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Sample records for shi exhibits reduced

  1. The Shy Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1987-01-01

    To further practitioners' understanding of shyness, this review of research discusses (1) origins of shyness, (2) cognition and shyness, (3) situational factors affecting shy behavior, (4) social difficulties of shy children, (5) shyness and sex differences, (6) persistence of shyness, and (7) ways for caregivers to help the shy child. (RH)

  2. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    SciTech Connect

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  3. [Textual research on Shi Kan and Shi zai zhi fang (Shi Zaizhi's Prescriptions)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo

    2002-07-01

    Shi Kan, also known as Zaizhi, was born in Emei, Sichuan, and Zaizhi was more popularly known. He lived in the Northern Song dynasty, and was a successful candidate in the highest imperial examinations. As a government official, he was promoted to the position of governor. When he cured the constipation of Cai Jing only with a single herb Aster root, people considered that he had excellent medical skill as famous doctor Xu Shuwei. He was one of the representatives who were doctors as well as government officials. His book Shi zai zhi fang (Shi Zaizhi's Prescriptions) was a typical formula work of the Song dynasty. In this book he emphasized the treatment principles on strengthening the vital and dispelling the evil. He also underlined the theory of yunqi (five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors). He had many new ideas about the application of herbs and pulse - taking. According to the book, Zhi zhai shu lu jie ti (Zhizhai's Interpretation on Collected Books), Shi had a 2 - volume book titled Zhi nan fang (Guide Prescriptions). There were different views on whether Guide Prescriptions was the other name for Shi Zaizhi's Prescriptions. By studying the contents of citations from Shi's Guide Prescriptions quoted in Hong shi ji yan fang (Hong's Collections of Proved Recipes), Quan sheng zhi mi fang (A Guidebook of Recipes for Saving Lives), and by combining it with the textual research made by various scholars of the Qing dynasty, the author claims that Guide Prescriptions is another book rather than the other name of Shi Zaizhi's Prescriptions. PMID:12639444

  4. [Shy-Drager syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miron, E; Yagana, S; Ben-Asouli, S

    1995-02-01

    An 81-year-old man with a history of chronic pulmonary disease due to heavy smoking and ischemic heart disease had been suffering for the past few years from chronic constipation and urinary incontinence and was receiving medication for cardiopulmonary symptoms and urinary incontinence. He was admitted for repeated falling for a few months prior to admission. When put in the supine position, his blood pressure fell. He had bilateral pulmonary rales, consistent with lung disease, eccentricity of the left pupil (after cataract surgery), constriction of the right pupil, and absence of the pupillary light reflex. There was generalized hyperreflexia and a bilateral Babinski sign. He had normocytic, normochromic anemia; B12, folic acid and ferritin were within normal ranges, ESR was rapid, there was hyperglobulinemia (IgA and IgG), urea nitrogen and creatinine were increased but returned to normal after rehydration. ECG and chest X-ray were consistent with his cardiopulmonary status. Bone-marrow biopsy showed hypocellularity. IVP and barium enema were normal. Echocardiography revealed a possible old posterior wall myocardial infarction. CT-scan showed moderate cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, calcifications in the carotid and vertebral arteries, and small infarcts in both hemispheres. At this point, after an extensive survey of the literature, the diagnosis of Shy-Drager syndrome was proposed and proved by monitoring ECG and serum levels of noradrenaline during postural changes. He was treated with Fluorinef and there were no more episodes of postural hypotension. Several weeks after discharge he reported that he was feeling well and had not fallen since discharge. PMID:7759002

  5. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  6. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior. PMID:26995491

  7. Cognitive Behavior Modification and Informed Teacher Treatments for Shy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Brown, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    A self-instructional, cognitive behavior modification approach was developed for use with shy children, and was compared to treatment by "informed teachers" and a control group. Cognitive behavior modification significantly reduced fear of social and public speaking conditions, while informed teachers and the control group did not. (Author/BW)

  8. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. PMID:23178326

  9. [Brief explanation of shi lin (urolithic stranguria)].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-yuan

    2010-05-01

    Shi lin (urolithic stranguria) is a kind of stranguria, manifested as pain occurred when pissing and sand-like in the urine, developed from the early concept of shi long. This name of disease was appeared firstly in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), and then, the disease name of sha lin, sha shi lin and sha lin were derived from it by the Song Dynasty. It was said that the disease with sha (sand-like) was easy to treat, and with shi (stone-like) was difficult to cure. This disease was also happened in the children, and the reasons were the same with ones of the adult. Furthermore, there was a name of disease, xue sha lin, which was a kind of woman disease and had nothing to do with shi lin. PMID:21029715

  10. jShyLU Scalable Hybrid Preconditioner and Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    ShyLU is numerical software to solve sparse linear systems of equations. ShyLU uses a hybrid direct-iterative Schur complement method, and may be used either as a preconditioner or as a solver. ShyLU is parallel and optimized for a single compute Solver node. ShyLU will be a package in the Trilinos software framework.

  11. Gene organization and transcription of duplicated MBP genes of myelin deficient (shi(mld)) mutant mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Okano, H; Tamura, T; Miura, M; Aoyama, A; Ikenaka, K; Oshimura, M; Mikoshiba, K

    1988-01-01

    A hereditary dysmyelinating mutation, named myelin deficient (shi(mld)), is characterized by reduced expression of myelin basic protein (MBP). In shi(mld), the MBP gene is duplicated and its reduced expression is mainly determined by the level of mRNA. We have characterized the structure and function of the promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld). Among the lambda clones containing promoter regions of the duplicated MBP genes in shi(mld), one (gene 1) had the same restriction enzyme pattern as that in control mice, but another (gene 2) had a rearrangement on a distal part of the promoter. A 712-bp nucleotide sequence upstream of the first exons of both of the duplicated MBP genes of shi(mld) was completely consistent with that of the control. Promoter activities of 1.3-kb 5'-flanking regions from respective genes of shi(mld) measured by in vitro run-off assay using HeLa whole-cell extracts were indistinguishable from that of the control MPB gene. Chromosomal mapping by in situ hybridization suggested that the duplicated MBP genes were located closely to each other at the distal part of chromosome 18. A recombinational event including the inversion seemed to have occurred within gene 1 and its possible relationship to the reduced expression of MBP is discussed. Images PMID:2452084

  12. Choline Kinase β Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Phosphocholine, Elevated Osteoclast Activity, and Low Bone Mass*

    PubMed Central

    Kular, Jasreen; Tickner, Jennifer C.; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Viola, Helena M.; Abel, Tamara; Lim, Bay Sie; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Honghui; Cook, Robert; Hool, Livia C.; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of bone homeostasis requires tight coupling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying the differentiation and activities of these specialized cells are still largely unknown. Here, we identify choline kinase β (CHKB), a kinase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, as a novel regulator of bone homeostasis. Choline kinase β mutant mice (flp/flp) exhibit a systemic low bone mass phenotype. Consistently, osteoclast numbers and activity are elevated in flp/flp mice. Interestingly, osteoclasts derived from flp/flp mice exhibit reduced sensitivity to excessive levels of extracellular calcium, which could account for the increased bone resorption. Conversely, supplementation of cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine in vivo and in vitro, a regimen that bypasses CHKB deficiency, restores osteoclast numbers to physiological levels. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to modulating osteoclast formation and function, loss of CHKB corresponds with a reduction in bone formation by osteoblasts. Taken together, these data posit CHKB as a new modulator of bone homeostasis. PMID:25451916

  13. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host–parasite–predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  14. Different Influences on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics by Coadministrations of Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Ju; Fang, Shih-Hua; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5 mg/kg) with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0−t of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection. PMID:21318106

  15. Two Clinical Isolates of Candida glabrata Exhibiting Reduced Sensitivity to Amphotericin B Both Harbor Mutations in ERG2

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Claire M.; Bader, Oliver; Parker, Josie E.; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Two novel isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B (MIC, 8 μg ml−1) were found to be ERG2 mutants, wherein Δ8-sterol intermediates comprised >90% of the total cellular sterol fraction. Both harbored an alteration at Thr121 in ERG2; the corresponding residue (Thr119) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for sterol Δ8-Δ7 isomerization. This constitutes the first report of C. glabrata harboring mutations in ERG2 and exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B. PMID:23027188

  16. Lift producing device exhibiting low drag and reduced ventilation potential and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A lift producing device is disclosed which is adapted to be connected to a vehicle to provide lift to the vehicle when the vehicle is moved relative to a first fluid medium having a first density and viscosity and being in contact with a second fluid medium adjacent the vehicle. The second fluid medium has a second fluid density which is different from the first fluid density. The lift producing device comprises opposed first and second major surfaces joined at a longitudinally extending leading edge and at a longitudinally extending trailing edge, with at least a portion of the longitudinally extending leading edge being spaced from the longitudinally extending trailing edge by a predetermined mean chord length. When the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within a range of predetermined velocities, with each of the velocities having a direction inclined from a plane extending through the leading edge and the trailing edge within a predetermined angular range, a region of high pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the first major surface and a region of low pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the second major surface. The lift producing device has a cross-sectional shape which will generate a pressure distribution around the device when the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within the range of predetermined velocities such that the first fluid medium exhibits attached laminar flow along the device for a portion of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge and will neither form a laminar separation bubble adjacent the second major surface of the device, nor exhibit turbulent separation adjacent the second major surface for substantially all of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The portion along which attached laminar flow is maintained is the longest portion which will still fulfill

  17. Thin-Walled Cross-Linked Acetabular Liners Need Not Exhibit Reduced Locking Strength.

    PubMed

    Murtha, Andrew S; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A; Tilden, David S; Schmitt, Krystal L

    2015-08-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has emerged as a promising strategy to reduce the risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty, but thinning the walls of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular liners to accommodate these larger heads may compromise the locking mechanism of the liner. The purpose of this study was to test the mechanical integrity of the locking mechanism in cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE acetabular components with reduced wall thickness. The locking mechanism of cross-linked (100 kGy/re-melted) acetabular liners in sizes 50/28, 50/36, and 52/36 mm of 1 design was evaluated by lever-out tests and torsion tests. Torsion tests were performed at 2 angles to isolate the liner's locking tabs independent of the contribution of its central post. Lever-out testing demonstrated nominally reduced failure strength in 50/36-mm liners (13.3 N · m) compared with 50/28-mm liners (12.3 N · m; P=.0502), whereas the lever-out strength of 52/36-mm liners was 12.2±0.94 N · m. Failure torques were similar between 50/28- and 50/36-mm liners at 45° and 90°, but the failure torque of size 52/36-mm liners was significantly higher at each angle. The use of larger diameter femoral heads does not compromise the locking mechanism of thinned MicroSeal (Signal Medical Corp, Marysville, Michigan) acetabular liners. Use of a cross-linked UHMWPE acetabular liner, with a locking mechanism that is not compromised when the liner is thinned to a thickness of at least 2.86 mm, appears to be a biomechanically sound construct when articulated with large diameter femoral heads. PMID:26270761

  18. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Marsee, Kevin; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother–infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP)] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 μg/kg/day, respectively; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 μg/kg/day; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 μg/kg/day; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 μg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP), 800 (DEP), 200 (BBzP), and 20 (DEHP) μg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals. PMID:16759976

  19. Herpes simplex ICP27 mutant viruses exhibit reduced expression of specific DNA replication genes.

    PubMed Central

    Uprichard, S L; Knipe, D M

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants with certain lesions in the ICP27 gene show a 5- to 10-fold reduction in viral DNA synthesis. To determine how ICP27 promotes amplification of viral DNA, we examined the synthesis, accumulation, and stability of the essential viral replication proteins and steady-state levels of the replication gene transcripts throughout the course of ICP27 mutant virus infections. These studies reveal that in the absence of ICP27, expression of the UL5, UL8, UL52, UL9, UL42, and UL30 genes is significantly reduced at the level of mRNA accumulation. In contrast to that of these beta genes, ICP8 expression is unaltered in mutant virus-infected cells, indicating that ICP27 selectively stimulates only a subset of herpes simplex virus beta genes. Analysis of multiple ICP27 mutant viruses indicates a quantitative correlation between the ability of these mutants to replicate viral DNA and the level of replication proteins produced by each mutant. Therefore, we conclude that the primary defect responsible for restricted viral DNA synthesis in cells infected with ICP27 mutants is insufficient expression of most of the essential replication genes. Of further interest, this analysis also provides new information about the structure of the UL52 gene transcripts. PMID:8627723

  20. Overexpression of the AtSHI Gene in Poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Results in Compact Plants

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik; Haugslien, Sissel; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Torre, Sissel; Rolcik, Jakub; Rasmussen, Søren K.; Olsen, Jorunn E.; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI) gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21–52%) and internode lengths (31–49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11–31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced. PMID:23308204

  1. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik; Haugslien, Sissel; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Torre, Sissel; Rolcik, Jakub; Rasmussen, Søren K; Olsen, Jorunn E; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI) gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52%) and internode lengths (31-49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11-31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced. PMID:23308204

  2. Automatic Facilitation of Dialogue in Shy and Not Shy Problem-Solving Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodolsky, David; And Others

    The validity of an automated experimental system incorporating a computer mediator for resolving conflicting requests to speak among four-member problem-solving teams was assessed. Learning how to use problem-solving strategies was affected by this new method for facilitating participation in dialogue. Strategy learning among shy and assertive…

  3. Vocal fold paresis in Shy-Drager syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D G; Ludlow, C L; Bassich, C J

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS) presenting symptoms of multiple nervous system atrophy and orthostatic hypotension were examined for laryngeal movement disorders and vocal impairment in speech. Vocal fold abductor paresis was found in 11 patients and was bilateral in 10. Speech task performance was recorded in SDS patients, Parkinson patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Trained listeners with inter-rated reliability greater than or equal to .85 judged each recording on 20 attributes while blind to speaker identity. SDS patients had a breathy and strained voice quality, reduced loudness, monopitch and monoloudness, imprecise consonants, variations in rate and rate-slowing, suggesting a flaccid type of dysarthria. In comparison with Parkinson patients, SDS patients had excess vocal hoarseness, intermittent glottal fry and a slow and deliberate speaking rate. Orthostatic hypotension, laryngeal stridor, hoarseness, intermittent glottal fry and slow speech rate were found to be discriminating symptoms of SDS. PMID:6824289

  4. Narrative Performance and Parental Scaffolding of Shy and Nonshy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kailey Pearl; Evans, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study examined differences in performance between 20 shy and 20 matched nonshy children on a narrative task and in the way parents scaffolded their narrative performance when reading the wordless book "Frog, Where Are You", by Mercer Mayer. Consistent with previous research, results demonstrated that shy children spoke less than their nonshy…

  5. Fgf8-Deficient Mice Compensate for Reduced GnRH Neuronal Population and Exhibit Normal Testicular Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnson, Joshua I.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is critical for the onset and maintenance of reproduction in vertebrates. The development of GnRH neurons is highly dependent on fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling. Mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele (Fgf8 Het) exhibited a ~50% reduction in GnRH neuron number at birth. Female Fgf8 Het mice were fertile but showed significantly delayed puberty. However, it was unclear if these mice suffered additional loss of GnRH neurons after birth, and if male Fgf8 Het mice had normal pubertal transition and testicular function. In this study, we examined postnatal GnRH neuron number and hypothalamic GnRH content in Fgf8 Het mice from birth to 120 days of age. Further, we examined seminal vesicle and testicular growth, testicular histology, and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) around and after pubertal transition. Our results showed that GnRH neuron numbers were significantly and consistently reduced in Fgf8 Het mice of both sexes in all ages examined, suggesting these animals were born with an inherently defective GnRH system, and no further postnatal loss of GnRH neurons had occurred. Despite an innately compromised GnRH system, male and female Fgf8 mice exhibited normal levels of immunoassayable hypothalamic GnRH peptide at all ages examined except on 60 days of age, suggesting increased GnRH synthesis or reduced turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Fgf8 Het males also had normal seminal vesicle and testicular mass/body mass ratios, testicular histology, and circulating LH. Overall, our data speak to the extraordinary ability of a GnRH system permanently compromised by developmental defect to overcome pre-existing deficiencies to ensure pubertal progression and reproduction. PMID:26441841

  6. Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension (Shy-Drager Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension Information Page Synonym(s): Shy- ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension? Multiple system atrophy with ...

  7. The SHiP project at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lellis, G.; SHiP Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson has fully confirmed the Standard Model of particles and fields. Nevertheless, there are still fundamental phenomena, like the existence of dark matter and the baryon asymmetry, which deserve an explanation that could come from the discovery of new particles. Searches for new physics with accelerators are performed at the LHC, looking for high massive particles coupled to matter with ordinary strength. A new experimental facility at CERN meant to search for very weakly coupled particles in the few GeV mass domain has been recently proposed. The existence of such particles, foreseen in different theoretical models beyond the Standard Model, is largely unexplored. A beam dump facility using 400 GeV protons is a copious factory of charmed hadrons and could be used to probe the existence of such particles. The beam dump is also a copious source of neutrinos and in particular it is an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. Indeed, tau anti-neutrinos have not been directly observed so far. We report the physics potential of such an experiment. Resistive Plate Chambers could play a role in the SHiP detector.

  8. Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Henschel, Angela M.; Kansra, Sanjay; Fuller, Jessica M.; Geoffrey, Rhonda; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L.; Pavletich, Scott; Prosser, Simon; Chen, Yi-Guang; Lernmark, Åke; Hessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Islet-level oxidative stress has been proposed as a trigger for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and release of cytokines by infiltrating immune cells further elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS), exacerbating β cell duress. To identify genes/mechanisms involved with diabeto-genesis at the β cell level, gene expression profiling and targeted follow-up studies were used to investigate islet activity in the biobreeding (BB) rat. Forty-day-old spontaneously diabetic lymphopenic BB DRlyp/lyp rats (before T cell insulitis) as well as nondiabetic BB DR+/+ rats, nondiabetic but lymphopenic F344lyp/lyp rats, and healthy Fischer (F344) rats were examined. Gene expression profiles of BB rat islets were highly distinct from F344 islets and under-expressed numerous genes involved in ROS metabolism, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members (Gstm2, Gstm4, Gstm7, Gstt1, Gstp1, and Gstk1), superoxide dismutases (Sod2 and Sod3), peroxidases, and peroxiredoxins. This pattern of under-expression was not observed in brain, liver, or muscle. Compared with F344 rats, BB rat pancreata exhibited lower GST protein levels, while plasma GST activity was found significantly lower in BB rats. Systemic administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine to DRlyp/lyp rats altered abundances of peripheral eosinophils, reduced severity of insulitis, and significantly delayed but did not prevent diabetes onset. We find evidence of β cell dysfunction in BB rats independent of T1D progression, which includes lower expression of genes related to antioxidative defense mechanisms during the pre-onset period that may contribute to overall T1D susceptibility. PMID:23111281

  9. SHI irradiated PVA/Ag nanocomposites and possibility of UV blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Rishi Pal; Mahendia, Suman; Tomar, A. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-02-01

    The polyvinyl alcohol-silver (PVA/Ag) nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ chemical reduction method. The appearance of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the absorption spectrum of PVA/Ag nanocomposite films around 425 nm, confirmed the presence of Ag in the form of nanoparticles in host PVA matrix. In order to study the effect of swift heavy ions (SHI) irradiation on the optical and structural properties of these nanocomposites, the prepared films were irradiated to 90 MeV O6+ ion beam at two different fluence of 3 × 1010 and 1 × 1011 ions/cm2. The optical energy gap is found to be reduced from 4.57 eV (for PVA/Ag nanocomposite without irradiation) to 3.05 eV after irradiation at fluence of 1 × 1011 ions/cm2. The decline in the transmission of PVA/Ag nanocomposites in ultraviolet region, as a result of SHI irradiation, leads to their possible application in UV blocking devices. The induced structural re-arrangements, as a result of SHI irradiation, were revealed through the FTIR & Raman spectroscopy and found to be in strong association with the changes in optical behavior of these nanocomposites.

  10. Aluminum-free low-modulus Ti-C composites that exhibit reduced image artifacts during MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Lee, Hong-Jun; Son, Seong-Guk; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Lee, Kang-Sik; Shin, Seung-Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies were performed to determine the suitability of a novel synthesis technique for fabricating multifunctional composite materials for orthopedic implants. By blending paramagnetic Ti powder with diamagnetic graphite and consolidating the resulting mixtures, Ti-C composites that cannot be feasibly obtained via conventional alloying techniques or ingot metallurgy were synthesized. The synthesized composite material exhibited extremely low magnetic susceptibility (χ=67.6×10(-6)), and, as a result, exhibited fewer artifacts during magnetic resonance imaging. The strength of the composite material (σ=770MPa) was such that it could support external loads to which the human body is subjected, but its Young's modulus was low (E=81.9 GPa) such that it could mitigate the stress-shielding effect. The material was also free from toxic elements such as Al and V and, thus, can be considered less harmful. PMID:25449916

  11. A yeast tRNA mutant that causes pseudohyphal growth exhibits reduced rates of CAG codon translation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Alain J; Betney, Russell; Ciandrini, Luca; Schwenger, Alexandra C M; Romano, M Carmen; Stansfield, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SUP70 gene encodes the CAG-decoding tRNAGlnCUG. A mutant allele, sup70-65, induces pseudohyphal growth on rich medium, an inappropriate nitrogen starvation response. This mutant tRNA is also a UAG nonsense suppressor via first base wobble. To investigate the basis of the pseudohyphal phenotype, 10 novel sup70 UAG suppressor alleles were identified, defining positions in the tRNAGlnCUG anticodon stem that restrict first base wobble. However, none conferred pseudohyphal growth, showing altered CUG anticodon presentation cannot itself induce pseudohyphal growth. Northern blot analysis revealed the sup70-65 tRNAGlnCUG is unstable, inefficiently charged, and 80% reduced in its effective concentration. A stochastic model simulation of translation predicted compromised expression of CAG-rich ORFs in the tRNAGlnCUG-depleted sup70-65 mutant. This prediction was validated by demonstrating that luciferase expression in the mutant was 60% reduced by introducing multiple tandem CAG (but not CAA) codons into this ORF. In addition, the sup70-65 pseudohyphal phenotype was partly complemented by overexpressing CAA-decoding tRNAGlnUUG, an inefficient wobble-decoder of CAG. We thus show that introducing codons decoded by a rare tRNA near the 5′ end of an ORF can reduce eukaryote translational expression, and that the mutant tRNACUGGln constitutive pseudohyphal differentiation phenotype correlates strongly with reduced CAG decoding efficiency. PMID:23146061

  12. Sphingosine kinase 2 deficient mice exhibit reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Resistance to FTY720 but not ST-968 treatments.

    PubMed

    Imeri, Faik; Schwalm, Stephanie; Lyck, Ruth; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger; Engelhardt, Britta; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Huwiler, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The immunomodulatory drug FTY720 is presently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a prodrug that requires activation by sphingosine kinase 2 (SK-2) to induce T cell homing to secondary lymphoid tissue. In this study, we have investigated the role of SK-2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. We show that SK-2 deficiency reduced clinical symptoms of EAE. Furthermore, in SK-2-deficient mice, the protective effect of FTY720 on EAE was abolished, while the non-prodrug FTY720-derivative ST-968 was still fully active. Protection was paralleled by reduced numbers of T-lymphocytes in blood and a reduced blood-brain-barrier leakage. This correlated with reduced mRNA expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, but enhanced expression of PECAM-1. A similar regulation of permeability and of PECAM-1 was seen in primary cultures of isolated mouse brain vascular endothelial cells and in a human immortalized cell line upon SK-2 knockdown. In summary, these data demonstrated that deletion of SK-2 exerts a protective effect on the pathogenesis of EAE in C57BL/6 mice and that SK-2 is essential for the protective effect of FTY720 but not of ST-968. Thus, ST-968 is a promising novel immunomodulatory compound that may be a valuable alternative to FTY720 under conditions where SK-2 activity is limited. PMID:26808312

  13. A yeast tRNA mutant that causes pseudohyphal growth exhibits reduced rates of CAG codon translation.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Alain J; Betney, Russell; Ciandrini, Luca; Schwenger, Alexandra C M; Romano, M Carmen; Stansfield, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SUP70 gene encodes the CAG-decoding tRNA(Gln)(CUG). A mutant allele, sup70-65, induces pseudohyphal growth on rich medium, an inappropriate nitrogen starvation response. This mutant tRNA is also a UAG nonsense suppressor via first base wobble. To investigate the basis of the pseudohyphal phenotype, 10 novel sup70 UAG suppressor alleles were identified, defining positions in the tRNA(Gln)(CUG) anticodon stem that restrict first base wobble. However, none conferred pseudohyphal growth, showing altered CUG anticodon presentation cannot itself induce pseudohyphal growth. Northern blot analysis revealed the sup70-65 tRNA(Gln)(CUG) is unstable, inefficiently charged, and 80% reduced in its effective concentration. A stochastic model simulation of translation predicted compromised expression of CAG-rich ORFs in the tRNA(Gln)(CUG)-depleted sup70-65 mutant. This prediction was validated by demonstrating that luciferase expression in the mutant was 60% reduced by introducing multiple tandem CAG (but not CAA) codons into this ORF. In addition, the sup70-65 pseudohyphal phenotype was partly complemented by overexpressing CAA-decoding tRNA(Gln)(UUG), an inefficient wobble-decoder of CAG. We thus show that introducing codons decoded by a rare tRNA near the 5' end of an ORF can reduce eukaryote translational expression, and that the mutant tRNA(CUG)(Gln) constitutive pseudohyphal differentiation phenotype correlates strongly with reduced CAG decoding efficiency. PMID:23146061

  14. The Best Friendships of Shy/Withdrawn Children: Prevalence, Stability, and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Wojslawowicz, Julie C.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    The mutual best friendships of shy/withdrawn and control children were examined for prevalence, stability, best friend's characteristics, and friendship quality. Using peer nominations of shy/socially withdrawn and aggressive behaviors, two groups of children were identified from a normative sample of fifth-grade children: shy/withdrawn (n = 169)…

  15. Mice expressing markedly reduced striatal dopamine transporters exhibit increased locomotor activity, dopamine uptake turnover rate, and cocaine responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anjali; Sorkin, Alexander; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-10-01

    Variations in the expression levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can influence responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. To better understand this relationship, we studied a new DAT-low expresser (DAT-LE) mouse model and performed behavioral and biochemical studies with it. Immunoblotting and [(3) H]WIN 35,428 binding analyses revealed that these mice express ∼35% of wildtype (WT) mouse striatal DAT levels. Compared to WT mice, DAT-LE mice were hyperactive in a novel open-field environment. Despite their higher basal locomotor activity, cocaine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced greater locomotor activation in DAT-LE mice than in WT mice. The maximal velocity (Vmax ) of DAT-mediated [(3) H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes was reduced by 46% in DAT-LE mice, as compared to WT. Overall, considering the reduced number of DAT binding sites (Bmax ) along with the reduced Vmax in DAT-LE mice, a 2-fold increase in DA uptake turnover rate (Vmax /Bmax ) was found, relative to WT mice. This suggests that neuroadaptive changes have occurred in the DAT-LE mice that would help to compensate for their low DAT numbers. Interestingly, these changes do not include a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, as was previously reported in DAT knockout homozygous and heterozygous animals. Further, these changes are not sufficient to prevent elevated novelty- and cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Hence, these mice represent a unique model for studying changes of in vivo DAT function and regulation that result from markedly reduced levels of DAT expression. PMID:23564231

  16. Proven practices for reducing aggressive and noncompliant behaviors exhibited by young children at home and at school.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, A; Witt, J C

    2000-10-01

    One of the single most powerful predictors of aggressive and noncompliant behaviors exhibited in early childhood is coercive parent-child interaction. Coercive parent-child interaction has been linked to multiple negative outcomes in the lives of children. When children learn to relate to their parents and the world in the context of coercive interaction, they are likely to experience significant deficits in the prosocial skills critical to school success. These children are much more likely to experience school failure and teacher and peer rejection. Further, when noncompliant and aggressive children enter school, they are most frequently exposed to a series of ineffective and increasingly restrictive treatments. Proven strategies exist to teach parents and children prosocial ways of interacting and to address these problems in the classroom, but in many cases these types of services are not easily accessible or routinely available. This paper makes recommendations for identifying effective, proven treatment strategies when practitioners observe coercive parent-child interaction or child noncompliance and aggression. PMID:11059918

  17. Immobilized cytochrome c bound to cardiolipin exhibits peculiar oxidation state-dependent axial heme ligation and catalytically reduces dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Antonio; Millo, Diego; Di Rocco, Giulia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo A; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c (cytc) plays an important role in programmed cell death upon binding to cardiolipin (CL), a negatively charged phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Although this binding has been thoroughly investigated in solution, little is known on the nature and reactivity of the adduct (cytc-CL) immobilized at IMM. In this work, we have studied electrochemically cytc-CL immobilized on a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of decane-1-thiol. This construct would reproduce the motional restriction and the nonpolar environment experienced by cytc-CL at IMM. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) studies allowed the axial heme iron ligands to be identified, which were found to be oxidation state dependent and differ from those of cytc-CL in solution. In particular, immobilized cytc-CL experiences an equilibrium between a low-spin (LS) 6c His/His and a high-spin (HS) 5c His/- coordination states. The former prevails in the oxidized and the latter in the reduced form. Axial coordination of the ferric heme thus differs from the (LS) 6c His/Lys and (LS) 6c His/OH(-) states observed in solution. Moreover, a relevant finding is that the immobilized ferrous cytc-CL is able to catalytically reduce dioxygen, likely to superoxide ion. These findings indicate that restriction of motional freedom due to interaction with the membrane is an additional factor playing in the mechanism of cytc unfolding and cytc-mediated peroxidation functional to the apoptosis cascade. PMID:25627142

  18. Female Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice Exhibit Hyperactivity and a Reduced Sense of Danger in the Open Field Test

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Jones, Simon A.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. E.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Bigger, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22028789

  19. Effect of prenalterol on orthostatic hypotension in the Shy-Drager syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, J; Verfaillie, C; Fagard, R; Knockaert, D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is often unsatisfactory. A patient with the Shy-Drager syndrome, in which the most important symptom is orthostatic hypotension, was treated with prenalterol, initially 30 mg six times daily. The dosage was reduced to 30 mg four times daily because of the development of complex ventricular premature beats. Orthostatic symptoms were reduced and standing blood pressure increased. Fludrocortisone 0.5 mg a day was added to treatment with further improvement. This clinical effect was maintained throughout 12 months of follow up, during which the treatment was continued unchanged. Prenalterol was effective in reducing orthostatic symptoms in this patient. Further studies in patients with a similar haemodynamic pattern are indicated. PMID:6142747

  20. Monitoring the Surface Heat Island (shi) Effects of Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the effects of industrial enterprises on Land Surface Temperature (LST) and to retrieve Surface Heat Island (SHI) maps of these regions. SHI is one of the types of Urban Heat Island (UHI) and as the urban areas grow in a city, UHI effect becomes bigger. The city centre of Zonguldak was chosen as study area and Landsat 5 satellite data were used as materials. Zonguldak has important industrial enterprises like thermal power plants and iron and steel plant. ERDEMIR is the biggest iron and steel plant in Turkey and it is one of the biggest ones in Europe, as well. There are three operating thermal power plants in the region namely CATES, ZETES1 and ZETES2. In order to investigate these industrial regions, Landsat 5 satellite data were processed using mono-window algorithm to retrieve LST and they were acquired on 11.09.1987, 18.09.2007 and 29.09.2011, respectively. The obtained results revealed that from 1987 to 2011, spatial and temporal variability in LST in industrial enterprises became higher than the surroundings. Besides, the sizes of SHIs in 2011 are bigger than the ones in 1987. For the countries and governments, having industrial enterprises is crucial for the development and it is also important to present the community better conditions in life. Thus, decision makers should consider mitigating the effects of these regions on LST.

  1. Socioemotional Competence, Self-Perceptions, and Receptive Vocabulary in Shy Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children's school competencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions, and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) were classified as shy (n = 26) based on teachers' behavioural…

  2. Morc3 mutant mice exhibit reduced cortical area and thickness, accompanied by altered haematopoietic stem cells niche and bone cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Gaurav; Teguh, Dian; Kenny, Jacob; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake

    2016-01-01

    Morc3, a member of a highly conserved nuclear matrix protein super-family plays an important part in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, epigenetic regulation and cellular senescence. However, its role in bone homeostasis is not known. In the present study, a phenotype-driven ENU mouse mutagenesis screen revealed that Morc3mut +/− mice exhibit reduced cortical area and thickness with increased cortical porosity. Morc3mut +/− mice displayed reduced osteoclast numbers and surface per bone surface as well as osteocyte numbers, concomitant with altered gene expressions such as Rankl/Opg and Sost in ex vivo long bones. In vitro experiments revealed a significant increase in the number of Sca-1+/c-kit+ haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and a significant reduction in senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). In addition, we observed a decrease in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption accompanied by upregulation of STAT1 expression in osteoclast lineage cells. Strikingly, Morc3 protein localization within the nuclear membrane was shifted to the cytoplasm in Morc3mut +/− osteoclasts. Further, Morc3mut +/− mice displayed increased osteoblast differentiation and altered gene expression. Collectively, our data show that Morc3 is a previously unreported regulator of cortical bone homeostasis and haematopoietic stem cells niche, accompanied by altered bone cell differentiation. PMID:27188231

  3. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents. PMID:25775369

  4. Infant shy temperament predicts preschoolers Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Mink, Daniela; Henning, Anne; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relation between infant temperament at 18 months and early Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities at 3 years of age. Temperament was assessed with the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and ToM by assessing children's understanding of divergent desires and beliefs, and of knowledge access. Our results are in line with a social-emotional reactivity perspective postulating more sophisticated ToM abilities for children with less reactive more observant temperament. Children with shy temperament at 18 months and at 3 years were better in reasoning about others' mental states at age 3. Language, siblings and parental education had no effect on ToM. Findings indicate that temperament is related to ToM earlier in development than previously found, and that this relation is thus not unique to false-belief understanding. PMID:24463039

  5. Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2014-05-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting a more risk-averse strategy. In the great tit (Parus major), the shy-bold personality axis has been well characterized in captivity and linked to fitness. Here, we tested whether 'exploration behaviour', a captive assay of the shy-bold axis, can predict risk responsiveness during reproduction in wild great tits. Relatively slow-exploring (shy) females took longer than fast-exploring (bold) birds to resume incubation after a novel object, representing an unknown threat, was attached to their nest-box, with some shy individuals not returning within the 40 min trial period. Risk responsiveness was consistent within individuals over days. These findings provide rare, field-based experimental evidence that shy individuals prioritize survival over reproductive investment, supporting the hypothesis that personality reflects life-history variation through links with risk responsiveness. PMID:24829251

  6. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  7. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Mara A

    2009-07-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a 'national' Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  8. R -parity violation and light neutralinos at SHiP and the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jordy; Dreiner, Herbi K.; Schmeier, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    We study the sensitivity of the proposed SHiP experiment to the L Q D operator in R -parity violating supersymmetric theories. We focus on single neutralino production via rare meson decays and the observation of downstream neutralino decays into charged mesons inside the SHiP decay chamber. We provide a generic list of effective operators and decay width formulas for any λ' coupