R. A. Horner

2008-01-01

85

Shellfish: proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols were determined for eight species of shellfish commonly marketed in the Northwest. Moisture and total lipid content varied with the size of the species, with more variation in mollusca than in crustacea; total lipid content ranged from 0.7% in sea scallops to 3.1% in blue mussels but only from 1.2% in Dungeness crab to 1.3% in pink shrimp. The mineral content was highly variable; the mineral content of Northwest samples tended to be lower than that reported in other studies. Generally, shellfish are good sources of zinc, and Pacific oysters, blue mussels, and Manila clams are also good sources of iron. Five fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3) represented from 60% to 84% of the fatty acid content. Palmitic acid ranged from 13% to 32% of the total fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant (37.6% to 54.3%), with sea scallops containing more than 50%; n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 1.5% to 6.5%. In crustacea, cholesterol was the primary sterol, and brassicasterol was the only other measurable sterol. In all mollusca except California squid, cholesterol averaged 37 mg/100 gm and ranged from 23% to 39% of the total sterols. In squid, cholesterol, at 231 mg/100 gm, was the only measurable sterol. We conclude that shellfish vary widely in their nutrient content but, in general, are valuable additions to the diet. PMID:2335682

King, I; Childs, M T; Dorsett, C; Ostrander, J G; Monsen, E R

1990-05-01

86

Probabilistic dietary exposure to phycotoxins in a recreational shellfish harvester subpopulation (France).  

PubMed

Phycotoxins, secondary phytoplankton metabolites, are considered as an important food safety issue because their accumulation by shellfish may render them unfit for human consumption. However, the likely intakes of phycotoxins via shellfish consumption are almost unknown because both contamination and consumption data are very scarce. Thus, two 1-year surveys were conducted (through the same population: recreational shellfish harvesters and from the same geographical area) to assess: shellfish consumption and contamination by major toxins (domoic acid (DA) group, okadaic acid (OA) group and spirolides (SPXs)). Recreational shellfish harvesters had been targeted as an at-risk subpopulation because they consume more shellfish than general population and because they eat not only commercial shellfish species controlled by official authorities but also their own harvests of shellfish species may be in non-controlled areas and more over shellfish species non-considered in the official control species. Then, these two kinds of data were combined with deterministic and probabilistic approaches for both acute and chronic exposures, on considering the impact of shellfish species and cooking on phycotoxin levels. For acute risk, monitoring programs seem to be adequate for DAs, whereas OAs could be a matter of concern for high consumers (their acute intakes were up to ninefold the acute reference dose (ARfD)). About chronic risk, OAs are a matter of concern. The daily OAs intakes were close to the ARfD, which is, by definition, greater than the tolerable daily intake. Moreover, SPX contamination is low but regular, no (sub)chronic SPX toxicity data exist; but in case of (sub)chronic toxicity, SPX exposure should be considered. PMID:22760440

Picot, Cyndie; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Roudot, Alain-Claude

2013-07-01

87

An RNA extraction protocol for shellfish-borne viruses.  

PubMed

The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV-1), and the norovirus surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV) strain KCD, for the purpose of RT-PCR detection within seeded oyster (Crassostrea virginica) extracts. The RT-PCR equivalent sensitivities observed within seeded oysters as compared to virus stocks were 0.68, 6.8, 26, 5.6, and 14.5 RT-PCR(50) units when assaying 10% of total RNA extracted from seeded oyster extracts for CAV9, CBV5, AiV, FCV, and MNV-1, respectively. For oysters exposed to virus-contaminated seawater, the detection equivalent sensitivities observed were 680, 68, 2600, 560, and 14.5 RT-PCR(50) for CAV9, CBV5, AiV and FCV, and MNV-1, respectively. These results indicate that the GPTT method can be used as a general viral RNA extraction method for multiple picornaviruses and caliciviruses that could potentially contaminate shellfish. PMID:17184849

Kingsley, David H

2007-04-01

88

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

2008-01-01

89

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.  

PubMed

A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP. PMID:17465121

La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-09-01

90

The presence of genogroup II norovirus in retail shellfish from seven coastal cities in China.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are commonly occurring pathogens that cause gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of viral diseases have often been ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Our objective was to evaluate the presence and contamination levels of NoV in shellfish sold at seafood markets in China. We tested 840 shellfish samples (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Azumapecten farreri, SinoNoVacula constricta, Scapharca subcrenata, Ruditapes philippinarum) that were collected from seven cities around the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China between December 2009 and November 2011. We used real-time RT-PCR to detect NoV in purified concentrates from the stomach and digestive diverticula of these shellfish. NoV was detected in 19.35 % (N = 155), 16.67 % (N = 114), 5.70 % (N = 158), 8.82 % (N = 136), 13.74 % (N = 131), and 16.44 % (N = 146) of oyster, mussel, scallop, razor clam, ark shell, and clam samples, respectively. The average detection rate was 13.33 % (112/840). Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.12, except two that belonged to GI.3. More than 10² copies of the NoV genome were detected in 69 of 112 positive shellfish samples. Our results suggest that ~13 % of shellfish harbor NoV, and GII.12 NoV is the primary strain in shellfish purchased at markets in seven coastal cities in China. PMID:23412724

Ma, Li-ping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Li, Xin-guang; Zhou, De-qing; Zhang, Rui-ling

2013-06-01

91

Shellfish Disease in Aquaculture: Scientists, Managers, and Growers Take on the Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Two if by Sea" newsletter article highlights proceedings from a workshop in 2000 that focused on shellfish disease, particularly as it relates to the aquaculture industry. Speakers, including pathologists, growers, and industry representatives, delivered a recurring message: shellfish diseases are not only here, they are here to stay. And, most likely, they concur, additional diseases will be discovered in the future. The article discusses the following shellfish diseases: MSX (multinucleated sphere unknown), dermo (short for Dermocystidium marinus, the initial classification of the parasite that causes the disease; the parasite was later found to be of the genus Perkinsus), JOD (juvenile oyster disease), and QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown).

Crago, Tracey; Two if by Sea; MIT and WHOI SeaGrant Programs

92

Determination and confirmation of the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, domoic acid, in shellfish from Scotland by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

During 1998 and early 1999, shellfish samples from sites in Scotland were found to contain the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, domoic acid (DA). Two different techniques, liquid chromatography (LC) with UV diode-array detection and LC with mass spectrometric (MS) detection, were used to detect and confirm DA in shellfish extracts. The LC/UV method was validated for routine monitoring by recovery experiments on spiked mussel and scallop tissues with a certified mussel tissue used as reference material. Crude extracts of selected samples as well as extracts cleaned with strong anion exchange (SAX) were analyzed by both LC/UV and LC/MS. Good correlation (linear regression r2 = 0.996, slope = 0.93) between the 2 methods was found for cleaned extracts. Analyses of crude extracts by LC/UV produced false-positive results in 2 crab samples, whereas LC/MS analyses gave accurate results. It was concluded that LC/UV is a valid approach for routine monitoring of DA in shellfish when cleanup is performed with a SAX cartridge to prevent false positives. A variety of shellfish species were surveyed for DA content, including Pecten maximus (king scallops), Chlamys opercularis (queen scallop), Mytilus edulis (blue mussels), Cancer pugaris (crab), and Ensis ensis (razor fish). The highest concentration of DA was 105 microg/g in Pecten maximus. PMID:11601489

Hess, P; Gallacher, S; Bates, L A; Brown, N; Quilliam, M A

2001-01-01

93

Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shellfish extracts.  

PubMed

In October of 1996, a Gymnodinium breve bloom occurred in shellfish harvesting waters of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, USA. Bloom densities reached 5.6x10(5) cells liter(-1) and bloom residence at shellfish sampling stations ranged from 3 to 28 days. Brevetoxin-2 dominated G. breve toxin profiles in bloom seawater extracts. Shellfish toxicity, assessed by mouse bioassay, exceeded the guidance level for up to 75 days after the bloom had dissipated. Cytotoxicity assays and mouse bioassays showed similar temporal patterns of shellfish toxicity, but the two methods differed in estimations of brevetoxin-3 equivalent toxicity by a factor of 93 to 1. LC-ESI-MS showed the temporal patterns in shellfish toxicity reflected metabolism of G. breve toxins. The molecular ions m/z 1004, 1017 and 1033 dominated LC-ESI-MS spectra of toxic chromatographic fractions from the extracts and were identified as brevetoxin metabolites on the basis of LC-APCI-MS-MS. The discrepancy between cytotoxicity and mouse bioassay estimates of brevetoxin-3 equivalent toxicity resulted from the difference in extraction efficiency of solvents used in the respective methods and the relative sensitivity of the assays to toxin metabolite mixtures present in the extracts. The normalized cytotoxicity assay showed 75% agreement with mouse bioassay positive test samples and 64% agreement with mouse bioassay negative test samples. Published in 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10797644

Dickey, R; Jester, E; Granade, R; Mowdy, D; Moncreiff, C; Rebarchik, D; Robl, M; Musser, S; Poli, M

1999-01-01

94

Risk Assessment in Shellfish-Borne Outbreaks of Hepatitis A?  

PubMed Central

In the present work, we aimed at determining the relationship between the hepatitis A virus (HAV) numbers in imported frozen coquina clams involved in two hepatitis outbreaks, as well as the risk for human health. Due to HAV unculturability, a standardized TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR controlling the virus/nucleic acid extraction and enzyme efficiencies was employed to figure the exposure dose for clams responsible for hepatitis cases. HAV numbers were then employed to figure the risk of infection based on a dose-response model for echovirus 12. The estimated risk of infection after consumption of lightly cooked clams matched actual attack rates. Our data show that prospective monitoring of bivalve samples may fail to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks, since HAV was detected in 44% of samples directly associated with cases but was undetectable in samples that were randomly collected from the importers and belonged to the same batches. A correlation was nevertheless observed between the prevalence of hepatitis A cases in the harvesting areas and positive HAV isolation in clams, which points to the need to identify and prevent hazards rather than relying on random sampling of finished products to ensure safety. However, when evidence shows that a critical limit of viral contamination has been exceeded in the potential sources of contamination discharging into the shellfish-growing beds, quantitative virological analysis addressing quality assurance and quality control requirements should be performed with the bivalves. This work provides the first evidence of accurate HAV levels in shellfish involved in outbreaks that could be of use for risk assessment purposes. PMID:19820160

Pinto, Rosa M.; Costafreda, M. Isabel; Bosch, Albert

2009-01-01

95

National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88  

SciTech Connect

Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

1988-07-01

96

Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

Flick, George J.

97

76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...e.g., water temperature, water salinity, season, and estuary water exchange...e.g., depth, temperature, water salinity, season) and shellfish sampled (e...substrate, water temperature, water salinity, season, species, and animal...

2011-10-20

98

Heavy Metal Monitoring Using Bivalved Shellfish from Zhejiang Coastal Waters, East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of culturing bivalved shellfish (including mussels, clams, oysters etc.), has increased in recent years, but\\u000a the consumption has been hampered both by high levels of heavy metals and toxic algae. The levels of heavy metals (Hg, Cd,\\u000a Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were determined in soft tissues of different shellfish from Zhejiang coastal waters, East China Sea. The

H. Huang; J. Y. Wu; J. H. Wu

2007-01-01

99

Recent domoic acid closures of shellfish harvest areas in Washington State inland waterways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, together with low concentrations of domoic acid (DA) in shellfish have been observed in Puget Sound, Washington State, since 1991. However, for the first time in September 2003, high-density blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia forced the closure of recreational, commercial, and tribal subsistence shellfish harvesting in Puget Sound. Here we report on the environmental conditions

Vera L. Trainer; William P. Cochlan; Aleta Erickson; Brian D. Bill; Frank H. Cox; Jerry A. Borchert; Kathi A. Lefebvre

2007-01-01

100

Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State  

PubMed Central

The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

2013-01-01

101

Chelal Characteristics and Foraging Behaviour of the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the morphological and mechanical characteristics of the chelae ofCallinectes sapidus, together with the predation techniques, handling times and prey size selection of this voracious predator when presented with marsh mussels,Geukensia demissa, or fiddler crabs,Uca pugilator, in laboratory aquaria.Callinectes sapidusis heterochelous but differences in claw size and mechanical advantage between male and female crabs are statistically indistinguishable. Handling

R. Seed; R. N. Hughes

1997-01-01

102

Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing  

PubMed Central

Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985–2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for designing efficient and effective shellfish monitoring programs along the GoM coast. PMID:23391892

Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C.; Borsuk, Mark E.

2013-01-01

103

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

104

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18  

SciTech Connect

Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

NONE

1995-05-01

105

Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

2013-01-01

106

Cluster analysis of toxins profile pattern as a tool for tracing shellfish contaminated with PSP-toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the most lethal biotoxin-induced diseases worldwide, which may pose serious public health threat and potential devastating economic damage on fisheries industry in the affected region(s). To prevent the importation of PSP contaminated shellfish to a community, detailed documentation on the supply chain and routine surveillance systems are, in principle, crucial measures to protect

Chun-Kwan Wong; Patricia Hung; Henry C. C. Ng; Siu-Yuen Lee; Kai-Man Kam

2011-01-01

107

The Indexes of Exvessel Prices table (to the right) presents the annual dockside price of fish and shellfish  

E-print Network

1982 for each of the following three categories: edible finfish, edible shellfish, and in- dustrial = 1982) 120 100 60 80 HANGE 20 40 INDEXCH 20 0 -20 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 YEAR Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish #12;81 Prices Species 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Groundfish, et

108

Formation of a volunteer harmful algal bloom network in British Columbia, Canada, following an outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada's first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

2013-01-01

109

Evaluation of mouse bioassay results in an inter-laboratory comparison for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inter-laboratory comparison of the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish was carried out among 25 Chinese laboratories to examine the overall performance for PSP testing in China, and to analyze the main factors affecting the performance of this method. The toxic scallop Patinopecten yessoensis collected from coast of Bohai Sea, China, was used as a test sample in the comparison study. The results were reported and evaluated using robust statistical methods. The z scores showed that 80%, 8%, and 12% of laboratories reported satisfactory results, unsatisfactory results, and questionable results, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that the PSP mouse bioassay is an appropriate method for screening and testing PSP toxicity in shellfish. However, it was found that the experience and skill of technicians, as well as the body weight and health status of mice being used significantly affected the accuracy of the method.

Cao, Jijuan; Zheng, Jiang; Yu, Bing; Wang, Qiuyan; Xu, Junyi; Li, Aifeng

2011-07-01

110

National estuarine inventory: Classified shellfish growing waters by estuary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report is the first in a series of reports that compile information on classified shellfish waters as an indicator of coliform bacteria pollution in the Nation's estuaries. Data for the report have been derived from the 1985 National Shellfish Register. Although the Register has provided consistent data on acreage of classified shellfish waters by state, use of it as a national water-quality indicator has been hindered because of the influence of factors other than water quality on classification. The report improves the 1985 Register data by: (1) reorganizing data into 92 estuaries on the East, West, and Gulf coasts that comprise the National Estuarine Inventory, and (2) correcting data for areas that were classified for reasons other than water quality.

Broutman, M.A.; Leonard, D.L.

1986-12-01

111

Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State  

PubMed Central

The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 ?g okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

2013-01-01

112

Oyster-associated hepatitis. Failure of shellfish certification programs to prevent outbreaks.  

PubMed

During October and November 1973, outbreaks of hepatitis A associated with consumption of raw oysters occurred in Houston and in Calhoun, Ga. The oysters implicated in both outbreaks had been harvested in two Louisiana bays. Although the bays had been contaminated with polluted Mississippi River water two months before the oysters were harvested, at the time of harvesting the bays met national sanitation standards for shellfish growing and were certified for oyster fishing. These epidemics raise serious questions about the adequacy of shellfish sanitation monitoring systems currently in use. PMID:1174151

Portnoy, B L; Mackowiak, P A; Caraway, C T; Walker, J A; McKinley, T W; Klein, C A

1975-09-01

113

Prevalence, co-occurrence, and predictive factors for musculoskeletal pain among shellfish gatherers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are to determine prevalence and co-occurrence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among shellfish gatherers\\u000a and its consequences for the use of medicine, health care, and sickness leave and to investigate predictive factors (sociodemographic,\\u000a lifestyle, comorbidity) of MSP in five anatomical areas (neck\\/shoulder\\/higher back, lower back, elbow\\/wrist\\/hand, hip\\/knee,\\u000a and leg\\/ankle\\/foot). Nine hundred twenty-nine shellfish gatherers (94% women)

Beatriz Rodríguez-Romero; Salvador Pita-Fernández; Isabel Raposo-Vidal; Teresa Seoane-Pillado

114

Age Determination Methods for Northwest Atlantic Species (of fish and shellfish)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fishery Biology Program of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center provides this resource to assist with age determination of fish and shellfish species from the Northwest Atlantic. Released in its current form in 1997, this resource represents the fruit of many years of accumulated expertise. Techniques for aging sixteen species of fish or shellfish are given here, based on growth marks in scales, otoliths, and shells. From Atlantic Butterfish through Yellowtail Flounder, these detailed descriptions and black-and-white images should be of valuable assistance to researchers.

Almeida, F. P.; Dery, L. M.; Penttila, J.; Sheehan, T. F.

1997-01-01

115

Interannual variability of Alexandrium fundyense abundance and shellfish toxicity in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six years of oceanographic surveys of Alexandrium fundyense concentrations in the Gulf of Maine are combined with shellfish toxicity records from coastal monitoring stations to assess covariations of these quantities on seasonal to interannual time scales. Annual mean gulf-wide cell abundance varies by less than one order of magnitude during the time interval examined (1993-2002). Fluctuations in gulf-wide annual mean cell abundance and shellfish toxicity are not related in a consistent manner. This suggests that interannual variations in toxicity may be regulated by transport and delivery of offshore cell populations, rather than the absolute abundance of the source populations themselves.

McGillicuddy, D. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Solow, A. R.; Townsend, D. W.

2005-09-01

116

From the Tides of Puget Sound to Your Plate: Northwest Shellfish  

E-print Network

(decaying matter on the ocean seafloor). Decaying plant matter reduces the level of oxygen in the water and mussels. Shellfish production requires a healthy, functioning ecosystem to provide safe water quality can improve water quality, species diversity, and habitat complexity. To enjoy the benefits

117

MANUFACTURING-PLANT FOOD SERVICES AS MARKETS FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH  

E-print Network

343 MANUFACTURING-PLANT FOOD SERVICES AS MARKETS FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director MANUFACTURING-PLANT FOOD SERVICES space. ACKNOWIEDGEMENTS This report is based on a survey of manufacturing- plant food services

118

A framework for modelling fish and shellfish responses to future climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollowed, A. B., Bond, N. A., Wilderbuer, T. K., Stockhausen, W. T., A'mar, Z. T., Beamish, R. J., Overland, J. E., and Schirripa, M. J. 2009. A framework for modelling fish and shellfish responses to future climate change. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 000-000. A framework is outlined for a unified approach to forecasting the implications of climate

Anne Babcock Hollowed; Nicholas A. Bond; Thomas K. Wilderbuer; William T. Stockhausen; Z. T. A'mar; Richard J. Beamish; James E. Overland; Michael J. Schirripa

2009-01-01

119

SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER  

E-print Network

SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE SUITABILITY WITHIN BAYLOR GROUNDS OF THE LOWER RAPPAHANNOCK RIVER FINAL, bathymetry, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) distribution, water quality, oyster rock, and land use Rappahannock River only. Results do not reflect conditions elsewhere in the Bay. The model results indicate

120

Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Bacterial Pathogen Vibrio sp. Strain B183  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain B183, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from shellfish that causes mortality in larval mariculture. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of its virulence mechanisms and add to our knowledge of Vibrio sp. diversity and evolution. PMID:25237023

Schott, Eric J.

2014-01-01

121

1982 Shellfish-Related Disease Outbreak in New York State: Agency Response and Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shellfish-related disease outbreak of 1982 and initial public and private response to the problem pose important policy issues for the state in inter-agency relationships, enforcement of common properties, and value of public health versus economic he...

M. Becker

1983-01-01

122

Economic Impacts of the Alaska Shellfish Fishery: An Input-Output Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was initiated in 1978 for the purpose of estimating the economic impacts of the Alaska shellfish fishery. Data from an earlier, bio-economic data base survey were augmented by other published and unpublished data to provide economic profiles of...

W. Butcher, J. Buteau, K. Hassenmiller, G. Petry, S. Staitieh

1981-01-01

123

Hard clam aquaculture is the largest and most valuable of the shellfish  

E-print Network

Hard clam aquaculture is the largest and most valuable of the shellfish aquaculture industries on the East Coast. It accounts for more than $50 million in economic value annually. Hard clams are bivalve or freshwater for an extend- ed period. Hard clams occur natural- ly all along the Atlantic coast from Nova

Florida, University of

124

MODELING FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico provide rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those that have been identified as economically and ecologically important. For the Mobile Bay estuary, we developed statistical models to relate distributions of individual species and sp...

125

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SHELLFISH PRODUCTION ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADOPTION OF INTEGRATED  

E-print Network

-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by Patrick Kitchen Bachelor of Arts with Distinction, McGill University, 2006 MANAGEMENT In the School of Resource and Environmental Management © Patrick Kitchen 2011 SIMON FRASER of Resource Management Report Number: 516 Title of Research Project: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SHELLFISH

126

Can general anaesthesia be used for the Paralytic Shellfish Poison bioassay?  

PubMed

The current method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) testing in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay (MBA), which involves injecting shellfish extract into a conscious mouse, and then converting its time to death into PSP toxicity using Sommer's table. To improve animal welfare, the present study investigated the use of anaesthesia. A saxitoxin (STX) calibration study was conducted where known amounts of STX were injected into both unanaesthetised and anaesthetised mice. Death time was approximately doubled when mice were anaesthetised. Both unanaesthetised and anaesthetised animals showed a linear relationship between the inverse death time and log(STX). Based on these data, new calibration curves were developed. This study revealed that the current method employing Sommer's table underestimates toxicity by up to 50% for higher toxin levels. Subsequently, shellfish samples were tested on both unanaesthetised and anaesthetised mice. Using the new calibration curves, the numbers of samples exceeding the field closure limit were similar for unanaesthetised and anaesthetised mice, and were nearly two-fold higher than those obtained with the current method. The studies showed that the bioassay gives variable results for both unanaesthetised and anaesthetised animals. Anaesthesia forms a viable and more ethical alternative to the current bioassay, at least in the short term. A practical summary on how to conduct this method is given. PMID:16427671

Holtrop, G; Petrie, J; McElhiney, J; Dennison, N

2006-03-01

127

TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONS (PSPS) USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The most significant harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin in terms of public health is commonly known as paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs, "red tides" toxins). PSPs are neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates and some cyanobacteria. PSPs comprise of over 21 natural toxins wi...

128

Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Crassostrea gigas and Pecten maximus reference materials.  

PubMed

Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted the benefits of post-production treatment to prolong the stability of the materials. Work is ongoing to assess the full characteristics of candidate reference materials prepared with these approaches with the aim of producing a homogenous and stable PSP reference material in Pacific oysters. PMID:22921579

Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A

2012-11-01

129

Potential risk assessment of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen, China.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr in 240 shellfish including oyster, short-necked clam, razor clam, and mud clam collected from six administrative regions in Xiamen of China were measured. The daily intakes of heavy metals through the consumption of shellfish were estimated based on both of the metal concentrations in shellfish and the consuming amounts of shellfish. In addition, the target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals in shellfish on human body. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in shellfish ranged at the following sequence: Cr > Cd > Pb > Hg. The concentrations of Hg and Pb in most samples were below the limits (0.3 mg kg(-1) for Hg and 0.5 mg kg(-1) for Pb) of national standard (GB 18406.4-2001) set in China. About 57 % of samples were found to contain more than 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Cd, in which the highest level was found in oyster from Xiangan with a value of 1.21 mg kg(-1). The average concentrations of Cd in oyster and mud clam samples were 0.338 and 0.369 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the samples of short-necked clam and razor clam. The highest concentration of Cr was found to present in short-necked clam from Jimei with a value of 10.4 mg kg(-1), but a mean value of 1.95 mg kg(-1) in all the shellfish was observed, and no significant difference was found among the different sampling regions. The calculated daily intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr through consuming the shellfish were 0.005, 0.122, 0.137, and 1.20 ?g kg(-1) day(-1), respectively, which accounted for 2.19, 3.42, 13.7, and 40.1 % of the corresponding tolerable limits suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The THQ values of the four metals were far below 1 for most samples, except for those of Cd and Cr in the four shellfish species with the mean values of 0.132 and 0.385, respectively. The highest THQ values of Cd were observed in the species of oyster (0.719) and mud clam (0.568). But the high THQ values of Cr observed in all the four species were derived from the applied reference dose (RfD) data of Cr(VI) due to the unavailable RfD value of total Cr. The results indicate that the intakes of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen of China do not present an appreciable hazard risk on human health, but attention should be paid to consuming those with relatively high THQ values, such as oyster, mud clam, and short-necked clam. PMID:23054773

Li, Jian; Huang, Zhiyong; Huang, Zhiyong Y; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hong

2013-05-01

130

RELATIONS OF FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS TO HABITAT AND WATER QUALITY IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Mobile Bay estuary provides rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those identified as economically and ecologically important. The National Estuary Program has focused on restoration of degraded estuarine habitat on which these species depend. To support this ...

131

Evidence that mortality from Vibrio vulnificus infection results from single strains among heterogeneous populations in shellfish.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the disease is caused by single or multiple strains found in molluscan shellfish, is unknown. In this work, we studied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of V. vulnificus strains isolated from blood and oysters associated with V. vulnificus disease. Results showed that ca. 10(3) V. vulnificus bacteria/gram of oyster and higher concentrations were associated with human infections and that a single V. vulnificus strain, evidenced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, was isolated from human tissues. PMID:9230389

Jackson, J K; Murphree, R L; Tamplin, M L

1997-08-01

132

Evidence that mortality from Vibrio vulnificus infection results from single strains among heterogeneous populations in shellfish.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the disease is caused by single or multiple strains found in molluscan shellfish, is unknown. In this work, we studied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of V. vulnificus strains isolated from blood and oysters associated with V. vulnificus disease. Results showed that ca. 10(3) V. vulnificus bacteria/gram of oyster and higher concentrations were associated with human infections and that a single V. vulnificus strain, evidenced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, was isolated from human tissues. PMID:9230389

Jackson, J K; Murphree, R L; Tamplin, M L

1997-01-01

133

Fatal Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) Nestlings, Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported. PMID:25098307

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Lance, Ellen W; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-10-01

134

The first identification of azaspiracids in shellfish from France and Spain.  

PubMed

Incidents of human intoxications throughout Europe, following the consumption of mussels have been attributed to Azaspiracid Poisoning (AZP). Although first discovered in Ireland, the search for the causative toxins, named azaspiracids, in other European countries has now led to the first discovery of these toxins in shellfish from France and Spain. Separation of the toxins, azaspiracid (AZA1) and analogues, AZA2 and AZA3, was achieved using isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled, via an electrospray ionisation source, to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Azaspiracids were identified in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), 0.24 microg/g, from Galicia, Spain, and scallops (Pecten maximus), 0.32 microg/g, from Brittany, France. Toxin profiles were similar to those found in the equivalent shellfish in Ireland in which AZA1 was the predominant toxin. PMID:12893067

Magdalena, Ana Braña; Lehane, Mary; Krys, Sophie; Fernández, Mariá Luisa; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

2003-07-01

135

A model for sustainable management of shellfish polyculture in coastal bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-species model for shellfish polyculture in coastal embayments is presented, and an application of the model to a test site (Sanggou Bay, Northern China) used for large-scale longline cultivation of the Chinese scallop Chlamys farreri, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the kelp Laminaria japonica is described.The model integrates a bay-scale ecological simulation with individual-based modelling of scallops and

J. P. Nunes; J. G. Ferreira; F. Gazeau; J. Lencart-Silva; X. L. Zhang; M. Y. Zhu; J. G. Fang

2003-01-01

136

Fish and Shellfish Consumption in Relation to Death from Myocardial Infarction among Men in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

consumed ?200 g of fish\\/shellfish per week had a relative risk of 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.78) for fatal acute myocardial infarction compared with men consuming <50 g per week. Similarly, dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids derived from seafood also was significantly associated with reduced mortality from myocardial infarction. Neither dietary seafood nor n-3 fatty acid intake was

Jian-Min Yuan; Ronald K. Ross; Yu-Tang Gao; Mimi C. Yu

137

Characterization of paralytic shellfish toxins in seawater and sardines ( Sardina pilchardus ) during blooms of Gymnodinium catenatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-emergence of Gymnodinum catenatum blooms after a 10 year hiatus of absence initiated the present investigation. This study aims to evaluate the exposure of\\u000a small pelagic fishes to paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) during blooms of G. catenatum. Sardines (Sardina pilchardus) were selected as a representative fish species. In order to assess toxin availability to fish, both intracellular PSTs (toxin\\u000a retained

Pedro Reis Costa; Maria João Botelho; Kathi A. Lefebvre

2010-01-01

138

Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.  

PubMed

In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 ?p.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT, lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (< 0.26 mg kg-1) or mercury (< 0.003 mg kg-1), has had some non-compliances. Detections for PCBs and dioxins in shellfish were far below the regulatory thresholds in oysters (< 0.6 pg g-l), mussels (< 0.6 pg g-1), and king scallops (< 0.4 pg g-1). The benzo[a]pyrene concentration in marketed mussels and farmed shellfish does not exceed the regulatory threshold. Some monitoring data are available on shellfish flesh contamination for unregulated organic contaminants.Of about 100 existing organo stannic compounds, residues of the mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT) and mono-, di-, and triphenyltin (MPT, DPT,and TPT) compounds are the most frequently detected in fishery products. Octyltins are not found in fishery products. Some bivalve mollusks show arsenic levels up to 15.8 mg kg-1. It seems that the levels of arsenic in the environment derive less from bioaccumulation, than from whether the arsenic is in an organic or an inorganic form. In regard to the other metals, levels of zinc and magnesium are higher in oysters than in mussels.To protect shellfish from chemical contamination, programs have been established to monitor water masses along coastal areas. The French monitoring network(ROCCH) focuses on environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and ha

Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

139

Sediment bacterial indicators in an urban shellfishing subestuary of the lower Chesapeake Bay.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to document the spatial and temporal distributions and compositions of bacteria in the sediments and overlying waters of an important urban shellfishing area in the lower Chesapeake Bay region, the Lynnhaven Estuary. Marked fluctuations were observed in the date of many of the physicochemical parameters and the indicator bacteria. The higher-salinity water and coarser sediment of the inlet site showed lower overall bacterial densities than did the headwater sites, where freshwater runoff and decreased tidal action were characteristic. Densities of benthic indicator bacteria, when expressed on a volumetric basis, were significantly greater than counts in the overlying waters. These counts were indicative of a fecally polluted system and were well above the safe maximum limits for shellfish-growing waters. Significantly fewer total and fecal bacteria were observed in both the water and the sediment during the warm months of May, July, and August. The primary sources of the Lynnhaven's bacterial pollution appeared to be typical of urban and agricultural runoff, although failure of septic tank systems was suspected as a problem in the Lynnhaven's western branch. These results illustrated that sediments in shellfishing areas could serve as a reservoir for high densities of indicator bacteria and that, potentially, pathogens could pose a health hazard. PMID:7294785

Erkenbrecher, C W

1981-09-01

140

Sediment bacterial indicators in an urban shellfishing subestuary of the lower Chesapeake Bay.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to document the spatial and temporal distributions and compositions of bacteria in the sediments and overlying waters of an important urban shellfishing area in the lower Chesapeake Bay region, the Lynnhaven Estuary. Marked fluctuations were observed in the date of many of the physicochemical parameters and the indicator bacteria. The higher-salinity water and coarser sediment of the inlet site showed lower overall bacterial densities than did the headwater sites, where freshwater runoff and decreased tidal action were characteristic. Densities of benthic indicator bacteria, when expressed on a volumetric basis, were significantly greater than counts in the overlying waters. These counts were indicative of a fecally polluted system and were well above the safe maximum limits for shellfish-growing waters. Significantly fewer total and fecal bacteria were observed in both the water and the sediment during the warm months of May, July, and August. The primary sources of the Lynnhaven's bacterial pollution appeared to be typical of urban and agricultural runoff, although failure of septic tank systems was suspected as a problem in the Lynnhaven's western branch. These results illustrated that sediments in shellfishing areas could serve as a reservoir for high densities of indicator bacteria and that, potentially, pathogens could pose a health hazard. PMID:7294785

Erkenbrecher, C W

1981-01-01

141

Application of the Pearl model to analyze fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas in seven Texas bays.  

PubMed

The U.S. National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) 14/43 standard states that conditionally approved shellfish growing areas must be closed for harvest when the geometric mean of fecal coliform concentration exceeds the NSSP limit of 14 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL, or the estimated 90th percentile of fecal coliform concentrations exceeds 43 MPN/100 mL for a five-tube test. The authors hypothesized that the NSSP 14/43 standard is not sufficient to protect the public from risks from consumption of biologically contaminated shellfish and the standard should be modified to 8/26 MPN/100 mL. To verify this hypothesis, the authors analyzed fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas of seven Texas bays using the Pearl sanitation model. Results showed that the shellfish closure rules mandated by the Texas Department of State Health Services actually enforced the "Pearl" limits of 8/26 MPN/100 mL, and not the NSSP limit of 14/43 MPN/100 mL. PMID:25226781

Conte, F S; Ahmadi, A

2014-09-01

142

Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro-  

E-print Network

Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries Shellfish Algae Diet is a commercially available, super-concentrated mix of four marine micro- algae that provide a nutritional profile for shellfish. Although the algal cells are intact, the algae are not alive. The diet does not contain

Florida, University of

143

The ecological role of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the estuarine environment: A review with application to oyster and clam culture in West Coast (USA) estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture is viewed as a potential mechanism to meet the growing demand for seafood around the world. The future of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the U.S. hinges on sustainable practices on the part of industry and a more consistent regulatory regime. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture is a recent practice relative to its history in other countries, beginning in the late 1800s

Brett R. Dumbauld; Jennifer L. Ruesink; Steven S. Rumrill

2009-01-01

144

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

145

Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.  

PubMed Central

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

1997-01-01

146

Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.  

PubMed

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

1997-08-01

147

Evidence for production of paralytic shellfish toxins by bacteria associated with Alexandrium spp. (Dinophyta) in culture.  

PubMed Central

A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed. The chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins by pre- and postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and enzyme immunoassay. PMID:9065273

Gallacher, S; Flynn, K J; Franco, J M; Brueggemann, E E; Hines, H B

1997-01-01

148

Cluster analysis of toxins profile pattern as a tool for tracing shellfish contaminated with PSP-toxins.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the most lethal biotoxin-induced diseases worldwide, which may pose serious public health threat and potential devastating economic damage on fisheries industry in the affected region(s). To prevent the importation of PSP contaminated shellfish to a community, detailed documentation on the supply chain and routine surveillance systems are, in principle, crucial measures to protect people from this intoxication. However, difficulties have always been encountered on the traceability of the source/origin of contaminated shellfish. In the present study, we reported the potential application of PSP-toxins profiles with similarity analysis that can be used to identify epidemiological linkage between shellfish samples collected from markets and patients during a PSP outbreak. PSP-toxins were identified and quantified by ion-pair chromatographic separation followed by post-column oxidation to fluorescent imino purine derivatives. Samples from a PSP incident and other surveillance samples collected in our past 7-year record were also compared for their similarity in PSP-toxins profiles patterns. Molar distributions (nmol%) of 10 PSP-toxins were analyzed by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetric averages (UPGMA). Three prominent clusters emerged with similarity levels reaching over 80% for each, suggesting that each group of samples probably originated from a same source/batch. The PSP-toxins profiles and toxicities determined from surveillance samples could provide premonitory clues on the occurrences of PSP incident and outbreak with corresponding toxin profiles in the later time. Due to species-specific characteristics of PSP-toxins composition and profile in shellfish under varieties of environmental and physiological conditions, PSP-toxins profile can be a specific and useful biochemical indicator for tracing PSP contaminated shellfish provided that spatio-temporal occurrence patterns of toxins profiles are available in a databank for inter-laboratory comparison and standardized methodologies such as consentaneous toxins extraction and identification criteria are used for analysis and comparison. PMID:21777914

Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Ng, Henry C C; Lee, Siu-Yuen; Kam, Kai-Man

2011-11-01

149

Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a mini?m of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption using the mouse bioassay (MBA) prior to its introduction into commerce. This paper presents data from the pilot study, with primary focus on the advantages and challenges of the field kits employed onboard compared to the dockside MBA, which has served as the longstanding regulatory method for PSP toxins. In 2010 alone, the successful pilot study resulted in the safe harvest of over 2.7 million worth of surfclams in an area that has otherwise been unavailable for decades. Due to the success of this pilot study, the Protocol was adopted into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program Model Ordinance as an approved marine biotoxin control strategy for use in federal waters at the 2011 ISSC Biennial Meeting. In January 2013 a portion of Georges Bank was reopened for the harvest of Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs to fishermen following the Protocol.

DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

2014-05-01

150

Diarrheic shellfish poisoning due to toxic mussel consumption: the first recorded outbreak in Greece.  

PubMed

During the week of 14-20 January 2000, 120 people visited the Emergency Departments of hospitals in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, complaining of acute gastrointestinal illness after eating mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The symptoms indicated diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning, and the toxicity of mussels harvested from Thermaikos Gulf in Thessaloniki during the outbreak was investigated using mouse bioassays. The bioassays revealed toxicity to mice by the mussel samples; while high numbers of toxic algae Dinophysis acuminata were identified in water samples from Thermaikos Gulf. The harvesting of mussels was immediately suspended and a monitoring programme for algal blooms was established from then onwards. During a follow-up of the mussels' toxicity from January 2000 to January 2005, two more mussel samples were found positive for diarrheic shellfish poisoning: one harvested in March 2001 from the area of the outbreak (Thermaikos Gulf) and the other harvested in January 2001 from Amvrakikos Gulf in north-western Greece. However, no sporadic cases or outbreaks were reported during this period. PMID:17364933

Economou, V; Papadopoulou, C; Brett, M; Kansouzidou, A; Charalabopoulos, K; Filioussis, G; Seferiadis, K

2007-03-01

151

Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish  

PubMed Central

From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week?1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559

Pizarro, Gemita; Morono, Angeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, Jose M.; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz

2013-01-01

152

Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.  

PubMed

Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

2009-09-01

153

[Paralytic shellfish poisoning by Spondylus calcifer contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense, Costa Rica, 1989-1990].  

PubMed

This paper describes an outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), affecting human populations on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica in October 1989. Numbness in arms, face and legs occurred 30 to 45 minutes after ingestion of the large clam Spondylus calcifer. Paralysis of legs and respiratory symptoms followed, often persisting for one week. Large amounts of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense were found in the intestine of the mollusk. A toxin was detected in crude or filtered and heated macerates of intestine, muscle, mantle and hepatopancreas of S. calcifer, and to a lesser extent Tagelus sp., by injection of its crude or diluted extracts in white mice. The effects in mice consisted in paralysis and asphyxia generally leading to death in less than 5 minutes, compatible with saxitoxin. Mice were killed by the toxin in macerates diluted 1:100 to 1:1000. No toxin was detected in Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia) or in peneids. Prevention rests on intersectoral actions between state and private sectors in charge of fishing, distribution and marketing of shellfish, as well as on education of the population at large. PMID:2093952

Mata, L; Abarca, G; Marranghello, L; Víquez, R

1990-06-01

154

Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.  

PubMed

The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

2014-11-01

155

A survey on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on fish and shellfish, marketed in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on fish and shellfish, as sold in The Netherlands.THE OPTIMAL MODE OF DETECTION OF THIS BACTERIUM APPEARED TO BE: (i) enrichment of swabs taken from the surface and the gills in freshly prepared meat broth with 5% NaCl; (ii) streaking onto Teepol bromothymol blue agar (BTB) and taurocholate bromothymol blue sucrose agar (TCBS); (iii) confirmation of suspect colonies by testing for mode of growth in butts/slants of a Kligler type glucose sucrose iron thiosulphate agar, formation of indole in 2% NaCl 2% trypticase water, anaerobic utilization of starch in the presence of 5% NaCl and oxidase reaction according to Kovacs (1956).A total of 407 samples, stemming from 17 types of fish and shellfish, taken at three fish shops, was examined by this technique. Only one specimen, i.e. a haddock, was found to contain V. parahaemolyticus. This contamination rate of approximately 0.3% correlates well with data found earlier for fish landed in Northern Germany. PMID:5270202

Kampelmacher, E H; Mossel, D A; Van Noorle Jansen, L M; Vincentie, H

1970-06-01

156

Bioaccumulation efficiency, tissue distribution, and environmental occurrence of hepatitis E virus in bivalve shellfish from France.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

2014-07-01

157

The development of reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in lyophilized mussel. II: Certification study.  

PubMed

This paper describes the second part of a project undertaken to develop certified mussel reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. In the first part two interlaboratory studies were undertaken to investigate the performance of the analytical methodology for several PSP toxins, in particular saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin in lyophilized mussels, and to set criteria for the acceptance of results to be applied during the certification exercise. Fifteen laboratories participated in this certification study and were asked to measure saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin in rehydrated lyophilized mussel material and in a saxitoxin-enriched mussel material. The participants were allowed to use a method of their choice but with an extraction procedure to be strictly followed. The study included extra experiments to verify the detection limits for both saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin. Most participants (13 of 15) were able to meet all the criteria set for the certification study. Results for saxitoxin.2HCl yielded a certified mass fraction of <0.07 mg/kg in the rehydrated lyophilized mussels. Results obtained for decarbamoyl-saxitoxin.2HCl yielded a certified mass fraction of 1.59+/-0.20 mg/kg. The results for saxitoxin.2HCl in enriched blank mussel yielded a certified mass fraction of 0.48 +/- 0.06 mg/kg. These certified reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in lyophilized mussel material are the first available for laboratories to test their method for accuracy and performance. PMID:11552748

van den Top, H J; Boenke, A; Burdaspal, P A; Bustos, J; van Egmond, H P; Legarda, T; Mesego, A; Mouriño, A; Paulsch, W E; Salgado, C

2001-09-01

158

[Towards a dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen, shellfish gatherers and environmental labor law].  

PubMed

The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers. PMID:25272110

Carvalho, Ingrid Gil Sales; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Larrea-Killinger, Cristina; Rocha, Júlio César de Sá da; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Machado, Louise Oliveira Ramos

2014-10-01

159

Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

1992-07-01

160

Evaluation of PCR Amplification-based Detection of Heat-killed Escherichia coli and Cell-free DNA in Shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of E. coli is a useful indicator of fecal contamination in estuarine shellfish. Polymerase chain reaction using primers for uidA were used to detect DNA released from dead E. coli cells and from heat- killed cells in seeded oyster tissue homogenate. Two different methodologies were adopted for DNA extraction from the seeded oyster homogenate: Chelex™ 100 method and a

Cynthia Brasher; Gitika Panicker; Asim K. Bej

2002-01-01

161

The effect of commercial processing on the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) content of naturally?contaminated Acanthocardia tuberculatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to determine if any reduction in contamination of Acanthocardia tuberculatum L. (Mediterranean cockle) by paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) could be enhanced by operations carried out during the industrial canning process, allowing contaminated raw material to be commercially marketed in safe conditions for edible purposes. A general decrease in PSP levels was consistently observed when comparing raw

J. A. Berenguer; L. Gonzalez; I. Jimenez; T. M. Legarda; J. B. Olmedo; P. A. Burdaspal

1993-01-01

162

The development of reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in lyophilized mussel. I: Interlaboratory studies of methods of analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first part of a project undertaken to develop mussel reference materials for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins. Two interlaboratory studies were undertaken to investigate the performance of the analytical methodology for several PSP toxins, in particular saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dc-STX) in lyophilized mussels, and to set criteria for the acceptance of results to be applied

H. J. Van Den Top; A. Boenke; P. A. Burdaspal; J. Bustos; H. P. Van Egmond; T. Legarda; A. Mesego; A. Mouriño; W. E. Paulsch; C. Salgado

2000-01-01

163

The Indexes of Exvessel Prices table (to the right) presents the annual dockside price of fish and shellfish  

E-print Network

in the exvessel price index since 1982 for each of the following three categories: edible finfish, edible 2008 2009 2010 IND YEAR Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish #12;81 Prices Species 2004 2005 513 134 133 Total tuna 115 99 106 108 303 113 134 Total edible finfish 49 51 55 62 90 79 92 Clams

164

Norovirus gastroenteritis general outbreak associated with raw shellfish consumption in South Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses") being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about strains circulating in Italy. In April 2002 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in the province of Bari (South-east Italy), involving several households. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed in order to assess risk factors associated with illness. All households where a case occurred were included in the study. Faecal specimens were collected from ill individuals. NV-specific RT-PCR was performed. Eleven samples of mussels were collected from fish-markets involved in the outbreak. A nested PCR was used for mussel samples. Results One hundred and three cases, detected by means of active surveillance, met the case definition. Raw shellfish eating was the principal risk factor for the disease, as indicated by the analytic issues (Risk Ratio: 1.50; IC 95%: 1.18 – 1.89; p < 0.001). NVs were found by means of RT-PCR of all the stool specimens from the 24 patients tested. Eleven samples of shellfish from local markets were tested for the presence or NVs; six were positive by nested PCR and genotypes were related to that found in patients' stools. Conclusion This is the first community outbreak caused by NVs related to sea-food consumption described in Italy. The study confirms that the present standards for human faecal contamination do not seem to be a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels. PMID:15383150

Prato, Rosa; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Chironna, Maria; Barbuti, Giovanna; Germinario, Cinzia; Quarto, Michele

2004-01-01

165

Investigation of Toxoplasma gondii presence in farmed shellfish by nested-PCR and real-time PCR fluorescent amplicon generation assay (FLAG).  

PubMed

To evaluate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in edible farmed shellfish, 1734 shellfish specimens i.e., 109 Crassostrea gigas (6 pools), 660 Mytilus galloprovincialis (22 pools), 804 Tapes decussatus (28 pools) and 161 Tapes philippinarum (6 pools), were collected from the Varano Lagoon (Apulia, Italy). Shellfish from 62 pools were subjected to two molecular techniques: a nested-PCR assay, and a fluorescent amplicon generation (FLAG) real-time PCR assay, both based on the multi-copy B1 target, were performed. One pooled sample of gills from C. gigas and one pooled sample of haemolymphs from T. decussatus were assessed as positive for T. gondii DNA by both techniques. The results demonstrated the presence of T. gondii in edible farmed C. gigas and T. decussatus and indicate that there may be a considerable health threat involved in eating contaminated raw shellfish. PMID:20920501

Putignani, L; Mancinelli, L; Del Chierico, F; Menichella, D; Adlerstein, D; Angelici, M C; Marangi, M; Berrilli, F; Caffara, M; di Regalbono, D A Frangipane; Giangaspero, A

2011-02-01

166

Impact of heat processing on the detection of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin in crustaceans and molluscs using specific monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. PMID:23993581

Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L

2013-12-15

167

Most-probable-number loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based procedure enhanced with K antigen-specific immunomagnetic separation for quantifying tdh(+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Molluscan Shellfish.  

PubMed

Although thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (tdh(+)) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, the enumeration of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus remains challenging due to its low densities in the environment. In this study, we developed a most-probable-number (MPN)-based procedure designated A-IS(1)-LAMP, in which an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique targeting as many as 69 established K antigens and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were applied in an MPN format. Our IMS employed PickPen, an eight-channel intrasolution magnetic particle separation device, which enabled a straightforward microtiter plate-based IMS procedure (designated as PickPen-IMS). The ability of the procedure to quantify a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels was evaluated by testing shellfish samples in Japan and southern Thailand, where shellfish products are known to contain relatively low and high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The Japanese and Thai shellfish samples showed, respectively, relatively low (< 3 to 11 MPN/10 g) and considerably higher (930 to 110,000 MPN/10 g) levels of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, raising concern about the safety of Thai shellfish products sold to domestic consumers at local morning markets. LAMP showed similar or higher performance than conventional PCR in the detection and quantification of a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. Whereas a positive effect of PickPen-IMS was not observed in MPN determination, PickPen-IMS was able to concentrate tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus 32-fold on average from the Japanese shellfish samples at an individual tube level, suggesting a possibility of using PickPen-IMS as an optional tool for specific shellfish samples. The A-IS(1)-LAMP procedure can be used by any health authority in the world to measure the tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. PMID:24988012

Tanaka, Natsuko; Iwade, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Wataru; Gondaira, Fumio; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2014-07-01

168

Residue levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in shellfish from coastal areas of east Xiamen Island and Minjiang Estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shellfish samples were collected from the coastal cultivating areas of east Xiamen Island and Minjing Estuary, China and analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by GC. Concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the coastal area of east Xiamen Island were 0.18–345, 75.2–2143 and ND-23 ngg?1 dry wt., respectively; those for Minjiang Estuary were ND-5.07, 21.5–2396

Weiqi Chen; Luoping Zhang; Li Xu; Xinhong Wang; Liyu Hong; Huasheng Hong

2002-01-01

169

Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion  

PubMed Central

Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year -1 (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation for strong measures to prevent, monitor, and manage the possible invasion of C. maenas.

Mach, Megan E; Chan, Kai MA

2014-01-01

170

Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

171

Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

2014-05-01

172

Effect of ozonation and ?-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use of various detoxification methodologies that should be rapid, efficient, easy to apply, and will not alter the quality and sensory properties of shellfish. In the present study, both ozonation (15 mg kg(-1) for 6 h) and ?-irradiation (6 kGy) were utilised in order to reduce the toxin content of contaminated shucked mussels, collected during the DSP episodes of 2007 and 2009 in Greece. DSP toxicity was monitored using the mouse bioassay (MBA) whilst the determination of toxin content of the okadaic acid (OA) group (both free and esterified forms) was carried out by LC/MS/MS analysis. Toxin reduction using ?-irradiation was in the range of 12-36%, 8-53% and 10-41% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. The appearance and texture of irradiated mussels deteriorated, pointing to a low potential for commercial use of this method. Ozonation of mussels resulted in toxin reduction in the range of 6-100%, 25-83% and 21-66% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. Reduction of OA content was substantially higher in homogenised mussel tissue compared with that of whole shucked mussels. In addition, differences detected with regard to quality parameters (TBA, sensory attributes) between ozonated and control mussels were not considerable. Even though varying percentage reductions in OA and its derivatives were achieved using ozonation under specific experimental conditions tested, it is postulated that upon optimisation ozonation may have the potential for post-harvest commercial DSP detoxification of shucked mussels. PMID:21985774

Louppis, A P; Katikou, P; Georgantelis, D; Badeka, A V; Kontominas, M G

2011-12-01

173

Effects of induced paralysis on hemocytes and tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop by paralyzing shellfish poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, bivalves are not affected by exposure to toxic dinoflagellates that produce paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSP).\\u000a After injection with PSP extracted from the Gymnodinium catenatum, Nodipecten subnodosus is paralyzed, indicating that PSP provokes effects similar to what is observed in vertebrates, including paralysis and metabolic\\u000a stress. To investigate the processes involved in poisoning by PSP, lions-paw scallops were injected

Norma Estrada; Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo; Gerardo Contreras; Felipe Ascencio

2010-01-01

174

Seston dynamics in a tidal inlet with shellfish aquaculture: a model study using tracer equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process-oriented modelling study is used to examine biophysical control of the distribution of particulate organic matter, or seston, in a tidal embayment with shellfish aquaculture. The focus is on the spatio-temporal dynamics of seston as influenced by the processes of water motion and mixing, internal primary production of seston, and the clearance of the water volume by the grazing activity of a large bivalve population. A fluid dynamical framework is used wherein seston is treated as a non-conservative tracer in an advection-diffusion equation with additional source and sink terms. An idealized one-dimensional (1D) tidal inlet is first used to examine the sensitivity of tidally averaged seston concentration and flux to variations in tidal transport, internal production, and shellfish grazing. This model is then applied to Tracadie Bay, a tidal inlet off Canada's east coast, to illustrate temporal variability in seston level and flux for a more complex tidal regime. The results of this study suggest that seston flux is mainly under physical control, with its spatial distribution set by tidal transport processes. Seston level, on the other hand, is affected by both grazing and production, with the magnitude of these effects being spatially dependent as dictated by the tidal currents. Grazing and production effects on seston are most pronounced near the head of the inlet, which depends on internal, or local, processes. More seaward areas are buffered against these changes due the advection of seston from the adjacent open ocean. Variation in the spatial distribution of grazing activity demonstrates how local processes have inlet-wide effects. The temporal response of the inlet to tidal changes in the incoming far-field seston flux resembles a low-pass filter with a phase lag; temporal changes in seston at the head of the inlet are highly dampened and occur later than the forcing flux at the mouth. The implications of these results for marine bivalve aquaculture in terms of growth potential (seston level) and carrying capacity (seston flux) are discussed.

Dowd, Michael

2003-06-01

175

Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

2014-12-01

176

Influence of upwelling relaxation on dinoflagellates and shellfish toxicity in Ria de Vigo, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) along the north-west coast of Spain have become a serious threat to the extensive mussel farming industry in that region over the last decade. During the summer, high phytoplankton productivity is supported by the sustained upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water into the rias. An episode of PSP in the autumn of 1985 in Ria de Vigo coincided with the sudden appearance, rapid numerical increase, and dominance of two chain-forming dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium catenatum and Protogonyaulax affinis. Field data suggest that warm offshore surface water was transported into the ria as the summer upwelling ceased. This occurred when winds changed from northerly (upwelling favourable) to southerly or westerly (upwelling unfavourable); the injected water contained established populations of oceanic and neritic dinoflagellates. The simultaneous appearance and dominance of two dinoflagellates that form long chains leads us to speculate that the small-scale downwelling of water within the ria favoured efficient swimmers among the phytoplankton. These data not only implicate these two species as possible sources of the PSP toxins in local mussels, but they also suggest the feasibility of developing a bloom prediction capability for some dinoflagellate species based in part on an upwelling index that can indicate when offshore surface waters might be forced into the rias.

Fraga, Santiago; Anderson, Donald M.; Bravo, Isabel; Reguera, Beatriz; Steidinger, Karen A.; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1988-10-01

177

Novel chlorinated terphenyls in sediments and shellfish of an estuarine environment  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and have been used in analogous applications. Aroclor 5432, a PCT formulation whose congeners contain predominantly two to five chlorines, was detected in sediments and oysters from a saltmarsh creek and an adjacent Chesapeake Bay tributary, Back River. Reports of the occurrence of Aroclor 5432 are virtually nonexistent, although sporadic reports of the more highly chlorinated PCT formulation Aroclor 5460 have been published. Capillary gas chromatography with electrolytic conductivity detection was used for quantitation. Identifications were confirmed by both electron ionization and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Sediment concentrations detected were as high as 250,000 {mu}g/kg (dry-weight basis). Oysters collected from these areas contained up to 35,000 {mu}g/kg. This value is equivalent to 6,300 {mu}g/kg, on a wet-weight basis, and exceeds the applicable US limit for PCBs in edible shellfish by more than a factor of 3.

Hale, R.C.; Greaves, J.; Gallagher, K.; Vadas, G.G. (Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point (USA))

1990-11-01

178

Metal concentrations in Maryland`s shellfish: 1970s--1990s  

SciTech Connect

Maryland has been monitoring arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc in bivalve shellfish from state waters since the 1960s. The primary bivalve species monitored in Maryland waters are the oyster, Crassostrea virginica and the softshell clam, Mya arenaria. These data have been evaluated for temporal trends. In order to insure that temporal evaluations be based upon data produced using comparable analytical methods, the time period evaluated is not the same for all analytes. For example, while most evaluations are for the period 1974 through 1994, arsenic data were evaluated for the period 1980 through 1994. Data for oyster tissue indicate declines in levels of mercury, cadmium, arsenic, copper and zinc on the order of 70--90%. The major portion of these reductions occurred prior to 1985. These declines are evident from data collected from Maryland`s lower eastern shore, a relatively remote area, as well as from waters closer to larger population centers. Past detection levels for lead and chromium were insufficiently low to detect temporal changes.

Murphy, D.L. [Maryland Dept. of the Environment, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

179

[Microphytobenthos assemblage mapping by spatial visible-infrared remote sensing in a shellfish ecosystem].  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to assess the use of (SPOT) multispectral visible infrared remote sensing to study microphytobentos assemblages in a shellfish ecosystem (Bay of Bourgneuf, France). SPOT satellite images (acquired at low tide in spring or autumn between 1986 and 1998) were calibrated using in situ radiometric data, and the normalised vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from these images showed microphytobenthos on bay mudflats. Proliferation was mainly along a north-south strip, essentially localised around the +2 m isobath and covering a surface area of 19 to 25% of the total mudflat area studied (420 to 550 ha). Three factors seem to be responsible for the spatial structure of the assemblages: bathymetry, nutrient input from the Falleron River and its channel, and the location of oyster-farming areas. Although spatial and spectral resolutions of multispectral remote sensing data have certain limitations, this approach opens up a new field of application for hyperspectral remote sensing, particularly for synoptic mapping of biomass distribution. PMID:12876890

Méléder, Vona; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent; Rincé, Yves

2003-04-01

180

Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.  

PubMed

There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica), a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell). From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives. PMID:17105350

van Gils, Jan A; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; Kraan, Casper

2006-11-01

181

Predictive mechanistic bioenergetics to model habitat suitability of shellfish culture in coastal lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative tools based on mechanistic modelling of functional traits able to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture and most other human activities (i.e. reducing the likelihood of detrimental impacts optimising productions), are especially important factors in the decision to site aquaculture facilities in coastal lakes, ponds and lagoons and, in the case of detrimental impact, to adopt mitigation measures. We tested the ability of mechanistic functional trait based models to predict life history traits of cultivable shellfish in shallow coastal lakes. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models were run to generate spatially explicit predictions of Mytilus galloprovincialis life history (LH) traits (e.g. body size and fecundity). Using fortnightly data of food supply and hourly data of body temperatures, and exploiting the power of mechanistic rules, we estimated the amount of faeces ejected by a fixed quantity of organisms cultivated in two shallow Southern Mediterranean (Sicily) lakes. These differed in terms of temperature and food density, implying large differences in life history traits of mussels in the two study areas. This information could help facilitate the selection of sites where environmental conditions are more suitable for aquaculture and contextually compatible with sustainability. The validation exercise obtained by comparing the predicted and observed data was nearly consistent. Therefore, a mechanistic functional traits-based model seems able to capture the link between habitat characteristics and functional traits of organisms, delineating the fundamental portion of an ecological niche, the possibility of predicting LH traits and potential ecological applications in the management of natural coastal resources.

Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Manganaro, A.; Mazzola, A.; Mirto, S.; Sanfilippo, M.; Sarà, G.

2014-05-01

182

Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).  

PubMed

For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 ?mol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. PMID:25157803

Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

2014-11-01

183

Shellfish Dredging Pushes a Flexible Avian Top Predator out of a Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called “marine protected areas” (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica), a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell). From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives. PMID:17105350

van Gils, Jan A; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; Kraan, Casper

2006-01-01

184

Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today  

PubMed Central

Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

2014-01-01

185

Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.  

PubMed

Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning. PMID:24988780

Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Øivind

2014-06-01

186

Investigation of extraction and analysis techniques for Lyngbya wollei derived Paralytic Shellfish Toxins.  

PubMed

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) are highly toxic metabolic by-products of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei produces a unique set of PSTs, including L. wollei toxins (LWT) 1-6. The accurate identification and quantification of PSTs from Lyngbya filaments is challenging, but critical for understanding toxin production and associated risk, as well as for providing baseline information regarding the potential for trophic transfer. This study evaluated several approaches for the extraction and analysis of PSTs from field-collected L. wollei dominated algal mats. Extraction of PSTs from lyophilized Lyngbya biomass was assessed utilizing hydrochloric acid and acetic acid at concentrations of 0.001-0.1 M. Toxin profiles were then compared utilizing two analysis techniques: pre-column oxidation (peroxide and periodate) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Fluorescence (FL) detection and LC coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MS). While both acid approaches efficiently extracted PSTs, hydrochloric acid was found to convert the less toxic LWT into the more toxic decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2&3 (dcGTX2&3) and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX). In comparison, extraction with 0.1 M acetic acid preserved the original toxin profile and limited the presence of interfering co-extractants. Although pre-chromatographic oxidation with HPLC/FL was relatively easy to setup and utilize, the method did not resolve the individual constituents of the L. wollei derived PST profile. The LC/MS method allowed characterization of the PSTs derived from L. wollei, but without commercially available LWT 1-6 standards, quantitation was not possible for the LWT. In future work, evaluation of the risk associated with L. wollei derived PSTs will require commercially available standards of LWT 1-6 for accurate determinations of total PST content and potency. PMID:22960450

Foss, Amanda J; Phlips, Edward J; Aubel, Mark T; Szabo, Nancy J

2012-11-01

187

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in Northeast Germany? †  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies. PMID:20048055

Ballot, Andreas; Fastner, Jutta; Wiedner, Claudia

2010-01-01

188

Tracing the origin of paralytic shellfish toxins in scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in the northern Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

Some dinoflagellate species within the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium are well-known producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which led to many poisoning incidents around the world. In the northern Yellow Sea, an important mariculture zone for scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, PST have been frequently detected from scallops. However, there is little knowledge concerning PST-producing microalgae in this region so far. In cruises carried out in 2011 and 2012, scallop and phytoplankton samples were collected from the northern Yellow Sea. PST were detected from scallops by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Toxin content and profile were remarkably different among the four tissues, i.e. viscera, adductor muscle, mantle and gonad, suggesting apparent toxin transfer and transformation in scallops. Viscera always had the highest content of PST dominated by low-potency N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, which closely resembled the toxin profiles of net-concentrated phytoplankton samples in spring. Based on the morphological features, cells of Alexandrium spp. in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were picked out and a partial sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) was amplified using a single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cells of both toxic A. tamarense species complex and non-toxic A. affine were identified from the phytoplankton samples based on the partial LSU rDNA sequence information. According to these findings, it is implied that A. tamarense species complex is the major toxic species related to PST contamination in scallops of the northern Yellow Sea. The presence of both toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium spp. in this region requires for a species-specific method to monitor the distribution and dynamics of A. tamarense species complex. PMID:24124903

Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Gao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

2013-01-01

189

Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.  

PubMed

Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

2014-01-01

190

Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management  

PubMed Central

Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts. PMID:25076815

Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Hickey, J. Michael; Nash, Christopher

2014-01-01

191

Snapshot of Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in open and closed shellfish beds in Coastal South Carolina and Mississippi.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram negative, halophilic bacterium that is ubiquitous in warm, tropical waters throughout the world. It is a major cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is generally associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. This study presents a snapshot of total V. parahaemolyticus densities in surface waters and shellstock American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from open and closed shellfish harvesting areas, as well as "more rural areas" on two different US coasts, the Atlantic and the Gulf. Sampling was conducted from 2001 to 2003 at five sites near Charleston/Georgetown, SC and at four locations in the Gulfport/Pascagoula, MS area. V. parahaemolyticus numbers were determined by a direct plating method using an alkaline-phosphatase-labeled DNA probe targeting the species-specific thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh) that was used for identification of bacterial isolates. The greatest difference between the two coasts was salinity; mean salinity in SC surface waters was 32.9 ppt, whereas the mean salinity in MS waters was 19.2 ppt, indicating more freshwater input into MS shellfish harvesting areas during the study period. The mean V. parahaemolyticus numbers in oysters were almost identical between the two states (567.4 vs. 560.1 CFU/g). Bacterial numbers in the majority of surface water samples from both states were at or below the limit of detection (LOD?=?<10 CFU/mL). The bacterial concentrations determined during this study predict a low public health risk from consumption of oysters in shellfish growing areas on either the Gulf or the Atlantic US coast. PMID:25106119

Moore, J Gooch; Ruple, A; Ballenger-Bass, K; Bell, S; Pennington, P L; Scott, G I

2014-11-01

192

Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the others. This statistical underpinning can guide efforts to identify physical and/or biological mechanisms underlying the patterns revealed by the HAB Index. Although A. fundyense cyst survey data (limited to 9 years) do not span the entire interval of the shellfish toxicity records, this analysis leads us to hypothesize that major changes in the abundance of A. fundyense cysts may be a primary factor contributing to the decadal trends in shellfish toxicity in this region. The HAB Index approach taken here is simple but represents a novel and potentially useful tool for resource managers in many areas of the world subject to toxic HABs.

Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

2014-05-01

193

Detection of cyanobacterial neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine within shellfish in the diet of an ALS patient in Florida.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce the neurotoxic amino acid ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), which in contaminated marine waters has been found to accumulate in shellfish. Exposure to BMAA has been associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Analysis of blinded samples found BMAA to be present in neuroproteins of individuals who died from ALS and ALS/PDC, but generally not in the brains of patients who died of causes unrelated to neurodegeneration or Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We here report support for a link between a patient with ALS and chronic exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin BMAA via shellfish consumption. The patient had frequently eaten lobsters collected in Florida Bay for approximately 30 years. LC-MS/MS analysis of two lobsters which this ALS patient had placed in his freezer revealed BMAA at concentrations of 27 and 4 ?g/g, respectively, as well as the presence of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), a BMAA isomer. Two additional lobsters recently collected from Florida Bay also contained the neurotoxins BMAA and DAB. These data suggest that invertebrates collected in water where cyanobacterial blooms are present, if consumed, may result in direct human exposure to these neurotoxic amino acids. The data support the assertion that prolonged exposure to BMAA may have played a role in the etiology of ALS in this patient. PMID:25123936

Banack, Sandra Anne; Metcalf, James S; Bradley, Walter G; Cox, Paul Alan

2014-11-01

194

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

195

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

196

Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish  

PubMed Central

The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO2 in the world’s oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO3 shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not clear. Here we present experiments that examined the effects of the ocean’s past, present, and future (21st and 22nd centuries) CO2 concentrations on the growth, survival, and condition of larvae of two species of commercially and ecologically valuable bivalve shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians). Larvae grown under near preindustrial CO2 concentrations (250 ppm) displayed significantly faster growth and metamorphosis as well as higher survival and lipid accumulation rates compared with individuals reared under modern day CO2 levels. Bivalves grown under near preindustrial CO2 levels displayed thicker, more robust shells than individuals grown at present CO2 concentrations, whereas bivalves exposed to CO2 levels expected later this century had shells that were malformed and eroded. These results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations. PMID:20855590

Gobler, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

197

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses  

PubMed Central

A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable. PMID:9726885

Pina, Sonia; Puig, Montserrat; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Joan; Girones, Rosina

1998-01-01

198

Temperature effects on kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxin elimination in Atlantic surfclams, Spisula solidissima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfclams, Spisula solidissima, pose a particular health risk for human consumption as they are characterized by accumulation of extremely high levels of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), slow toxin elimination and an extremely high post-ingestive capacity for toxin bioconversion. Surfclam populations experience a wide range of temperatures along the NW Atlantic continental shelf, and are undergoing range contraction that has been attributed to global warming. In this study the influence of temperature (5, 12 and 21 °C) on detoxification kinetics of individual PSP toxins in two tissue compartments of juvenile surfclams (?35 mm shell length) was determined under controlled laboratory conditions, over prolonged (2.4 months) depuration. Clams were toxified with a representative regional Gulf of Maine isolate of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense of known toxin profile, allowing tracking of changes in toxin composition and calculated toxicity in surfclam tissues. The visceral mass detoxified at all temperatures, although toxin loss rate increased with increasing temperature. In contrast, total toxin content and calculated toxicities in other tissues remained constant or even increased during depuration, suggesting a physiological or biochemical toxin-retention mechanism in this tissue pool and temperature-independent detoxification. In vivo toxin compositional changes in surfclam tissues found in this study provide evidence of specific toxin conversion pathways, involving both reductive and decarbamoylation pathways. We conclude that such toxin biotransformations, especially in non-visceral tissues, may introduce a discrepancy in describing kinetics of total toxicity (in saxitoxin equivalents [STXeq]) of S. solidissima over prolonged detoxification. Nevertheless, use of total toxicity values generated by routine regulatory monitoring based upon mouse bioassays or calculated from chemical analytical determination of molar toxin concentrations is adequate for first-order modeling of toxin kinetics in this species. Furthermore, the differential detoxification response of viscera and other tissues in relation to temperature emphasizes the need for two-compartment modeling to describe the fate of PSP toxins in this species. Finally, key parameters were identified that may prove useful in hindcasting the timing of toxic blooms or new toxin input in deep offshore waters where routine monitoring of toxic phytoplankton is impractical.

Monica Bricelj, V.; Cembella, Allan D.; Laby, David

2014-05-01

199

Pennate Diatom Nitzschia pungens as the Primary Source of Domoic Acid, a Toxin in Shellfish from Eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada1  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An outbreak of food poisoning in Canada during autumn 1987 was traced to cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Cardigan Bay region of eastern Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.). The toxin, identified as domoic acid, had not previously been found in any shellfish and this outbreak represents the first known occurrence of human poisoning by this neurotoxin. A plankton

A. S. W. de Freitas; R. Foxall; M. Gilgan; L. A. Hanic; A. W. McCulloch; P. Odense; R. Pocklington; M. A. Quilliam; P. G. Sim; C. Smith; D. V. Subba Rao; E. C. D. Todd; A. Walter; L. C. Wright

200

Detection of Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Azaspiracid Toxins in Moroccan Mussels: Comparison of the LC-MS Method with the Commercial Immunoassay Kit  

PubMed Central

Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a recurrent gastrointestinal illness in Morocco, resulting from consumption of contaminated shellfish. In order to develop a rapid and reliable technique for toxins detection, we have compared the results obtained by a commercial immunoassay-“DSP-Check” kit” with those obtained by LC-MS. Both techniques are capable of detecting the toxins in the whole flesh extract which was subjected to prior alkaline hydrolysis in order to detect simultaneously the esterified and non esterified toxin forms. The LC-MS method was found to be able to detect a high level of okadaic acid (OA), low level of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), and surprisingly, traces of azaspiracids 2 (AZA2) in mussels. This is the first report of a survey carried out for azaspiracid (AZP) contamination of shellfish harvested in the coastal areas of Morocco. The “DSP-Check” kit was found to detect quantitatively DSP toxins in all contaminated samples containing only OA, provided that the parent toxins were within the range of detection and was not in an ester form. A good correlation was observed between the two methods when appropriate dilutions were performed. The immunoassay kit appeared to be more sensitive, specific and faster than LC-MS for determination of DSP in total shellfish extract. PMID:19172196

Elgarch, Adra; Vale, Paulo; Rifai, Saida; Fassouane, Aziz

2008-01-01

201

As, Cd, Hg and Pb in four edible shellfish species from breeding and harvesting areas along the eastern Adriatic Coast, Croatia.  

PubMed

Four species of shellfish (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Chlamis varia and Venus verrucosa) were collected during the autumn 2011 and spring 2012 along the eastern Adriatic coast from six shellfish harvesting areas (all species) and 13 breeding sampling areas (mussels) to assess As, Cd, Hg and Pb levels and the human risks of shellfish consumption. The mean metal concentrations (wet weight) in the examined species ranged from 1.420 to 9.575mg/kg for As, 0.034 to 1.270 for Cd, 0.005 to 0.680 for Hg and 0.140 to 2.072 for Pb. Examination of the spatial distribution of As, Cd, Hg and Pb revealed statistically significant differences among the studied areas. Since the concentrations were below the maximum prescribed by the laws of the EU and Croatia (the concentrations slightly exceeded the upper limits for three samples; Pb, Cd and Hg) and the hazard index, (HI) for Cd, Hg and Pb were below 1 and the target cancer risk (TR) for As was lower than 1×10(-6), there is no human health risk of consumption of shellfish from Croatian waters. PMID:24176332

Bogdanovi?, Tanja; Ujevi?, Ivana; Sedak, Marija; Listeš, Eddy; Simat, Vida; Petri?evi?, Sandra; Poljak, Vedran

2014-03-01

202

Interactions between a natural food web, shellfish farming and exotic species: The case of the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure sustainable uses of the coastal zone, an integrated ecosystemic approach and ecosystem models are required to frame ecological processes and evaluate environmental impacts. Here, a mass-balance trophic (Ecopath) model of the Mont Saint Michel Bay (MSMB) was developed, to analyze the bay's functioning as an ecosystem. This bay, intensively exploited by fishing and for shellfish farming, is also

F. Arbach Leloup; N. Desroy; P. Le Mao; D. Pauly; O. Le Pape

2008-01-01

203

Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase the risk of food borne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions.  

E-print Network

Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase the risk 13 Sliced pesto chicken breast, mixed greens, almonds, green onions, crisp wontons, rice noodles with hummus. The University Club 10 Ham, bacon and house smoked turkey, with Pepper Jack or Cheddar cheese

Azevedo, Ricardo

204

Biological Effects of Suspended Sediments: A Review of Suspended Sediment Impacts on Fish and Shellfish with Relation to Dredging Activities in Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective assessment of the effects of increased concentrations of suspended sediment caused by human activities, such as navigation dredging, on estuarine fish and shellfish requires an integration of findings from biological and engineering studies. Knowledge is needed of (1) the suspended sediment characteristics typical of both ambient and dredging-induced conditions, (2) the biological responses of aquatic organisms to these suspended

Dara H. Wilber; Douglas G. Clarke

2001-01-01

205

These hatchery and nursery operations are supplying molluscan shellfish seed to Florida growers this year. Contact suppliers for information on species, seed sizes, price, color variation and availability.  

E-print Network

Blue Acres - N 1210 Grogan Avenue NE Palm Bay, FL 32907 Contact: Kevin Reinecke (321) 243-2526 (cell) kevin.blueacres@gmail.com Species: HC Cedar Creek Shellfish Farms - H, N 701 Downing Street New Smyrna-3181 or Barry Hurt (863) 604-1891 bhurt@tampabay.rr.com Species: HC Ewan Leighton - H, N 270 Sea Dunes Drive

Florida, University of

206

Clean and safe supply of fish and shellfish to clear the HACCP regulation by use of clean and cold deep ocean water in Rausu, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the supply of fish and shellfish to consumers in fresh condition, clean handling after catch from the sea is essential. According to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), it is important to meet such requirement by keeping fish and shellfish under a certain low temperature and clean conditions after catching. The deep ocean water (DOW) characterized by low temperature and cleanliness has been chosen for fish and shellfish handlings, particularly for salmon, cod, and sea urchin in Town ‘Rausu’ in Hokkaido, Japan. DOW below 2.9’C of an amount of nearly 5 000m3 is planned to be pumped up every day from a depth of about 350 m, and temporarily stored in a large simulated tank on land. DOW is then supplied to fish boats through hydrants distributed throughout the harbor and used for keeping salmon in clean and cold conditions. Ice made from DOW is also used for lowering temperature if necessary. DOW and ice made from DOW are also used during the transportation of fish and shellfish. The entire system is scheduled to be completed by the summer of 2005.

Mac Takahashi, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazunori

2005-07-01

207

Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women123  

PubMed Central

Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, found mainly in fish, have been postulated to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, the role of long-chain n?3 fatty acids and fish intake in the development of T2D remains unresolved. Objective: We examined associations between fish, shellfish, and long-chain n?3 fatty acids and the risk of T2D in a middle-aged Chinese population. Design: This was a prospective population-based cohort study in 51,963 men and 64,193 women free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline with valid dietary information. Dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of fish, shellfish, and long-chain n?3 fatty acid (in g/d) with risk of T2D. Results: Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n?3 fatty acid intakes were inversely associated with T2D in women. The relative risks [RRs (95% CI)] for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.96 (0.86, 1.06), 0.84 (0.75, 0.94), 0.80 (0.71, 0.90), and 0.89 (0.78, 1.01) (P for trend = 0.003) and for shellfish were 1.00, 0.91 (0.82, 1.01), 0.79 (0.71, 0.89), 0.80 (0.71, 0.91), and 0.86 (0.76, 0.99) (P for trend = 0.006). In men, only the association between shellfish intake and T2D was significant. The RRs (95% CI) for quintiles of fish intake were 1.00, 0.92 (0.75, 1.13), 0.80 (0.65, 1.00), 0.89 (0.72, 1.11), and 0.94 (0.74, 1.17) (P for trend = 0.50) and for shellfish intake were 1.00, 0.93 (0.76, 1.12), 0.70 (0.56, 086), 0.66 (0.53, 0.82), and 0.82 (0.65, 1.02) (P for trend = 0.003). Conclusions: An inverse association between fish and shellfish intake and T2D in women was found. No evidence of a detrimental effect of fish intake in this population was observed. PMID:21677058

Villegas, Raquel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Elasy, Tom; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ye, Fei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shyr, Yu; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2011-01-01

208

Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC OMA 2011.27 [AOAC Official Method 2011.27 Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Shellfish, Receptor Binding Assay. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], further demonstrating successful extension of the LC-FD method to these clinical matrices. Moreover, data generated from this poisoning event reiterated that urine is a preferable clinical matrix, compared to serum, for diagnostic purposes due to higher accumulation and longer residence times in urine.

DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

2014-05-01

209

The occurrence of paralytic shellfish toxins in two species of xanthid crab from Suva barrier reef, Fiji Islands.  

PubMed

Five species of crabs commonly occurring on Suva barrier reef, Fiji Islands, were tested for the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins. All 35 specimens of Atergatis floridus and all 18 specimens of Zosimus aeneus tested were lethal to mice, whilst none of 12 specimens of Carpilius maculatus, 8 of C. convexus and 10 of Eriphia sebana tested were lethal. A. floridus contained saxitoxin (55--60%), neosaxitoxin (35--40%), gonyautoxin-II (less than 5%) and a new toxin previously found in a toxic dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa, and tentatively coded PBT (1%). Z. aeneus contained the same components, with additional trace amounts of gonyautoxin-I and III, but neosaxitoxin was the major component in this species. Comparison with the results of testing Okinawan specimens of Z. aeneus, A. floridus and Platipodia granulosa suggests that the toxin profile is specific to species. PMID:6623494

Raj, U; Haq, H; Oshima, Y; Yasumoto, T

1983-01-01

210

The effect of commercial processing on the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) content of naturally-contaminated Acanthocardia tuberculatum L.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to determine if any reduction in contamination of Acanthocardia tuberculatum L. (Mediterranean cockle) by paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) could be enhanced by operations carried out during the industrial canning process, allowing contaminated raw material to be commercially marketed in safe conditions for edible purposes. A general decrease in PSP levels was consistently observed when comparing raw materials and their corresponding final products, these dropping to acceptable levels. PSP levels were determined by mouse bioassay and a fluorometric method, and saxitoxin was determined by HPLC. The detoxifying effects averaged over 71.7% and 81.8% (mouse bioassay), 70.6% and 90.9% (fluorometric method), 77.9% and 83.5% (HPLC), for boiling and sterilizing operations respectively. The highest level detected in raw material was 800 micrograms/100 g by mouse bioassay. PMID:8314398

Berenguer, J A; Gonzalez, L; Jimenez, I; Legarda, T M; Olmedo, J B; Burdaspal, P A

1993-01-01

211

Distribution of the genus Alexandrium (Halim) and paralytic shellfish toxins along the coastline of New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

Blooms of Alexandrium species, in particular the species Alexandrium catenella, accounted for more than 50% of algal related, shellfish aquaculture harvest zone closures in New South Wales (NSW) Australia since 2005. While there are indications that species of Alexandrium are more abundant than they were formerly, there is little data available on the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the genus in NSW. A six and a half year dataset comprising a total of 8649 fortnightly samples from 31 estuaries spread over 2000 km of NSW coastline was analysed. The greatest abundances of Alexandrium spp. were observed during the austral Spring and Summer, in estuaries in the mid and southern latitudes of the state. In identifying these high risk zones, we propose variables such as season, temperature, rainfall and estuarine flushing to be targeted in intensive site specific studies, to support the development of predictive tools for resource managers. PMID:23743270

Farrell, Hazel; Brett, Steve; Ajani, Penelope; Murray, Shauna

2013-07-15

212

Water pollution: Uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. January 1974-December 1989 (a Bibliography from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning heavy-metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long-term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long-term effects on the food chain are also considered. (This updated bibliography contains 276 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

213

Water pollution: uptake of heavy metals by shellfish and marine plants. January 1974-June 1988 (Citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning heavy metal contamination of shellfish and marine plants. Toxicity levels and the long term effects on the ecology of the marine environment are discussed. The growth rate of marine life as a function of metal concentration and the long term effects on the food chain are also considered. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-07-01

214

[Training for female shellfish gatherers on food safety and worker's health: an experience in the community of Ilha do Paty, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study describes an experience in the training of female shellfish gatherers in the fishing community in Ilha do Paty, São Francisco do Conde, within the context of actions to promote health and food safety. This is an intervention study with planning of activities by a multidisciplinary team. The activities were developed in five stages: survey of topics of interest; awareness; female shellfish gatherers' work routine; teaching of best practices in the processing of shellfish; and group conversation. The methodologies included exposure through dialogue, group dynamics, workshops, theater, work with images, directed activities and the distribution of educational materials. At the end, an evaluation by the participants regarding the different aspects was conducted. Overall there was satisfaction among the audience for most indicators, which may relate to both the use of audiovisual resources and strategies that permitted the exchange of experiences regarding the recognition of the importance of training by the target audience. The experiment demonstrates the potential of developing educational activities with the fishing communities, with results that contribute to the bolstering of the local supply chain, with the promotion of food safety and occupational health. PMID:24897221

da Nóbrega, Gabriela Silva; Cardoso, Ryzia de Cassia Vieira; Furtunato, Dalva Maria da Nóbrega; Góes, José Ângelo Wenceslau; Ferreira, Tereza Cristina Braga; Santos, Mary Daiane Fontes; Santos, Sissa Maria Garrido

2014-05-01

215

Rapid and Efficient Extraction Method for Reverse Transcription-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A and Norwalk-Like Viruses in Shellfish  

PubMed Central

As part of an effort to develop a broadly applicable test for Norwalk-like viruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish, a rapid extraction method that is suitable for use with one-step reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based detection methods was developed. The method involves virus extraction using a pH 9.5 glycine buffer, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, Tri-reagent, and purification of viral poly(A) RNA by using magnetic poly(dT) beads. This glycine–PEG–Tri-reagent–poly(dT) method can be performed in less than 8 h on hard-shell clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and, when coupled with RT-PCR-based detection, can yield results within 24 h. Observed sensitivities for seeded shellfish extracts are as low as 0.015 PFU of HAV and 22.4 RT-PCR50 units for Norwalk virus. Detection of HAV in live oysters experimentally exposed to contaminated seawater is also demonstrated. An adaptation of this method was used to identify HAV in imported clams (tentatively identified as Ruditapes philippinarum) implicated in an outbreak of food-borne viral illness. All of the required reagents are commercially available. This method should facilitate the implementation of RT-PCR testing of commercial shellfish. PMID:11526018

Kingsley, David H.; Richards, Gary P.

2001-01-01

216

Evaluation of optimal conditions for determination of low selenium content in shellfish samples collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil using HG-AFS.  

PubMed

This work proposes a procedure for the determination of total selenium content in shellfish after digestion of samples in block using cold finger system and detection using atomic fluorescent spectrometry coupled hydride generation (HG AFS). The optimal conditions for HG such as effect and volume of prereduction KBr 10 % (m/v) (1.0 and 2.0 ml) and concentration of hydrochloric acid (3.0 and 6.0 mol L(-1)) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 3 mL of HCl (6 mol L(-1)) and 1 mL of KBr 10 % (m/v), followed by 30 min of prereduction for the volume of 1 mL of the digested sample. The precision and accuracy were assessed by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material NIST 1566b. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 6.06 and 21.21 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to samples of shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels) collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.23?±?0.02 to 3.70?±?0.27 mg kg(-1) for Mytella guyanensis and Anomalocardia brasiliana, respectively. The developed method proved to be accurate, precise, cheap, fast, and could be used for monitoring Se in shellfish samples. PMID:24771464

Lopes Dos Santos, Walter Nei; Macedo, Samuel Marques; Teixeira da Rocha, Sofia Negreiros; Souza de Jesus, Caio Niela; Cavalcante, Dannuza Dias; Hatje, Vanessa

2014-08-01

217

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin binders for optical biosensor technology: problems and possibilities for the future: a review  

PubMed Central

This review examines the developments in optical biosensor technology, which uses the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Optical biosensor technology measures the competitive biomolecular interaction of a specific biological recognition element or binder with a target toxin immobilised onto a sensor chip surface against toxin in a sample. Different binders such as receptors and antibodies previously employed in functional and immunological assays have been assessed. Highlighted are the difficulties in detecting this range of low molecular weight toxins, with analogues differing at four chemical substitution sites, using a single binder. The complications that arise with the toxicity factors of each toxin relative to the parent compound, saxitoxin, for the measurement of total toxicity relative to the mouse bioassay are also considered. For antibodies, the cross-reactivity profile does not always correlate to toxic potency, but rather to the toxin structure to which it was produced. Restrictions and availability of the toxins makes alternative chemical strategies for the synthesis of protein conjugate derivatives for antibody production a difficult task. However, when two antibodies with different cross-reactivity profiles are employed, with a toxin chip surface generic to both antibodies, it was demonstrated that the cross-reactivity profile of each could be combined into a single-assay format. Difficulties with receptors for optical biosensor analysis of low molecular weight compounds are discussed, as are the potential of alternative non-antibody-based binders for future assay development in this area. PMID:21623494

Campbell, K.; Rawn, D.F.K.; Niedzwiadek, B.; Elliott, C.T.

2011-01-01

218

Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss  

PubMed Central

Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

2007-01-01

219

Diversity of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Strains Isolated from Fish, Shellfish, and Other Reservoirs in Northwestern Spain†  

PubMed Central

A comparison was done of 231 strains of birnavirus isolated from fish, shellfish, and other reservoirs in a survey study that began in 1986 in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Reference strains from all of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotypes were included in the comparison, which was done by neutralization tests and agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral genome. The neutralization tests with antisera against the West Buxton, Spajarup (Sp), and Abild (Ab) strains showed that most of the Galician isolates were European types Sp and Ab; however, many isolates (30%) could not be typed. Results from agarose gels did not provided information for grouping of the strains, since all were found to have genomic segments of similar sizes. Analysis of polyacrylamide gels, however, allowed six electropherogroups (EGs) to be differentiated on the basis of genome mobility and separation among segments, and a certain relationship between EGs and serotypes was observed. A wide diversity of electropherotypes was observed among the Galician isolates, and as neutralization tests showed, most of the isolates were included in EGs corresponding to European types Ab and Sp. Only 6.5% of the isolates had the electropherotype characteristic of American strains. PMID:10653762

Cutrin, J. M.; Olveira, J. G.; Barja, J. L.; Dopazo, C. P.

2000-01-01

220

Diversity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus strains isolated from fish, shellfish, and other reservoirs in Northwestern Spain.  

PubMed

A comparison was done of 231 strains of birnavirus isolated from fish, shellfish, and other reservoirs in a survey study that began in 1986 in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Reference strains from all of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus serotypes were included in the comparison, which was done by neutralization tests and agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral genome. The neutralization tests with antisera against the West Buxton, Spajarup (Sp), and Abild (Ab) strains showed that most of the Galician isolates were European types Sp and Ab; however, many isolates (30%) could not be typed. Results from agarose gels did not provided information for grouping of the strains, since all were found to have genomic segments of similar sizes. Analysis of polyacrylamide gels, however, allowed six electropherogroups (EGs) to be differentiated on the basis of genome mobility and separation among segments, and a certain relationship between EGs and serotypes was observed. A wide diversity of electropherotypes was observed among the Galician isolates, and as neutralization tests showed, most of the isolates were included in EGs corresponding to European types Ab and Sp. Only 6.5% of the isolates had the electropherotype characteristic of American strains. PMID:10653762

Cutrin, J M; Olveira, J G; Barja, J L; Dopazo, C P

2000-02-01

221

Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles and toxin variability of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Southeast China Sea.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of 16 Alexandrium isolates from the Southeast China Sea were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Toxin content and composition of three A. tamarense isolates, ATDH01, ATGX02 and ATMJ02, were also investigated at different growth phases and under various culture conditions. Our results showed that six strains of A. affine were non-toxic, while 10 strains of A. tamarense and A. catenella were toxic. These toxic isolates grown in the same culture conditions consistently produced an unusually high proportion of the N-sulfocarbamoyl toxin C1/2 (around 60-80% of total toxins) and medium amounts of gonyautoxin GTX5 (around 15-30% of total) with only trace quantities (<5% of total) of other saxitoxin derivatives (i.e. GTX1, GTX3, GTX4 and neoSTX). The toxin composition of three A. tamarense isolates did not vary with the growth phases, although higher toxin contents (Qt, fmolcell(-1)) were found in the exponential phase. Variations in temperature, salinity and nutrient levels affected toxin content of three A. tamarense isolates but they did not have pronounced effects on the toxin composition (mole %). These results indicate that toxin composition remained relatively constant under various culture conditions, suggesting that toxin composition could be used as a stable biomarker for the Alexandrium species in this region. However, comparison of toxin profiles between isolates from different localities require special caution since isolates even from the same region can have distinct toxin profiles. PMID:16859722

Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Gang; Gu, Hai-Feng; Chan, Leo Lai; Hong, Hua-Sheng

2006-08-01

222

Influence of body weight of mice on the susceptibility to okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin.  

PubMed

The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. However, different body weight ranges of mice are designated to be used in the Japanese official method and European Union procedure. In this study we investigated whether and to what extent the body weights of the mice affect the susceptibility to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid, one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice of five different body weight range groups, from 14 to 24 g. The mice were observed until 24 h after injection. The lethality was 100% in the 14-15 and 16-17 g groups, 80% in the 19-20 g group, 50% in the 21-22 g group, and 40% in the 23-24 g group, with significant differences. Survival analysis indicated a relationship between body weights of mice and susceptibility to okadaic acid. These results would be quite useful not only for the MBA, but also to improve understanding of the biological responses to DSP toxins. PMID:24460779

Suzuki, Hodaka

2014-04-01

223

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

PubMed Central

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

224

Carcinogen adducts as an indicator for the public health risks of consuming carcinogen-exposed fish and shellfish  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of environmental carcinogens are metabolically activated to electrophilic metabolites that can bind to nucleic acids and protein, forming covalent adducts. The formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts is thought to be a necessary step in the action of most carcinogens. Recently, a variety of new fluorescence, immunochemical, and radioactive-postlabeling procedures have been developed that allow the sensitive measurement of DNA-carcinogen adducts in organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. In some cases, similar procedures have been developed for protein-carcinogen adducts. In an organism with active metabolic systems for a given carcinogen, adducts are generally much longer lived than the carcinogens that formed them. Thus, the detection of DNA- or protein-carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs can act as an indicator of prior carcinogen exposure. The presence of DNA adducts would, in addition, suggest a mutagenic/carcinogenic risk to the aquatic organism itself. Vertebrate fish are characterized by high levels of carcinogen metabolism, low body burdens of carcinogen, the formation of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts, and the occurrence of pollution-related tumors. Shellfish, on the other hand, have low levels of carcinogen metabolism, high body burdens of carcinogen, and have little or no evidence of carcinogen-macromolecule adducts or tumors. The consumption of carcinogen adducts in aquatic foodstuffs is unlikely to represent a human health hazard. There are no metabolic pathways by which protein-carcinogen or DNA-carcinogen adducts could reform carcinogens. Incorporation via salvage pathways of preformed nucleoside-carcinogen adducts from foodstuffs into newly synthesized human DNA is theoretically possible.

Dunn, B.P. (British Columbia Cancer Research Center, Vancouver (Canada))

1991-01-01

225

Amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxin detection in seawater using pure or amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles and SERS.  

PubMed

Domoic acid (DA) biotoxin responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) has been unambiguously detected in seawater in a broad range of concentration, with both pure and amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles employed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To achieve this, a comprehensive SERS study on DA dissolved in distilled water has been conducted. SERS of DA dissolved in seawater in concentrations ranging from 3.3 × 10(-4) to 3.3 × 10(-8) mol l(-1) exhibited specific signal, completely different to those of the corresponding DA aqueous solutions, due to the seawater interference in the overall SERS effect. In order to assess the capability of the technique as a cheaper alternative for rapid and unambiguous detection of the DA biotoxin in seawater, three detection schemes have been proposed. DA was detectable at 0.33 nmoll(-1) concentration (0.33) dissolved in distilled water and 0.033 nmol l(-1) (0.033 ppb) in seawater respectively, much lower than the admitted level by the current regulation. A solvent specific interaction of DA with the NPs was concluded, since DA aqueous solution added to Ag nanoparticles provided different SERS signal compared to that of DA directly dissolved in seawater. Employing amino-functionalized Ag nanoparticles with 4-aminothiophenol as SERS tag, SERS signal of DA on amino-AgNPs revealed significant specificity associated with the aromatic primary amine interaction of the SERS tag with DA, thus allowing DA detection in seawater at 4.16 × 10(-4) mol l(-1) concentration, much higher than in the case of pure NPs. To highlight the findings, a brief literature review to date on the DA biotoxin detection was also provided. PMID:25159386

Müller, Csilla; Glamuzina, Branko; Pozniak, Iva; Weber, Karina; Cialla, Dana; Popp, Jürgen; Cînt? Pînzaru, Simona

2014-12-01

226

Rapid Detection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shellfish and Gulf of Mexico Water by Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe optimization of SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR parameters and testing of a large number of microbial species with vvh-specific oligonucleotide primers to establish a rapid, specific, and sensitive method for detection of Vibrio vulnificus in oyster tissue homogenate and Gulf of Mexico water (gulf water). Selected oligonucleotide primers for the vvh gene were tested for PCR amplification of a 205-bp DNA fragment with a melting temperature of approximately 87°C for 84 clinical and environmental strains of V. vulnificus. No amplification was observed with other vibrios or nonvibrio strains with these primers. The minimum level of detection by the real-time PCR method was 1 pg of purified genomic DNA or 102 V. vulnificus cells in 1 g of unenriched oyster tissue homogenate or 10 ml of gulf water. It was possible to improve the level of detection to one V. vulnificus cell in samples that were enriched for 5 h. The standard curves prepared from the real-time PCR cycle threshold values revealed that there was a strong correlation between the number of cells in unenriched samples and the number of cells in enriched samples. Detection of a single cell of V. vulnificus in 1 g of enriched oyster tissue homogenate is in compliance with the recent Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference guidelines. The entire detection method, including sample processing, enrichment, and real-time PCR amplification, was completed within 8 h, making it a rapid single-day assay. Rapid and sensitive detection of V. vulnificus would ensure a steady supply of postharvest treated oysters to consumers, which should help decrease the number of illnesses or outbreaks caused by this pathogen. PMID:14711681

Panicker, Gitika; Myers, Michael L.; Bej, Asim K.

2004-01-01

227

Highly toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strain, isolated from São Paulo-Brazil, produce hepatotoxins and paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins.  

PubMed

While evaluating several laboratory-cultured cyanobacteria strains for the presence of paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins, the hydrophilic extract of Microcystis aeruginosa strain SPC777--isolated from Billings's reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil--was found to exhibit lethal neurotoxic effect in mouse bioassay. The in vivo test showed symptoms that unambiguously were those produced by PSP. In order to identify the presence of neurotoxins, cells were lyophilized, and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS. HPLC-FLD analysis revealed four main Gonyautoxins: GTX4(47.6%), GTX2(29.5%), GTX1(21.9%), and GTX3(1.0%). HPLC-MS analysis, on other hand, confirmed both epimers, with positive Zwitterions M(+) 395.9 m/z for GTX3/GTX2 and M(+) 411 m/z for GTX4/GTX1 epimers.The hepatotoxins (Microcystins) were also evaluated by ELISA and HPLC-MS analyses. Positive immunoreaction was observed by ELISA assay. Alongside, the HPLC-MS analyses revealed the presence of [L: -ser(7)] MCYST-RR. The N-methyltransferase (NMT) domain of the microcystin synthetase gene mcyA was chosen as the target sequence to detect the presence of the mcy gene cluster. PCR amplification of the NMT domain, using the genomic DNA of the SPC777 strain and the MSF/MSR primer set, resulted in the expected 1,369 bp product. The phylogenetic analyses grouped the NMT sequence with the NMT sequences of other known Microcystis with high bootstrap support. The taxonomical position of M. aeruginosa SPC777 was confirmed by a detailed morphological description and a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Therefore, co-production of PSP neurotoxins and microcystins by an isolated M. aeruginosa strain is hereby reported for the first time. PMID:20376712

Sant'Anna, Célia L; de Carvalho, Luciana R; Fiore, Marli F; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Lorenzi, Adriana S; Rios, Fernanda R; Konno, Katsuhiro; Garcia, Carlos; Lagos, Nestor

2011-04-01

228

Impact of elevated pCO? on paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin content and composition in Alexandrium tamarense.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect primary producers. Here we investigated the impact of elevated pCO? on paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin (PST) content and composition in two strains of Alexandrium tamarense, Alex5 and Alex2. Experiments were carried out as dilute batch to keep carbonate chemistry unaltered over time. We observed only minor changes with respect to growth and elemental composition in response to elevated pCO?. For both strains, the cellular PST content, and in particular the associated cellular toxicity, was lower in the high CO? treatments. In addition, Alex5 showed a shift in its PST composition from a non-sulfated analogue towards less toxic sulfated analogues with increasing pCO?. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that the ability of A. tamarense to maintain cellular homeostasis is predominantly regulated on the post-translational level rather than on the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, genes associated to secondary metabolite and amino acid metabolism in Alex5 were down-regulated in the high CO? treatment, which may explain the lower PST content. Elevated pCO? also induced up-regulation of a putative sulfotransferase sxtN homologue and a substantial down-regulation of several sulfatases. Such changes in sulfur metabolism may explain the shift in PST composition towards more sulfated analogues. All in all, our results indicate that elevated pCO? will have minor consequences for growth and elemental composition, but may potentially reduce the cellular toxicity of A. tamarense. PMID:24291633

Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Eberlein, Tim; John, Uwe; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn

2014-02-01

229

Assessment of a semiquantitative liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin levels in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.  

PubMed

AOAC Official Method 2005.06 precolumn oxidation LC-fluorescence detection method has been used for many years for the detection and quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs. After extensive single- and multiple-laboratory validation, the method has been slowly gaining acceptance worldwide as a useful and practical tool for official control testing. In Great Britain, the method has become routine since 2008, with no requirement since then for reverting back to the bioassay reference method. Although the method has been refined to be semiautomated, faster, and more reproducible, the quantitation step can be complex and time-consuming. An alternative approach was developed to utilize the qualitative screening results for generating a semiquantitative results assessment. Data obtained over 5 years enabled the comparison of semiquantitative and fully quantitative PSP results in over 15 000 shellfish samples comprising eight different species showed that the semiquantitative approach resulted in over-estimated paralytic shellfish toxin levels by an average factor close to two in comparison with the fully quantified levels. No temporal trends were observed in the data or relating to species type, with the exception of surf clams. The comparison suggested a semiquantitative threshold of 800 microg saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg should provide a safe limit for the determination of samples to be forwarded to full quantitation. However, the decision was taken to halve this limit to include an additional safety factor of 2, resulting in the use of a semiquantitative threshold of 400 microg STX eq/kg. Implementation of the semiquantitative method into routine testing would result in a significant reduction in the numbers of samples requiring quantitation and have a positive impact on the overall turnaround of reported PSP results. The refined method would be appropriate for any monitoring laboratory faced with high throughput requirements. PMID:24830161

Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Baker, Clothilde; Algoet, Myriam

2014-01-01

230

Transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity and ultraviolet detection for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel samples.  

PubMed

The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site. PMID:25223612

Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Guijt, Rosanne M; Bolch, Christopher J S; Breadmore, Michael C

2014-10-17

231

Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 ?g/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut. PMID:24025214

Nakajima, Takayuki; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Kanai, Setsuko; Matsushima, Yoko; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro

2013-01-01

232

Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

1992-07-01

233

Characterization of anti-Listeria bacteriocins isolated from shellfish: potential antimicrobials to control non-fermented seafood.  

PubMed

This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The antimicrobial spectrum of each strain included several indicator microorganisms, some of them also isolated from seafood. Growth of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and other LAB species were inhibited, although no inhibition of Gram-negative microorganisms was observed. Proteolytic, but not lipolytic or glycolytic enzymes, completely inactivated the antimicrobial effect of both cell-free supernatants confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitors. The antimicrobial activity was maintained after treatment with NaCl, SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80 and EDTA after 2 h or 5 h of exposure and both bacteriocins were stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. Production of bacteriocin by E. faecium (bacALP7) was detected initially at exponential phase and reached a maximum activity of 25,600 AU/ml in the early stationary phase, whereas bacteriocin production by P. pentosaceus ALP57 (bacALP57) reached the maximum at exponential phase with 12,800 AU/ml. The bacteriocins did not kill L. monocytogenes ESB54 nor L. innocua 2030c however, cellular growth was reduced. The partially purified bacteriocins, bacALP7 and bacALP57, were below 6.5 kDa in size as determined by Tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. E. faecium and P. pentosaceus contained DNA fragments corresponding in size to those recorded for enterocin B and pediocin PA-1, respectively. Sequencing of the fragments from both bacteriocins confirmed the homology. To our knowledge, for the first time two LAB producing bacteriocins similar to pediocin PA-1 and enterocin B, were isolated from non-fermented shellfish. The adaptation of the cultures to seafood matrices may be advantageous in terms of application as a biopreservation strategy for reduction of L. monocytogenes levels in seafood products. PMID:19081155

Pinto, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Melissa; Pinto, Cristina; Albano, Helena; Castilho, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

2009-01-31

234

The development of reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in lyophilized mussel. I: Interlaboratory studies of methods of analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first part of a project undertaken to develop mussel reference materials for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins. Two interlaboratory studies were undertaken to investigate the performance of the analytical methodology for several PSP toxins, in particular saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dc-STX) in lyophilized mussels, and to set criteria for the acceptance of results to be applied during the second part of the project: the certification exercise. In the first study, 18 laboratories were asked to measure STX and dc-STX in rehydrated lyophilized mussel material and to identify as many other PSP toxins as possible with a method of their choice. In the second interlaboratory study, 15 laboratories were additionally asked to determine quantitatively STX and dc-STX in rehydrated lyophilized mussel and in a saxitoxin-enriched mussel material. The first study revealed that three out of four post-column derivatization methods and one pre-column derivatization method sufficed in principle to determine STX and dc-STX. Most participants (13 of 18) obtained acceptable calibration curves and recoveries. Saxitoxin was hardly detected in the rehydrated lyophilized mussels and results obtained for dc-STX yielded a CV of 58% at a mass fraction of 1.86 mg/kg. Most participants (14 out of 18) identified gonyautoxin-5 (GTX-5) in a hydrolysed extract provided. The first study led to provisional criteria for linearity, recovery and separation. The second study revealed that 6 out of 15 laboratories were able to meet these criteria. Results obtained for dc-STX yielded a CV of 19% at a mass fraction of 3.49 mg/kg. Results obtained for STX in the saxitoxin-enriched material yielded a CV of 19% at a mass fraction of 0.34 mg/kg. Saxitoxin could not be detected in the PSP-positive material. Hydrolysis was useful to confirm the identity of GTX-5 and provided indicative information about C1 and C2 toxins in the PSP-positive material. The methods used in the second interlaboratory study showed sufficiently consistent analysis results to undertake a certification exercise to assign certified values for STX and dc-STX in lyophilized mussel. PMID:10932785

van den Top, H J; Boenke, A; Burdaspal, P A; Bustos, J; van Egmond, H P; Legarda, T; Mesego, A; Mouriño, A; Paulsch, W E; Salgado, C

2000-06-01

235

Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

236

Freezing Fish and Shellfish.  

E-print Network

also should be alive at the time of purchase, and their shells should be tightly shut. Shucked oysters should have a clear liquor and be free of sour odors. Fresh fish (top) have clear, full eyes and firm flesh. Caught - The initial handling of a... alive for 2 to 3 days if stored in a moist, cool place. Do not shuck oysters that will not close after being tapped lightly on the shell. Wash the outside of the shell before shucking. Shuck oysters into a strainer (the liquor should b~ clear...

Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

1980-01-01

237

Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Bivalve, New Jersey, HSRL has over a 100-yr tradition of disseminating research results and working cooperatively with state and federal agencies and the fisheries and aquaculture communities in southern New Jersey. Site features information on the lab history, facilities, faculty, and current and past research. An abundance of information regarding oyster and clam aquaculture, as well as links to additional resources.

238

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Species Geographic Area Affected Organisms* Alexandrium spp. Northern Atlantic and Pacific Coast of North America Mussels, surfclams, softshell clams, sea scallops, butterclams, ocean quahogs, oysters, gastropods, lobsters, crabs. Herring, salmon, menhaden, ...

239

Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (?) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low ? is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during periods of low wind stress ranges from 100-700µatm. When strong equatorward winds induce upwelling, pCO2 levels exhibit a higher daily range of 300-2000µatm. The saturation state was calculated from the pCO2/TCO2 measurements of the discrete samples. The ? for calcite and aragonite ranged from 2.07 and 1.15 to 8.58 and 4.69 respectively from April through August. Increased pCO2 and decreased pH have been shown to negatively impact larval development in C. gigas (Kurihara, 2007). Periods of elevated pCO2 in May and June 2010 correlated with commercial losses at WCH. The use of precise pCO2 measurements in real time has proven to be a valuable tool for use in aquaculture. As a commercial practice WCH has elected to only use source water that is below empirical pCO2 thresholds for spawning and culturing larvae. This has resulted in continued production and cost saving in an industry crucial to coast economies. A continuous TCO2/pCO2 monitoring system will be integrated into this long time-series to constrain inorganic carbon providing insight into carbonate chemistry dynamics in Netarts Bay, effects of ocean acidification on bivalve development and possible water treatment approaches for commercial aquaculture.

Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

2010-12-01

240

Transcriptional responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, HSP70 and Na+/K+ -ATPase in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin.  

PubMed

Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin domoic acid (DA) is a marine neurotoxin that accumulates in fish and shellfish, and has been implicated to be involved in human and marine wildlife mortality. The transcriptional responses of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase rho (GSTR), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 (ATP1A1) in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with DA, were investigated. Experimental fish were administered with one injection of DA (2 microg/g wet weight) or PBS as control. After 24 h, fish were killed and hepatic RNA was isolated. Partial cDNA of rabbitfish CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, ATP1A1, and beta-actin were obtained by PCR using degenerate primers. Using beta-actin as an external control, the relative liver CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, and ATP1A1 mRNA abundance of rabbitfish were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR within the exponential phase. The ratio CYP1A/beta-actin mRNA (%) of exposure group was determined to be 148.92+/-12.69, whereas the ratio of control group was 82.3+/-8.35, indicating that CYP1A was induced significantly in rabbitfish following DA exposure (P<0.05). Although the expressions of GSTA, HSP70, and ATP1A1 tended to increase and GSTR tended to decrease, no significant changes were found (P>0.05). The induction of hepatic CYP1A in response to DA suggests a potential role for fish phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme in DA metabolism. PMID:18214893

Wang, Lin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Huang, Yan; Li, Shi-Ying; Ip, Kok-Chao

2008-06-01

241

Application of the neuroblastoma assay for paralytic shellfish poisons to neurotoxic freshwater cyanobacteria: interlaboratory calibration and comparison with other methods of analysis.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) are produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and pose a threat to human and animal drinking-water supplies. The wide range of toxin analogues (and the likelihood that further analogues remain to be discovered) means that chromatographic methods are not always reliable indicators of toxicity. Although the mouse bioassay remains the method of choice in the seafood industry, its use is increasingly being questioned on ethical grounds. The cell-based Neuro-2A neuroblastoma toxicity assay is an alternative bioassay validated for testing shellfish extracts, so it was of interest to determine its applicability with the different suite of toxin analogues produced by cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial bloom samples from Australia, Brazil, and France were assayed using the neuroblastoma assay, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection, and the Jellett Rapid Test for PSP. To assess interlaboratory variability, the neuroblastoma assay was set up in laboratories in Paris (France) and Adelaide (Australia). Neuroblastoma and chromatographic methods gave comparable results except in the case of the neurotoxic Brazilian samples: LC-MS/MS did not detect the putative new PSPs contained in these samples. Inter- and intralaboratory variability of the neuroblastoma assay was typical of biological assays but no greater than that found for interassay variability between different chromatographic determinations. The batch of Jellett Rapid Tests for PSP used did not yield quantitative results. Overall, the neuroblastoma assay was useful as a screening assay for determination of toxicity caused by saxitoxin neurotoxins in freshwater cyanobacteria, having the advantage of being sensitive to unidentified toxins that currently cannot be quantified by chromatographic means. PMID:17665694

Humpage, Andrew R; Ledreux, Aurélie; Fanok, Stella; Bernard, Cécile; Briand, Jean-François; Eaglesham, Geoff; Papageorgiou, John; Nicholson, Brenton; Steffensen, Dennis

2007-07-01

242

[Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].  

PubMed

Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution. PMID:24455892

Vale, P

2013-01-01

243

Supramolecular solvents in solid sample microextractions: application to the determination of residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

Supramolecular solvents are here proposed firstly as extractants in solid sample microextractions. The approach was evaluated by extracting flumequine (FLU) and oxolinic acid (OXO), two widely used veterinary medicines, from fish and shellfish muscle using a supramolecular solvent made up of decanoic acid (DeA) reverse micelles. The antibiotics were extracted in a single step (approximately 15 min), at room temperature, using 400 microL of solvent. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the extract was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography and fluorescence, without the need of clean-up or solvent evaporation. Contrary to the previously reported methods, both OXO and FLU were quantitatively extracted from fish and shellfish, independently of sample composition. The high extraction efficiencies observed for these antibiotics were a consequence of their amphiphilic character which resulted in the formation of DeA-OXO and DeA-FLU mixed aggregates. The quality parameters of this quantitative method including sensitivity, linearity, selectivity, repeatability, trueness, ruggedness, stability, decision limit and detection capability were evaluated according to the 2002/657/EC Commission Decision. Quantitation limits in the different samples analyzed (salmon, sea trout, sea bass, gilt-head bream, megrim and prawns) ranged between 6.5 and 22 microg kg(-1) for OXO and, 5 and 15 microg kg(-1) for FLU. These limits were far below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU) (i.e. 100 and 600 microg kg(-1), for OXO and FLU, respectively). The trueness of the method was determined by analyzing a Certified Reference Material (CMR, BCR-725) consisting of a lyophilised salmon tissue material. Recoveries for fortified samples (50-100 microg kg(-1) of OXO and 50-600 microg kg(-1) of FLU) and their relative standard deviations were in the intervals 99-102% and 0.2-5%, respectively. The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 3.6% for OXO and 2.3% for FLU ([OXO]=[FLU]=200 microg kg(-1) and n=11). PMID:20060977

Costi, Esther María; Sicilia, María Dolores; Rubio, Soledad

2010-02-26

244

Long-term impacts of human harvesting on shellfish: North Iberian top shells and limpets from the Upper Palaeolithic to the present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have contributed to phenotypic and demographic changes in their prey from very early on in the colonization of Europe, including the harvesting of shellfish in coastal ecosystems. We estimated trends in population growth (variation in the number of individuals) from DNA sequences of modern specimens in two North Iberian molluscs, top shells (Osilinus lineatus, from 24 sequences and 14 haplotypes) and limpets (Patella vulgata, taken from the bibliography), which were subjected to very different levels of harvesting pressure during the Upper Palaeolithic (~ 20000 to ~ 6000 years ago). The less harvested Osilinus top shells experienced fluctuations in population numbers coincident with climatic oscillations. Patella limpets, which were harvested in greater numbers, suffered clear and uninterrupted decreases in their numbers during the Upper Palaeolithic. These trends coincided with morphological changes in shell size (length or width) in the same direction (i.e., shell size decreased when population size decreased and vice versa). The differing trends seen in taxa subjected to different intensities of harvesting pressure suggest that climate effects were overcome by anthropogenic selection (leading to a smaller average length) in limpets. We suggest that intense fishing pressure may have induced irreversible shell length decreases in the most exploited species.

Turrero, Pablo; Muñoz-Colmenero, A. Marta; Prado, Andrea; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2014-11-01

245

Confirmation of Pinnatoxins and Spirolides in Shellfish and Passive Samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole and High-Resolution Hybrid Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed. PMID:24960460

Garcia-Altares, Maria; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogene, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

2014-01-01

246

Two simple models for accounting mussel contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins at Aveiro lagoon: Control by rainfall and atmospheric forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Aveiro lagoon (Portuguese northwest coast) bivalve contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSTs), okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), is a recurrent annual phenomenon seriously affecting seafood safety. The influence of meteorological parameters was studied to understand accumulation of DSTs in mussels, related to the blooming of the causative toxic microalgae, belonging to genus Dinophysis. Two simplified models were useful in predicting the accumulation of DSTs in blue mussels from this lagoon. Either the May river drainage or the rainfall accumulated from January through May could adequately predict the severity of OA accumulated from predation upon Dinophysis acuminata during June/July. In both cases a linear relationship was obtained, with correlation coefficients of 0.85 or greater. Winds with a west direction favour coastal concentration of Dinophysis acuta in Aveiro region. Both OA and DTX2 contamination increased exponentially in September/October with the cumulative number of days with W-wind orientation in the preceding August (correlation coefficients greater than 0.92). This relationship was attributed to the quadratic effect of wind stress on surface currents. August is a transitional month, when the continental runoff effect upon Dinophysis acuminata can still be observed and Dinophysis acuta advection may be promoted by westerly winds occurring in July. The frequency of periods with northerly winds in July can halt accumulation of toxins derived from Dinophysis acuta.

Vale, Paulo

2012-02-01

247

Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12–18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 ?mol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon. PMID:23676417

Laabir, Mohamed; Collos, Yves; Masseret, Estelle; Grzebyk, Daniel; Abadie, Eric; Savart, Veronique; Sibat, Manoella; Amzil, Zouher

2013-01-01

248

A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella  

PubMed Central

To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Veronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

2014-01-01

249

A feedback mechanism to control apoptosis occurs in the digestive gland of the oyster crassostrea gigas exposed to the paralytic shellfish toxins producer Alexandrium catenella.  

PubMed

To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-Khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

2014-09-01

250

Interactions between a natural food web, shellfish farming and exotic species: The case of the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure sustainable uses of the coastal zone, an integrated ecosystemic approach and ecosystem models are required to frame ecological processes and evaluate environmental impacts. Here, a mass-balance trophic (Ecopath) model of the Mont Saint Michel Bay (MSMB) was developed, to analyze the bay's functioning as an ecosystem. This bay, intensively exploited by fishing and for shellfish farming, is also suffering from the proliferation of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata, an exotic species. The MSMB model has 18 compartments, from the primary producers to top predators, and emphasizes the large biomass of filter feeders. The model identified the MSMB as a highly productive ecosystem controlled largely from the bottom-up, and strongly impacted by huge biomasses of filter feeders. However, the low transfer efficiency rates imply that a large part of the primary production is not transferred upward to higher trophic levels, but is lost in high hydrodynamic exchanges and in the trophic impasse represented by a large biomass of Crepidula fornicata.

Arbach Leloup, F.; Desroy, N.; Le Mao, P.; Pauly, D.; Le Pape, O.

2008-01-01

251

Distribution and linkage of domoic acid (amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of the scallop Pecten maximus.  

PubMed

The king scallop Pecten maximus accumulates domoic acid, the main amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the digestive gland for a long time. To try to find if the cause of this characteristic is the binding of the toxin to some cellular component, the subcellular distribution of domoic acid in the cells of the digestive gland was studied, by means of serial centrifugation, ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Domoic acid was found to be present mostly in soluble form in the cytosol, as more than 90% was found in the supernatant after a centrifugation of 1h at 45,000 x g, and passed a 10 kDa ultrafilter. The retention time of the peak with an absorption maximum of 242 nm--the one characteristic of domoic acid--observed in the SEC chromatograms of the scallop samples was found identical to be one of a reference solution of the toxin, indicating therefore, that domoic acid is free in the cytosol of the digestive gland of Pecten maximus. This finding turns the focus from binding to the lack of membrane transporters in this species of the scallop as the cause of the long retention time of domoic acid in this species. PMID:19852975

Mauriz, Aida; Blanco, Juan

2010-01-01

252

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins by surfclams, Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn, 1897) in the Gulf of Maine: seasonal changes, distribution between tissues, and notes on feeding habits.  

PubMed

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by surfclams, Spisula solidissima, was studied over a period of two years at two inshore locations in southern Maine and at six stations on Georges Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Whole animals as well as individual tissues (siphon, mantle, digestive gland, foot, adductor muscle, gill) were analyzed for PSP-toxicity levels using the standard AOAC mouse bioassay. Analyses of gut contents were carried out on surfclams from both inshore and offshore locations to identify the type of particles ingested. Surfclams feed primarily on phytoplankton and detrital material characteristic of the overlying seawater and surface sediment. No evidence was found for any selection based on particle size or type. Elevated levels of PSP toxins were noted in surfclams from Georges Bank more than two years after initial toxification. Toxins were not evenly distributed among the various tissues of surfclams. Initially, maximum toxicity among surfclam tissues was found in digestive glands; however, subsequent analyses of samples collected later in the year indicated that toxicity in gill and mantle tissues had increased relative to initial values. No toxicity was detected in adductor muscles. Surfclams are characterized by a high variation in total toxin load among individual animals, with a tendency for decreasing variation as toxin levels increase. Archived data from the Main Department of Marine Resources revealed annual and seasonal patterns of toxin accumulation by surfclams, i.e., toxin accumulation is an annual event, with initial increases in toxicity usually occurring in early spring. PMID:7952949

Shumway, S E; Sherman, S A; Cembella, A D; Selvin, R

1994-01-01

253

Evaluation of tidal marsh restoration: Comparison of selected macroinvertebrate populations on a restored impounded valley marsh and an unimpounded valley marsh within the same salt marsh system in Connecticut, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroinvertebrates were examined on an impounded valley marsh in Stonington, Connecticut, that has changed from a Typha-dominated system to one with typical salt-marsh vegetation during 13 years following the reintroduction of tidal exchange. Animal populations on this restored impounded marsh were evaluated by comparing them with populations on a nearby unimpounded valley marsh of roughly the same size. Populations of the high marsh snail, Melampus bidentatus Say, were quantitatively sampled along transects that extended from the water-marsh edge to the upland; those of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa Dillwyn, were sampled in low marsh areas on transects along the banks of creeks and mosquito ditches. The occurrence of other marsh invertebrates also was documented, but their abundance was not measured. The mean density of Melampus was 332±39.6 SE/m2 on the restored impounded marsh and 712±56.0 SE/m2 on the unimpounded marsh. However, since snails were larger on the restored impounded marsh, the difference in snail biomass was less pronounced than the difference in snail density. Mean Melampus biomass was 4.96±0.52 SE g dry wt/m2 on the restored impounded marsh and 6.96±0.52 SE g dry wt/m2 on the unimpounded marsh. On the two marshes, snail density and biomass varied in relation to plant cover and other factors. The density and biomass of Geukensia at the edge of the marsh were comparable on the restored impounded and unimpounded marshes. Mean mussel densities ranged from 80 to 240/m2 and mean mussel biomass varied from 24.8-64.8 g dry wt/m2 in different low marsh areas. In contrast, below the impoundment dike, mean Geukensia density was 1100±96.4 SE/m2 and mean Geukensia biomass was 303.6±33.28 SE g dry wt/m2. A consideration of all available evidence leads to the conclusion that the impounded marsh is in an advanced phase of restoration.

Peck, Myron A.; Fell, Paul E.; Allen, Elizabeth A.; Gieg, Jennifer A.; Guthke, Carl R.; Newkirk, Michael D.

1994-03-01

254

Partitioning of paralytic shellfish toxins in sub-cellular fractions of the digestive gland of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Changes under post-bloom natural conditions.  

PubMed

Concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins (C1+2, B1, dcGTX2+3, dcSTX, GTX2+3 and STX) were determined by LC-FLD in composite samples of digestive glands of the cockle Cerastoderma edule and in each sub-cellular particulate fractions obtained after differential centrifugation (nuclei+debris, mitochondria, lysosomes and microsomes). The specimens were sampled during the exposure to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum (day 0) and in the subsequent 8, 12, 14, 19, 21 and 25 days under natural depuration conditions. Toxin profiles of digestive glands were dominated by C1+2 followed by B1 and dcGTX2+3, although the proportion between C1+2 and B1 contents decreased with the time, indicating a slower elimination of B1. All toxins, except GTX2+3 and STX, were quantified in the four sub-cellular fractions. The content of the quantified toxins decreased most markedly in nuclei+debris and microsomal fractions, during the first eight and 12 days, respectively. Conversely, different patterns were observed among toxins in mitochondrial and lysosomal fractions. The less accentuated decreases of dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX contents in the mitochondrial fraction may have resulted from the conversion of other toxins, like C1+2 and B1, associated with enzymatic activities in that fraction. The largest discrepancy was registered in lysosomal fraction for B1, since its content increased after eight days of post-bloom conditions. Input of B1 may come from the conversion of other toxins, like the abundant B2 and C1+2. These transformations are associated to the major role of lysosomes in the intra-cellular digestive process of materials acquired through vesicular transport. PMID:24736027

Botelho, Maria João; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

2014-06-01

255

Contrasting physiological responses of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).  

PubMed

This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves. PMID:25153329

Navarro, Jorge M; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A; Chaparro, Oscar R; Segura, Cristian J; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J; Labarta, Uxio

2014-01-01

256

Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.  

PubMed

Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in reporting, rather than early detection of a disease outbreak. Both economic compensation and the farmers' non-economic values and perceptions should be considered to improve oyster farmers' reporting compliance and sustainability of the reporting system. Education and participatory approaches could help to change these attitudes and thus improve oyster farmers' compliance with reporting duties, resulting in improved early detection of epidemics and emerging or exotic oyster diseases. PMID:24880624

Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

2014-09-01

257

AL ASK A SHELLFISH FISHERIES Alaska Shellfish Fisheries  

E-print Network

and snow crabs account for a majority of this value (about $127 million); Tanner crab contributed little Unknown Undefined Subtotal, king crab 10,537 11,002 18,916 Snow and Tanner crabs Grooved Tanner crab3,397 Below Not overfishing Rebuilding Southern Tanner crab3 Adak (western Aleutians) 41 41 181 Unknown

258

FISH AND SHELLFISH what's inside  

E-print Network

Savory Grilled Soft-Shell Crabs, 8 Sesame Rainbow Trout, 8 Boiled Lobster, 10 Charcoal Broiled Scallops Chesapeake Bay Clambake, 14 Crispy Fried Rainbow Trout 14 Oriental Swordfish Steaks, 16 Blue Crab Boil, 16 Trout, 24 #12;buying the fish ... Fresh and frozen fish may be purchased in a variety of cuts or forms

259

QPX Parasite Shellfish - New Jersey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This State of New Jersey fact sheet (PDF) briefly outlines the ecological and socioeconomic risks associated with Quahog Parasite X (QPX), a parasite that kills hard clams. QPX was first discovered in New Jersey in the 1970s.

Jersey, State O.

260

Detection of okadaic acid and related esters in mussels during diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes in Greece using the mouse bioassay, the PP2A inhibition assay and HPLC with fluorimetric detection.  

PubMed

An approach involving chemical, functional and biological techniques was taken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) in mussels from Thermaikos and Saronikos Gulfs, Greece, during DSP episodes that occurred in 2006-2007. Samples were analyzed using the mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD), using l-bromoacetylpyrene (BAP), as a precolumn derivatisation reagent, and the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2AIA) using a commercially available kit. Okadaic acid (OA) and its polar and non-polar esters were detected and quantified by HPLC-FLD, after hydrolysis of the samples during preparation. The detection limit of the HPLC method for OA was 5.86 microg OA/kg, which permits this method to be used for the regulatory control of these toxins in shellfish. Comparison of the results by all three methods revealed excellent consistency. PMID:19046982

Prassopoulou, Eleanna; Katikou, Panagiota; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kyritsakis, Apostolos

2009-02-01

261

Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers  

PubMed Central

The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem. PMID:25071995

Fournier, Alexa M.; Furman, Bradley T.; Carroll, John M.

2014-01-01

262

Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem. PMID:25071995

Peterson, Bradley J; Fournier, Alexa M; Furman, Bradley T; Carroll, John M

2014-01-01

263

FROZEN PROCESSED FISH AND SHELLFISH CONSUMPTION IN  

E-print Network

was conducted in ten selected cities by Crossley, S-D Surveys, Inc. , of New York City in order to obtain 1957 or Last Fiscal Year · 53 b Amount Establishments Spent for Food During Previous Twelve Months o..o.o..o.......o..o... 54 c Percentage of Total Operating Cost Spent for Food in Previous Twelve Months ......o

264

FISH AND SHELLFISH PREFERENCES OF HOUSEHOLD  

E-print Network

. Garfield·· Contents May 1952 Survey methods and characterist i cs · · · 0 0 0 · · · · . . .Major findings informat on as to survey me hods . characteristic s . etc. than is shown belo · SURVEY METHODS

265

Habitat context influences predator interference interactions and the strength of resource partitioning.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence that habitat structure can shape predator-prey interactions, few studies have examined the impact of habitat context on interactions among multiple predators and the consequences for combined foraging rates. We investigated the individual and combined effects of stone crabs (Menippe mercenaria) and knobbed whelks (Busycon carica) when foraging on two common bivalves, the hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in oyster reef and sand flat habitats. Because these species co-occur across these and other estuarine habitats of varying physical complexity, this system is ideal for examining how habitat context influences foraging rates and the generality of predator interactions. Consistent with results from previous studies, consumption rates of each predator in isolation from the other were higher in the sand flat than in the more structurally complex oyster reef habitat. However, consumption by the two predators when combined surprisingly did not differ between the two habitats. This counterintuitive result probably stems from the influence of habitat structure on predator-predator interactions. In the sand-flat habitat, whelks significantly reduced their consumption of their less preferred prey when crabs were present. However, the structurally more complex oyster reef habitat appeared to reduce interference interactions among predators, such that consumption rates when the predators co-occurred did not differ from predation rates when alone. In addition, both habitat context and predator-predator interactions increased resource partitioning by strengthening predator dietary selectivity. Thus, an understanding of how habitat characteristics such as physical complexity influence interactions among predators may be critical to predicting the effects of modifying predator populations on their shared prey. PMID:16705438

Hughes, A Randall; Grabowski, Jonathan H

2006-08-01

266

Restricting Prey Dispersal Can Overestimate the Importance of Predation in Trophic Cascades  

PubMed Central

Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957

Geraldi, Nathan R.; Macreadie, Peter I.

2013-01-01

267

Using bivalves as particle collectors with PCR detection to investigate the environmental distribution of Haplosporidium nelsoni.  

PubMed

Recently, PCR technology has been applied to search for marine microorganisms in environmental samples. Such sampling, however, has drawbacks, including the need to collect and filter large volumes of water, and the presence of substances in environmental samples that may destroy DNA or interfere with DNA isolation and amplification. We explored the possibility of using suspension-feeding bivalves in conjunction with PCR to investigate the environmental distribution of microparasites using the oyster pathogen Haplosporidium nelsoni (the MSX disease agent) with oysters and mussels in Delaware Bay, USA, as a model system. Delaware Bay oysters Crassostrea virginica have become very resistant to H. nelsoni infection development and rarely exhibit histologically detectable lesions. The ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa is also resistant. Infections were detected in only 6% of the histologically examined oysters in the present study, although PCR-positive signals for H. nelsoni were found in feces, gill or heart samples of up to 100% of oysters. Positive signals were found in the feces and gill (but not heart) samples of up to 50% of mussels. The temporal evolution of PCR signals suggested a wave-like pattern of putative infective particles, which mimicked a pattern documented in early mortality studies. The present study demonstrated that H. nelsoni persists throughout Delaware Bay, although it is rarely detected using standard histology. We propose that the use of suspension-feeding bivalves as particle collectors in combination with PCR could be a method for detecting the presence of marine microparasites and might help answer questions about factors that prevent outbreaks of epizootics in certain regions. PMID:19326797

Ford, Susan E; Allam, Bassem; Xu, Zhe

2009-02-12

268

Restricting prey dispersal can overestimate the importance of predation in trophic cascades.  

PubMed

Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish--Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab--Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed musse--Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957

Geraldi, Nathan R; Macreadie, Peter I

2013-01-01

269

New England Shellfish Beds Reopen After Toxic Red Algae Recedes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS article describes red tide, a phenomenon caused by phytoplankton in coastal waters. The site includes brief summaries of the causes and impacts of red tide, both on health and the tourism industry. A link to a PDF version of the article is provided.

Schleicher, Annie; Extra, Public B.

270

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...A hydraulic clam digger; (vi) A mechanical clam digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. (3) You are prohibited from buying or...

2011-10-01

271

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A hydraulic clam digger; (vi) A mechanical clam digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. (3) You are prohibited from buying or...

2013-07-01

272

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A hydraulic clam digger; (vi) A mechanical clam digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. (3) You are prohibited from buying or...

2013-10-01

273

Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe ?-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 ?Sv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 ?Sv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 ?Sv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 ?Sv, 22.0 to 38.4 ?Sv and 31.1 to 45.5 ?Sv, being some several times world average values.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

2013-07-01

274

Hydrocarbon pollution of edible shellfish by an oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spill of 650,000 to 700,000 l of No. 2 fuel oil has contaminated the coastal areas of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (USA). Gas chromatography demonstrates the presence of this oil in the sediments of the affected area. Two months after the accident, essentially unchanged oil is still being released from the sediments. The presence of the same pollutant is demonstrated

M. Blumer; G. Souza; J. Sass

1970-01-01

275

Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa.  

PubMed

Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ?200 to ?50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and "jewelry" become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion. PMID:23776248

Klein, Richard G; Steele, Teresa E

2013-07-01

276

ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF HABITAT ALTERATION ON SHELLFISH POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Habitat provides a variety of life support functions for many species, such as providing shelter, substrate, food, and nursery areas. Habitat alteration is one of the most important causes of declines in ecological resources in North America, and habitats essential to the well b...

277

The use of immunostimulatory substances in fish and shellfish farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different compounds with highly diverse chemical structures have been shown to elevate the overall resistance of animals to a number of infectious agents simultaneously. Such compounds, usually called immunostimulants, include bacterial cell wall fragments, ß?1,3?glucans of yeast and mycelial fungi, peptides, and a number of synthetic products. The present review paper describes the chemical structure of various

Jan Raa

1996-01-01

278

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes of propagation, or research related to propagation, at any...

2010-10-01

279

RESEARCH Open Access Maternal fish and shellfish consumption and  

E-print Network

associations with health effects observable at later ages, such as allergic asthma. Keywords: Fish intake chemicals [1,2] and the antenatal and early childhood period is an important window of vulnerability [3 childhood [6] and may be associated with respiratory or allergic symptoms in preschool children (wheezing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Impact of diffuse faecal pollution on estuarine shellfish mariculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal contamination of estuarine environments can severely impact the recreational use of the environment and also have large economic consequences for the shellfisheries industry. Faecal contamination entering aquatic systems does not necessarily stem from point sources. The development of novel techniques using sterol biomarkers at Essex has found that diffuse sources of faecal pollution play a highly significant role for

David J. Smith; Graham J. C. Underwood

281

Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fish and Shellfish of the Chesapeake Bay  

E-print Network

, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, sealants, and adhesives; as laminates in the fabrication of safety glass firms does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. PCB's are identified

282

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

...LANDS IN ALASKA Subsistence Taking of Fish and Wildlife § 242.28 Subsistence...of a beneficiary. (4) You may not fish with more than one legal limit of gear...the date the vessel operator intends to fish. No more than 500 pounds (227 kg)...

2014-07-01

283

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes of...

2011-10-01

284

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes of...

2013-10-01

285

50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...permit pursuant to part 17 or part 23 of this subchapter, live aquatic invertebrates of the Class Pelecypoda (commonly known as oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) and the eggs, larvae, or juvenile forms thereof may be exported for purposes of...

2012-10-01

286

Water quality and shellfish sanitation. [Patuxent and Choptank River watersheds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of remote sensing techniques for collecting bacteriological, physical, and chemical water quality data, locating point and nonpoint sources of pollution, and developing hydrological data was found to be valuable to the Maryland program if it could be produced effectively and rapidly with a minimum amount of ground corroboration.

Eisenberg, M.

1978-01-01

287

Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisons in thai freshwater puffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening tests were carried out on the toxicity of freshwater puffers Tetraodon leiurus complex and Tetraodon suvatii collected from Udonthani province, north-eastern Thailand. Toxicity was highest in the liver and varied according to the location and season of fish catch. Fish which were reared in tap water for 3 months reduced the toxicity substantially. Partial purification was achieved by an

Attaya Kungsuwan; Osamu Arakawa; Manoon Promdet; Yoshio Onoue

1997-01-01

288

Allergy-induced preterm labor after the ingestion of shellfish .  

E-print Network

??Preterm parturition is a syndrome caused by several mechanisms of disease, including intrauterine infection/inflammation, uteroplacental ischemia, uterine overdistension, cervical disease, maternal/fetal stress, abnormal allogeneic responses,… (more)

Romero, Roberto

2010-01-01

289

Selective Accumulation May Account for Shellfish-Associated Viral Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

ium perfringens, and F 1 coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastroin- testinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F 1 coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a

WILLIAM BURKHARDT III; KEVIN R. CALCI

2000-01-01

290

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aboard the vessel. (iii) In waters south of 60° North latitude, the daily harvest...taking of king crab: (A) In waters south of 60° North latitude, the daily harvest...secured fully open. (C) In waters south of 60° North latitude, you may take...

2011-07-01

291

Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification resulting from human emissions of carbon dioxide has already lowered and will further lower surface ocean pH. The consequent decrease in calcium carbonate saturation potentially threatens calcareous marine organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the calcification rates of the edible mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) decline linearly with increasing pCO2. Mussel and oyster calcification may decrease by 25 and 10%, respectively, by the end of the century, following the IPCC IS92a scenario (~740 ppmv in 2100). Moreover, mussels dissolve at pCO2 values exceeding a threshold value of ~1800 ppmv. As these two species are important ecosystem engineers in coastal ecosystems and represent a large part of worldwide aquaculture production, the predicted decrease of calcification in response to ocean acidification will probably have an impact on coastal biodiversity and ecosystem functioning as well as potentially lead to significant economic loss.

Gazeau, Frédéric; Quiblier, Christophe; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Middelburg, Jack J.; Heip, Carlo H. R.

2007-04-01

292

Tracking responses to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill using trace elements in molluscan shells and tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documenting the effects of modern stressors on coastal benthic marine communities requires a combination of baseline historical data and modern dynamic data. E.g., landfall of hydrocarbons from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon rig and well explosion in the Gulf of Mexico is impacting coastal areas long affected by natural seepage, as well as petroleum exploration and development. In Louisiana, exploration in coastal areas that began in the 1920s expanded greatly with the development of the first mobile drilling barge in 1933. In total nearly 50,000 wells have been drilled in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1930s. Given this historical context, we are assessing pathways and rates at which crude oil components from the 2010 spill are incorporated into northern Gulf of Mexico coastal food webs. Sclerochronological techniques are being used to unlock the high-resolution physical and chemical records preserved within mollusc shells. We are analyzing historical specimens collected from the late 19th through late 20th centuries, baseline specimens collected in May 2010 in Louisiana and Alabama before visible hydrocarbons were present, and specimens collected in August 2010 after hydrocarbons made landfall. We are examining changes in life history traits (growth rate, recruitment, mortality, reproduction) of the commercial oyster Crassostrea virginica, and other common, co-occurring molluscs that are primary and secondary consumers in Gulf of Mexico coastal food webs. The taxa include the marsh-dwelling gastropod Littoraria irrorata and mussel Geukensia demissa, and open-water species including the bivalves Ischadium recurvum and Tellina alternata. These consumers range from epifaunal, sessile, filter feeders; to infaunal, mobile, deposit feeders; to epifaunal, mobile, omnivorous grazers. In this way, multiple potential pathways into coastal food webs are being monitored. Because environmental perturbations of many scales are recorded by the accretionary growth of mollusc shells, we can monitor the sub-monthly incorporation of hydrocarbon components into shells, such as trace metals (e.g., V, Ni, Cu and Cr), while simultaneously measuring changes in shell growth rate. We will also measure concentrations of metals in soft tissues from specimens collected since May 2010. Trace metal concentrations will be determined using ICPMS. Annual and sub-annual growth rates will be calculated from ?13C and ?18O profiles derived from ontogentic sampling of the molluscs' shells. The comparisons between historic, baseline and post-landfall specimens will allow us to assess the changing conditions of these species and their food webs as drilling expanded in the Gulf during the 20th century, and therefore distinguish the immediate impact of the Deepwater Horizon spill from these background factors. In this way, we will also trace secondary impacts (not related to fouling by direct contact) of hydrocarbons through trophic levels of the coastal ecosystem.

Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Goodwin, D.

2010-12-01

293

Phylogeny, evolution, and systematics of the Galea musteloides complex (Rodentia: Caviidae)  

E-print Network

) from the central Bolivian Andes, G. m. auceps (Thomas, 1911) from the Altiplano region around Lake Titicaca, and G. m. demissa (Thomas, 1921) from the Bolivian lowlands adjacent to the Andean foothills

294

Microbial flora and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan shellfish, water, and sediment  

E-print Network

(-) Oxidase (+) (5, 13, 16, 32, 53, 56) Yellow i ment Hugh- Leifson (27, 28, 51, 52) No reaction (+) NH -arginine (-) Oxid. (61) Ferm. Pseudomonas +) Moti lit (-) Flagella Moraxella (11, 23, 25) Pseudomonas NH3 from arginine (+) Gas from... glucose (Resistance to pteri dine ? 0/129) (6, 17) (+) peri tri chous olar (&3) olar (3 or &) Aeromonas Vibrio ~A1 1 Pseudomonas (atypical) Gomamonas (22) Fig. 2. Scheme for identification of gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria. Gram stain...

Thompson, Charles Albert

2012-06-07

295

EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB) WITH ESTUARINE MICROORGANISMS AND SHELLFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of estuarine bacteria in the mobilization, transport, and removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was investigated in estuarine environments. A main objective of this investigation was to determine a secondary impact of PCB contamination of estuarine systems. The spec...

296

Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human.\\u000a Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations.\\u000a The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations\\u000a of zinc, copper, lead,

Abhijit Mitra; Ranju Chowdhury; Kakoli Banerjee

297

Raymond Townsend, and Joseph D. Vaughn, New Jersey Division of Fish, Game, and Shellfish;  

E-print Network

. Bull. 74, 577 p. COCHRAN, W G. 1977. Sampling techniques. 3d ed. Wiley, N.Y., 428 p. DEUEL,D. G. 1973 p. BIGELOW, H. B., AND W C. SCHROEDER. 1953. Fishes ofthe GulfofMaine. U.S. Fish. Wild. Serv., Fish. The 1970 salt-water angling survey. U.S. Dep. Commer., Cur. Fish. Stat. 6200, 54 p. FRASER, M. B., J. A

298

Animal-free paralytic shellfish toxin testing--the Canadian perspective to improved health protection.  

PubMed

The performance characteristics of AOAC Official Method 2011.02 (the PCOX method) as a replacement for the AOAC mouse bioassay procedure have been well defined by validation studies, but these data do not communicate the complete story. The context provided by analyzing 9000 regulatory monitoring samples over 3 years demonstrates not only the reduction in animal use but also the increase in food safety that has been realized using a chemistry-based method. Detection of lower toxin levels provided early warning to enable directed sampling as toxin levels increased. The toxin profile information generated by a chemistry-based method was used to detect potential interferences qualitatively and can be used to assess the impact of changes recommended to monitoring programs. Such changes might include which toxins should be included in an action limit or the toxic equivalence factors used for these toxins. PMID:24830144

Rourke, Wade A; Murphy, Cory J

2014-01-01

299

IDENTIFYING CLIMATIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS IN MARYLAND!  

E-print Network

114th Ave. BE., Bellevue, WA 98004. 6Martin Marietta Corporation, Environmental Center, Bal- timore. Sutcliffe (1972) found freshwater input to St. Margaret's Bay to be a good indicator of fish- eries

300

Overfishing and the Replacement of Demersal Finfish by Shellfish: An Example from the English Channel  

PubMed Central

The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920–2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB). Food webs of the Channel ecosystem have been altered, as shown by a significant decline in the mTL of fishery landings whilst increases in the FiB index suggest increased fishing effort and fishery expansion. Large, high trophic level species (e.g. spurdog, cod, ling) have been increasingly replaced by smaller, low trophic level fish (e.g. small spotted catsharks) and invertebrates (e.g. scallops, crabs and lobster). Declining trophic levels in fisheries catches have occurred worldwide, with fish catches progressively being replaced by invertebrates. We argue that a network of fisheries closures would help rebalance the trophic status of the Channel and allow regeneration of marine ecosystems. PMID:25010196

Molfese, Carlotta; Beare, Doug; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

2014-01-01

301

Ocean Warming, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation  

PubMed Central

Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4°C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4–6 h day?1). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Ball, Richard J.; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

302

Ocean warming, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.  

PubMed

Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785

Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

303

Harvesting Shellfish: Unit F#2 Grade 4. Project COULD: Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project COULD (Career Orientation Utilizing Language Development) was developed as a means of building skills, knowledges, and attitudes on elementary children's previously acquired backgrounds. Children begin to speak the grammar and vocabulary characteristic of the language heard most frequently at home and in the immediate environment. A series…

Coos County Intermediate Education District, North Bend, OR.

304

Species Diversity in Florida's Shellfish Aquaculture Industry Over the past several years there has been an  

E-print Network

of marine organ- isms, serving as nursery grounds for fish, crabs, and others. They provide protection from to Florida of the green mussel, which is an important fishery and aquaculture species in the Indo will allow you to better understand the green mussel's future role in our coastal environment. Sources

Florida, University of

305

CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN WHOLE-BODY FISH AND SHELLFISH FROM U.S. ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) pollutants are chemical contaminants that pose risks to ecosystems and human health. For these reasons, available tissue contaminant data from the US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment were...

306

Rocky Intertidal Zonation Pattern in Antofagasta, Chile: Invasive Species and Shellfish Gathering  

PubMed Central

Background Biological invasions affecting rocky intertidal zonation patterns, yield information on species interactions. In the Bay of Antofagasta, northern Chile, the non-indigenous tunicate Pyura praeputialis, originally from Australia, has invaded (in the past century or so) and monopolized a major portion of the mid-intertidal rocky shore, displacing upshore the native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. In Antofagasta the tunicate is subjected to intensive exploitation. Monitoring protocols show that in the past 10 years Antofagasta's tunicate population has experienced a drastic decline, affecting the intertidal zonation pattern. Methodology/Principal Findings A 12.5 km of coastline, on the southern eastern shore of the Bay of Antofagasta, was studied. Eight sites were systematically (1993–1994) or sporadically (2003–2014) monitored for the seaward-shoreward expansion or reduction of the tunicate Pyura praeputialis, and native mussel and barnacle bands. A notable reduction in the mid-intertidal band of P. praeputialis and a seaward expansion of the mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, and barnacle bands was observed. We suggest that the major cause for the decline in the tunicate is due to its intensive exploitation by rocky shore Pyura-gathers. The rate of extraction of tunicates by professional Pyura-gathers ranged between 256–740 tunicates hour?1. Between 2009–2014 the density of professional Pyura-gather ranged between 0.5–4.5 km?1 per low tide. Hence, 10 professional Pyura-gathers working 1 h for 10 low tides per month, during 6 months, will remove between 307–888 m2 of tunicates. A drastic decline in tunicate recruitment was observed and several P. praeputialis ecosystems services have been lost. Conclusion and Significance In Antofagasta, the continuous and intensive intertidal gathering of the invasive tunicate Pyura praeputialis, has caused a drastic reduction of its population modifying the zonation pattern. Thereby, native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus has regained its ecological center in the intertidal zone. We recorded a Pyura recruitment failure and loss of ecosystem services. PMID:25338112

Castilla, Juan Carlos; Manriquez, Patricio H.; Delgado, Alejandro; Ortiz, Veronica; Jara, Maria Elisa; Varas, Manuel

2014-01-01

307

Contaminant concentrations in whole-body fish and shellfish from US estuaries.  

PubMed

Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) pollutants are chemical contaminants that pose risks to ecosystems and human health. For these reasons, available tissue contaminant data from the US EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment were examined to estimate to what areal extent PBTs are found in US estuarine resources. The data document composite, whole-body tissue chemical concentrations for 736 sampling sites across Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, and West Coast estuaries. Tissue chemical concentrations were compared to US EPA non-cancer risk guidelines for recreational fishers, because of a lack of ecological guidelines for these chemical concentrations. Samples were analyzed for 23 PAH compounds, 21 PCB congeners, 6 DDT derivatives and metabolites, 14 chlorinated pesticides (other than DDT) and 13 metals, including mercury. Total PCBs were found to exceed recreational fisher guidelines most frequently (31% of samples evaluated), followed by mercury (29%), total PAHs (21%), and DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE (11%). Toxaphene, cadmium and dieldrin were found but in fewer than 1% of the samples. PMID:17564799

Harvey, James; Harwell, Linda; Summers, J Kevin

2008-02-01

308

JOURNAL OF SHELLFISH RESEARCH IVOLUME 25, NUMBER 2 AUGUST ZOO6 1  

E-print Network

mm, and stocked in pearl nets (34 x 34 cni) at densities ranging from 200-500 oysters per net. The pearl nets. in vertical arrays of 4 nets, were deployed at the adult growout site during July for 3 seed required to stock a significantly expanded adult grow- out system in West Harbor. JOD AT OYSTER

Allam, Bassem

309

The influence of fly ash and shell-fish on physical property of concrete cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste fly ash and shell fish are added to base material of cement (clinker, gypsum, trash and lime stone), for environmental reason. The ratio fly ash and shell fish was varied respectively 375:125; 250:250; 125:375, in grams weight for 2500 grams of total material. The chemical composition of raw material was determined by using x-rays fluorescence (XRF). Physical properties of sample match with Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). The physical properties of the best sample is made from composition of fly ash and shell fish as a substitution material on cement was 10% in weight, with ratio 250:250 in grams weight.

Rauf, Nurlaela; Hasruddin, M.

2012-06-01

310

PROBING NORWALK-LIKE VIRUS PRESENCE IN SHELLFISH WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS. (R829784)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

311

77 FR 36260 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing...Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and Constitution...Science Center is undertaking an economics research project to...

2012-06-18

312

50 CFR 100.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister ). Cub bear means a...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse, and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2011-10-01

313

50 CFR 100.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister ). Cub bear means a...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse, and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2010-10-01

314

36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister ). Cub bear means a...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse, and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2010-07-01

315

50 CFR 100.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Cub bear means a brown...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2013-10-01

316

36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Cub bear means a brown...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2014-07-01

317

36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Cub bear means a brown...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2012-07-01

318

50 CFR 100.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Cub bear means a brown...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2012-10-01

319

36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Cub bear means a brown...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2013-07-01

320

36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chionoecetes spp.), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister ). Cub bear means a...one place. Edible meat means the breast meat of ptarmigan and grouse, and...ptarmigan; however, you may not use the breast meat of grouse and ptarmigan as...

2011-07-01

321

Shellfish AquacultureL E T T E R Vol. VI No. III  

E-print Network

and Aquaculture Marketing in the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will allow for the initiation of a comprehensive advertising and promotional campaign this year. In addition, finding ways to reduce production,000 people, all clamoring to consume clams steamed, raw, in chowder, and over pasta. At the 33rd Annual

Florida, University of

322

Androgenesis: a review through the study of the selfish shellfish Corbicula spp.  

PubMed Central

Among the asexual reproductive modes, androgenesis is probably one of the most astonishing and least studied mechanisms. In this ‘paternal monopolization', the maternal nuclear genome fails to participate in zygote development and offspring are paternal nuclear clones. Obligate androgenesis is known in only a few organisms, including multiple species of clam in the genus Corbicula. Corbicula is a good system to review the evolutionary consequences of this ‘all-male asexuality' because the cytological mechanisms of androgenetic reproduction have been described. In Corbicula, sperm are unreduced and, after fertilization, the maternal nuclear chromosomes are extruded as two polar bodies. Hermaphroditic lineages of Corbicula have a worldwide distribution and seem to reproduce through androgenesis, whereas their sexual relatives have restricted ranges. The invasive success of these androgenetic Corbicula lineages may be linked to their asexual mode of reproduction. We review the phenomenon of androgenesis, focusing on evolutionary perspectives, using the genus Corbicula as an exemplar system. PMID:22473310

Pigneur, L-M; Hedtke, S M; Etoundi, E; Van Doninck, K

2012-01-01

323

The first evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins in the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, isolated from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue–green algae) are causing problems in many countries. During a screening of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in Brazil, three strains isolated from the State of São Paulo were found toxic by the mouse bioassay. They all were identified as Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii by a close morphological examination. Extracts of cultured cells caused acute death to mice when

Néstor Lagos; Hideyuki Onodera; Pedro Antonio Zagatto; Dar??o Andrinolo; Sandra M. F. Q Azevedo; Yasukatsu Oshima

1999-01-01

324

MERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. II. SABLEFISH, ANOPLOPOMA FIMBRIA  

E-print Network

found that the edible muscle tissue of a number of sablefish contained mercury in excess of the FDA in the edible muscle tissue of sablefish, Anoplopomafimbria (Pallas). The first paper in the series at the same time. Analytical samples consisted of the entire fillets of each fish. The edible muscle tissue

325

MERCURY IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC. 1. PACIFIC HALIBUT, HIPPOGLOSSUS STENOLEPIS  

E-print Network

in the edible muscle tissue. These fish were obtained from five geographical areas within the species range to be uniformly distributed from nape to tail in the edible muscle tissue. Within each geographical area exceeds the guideline in our aquat- ic resources. This paper reports our findings on mercury in the edible

326

Modeling ecological carrying capacity of shellfish aquaculture in highly flushed temperate lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoons are some of the most productive systems on the planet — not only for aquaculture, but for fisheries, recreation, and as nurseries for many important species. These systems are also highly susceptible to degradation. Aquaculture is a rapidly increasing industry capable of impacting these sensitive systems. Dense human populations and intensive multiple uses of ecologically sensitive coastal waters have

Carrie Byron; Jason Link; Barry Costa-Pierce; David Bengtson

2011-01-01

327

A new method for preconcentration and determination of mercury in fish, shellfish and saliva by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The development of a method using solid phase extraction for preconcentration and determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. Hg (II) ions are sorbed on a minicolumn packed with Amberlite XAD-4 sorbent functionalised with 2-(2'-benzothiazolylazo)-p-cresol (BTAC). Then, a reducing solution was used for desorption and the transport of the analyte for subsequent detection. The assay presented a limit of detection of 0.011 ?g L?¹ (0.011 ?g g?¹, for solid samples), a limit of quantification of 0.038 ?g L?¹ (0.038 ?g g?¹, for solid samples), a precision of 0.50% (1.000 ?g L?¹ Hg solution) and an enrichment factor of 46. The proposed method was applied to the determination of mercury in human saliva (0.055-0.200 ?g L?¹). The following seafood collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil was also analysed: bass (0.169-0.195 ?g g?¹), mullet (0.043-0.361 ?g g?¹), shrimp (0.075-0.374 ?g g?¹) and mussel (0.206-0.397 ?g g?¹). PMID:24295696

Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; dos Santos, Liz Oliveira

2014-04-15

328

Motueka River plume facilitates transport of ruminant faecal contaminants into shellfish growing waters, Tasman Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic and water quality surveys of the Motueka River and its river plume were conducted during a moderate flood event (peak flow of 420 m\\/s) to assess the source and fate of faecal contaminants transported into Tasman Bay. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci concentrations in the river were up to 10000 and 7300 Most Probable Number (MPN)\\/100 ml during

CD Cornelisen; PA Gillespie; M Kirs; RG Young; RW Forrest; PJ Barter; BR Knight; VJ Harwood

2011-01-01

329

ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF KEPONE (TRADEMARK) RESIDUES IN FISH, SHELLFISH, AND HI-VOL AIR FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent discovery of the pollution of the environment with Kepone has resulted in a tremendous interest in the development of residue methodology for the compound. Current multiresidue methods for the determination of the common organochlorinated pesticides do not yield good q...

330

Growth and production of mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) suspended at salmon cages and shellfish farms in two Scottish sea lochs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell length and tissue growth, biomass and production of 1–2-year-old mussels suspended from salmon sea cages, mussel rafts and long-lines were monitored during May 1990–May 1992 in Lochs Etive and Leven on the west coast of Scotland. Water temperature, salinity and food availability were also determined. These showed a clear seasonal cycle and, in consequence, growth of mussels was relatively

Hadrian P. Stirling

1995-01-01

331

Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea.  

PubMed

We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating birds should be at least three times larger, than the amount set-aside in the mussel management scheme. It is concluded that the mussel management scheme had been unable to stabilize or increase the blue mussel stocks and to secure stable or increasing numbers for all target bird species. Thus, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds' energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments. PMID:21090002

Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

2010-11-01

332

Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: QPX, a Thraustochytrid-like Disease of Clams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Canadian Fisheries and Oceans fact sheet features Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a protistan parasite of the commercially exploited hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. The fact sheet includes information about its common name, scientific name, geographic distribution, host species and impact, diagnostic techniques, and references.

Bower, S. M.; Region, Fisheries A.

333

Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.  

PubMed Central

Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

Hussong, D; Damare, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

1981-01-01

334

Zebrafish neurotoxicity from aphantoxins--cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1.  

PubMed

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae), a cyanobacterium frequently encountered in water blooms worldwide, is source of neurotoxins known as PSPs or aphantoxins that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Although the molecular mechanism of PSP action is well known, many unresolved questions remain concerning its mechanisms of toxicity. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the major component toxins were the gonyautoxins1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). The LD50 of the aphantoxin preparation was determined to be 11.33 ?g/kg (7.75 ?g saxitoxin equivalents (STXeq) per kg) following intraperitoneal injection of zebrafish (Danio rerio). To address the neurotoxicology of the aphantoxin preparation, zebrafish were injected with low and high sublethal doses of A. flos-aquae DC-1 toxins 7.73 and 9.28 ?g /kg (5.3 and 6.4 ?g STXeq/kg, respectively) and brain tissues were analyzed by electron microscopy and RT-PCR at different timepoints postinjection. Low-dose aphantoxin exposure was associated with chromatin condensation, cell-membrane blebbing, and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. High-dose exposure was associated with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial swelling, and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. At early timepoints (3 h) many cells exhibited characteristic features of both apoptosis and necrosis. At later timepoints apoptosis appeared to predominate in the low-dose group, whereas necrosis predominated in the high-dose group. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA levels of the apoptosis-related genes encoding p53, Bax, caspase-3, and c-Jun were upregulated after aphantoxin exposure, but there was no evidence of DNA laddering; apoptosis could take place by pathways independent of DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate that aphantoxin exposure can cause cell death in zebrafish brain tissue, with low doses inducing apoptosis and higher doses inducing necrosis. PMID:21710505

Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Li, Genbao; Liu, Yongding

2013-05-01

335

Depuration and anatomical distribution of the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid in the king scallop Pecten maximus.  

PubMed

The depuration kinetics of the domoic acid of four body fractions (digestive gland, adductor muscle, gonad+kidney and gills+mantle) of the scallop Pecten maximus was studied over 295 days. The scallops, which had acquired the toxins during a Pseudo-nitzschia australis episode that took place the week before the beginning of the experiment, were maintained in tanks with running seawater. All the body fractions, except the adductor muscle, decreased their domoic acid burden throughout the experiment. The amount of toxin in the muscle dropped sharply at the start of the experiment but increased again at the end, to levels that were higher than the initial ones. Several dynamic models of depuration kinetics, which included the depuration of each fraction (excluding the adductor muscle) and the transfers between them, were constructed, implemented and fitted to the data to obtain their parameters. The estimated depuration rates were very low, both considering and not considering the transfer of toxin between organs or the effect of weight loss. There were strong differences in the domoic acid burden of the body fractions studied but not between their depuration rates. No net transfer from the digestive gland, the tissue with highest domoic acid concentration, to the other fractions was found, as the inclusion of these processes in the models produced only a marginally better fit to the data. The depuration of domoic acid was slightly, but significantly, affected by biomass. Weight loss induced domoic acid loss, suggesting that part of the depuration may be produced by the direct loss of bivalve cells. The concentration or dilution effect, due to decreases or increases in biomass, documented for other species and toxins, has little importance in Pecten maximus. PMID:12204591

Blanco, J; Acosta, C P; Bermúdez de la Puente, M; Salgado, C

2002-10-01

336

Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

2013-09-01

337

Occurrence of hepatitis A virus in green-lipped mussels ( Perna viridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary survey of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in local shellfish, HAV was found present in shellfish on two out of nine separate sampling occasions conducted in the winter. No HAV was ever detected in the shellfish-rearing marine waters on same sampling occasions. The levels of faecal coliforms and coliphages in both the shellfish and the shellfish-rearing waters did

T Lee; W. C Yam; T.-Y Tam; Bella S. W Ho; M. H Ng; Malcolm J Broom

1999-01-01

338

40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife. (2) A balanced...

2012-07-01

339

40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife. (2) A balanced...

2010-07-01

340

7 CFR 60.105 - Covered commodity.  

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...2) [Reserved] (3) Farm-raised fish and shellfish (including fillets, steaks...and any other flesh); (4) Wild fish and shellfish (including fillets,...

2014-01-01

341

7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.  

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions ...Reserved] (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and...

2014-01-01

342

7 CFR 60.128 - United States country of origin.  

...ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions... (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: From fish or shellfish hatched, raised, harvested,...

2014-01-01

343

40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife. (2) A balanced...

2013-07-01

344

40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife; and allows recreational...balanced indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife. (2) A balanced...

2011-07-01

345

7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised...harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and...

2011-01-01

346

7 CFR 60.128 - United States country of origin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...case of: (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: From fish or shellfish hatched, raised,...

2012-01-01

347

7 CFR 60.105 - Covered commodity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...1)-(2) [Reserved] (3) Farm-raised fish and shellfish (including fillets...any other flesh); (4) Wild fish and shellfish (including...

2011-01-01

348

7 CFR 60.105 - Covered commodity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...1)-(2) [Reserved] (3) Farm-raised fish and shellfish (including fillets...any other flesh); (4) Wild fish and shellfish (including...

2012-01-01

349

7 CFR 60.128 - United States country of origin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...case of: (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: From fish or shellfish hatched, raised,...

2013-01-01

350

7 CFR 60.105 - Covered commodity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...1)-(2) [Reserved] (3) Farm-raised fish and shellfish (including fillets...any other flesh); (4) Wild fish and shellfish (including...

2013-01-01

351

7 CFR 60.128 - United States country of origin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...case of: (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: From fish or shellfish hatched, raised,...

2011-01-01

352

7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised...harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and...

2013-01-01

353

7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions...of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised...harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and...

2012-01-01

354

77 FR 53164 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...protocol into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. DATES: Written comments must...adopted into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program at the October 2011 Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference. On June 30,...

2012-08-31

355

77 FR 75057 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...protocol into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. DATES: Effective January...adopted into the National Shellfish Sanitation Program at the October 2011 Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference. On June 30,...

2012-12-19

356

Silk utilisation and defensive behaviour of Thiania, an iridescent jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiania demissa (Thorell) and an undescribed congeneric species were studied in nature and the laboratory. Thiania is a brightly coloured, iridescent salticid from Malaysian rainforests. Its bright markings may be eucryptic in the spider’s natural habitat. The spinning behaviour of Thiania was unusual for a salticid. It made a nest by binding a pair of green leaves together with strong

Robert R. Jackson

1986-01-01

357

Detection of the marine toxin okadaic acid in mussels during a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episode in Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, using biological, chemical and immunological methods.  

PubMed

An approach involving chemical and biological techniques was taken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) in mussels from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, during a 4-month DSP episode that occurred in 2002. Samples were analyzed using the mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Okadaic acid was quantifiable at three different sites of Thermaikos Gulf reaching a maximum concentration of 36 microg/g hepatopancreas. High correlation was revealed between results derived from HPLC and ELISA (R2=0.998), while 91% consistency between HPLC and the mouse bioassay results was observed. PMID:16815531

Mouratidou, Theoni; Kaniou-Grigoriadou, Ignatia; Samara, Constantini; Kouimtzis, Themistokles

2006-08-01

358

Beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon  

PubMed Central

?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. It was reported to be produced by cyanobacteria, but also found in edible aquatic organisms, thus raising concern of a widespread human exposure. However, the chemical analysis of BMAA and its isomers are controversial, mainly due to the lack of selectivity of the analytical methods. Using factorial design, we have optimized the chromatographic separation of underivatized analogues by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. A combination of an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, appropriate chromatographic resolution and the use of specific mass spectral transitions allowed for the development of a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure to identify and quantify BMAA and its isomers (in both free and total form) in cyanobacteria and mollusk matrices (LOQ of 0.225 and 0.15 µg/g dry weight, respectively). Ten species of cyanobacteria (six are reported to be BMAA producers) were screened with this method, and neither free nor bound BMAA could be found, while both free and bound DAB were present in almost all samples. Mussels and oysters collected in 2009 in the Thau Lagoon, France, were also screened, and bound BMAA and its two isomers, DAB and AEG, were observed in all samples (from 0.6 to 14.4 µg/g DW), while only several samples contained quantifiable free BMAA. PMID:25405857

Réveillon, Damien; Abadie, Eric; Séchet, Véronique; Brient, Luc; Savar, Véronique; Bardouil, Michèle; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher

2014-01-01

359

Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France): influence of biodeposition by shellfish farming activities  

E-print Network

1 Nutrient dynamics at the sediment-water interface in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France of the present work was to evaluate the role of this activity on nutrient exchange at the sediment-water interface in relation to organic matter (OM) sedimentation and degradation. Two stations inside (C5

Boyer, Edmond

360

Antimicrobial Peptides in oyster hemolymph: the bacterial connection Version auteur de l'article publi dans : Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 34, Issue 6, June 2013, Pages 14391447  

E-print Network

1 Antimicrobial Peptides in oyster hemolymph: the bacterial connection Version auteur de l in oyster hemolymph : the bacterial connection Abstract We have explored antimicrobial compounds in oyster (X), we suspected a bacterial origin and tracked cultivable hemolymph-resident bacteria of oyster

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification3 of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas4  

E-print Network

1 Lipids:1 2 Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas, France8 9 Keywords : Stanol analysis; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Oysters, Fecal10 stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using19 either single or combination of lipid purification steps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Run reconstruction and life-history model. Fish/shellfish study number 28. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon Valdez oil spill resulted in contaminants of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) habitat, including freshwater spawning areas in southwestern Prince William Sound (PWS). The authors estimated the loss of returning wild adult pink salmon in 1990-1992, and speculated about this loss in 1993-1994. The primary cause of death was direct poisoning in the embryo stage of development. These studies have low statistical power to detect oil spill effects in the pre- and post- emergent fry and ocean life stages, therefore the true extent of the injury may be understated. The egg-mortality levels increased in the oiled areas in the 1991 and 1992 brood years. The authors also report on a run-reconstruction model, a deterministic model that assumed Markovian transition probabilities for the migration of each individual stock. The authors` most important finding is that of excessive harvest rates on pink salmon stocks in the northern and northwestern part of PWS.

Geiger, H.J.; Templin, W.D.; Collie, J.S.; Quinn, T.J.

1995-08-01

363

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Database management. Fish/shellfish study number 30  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the extent of damage and injury to natural resources as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the following types of data would need to be synthesized and carefully managed: (1) historical baseline data to establish conditions prior to the spill; (2) data generated by damage assessment projects to establish damage and extent of injury; and (3) data generated by ongoing monitoring projects to determine the effectiveness of restoration programs. The project was implemented to facilitate access to historical datasets maintained by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and to address the need to preserve the raw data generated by selected damage assessment projects associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

NONE

1993-06-01

364

Injury to crabs outside Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study number 22. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Dungeness crab fisheries exist near Kodiak Island and the eastern Alaska Peninsula. Both areas lie within the trajectory of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Thirty nine sites in the region were sampled in 1989 and 1990 to assess petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of crab tissues and benthic sediments with which crabs were associated. Female crabs were found in small numbers at 15 sites. Eight of these sites exhibited low levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments. Only two of the eight sites showed oil contamination that could be linked convincingly to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. None of the crab tissue samples showed evidence of contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons.

Freese, J.L.; O`Clair, C.E.

1995-09-01

365

[Influence of environmental factors on the infection rates of fishes and shellfishes by trematodes of the Opisthorchidae family in the Krotovaya Lyaga Lake].  

PubMed

The relationship of the annual trends in the infection of crucians (Carassius carassius) (L.) with Opisthorchis felineus metacercariae, in that of verkhovkas (Leucasplius delineatus) (Hackel), and in that of lake minnows (Phoxinus percnurus) (L.) with O. felineus and Metorchis billis to the environmental factors under natural fluctuations of the level of water and under the man-made effects on the water regime of the reservoir was studied. When the level of water naturally changes, the infection of crucians with Metorchis was found to be affected by their size, water temperature, and environmental pH values, and the human Opisthorchis affliction depends on the severity of infection of commercial-sized crucians by metacercariae. The infestation of the verkhovka was determined by the temperature of water and that of the lake minnow was by its size and the increased areas of the lake with the depths salubrious to its existence. With man-made effects (dewatering for watering agricultural lands) on the water regime of the reservoir, the infestation of the lake minnow depended on its size in the shallow water and on the level of water. Environmental factors, such as pH values, the area of shallow waters, and the size of mollusks, positively affected the higher extensiveness of infestation of mollusks with the parthenitae of opisthorchid flukes. PMID:16562750

Sous', S M

2006-01-01

366

Beta-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon.  

PubMed

?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. It was reported to be produced by cyanobacteria, but also found in edible aquatic organisms, thus raising concern of a widespread human exposure. However, the chemical analysis of BMAA and its isomers are controversial, mainly due to the lack of selectivity of the analytical methods. Using factorial design, we have optimized the chromatographic separation of underivatized analogues by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. A combination of an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, appropriate chromatographic resolution and the use of specific mass spectral transitions allowed for the development of a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure to identify and quantify BMAA and its isomers (in both free and total form) in cyanobacteria and mollusk matrices (LOQ of 0.225 and 0.15 µg/g dry weight, respectively). Ten species of cyanobacteria (six are reported to be BMAA producers) were screened with this method, and neither free nor bound BMAA could be found, while both free and bound DAB were present in almost all samples. Mussels and oysters collected in 2009 in the Thau Lagoon, France, were also screened, and bound BMAA and its two isomers, DAB and AEG, were observed in all samples (from 0.6 to 14.4 µg/g DW), while only several samples contained quantifiable free BMAA. PMID:25405857

Réveillon, Damien; Abadie, Eric; Séchet, Véronique; Brient, Luc; Savar, Véronique; Bardouil, Michèle; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher

2014-01-01

367

A L AS K A S H E L L F I S H F I S H E R I E S Alaska Shellfish Fisheries  

E-print Network

at $144,000,000. There was no fish- ery for Tanner crab in the Bering Sea in 1997 due to low stock miscellaneous invertebrate land- ings contributed about $7,000,000 to ex-vessel revenue in 1997. King and Tanner or brown) and two Tanner crab species (Tanner crab and snow crab) have traditionally been har- vested

368

Remarkable difference in accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins among bivalve species exposed to Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum bloom in Masinloc Bay, Philippines.  

PubMed

Seasonal variation of bivalve toxicity was monitored in association with the abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in Masinloc Bay, Luzon Island. Among 7 species of bivalve, 6 species became toxic during a bloom of the dinoflagellate. However, remarkable difference in the toxicity was observed among the species. The toxicity of thorny oyster Spondylus squamosus was the highest among the species, showing more than 30 times that of safety consumption level after the peak bloom of the dinoflagellate, while other bivalve species showed much lower toxicity. The toxicity of thorny oyster decreased under absence of the dinoflagellate, but this species maintained a considerably high toxicity throughout a year. Similar trend was observed in penshell Atrina vexillum in a small scale, indicating that these species in the bay are not safe for human consumption almost throughout a year. The toxicity of green mussel Perna viridis increased to significant level during a bloom, but it decreased rapidly when the dinoflagellate disappeared. Toxin analysis of cultured and natural cells showed typical toxin profile of the dinoflagellate. Toxin profile of all the bivalve species reflected the characteristic toxin profile of the dinoflagellate. PMID:16777162

Montojo, Ulysses M; Sakamoto, Setsuko; Cayme, Mirriam F; Gatdula, Norvida C; Furio, Elsa F; Relox, Juan R; Shigeru Sato; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Kodama, Masaaki

2006-07-01

369

The Growth of Estuarine Resources ( Zostera marina , Mercenaria mercenaria , Crassostrea virginica , Argopecten irradians , Cyprinodon variegatus ) in Response to Nutrient Loading and Enhanced Suspension Feeding by Adult Shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many coastal ecosystems previously supported high densities of seagrass and abundant bivalves, the impacts of overfishing,\\u000a eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and habitat loss have collectively contributed to the decline of these important resources.\\u000a Despite improvements in wastewater treatment in some watersheds and subsequent reduced nutrient loading to neighboring estuaries,\\u000a seagrass and bivalve populations in these locations have generally not

Charles C. Wall; Bradley J. Peterson; Christopher J. Gobler

370

Diplochory in western chokecherry: you can’t judge a fruit by its mesocarp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa, Rosaceae) is dispersed by frugivorous birds and carnivores, but it has large seeds that are potentially attractive to rodents\\u000a that could act as seed predators and dispersers. Here, we quantify the benefits of primary dispersal by birds and secondary\\u000a dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents. In the fall, avian frugivores (mostly American robins, Turdus migratorius, and

Maurie J. Beck; Stephen B. Vander Wall

2011-01-01

371

21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia...

2014-04-01

372

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly...

2014-04-01

373

21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent...

2014-04-01

374

21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.145 Canned oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned...

2014-04-01

375

21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.  

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.170 Canned Pacific...the food prepared from one of the species of fish enumerated in paragraph...

2014-04-01

376

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.175 Frozen raw...are in a shape similar to that of breaded fish sticks the name is “Breaded shrimp...

2014-04-01

377

21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.  

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.190 Canned tuna...the food consisting of processed flesh of fish of the species enumerated in...

2014-04-01

378

21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked...

2014-04-01

379

7 CFR 60.119 - Processed food item.  

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions...item means a retail item derived from fish or shellfish that has undergone...Examples of items excluded include fish sticks, surimi, mussels in tomato...

2014-01-01

380

Fresh and Frozen Seafood: Selecting and Serving It Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... Español (Spanish) . WATCH a VIDEO on Seafood Safety Fish and shellfish contain high quality protein and other ... well-balanced diet that includes a variety of fish and shellfish can contribute to heart health and ...

381

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

382

Functional genomics of a non-toxic Alexandrium lusitanicum culture  

E-print Network

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a human intoxication associated with the consumption of shellfish contaminated with a family of neurotoxins called saxitoxins. Many species in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium ...

Martins, Claudia A

2007-01-01

383

7 CFR 60.123 - Raised.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions ...means in the case of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised fish and shellfish as it relates to the production steps...

2011-01-01

384

7 CFR 60.123 - Raised.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions ...means in the case of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised fish and shellfish as it relates to the production steps...

2013-01-01

385

34 CFR 200.81 - Program definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subsistence. (b) Fishing work means the catching or initial processing of fish or shellfish or the raising or harvesting of fish or shellfish at fish farms. It consists of work performed for wages or personal subsistence. (c) In...

2010-07-01

386

34 CFR 200.81 - Program definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subsistence. (b) Fishing work means the catching or initial processing of fish or shellfish or the raising or harvesting of fish or shellfish at fish farms. It consists of work performed for wages or personal subsistence. (c) In...

2012-07-01

387

7 CFR 60.123 - Raised.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions ...means in the case of: (a) [Reserved] (b) Farm-raised fish and shellfish as it relates to the production steps...

2012-01-01

388

34 CFR 200.81 - Program definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subsistence. (b) Fishing work means the catching or initial processing of fish or shellfish or the raising or harvesting of fish or shellfish at fish farms. It consists of work performed for wages or personal subsistence. (c) In...

2011-07-01

389

34 CFR 200.81 - Program definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subsistence. (b) Fishing work means the catching or initial processing of fish or shellfish or the raising or harvesting of fish or shellfish at fish farms. It consists of work performed for wages or personal subsistence. (c) In...

2013-07-01

390

Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts  

MedlinePLUS

... these products is ensured by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC), which consists of federal, state, and industry partners who administer the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). Spotlight Improving Recall Information for Consumers ...

391

75 FR 37745 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA...from these trips to enter the food market. On January 21, 2010...Bank. The paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contaminated...

2010-06-30

392

27 CFR 7.22a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.  

...bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (for example, almonds...the name of the species of Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp); and (iii) The names “egg” and...

2014-04-01

393

27 CFR 5.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.  

...bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (for example, almonds...the name of the species of Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp); and (iii) The names “egg” and...

2014-04-01

394

27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.  

...bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (for example, almonds...the name of the species of Crustacean shellfish (for example, crab, lobster, or shrimp); and (iii) The names “egg” and...

2014-04-01

395

PIXE analysis of biological bodies in Uranouchi bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated shellfish called Japanese littleneck clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) which were collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) for analysis of elemental concentration by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). A 4 MeV He ++ ion beam was used to analyze shellfish in the ion beam laboratory of Kochi University of Technology (Japan). In the present study, shellfish have been chosen as a representative of the biological bodies in the Uranouchi bay. The concentration of heavy metals in shellfish has been quantified and the results are compared with those obtained by analyzing Market shellfish. Analyzing shellfish collected from three different places in the bay Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Zr are detected as heavy metals. Our results suggest that in comparison with Market shellfish the Uranouchi bay shellfish contain more heavy metals.

Hasnat Kabir, M.; Narusawa, Tadashi

2008-11-01

396

21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.145 Canned oysters. (a...Ed. (1980), Table 1, “Nominal Dimensions of Standard Test Sieves (U.S.A. Standard Series),”...

2010-04-01

397

7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.  

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country...Production (Wild and/or Farm-Raised). Fish and shellfish covered commodities shall...Reserved] (2) Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish: If a covered commodity...

2014-01-01

398

The Exvessel Price table is an index of changes in the relativedocksidevalueoffishandshellfishsoldbyfishing  

E-print Network

Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish Index Change #12;Prices 92 (1) Confidential data. (2 120 127 156 Total tuna 118 96 94 109 116 116 128 Total edible finfish 97 94 92 96 90 85 92 Clams: Hard edible shellfish 133 125 139 141 133 126 125 Total edible fish and shellfish 117 111 118 121 114 108 110

399

The Exvessel Price table is an index of changes in the relativedocksidevalueoffishandshellfishsoldbyfishing  

E-print Network

INDEXCHANGE Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish #12;81 Prices Species 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total edible finfish 96 90 134 91 99 95 121 Clams: Hard 144 148 128 139 120 175 178 Ocean Quahog 166 201 83 67 73 84 76 Total edible shellfish 141 133 126 125 129 143 133 Total edible fish and shellfish 121

400

The Exvessel Price table is an index of changes in the relativedocksidevalueoffishandshellfishsoldbyfishing  

E-print Network

INDEXCHANGE Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish #12;81 Prices Species 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total edible finfish 90 134 91 99 95 121 132 Clams: Hard 148 128 139 120 175 178 164 Ocean Quahog 201 67 73 84 76 87 Total edible shellfish 133 126 125 129 143 133 145 Total edible fish and shellfish 114

401

Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

2011-06-01

402

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to demersal rockfish and shallow reef habitats in Prince William Sound, 1989-1991. Subtidal study number 6. Fish/shellfish study number 17. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Demersal rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in Prince William Sound were studied from 1989 through 1991 to assess injury due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Injury was assessed by establishing the exposure of rockfish to petroleum hydrocarbons and then determining if any histopathological lesions occurred with increased frequency in fish from sites with oil-exposed fish.

NONE

1994-09-01

403

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Impact of the oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon and their prey in critical nearshore habitats. Fish/shellfish study number 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon during their initial period of residency in nearshore marine habitats of western Prince William Sound. In oiled locations, both pink and chum salmon fry in the nearshore marine environment observations and laboratory experiments indicated that ingestion of whole oil or oil-contaminated prey was an important route of contamination.

NONE

1994-01-01

404

Injury to salmon eggs and preemergent fry in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Pink salmon embryo mortality was elevated in oil contaminated streams during the falls of 1989, 1990, and 1991. Increased embryo mortality was detected in the lower intertidal zones in 1989 while elevated mortalities were observed at the highest intertidal zone in 1990. These findings were consistent with how stream oiling was expected to take place: all intertidal zones were contaminated in 1989 with the remaining oil being deposited in the highest intertidal zone in 1990. Embryo mortality was significantly higher in all zones for the oil contaminated streams in 1991. No difference in embryo to preemergent fry survival was detected for the 1989, 1990, or 1991 brood years.

Sharr, S.; Bue, B.G.; Moffitt, S.D.; Craig, A.K.; Evans, D.G.

1994-04-01

405

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries website provides health advisories and closures related to seafood consumption and recreational fishing. Links are provided to the Division's programs and projects, including shellfish sanitation and management, and shellfish closures. Maps and notices regarding closures related to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are posted with each health notice, as well as a link to general information regarding PSP and the state's PSP monitoring program.

2010-02-12

406

Radiological Habits Survey: Dounreay, 2008 This page has been intentionally left blank  

E-print Network

..................................................................22 Table 2. Ratios for determining consumption and occupancy rates for children.............22 4 .................................................................................................27 4.3 Marketing of fish and shellfish

407

Pharmaceutical relationships : intersections of illness, fantasy, and capital in the age of direct-to-consumer marketing  

E-print Network

Blooms of toxic species within the algal dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense may cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, a significant and growing environmental threat worldwide. However, blooms of closely ...

Greenslit, Nathan P

2007-01-01

408

Pharmaceutical Uses of Aquatic Nabil A. NIMER  

E-print Network

dynamics, migration patterns, and distribution ofpopulation dynamics, migration patterns, and distribution description of fish, etc...... #12;borne humanborne human--research to detect shellfish and fishresearch

409

Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act  

E-print Network

problems in the United States. HAB poisoning syndromes include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP Program (CHRP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystems and Hypoxia Assessment (NGOMEX) Research Program

410

Life cycle studies of the red tide dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense  

E-print Network

Blooms of toxic species within the algal dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense may cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, a significant and growing environmental threat worldwide. However, blooms of closely ...

Brosnahan, Michael L. (Michael Lewis)

2011-01-01

411

Development and Application of Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins.  

E-print Network

??Shellfish accumulate marine toxins from their microalgal diet. The marine toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) also accumulates in seafood, but via unknown mechanisms. Toxin determinations have traditionally… (more)

McNabb, Paul Simon

2014-01-01

412

A synthetic approach to tetrodotoxin : via oxidative amidation of a phenol.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation describes synthetic efforts towards tetrodotoxin. Contact with tetrodotoxin brings upon paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) for the unfortunate victim. The syndrome can be fatal… (more)

Chau, Jaclyn

2012-01-01

413

Anesthesia & Me Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

Anesthesiologists American Societyof Date: ______________ /_______________ /_____________________ Allergies: (reactions to food [such as eggs or shellfish], medicines, latex, etc.?) ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Neurological conditions: (such as epilepsy, ...

414

7 CFR 60.300 - Labeling.  

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Country of Origin Notification...for blended products that contain both wild and farm-raised fish or shellfish, provided it can be readily understood by the consumer...

2014-01-01

415

SEN 01 Investigating the complex problem of different environmental conditions that induce the production of Domoic Acid with feedback control system  

E-print Network

sensor for the detection of Domoic Acid (DA) a marine toxin. Also we are investigating the conditions the marine food chain by shellfish such as mussels when they uptake and filter their food out of water is consumed by other animals such as sea birds and sea lions which lead to Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP

California at Los Angeles, University of

416

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site  

E-print Network

Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site Science Series Technical Report no.136 I. Laing and B.E. Spencer #12;Bivalve cultivation: criteria for selecting a site science series technical report and legal factors 16 Rights of shellfish cultivators in the sea 16 Public rights 16 Sea Fisheries (Shellfish

417

ServingSize(oz) CaloriesFromFat  

E-print Network

Shellfish Eggs Milk Nutrition Facts Allergens NUTRITION & ALLERGEN INFORMATION SIDE Chow Mein 9.4 oz 490 200 Nutrition Facts Allergens NUTRITION & ALLERGEN INFORMATION Potato Chicken 5.2 oz 190 80 9 1.5 0 35 820 19 2 Shellfish Eggs Milk Nutrition Facts Allergens NUTRITION & ALLERGEN INFORMATION Cream Cheese Rangoon 2.4 oz

Finzi, Adrien

418

UNIVERSITE DE NANTES FACULTE DES SCIENCES PHARMACEUTIQUES  

E-print Network

CONCHYLICOLES : SUBSTANCES TOXIQUES DE SOUCHES MARINES DU GENRE Trichoderma. THESE DE DOCTORAT ECOLE DOCTORALE in shellfish farming areas: toxic substances from Trichoderma sp. marine strain This work is devoted to the chemical study of peptaïbols produced by endemic Trichoderma strains in the Loire-Atlantique shellfish

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

The immune response of carp to blood flagellates : a model for studies on disease resistance and stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, aquaculture accounts for 25% of the total world supply of (shell)fish for human consumption, a relative contribution that is expected to increase with time. The increased global demand for (shell)fish has lead to a further intensification of aquaculture with the inevitable result that fish become disposed to stress and diseases. An important factor leading to this predisposition is

J. P. J. Saeij

2002-01-01

420

7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Production (Wild and/or Farm-Raised). Fish and shellfish covered commodities...whether they are wild and/or farm-raised as those terms are defined...Reserved] (2) Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish: If a covered...

2013-01-01

421

MBA MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM MBA Executive Secretary: Dr Matt Frost  

E-print Network

March 2010 Dear Kate, REF: 17-01-02. CROWN ESTATE CONSULTATION PROCEDURE FOR MARINE FISH FARMS PROPOSED MARINE SHELLFISH FARM OFFSHORE SHELLFISH LTD ­ LYME BAY 1. The Marine Biological Association (MBA significant issues seem to be associated with: obstruction to navigation possible conflict with the fishing

Watson, Andrew

422

7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Production (Wild and/or Farm-Raised). Fish and shellfish covered commodities...whether they are wild and/or farm-raised as those terms are defined...Reserved] (2) Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish: If a covered...

2011-01-01

423

7 CFR 60.200 - Country of origin notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Production (Wild and/or Farm-Raised). Fish and shellfish covered commodities...whether they are wild and/or farm-raised as those terms are defined...Reserved] (2) Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish: If a covered...

2012-01-01

424

Toxicity of lindane (?-hexachloroxiclohexane) in Sparus aurata, Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to research the sublethal and\\/or lethal effects produced by the exposure of fish and shellfish to the ? isomer of lindane, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). The teleostean fish Sparus aurata and the shellfish Crassostrea angulata and Scrobicularia plana, were exposed to 16 ? g\\/L of lindane for 15 days. Samples of different fish (liver, kidney

María Luisa González De Canales; Milagrosa Oliva; Carmen Garrido

2009-01-01

425

Dave Bushek Greg DeBrosse  

E-print Network

fisheries and shellfisheries in New Jersey: the Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory (HSRL professor of marine science, has been named director of HSRL. He succeeds Eric Powell, who has provided assessments and shellfish research. HSRL is located in Port Norris, Cumberland County. The Cape Shore

Goodman, Robert M.

426

Environmental Investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters after Outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York (1997 and 1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities and the occurrence of pathogenic strains in shellfish were determined following outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York. Recently developed nonradioactive DNA probes were utilized for the first time for direct enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental shellfish samples. V. parahaemolyticus was prevalent in oysters from Puget Sound, Wash.; Galveston Bay, Tex.; and Long Island Sound,

ANGELO DEPAOLA; CHARLES A. KAYSNER; JOHN BOWERS; DAVID W. COOK

2000-01-01

427

AgriculturAl 2013 Annual Report  

E-print Network

-Sandy Era 8 Invasive Species and Forest Decline 9 Fisheries and Aquaculture 10 Strengthening the Shellfish Industry; Outreach in Shellfish Aquaculture 11 Ocean Observing Technology Aids Fisheries Assessment 12 in Organic Land Care 19 Volunteering with Rutgers Master Gardeners 20 Youth Hydroponics Program 21 Youth

Goodman, Robert M.

428

Morphometrics and estimates of force generation by the chelae of a North American population of the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is an invasive species in eastern North America and has the potential to significantly impact wild and aquaculture shellfish in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. To examine potential predation effects on local shellfish and assess the appropriateness of extrapolating results from studies conducted elsewhere, the morphometry of chelae from a recently established

S. C. Mitchell; S. M. Kennedy; P. J. Williams; M. E. DeMont

2003-01-01

429

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Harold L. Ickes, Secretary  

E-print Network

_ !tedfish _ Black drum _ Shrimp ~ _ The oyster ,~ _ The blue crab _ Other fish and shellfish _ Menhaden:nQipil 'lfomy Great Lakes Science Center 1451 Green Road Ann Arbor, MI' 48105 #12;Fish and Shellfish Atlantic coast and the shores of the Gulf of Mexico have furnished food. Shrimp, oysters, crabs

430

Mercury Cycling in a Wetland Dominated Ecosystem: A Multidisciplinary Study 2005 Society of Environ Toxicol Chem(SETAC). ISBN 1-880611--  

E-print Network

with neurological disorders after eating mer- cury-contaminated shellfish (Takizawa and Osame 2001). The Chisso acet pollution first received worldwide attention with the Minamata Bay disaster (southwestern Kyushu, Japan fish and shellfish, MeHg gradually accumulated to toxic levels. Severe neurological disorders were

O'Driscoll, Nelson

431

Collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspases activation are early events in okadaic acid-treated Caco-2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) results from the consumption of shellfish contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) or one of the dinophysistoxins (DTX). It has been reported that this toxin induces apoptosis in several cell models, but the molecular events involved in this process have not been clarified. In this report we studied intracellular signals induced by OA in Caco-2 cells: mitochondrial

Jorge Lago; Francisco Santaclara; Juan M. Vieites; Ana G. Cabado

2005-01-01

432

Dietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40 K in eighteen food categories by Japanese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Dietary intakes of eighteen elements and 40K were estimated by Japanese subjects using a market basket study. High concentrations of most nuclides were found in 4 categories among 18 categories (nuts and seeds, bean products, seaweeds, and fishes and shellfishes). The main contributors were rice, bean products, and fishes and shellfishes. Daily intakes were estimated (in mg) as follows: sodium

K. Shiraishi

2005-01-01

433

High-Pressure Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus within Oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous results demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV) could be inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (D. H. Kingsley, D. Hoover, E. Papafragkou, and G. P. Richards, J. Food Prot. 65:1605-1609, 2002); however, direct evaluation of HAV inactivation within contaminated oysters was not performed. In this study, we report confirmation that HAV within contaminated shellfish is inactivated by HHP. Shellfish

Kevin R. Calci; Gloria K. Meade; Robert C. Tezloff; David H. Kingsley

2005-01-01

434

WIDESPREAD OUTBREAKS OF CLAM- AND OYSTER-ASSOCIATED GASTROENTERITIS: ROLE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Consumption of raw shellfish has long been known to be associated with individual cases and sporadic outbreaks of enteric illness. However, during 1982, outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with eating raw shellfish reached epidemic proportions in New York State. Between May 1...

435

MFR PAPER 1232 Technology in Fisheries Development  

E-print Network

.g., haddock and halibut) were once considered to be trash fish by Ameri- can fishermen. Now that service the country's needs related to the utiliza- tion of fish and shellfish, mainly for human food . For the purpose of this discussion, the application of technology related to the utilization of fish and shellfish

436

40 CFR 35.2024 - Combined sewer overflows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...significant usage of the water for fishing and swimming will not be possible without the proposed...usage of the water for shellfishing and swimming will not be possible without the proposed...benefits that would result, including swimming and shellfishing; (ii)...

2010-07-01

437

The Exvessel Price table is an index of changes in the relativedocksidevalueoffishandshellfishsoldbyfishing  

E-print Network

INDEXCHANGE Edible Finfish Edible Shellfish Industrial Fish #12;81 Prices Species 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 132 91 152 159 409 Total edible finfish 134 91 99 95 121 132 207 Clams: Hard 128 139 120 175 178 164 132 142 Total shrimp 83 67 73 84 76 87 96 Total edible shellfish 126 125 129 143 133 145 159 Total

438

Germination characteristics of Alexandrium catenella cysts from surface sediments in Quartermaster Harbor, Puget Sound, Washington, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella causes frequent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in Puget Sound, Washington; however, little is known about its basic biology and ecology. Most of what is known is inferred mainly from shellfish toxin records and recent work on cyst distribution and germination potential. We report on a year-long study of cyst dormancy and germination potential based

Elizabeth D. Tobin; Rita A. Horner

2011-01-01

439

The laboratory mouse in routine food safety testing for marine algal biotoxins and harmful algal bloom toxin research: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity. PMID:24830147

Stewart, Ian; McLeod, Catherine

2014-01-01

440

Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection, with Special Reference to the Dutch Situation  

PubMed Central

Various species of algae can produce marine toxins under certain circumstances. These toxins can then accumulate in shellfish such as mussels, oysters and scallops. When these contaminated shellfish species are consumed severe intoxication can occur. The different types of syndromes that can occur after consumption of contaminated shellfish, the corresponding toxins and relevant legislation are discussed in this review. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) and Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) occur worldwide, Neurologic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) is mainly limited to the USA and New Zealand while the toxins causing DSP and AZP occur most frequently in Europe. The latter two toxin groups are fat-soluble and can therefore also be classified as lipophilic marine toxins. A detailed overview of the official analytical methods used in the EU (mouse or rat bioassay) and the recently developed alternative methods for the lipophilic marine toxins is given. These alternative methods are based on functional assays, biochemical assays and chemical methods. From the literature it is clear that chemical methods offer the best potential to replace the animal tests that are still legislated worldwide. Finally, an overview is given of the situation of marine toxins in The Netherlands. The rat bioassay has been used for monitoring DSP and AZP toxins in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Nowadays, a combination of a chemical method and the rat bioassay is often used. In The Netherlands toxic events are mainly caused by DSP toxins, which have been found in Dutch shellfish for the first time in 1961, and have reoccurred at irregular intervals and in varying concentrations. From this review it is clear that considerable effort is being undertaken by various research groups to phase out the animal tests that are still used for the official routine monitoring programs. PMID:22069615

Gerssen, Arjen; Pol-Hofstad, Irene E.; Poelman, Marnix; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; van den Top, Hester J.; de Boer, Jacob

2010-01-01

441

Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

NONE

1993-12-01

442

Impact of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez on survival and growth of dolly varden and cutthroat trout in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Fish/shellfish study number 5 (restoration study number 90). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

Five emigrating populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were intercepted in 1989-1991 during seaward migration to Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill; two into the spill area, three into non-spill areas. Study populations were comprised of tagged adults and subadults. Survival rates were estimated with log-linear models of capture histories of tagged fish. We used a two-stage simulation based on bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques to compare average survival rates in study populations that were and were not associated with spilled oil. Growth and survival rates were significantly lower in study populations associated with spilled oil. Results are consistent with the occurrence of a deleterious impact on growth and survival of emigrating species, although unable to be confirmed as results emanated from observation, not experiment.

Hepler, K.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Bernard, D.R.

1994-04-01

443

49 CFR 387.15 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...taken to minimize or mitigate damage to human health, the natural environment, fish, shellfish, and wildlife. Property Damage means damage to...herein, but such termination shall not affect the liability of the Surety for the...

2012-10-01

444

49 CFR 387.15 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...taken to minimize or mitigate damage to human health, the natural environment, fish, shellfish, and wildlife. Property Damage means damage to...herein, but such termination shall not affect the liability of the Surety for the...

2011-10-01

445

49 CFR 387.15 - Forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...taken to minimize or mitigate damage to human health, the natural environment, fish, shellfish, and wildlife. Property Damage means damage to...herein, but such termination shall not affect the liability of the Surety for the...

2013-10-01

446

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States  

PubMed Central

Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

2008-01-01

447

Omega-3 Supplements: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... 3s are found in foods such as fatty fish and shellfish. Another type is found in some ... omega-3s, particularly those found in seafood and fish oil, and heart disease. The findings of individual ...

448

EFFECTS OF ALTERED HABITATS ON COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES OF THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

This research emphasizes the role of critical estuarine habitats to species that provide an ecosystem service, namely those fish and shellfish of economic importance. Vegetated habitats are examined for their capacity to provide and sustain commercially important shrimp, oyster, ...

449

Protein  

MedlinePLUS

... and includes fish, such as salmon, tuna, herring, trout, and tilapia, and shellfish, such as shrimp, crab, ... steak = 4- to 6-oz equivalents • 1 small trout = 3-oz equivalents Eggs • 1 egg • 3 egg ...

450

Marine Natural Products Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

Chang, Clifford W. J.

1978-01-01

451

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

452

Reversible adhesion method mimics aphid feet  

E-print Network

shellfish larvae Previous studies have shown that rising atmospheric CO2 levels have lowered the p at preindustrial CO2 con- centrations of approximately 250 ppm had higher survival rates, grew faster, and dis

Rogers, John A.

453

NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT AND FISHERIES EXPLOITATION: INTERACTIVE EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE LIVING RESOURCES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisheries exploitation and increased nutrient loadings affect fish and shellfish abudance and production in estuaries. These stressors do not act independently; instead they jointly influence food webs, and each affects the sensitivity of species and ecosystems to the other. Nu...

454

7 CFR 60.132 - Waters of the United States.  

...LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.132 Waters of the United States. Waters of the United States means those fresh and ocean waters contained within the outer limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2014-01-01

455

7 CFR 60.132 - Waters of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.132 Waters of the United States. Waters of the United States means those fresh and ocean waters contained within the outer limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2013-01-01

456

7 CFR 60.132 - Waters of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.132 Waters of the United States. Waters of the United States means those fresh and ocean waters contained within the outer limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2012-01-01

457

7 CFR 60.132 - Waters of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.132 Waters of the United States. Waters of the United States means those fresh and ocean waters contained within the outer limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone...

2011-01-01

458

40 CFR 408.101 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency, Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, page 217. (c) The term seafood shall mean the raw material, including freshwater and saltwater fish and shellfish, to be processed, in the form in which it is received at the processing...

2010-07-01

459

40 CFR 408.121 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency, Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, page 217. (c) The term seafood shall mean the raw material, including freshwater and saltwater fish and shellfish, to be processed, in the form in which it is received at the processing...

2010-07-01

460

40 CFR 408.91 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency, Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, page 217. (c) The term seafood shall mean the raw material, including freshwater and saltwater fish and shellfish, to be processed, in the form in which it is received at the processing...

2011-07-01

461

40 CFR 408.131 - Specialized definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency, Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, page 217. (c) The term seafood shall mean the raw material, including freshwater and saltwater fish and shellfish, to be processed, in the form in which it is received at the processing...

2010-07-01

462

75 FR 65373 - Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit/Environmental Impact Statement, Point Reyes National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Company Special Use Permit, Point Reyes National Seashore (hereafter...Company Special Use Permit, Point Reyes National Seashore, California...shellfish operation at Point Reyes National Seashore. The existing...will expire on November 30, 2012. DBOC has submitted a...

2010-10-22

463

REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENTS IN THE PAMLICO SOUND, NC USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring of phytoplankton concentrations in estuarine environments is important for managing both recreational and commercial fishery resources. Impacts on estuarine areas from phytoplankton blooms include neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; fish, bird, and vegetation kills; and p...

464

What can I do with this major? AREAS EMPLOYERS  

E-print Network

and Atmospheric Administration Government hatcheries Private commercial fish farms Shellfish operations Public government agencies dealing with natural resources Federal government including: Fish and Wildlife Service including: Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service Forest Service National Oceanic

New Hampshire, University of

465

76 FR 12564 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 242 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100...2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence Taking of Fish and Shellfish Regulations AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

2011-03-08

466

Eating during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... talk to your doctor. Back Continue More About Fish Fish and shellfish can be an extremely healthy part ... in saturated fat. But limit the types of fish you eat while pregnant because some contain high ...

467

75 FR 2448 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 242 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100...2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence Taking of Fish and Shellfish Regulations AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

2010-01-15

468

Keep the Beat Recipes: Deliciously Healthy Dinners  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar or honey ½ C water ½ Tbsp fish sauce 2 Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 ... the albacore tuna. For cooking instructions for fresh fish and shellfish, see basic cooking instructions in appendix ...

469

77 FR 5204 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2013-14 and 2014-15 Subsistence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 242 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100...2013-14 and 2014-15 Subsistence Taking of Fish and Shellfish Regulations AGENCY: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

2012-02-02

470

4/6/11 11:50 AMBellingham, Whatcom County Local News / The Bellingham Herald Page 1 of 1http://www.bellinghamherald.com/2011/04/05/v-print/1953057/bellingham-conference-will-cover.html  

E-print Network

't stop them now," said Lindsay Taylor, program coordinator at the Nooksack Salmon Enhancement Association to discuss how to live with the impacts. They'll include everyone from Bill Dewey at Taylor Shellfish Farms

Rigor, Ignatius G.

471

Genetics Home Reference: Transcobalamin deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Transcobalamin deficiency is a disorder that impairs the transport of cobalamin (also known as vitamin B12) within ... as meat, eggs, and shellfish. An inability to transport cobalamin within the body results in cells that ...

472

Occupational Health and Safety Animal Job Exposure Form  

E-print Network

that apply: Mice Shellfish Birds Primates Horses Bees Cats Dogs Rats Rabbits Cattle Hamsters Guinea Pigs sheets Do you have any immune system deficiencies that would limit your ability to fight off disease? No

California at Santa Barbara, University of

473

RUTGERS IN YOUR DISTRICT FROM THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS  

E-print Network

· With four facilities in southern New Jersey, the Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory (HSRL) conducts basic. HSRL generates and disseminates research information directly applicable to all aspects of fisheries

Garfunkel, Eric

474

15 CFR 930.11 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limited to, air, tidal and nontidal wetlands, ocean waters, estuaries, rivers...submerged aquatic vegetation, land, plants, trees, minerals, fish, shellfish...are specifically designed, located, constructed, operated, adapted, or...

2010-01-01

475

VIBRIO VULNIFICUS EDUCATION WORKSHOP FOR THE FLORIDA MEDICAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring microorganism that occurs warm marine and estuarine waters. The bacteria are concentrated by filter feeding shellfish. Certain immunocompromised individuals and those with liver disease can be adversely, even fatally affected by Vibrio...

476

21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and Drugs...Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia...

2010-04-01

477

26 CFR 31.3306(c)(17)-1 - Fishing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...individual in the catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shell-fish (for example, oysters, clams, and mussels), crustacea (for example, lobsters, crabs, and shrimps), sponges, seaweeds, or...

2012-04-01

478

21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and Drugs...Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia...

2013-04-01

479

21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and Drugs...Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia...

2011-04-01

480

21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and Drugs...Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia...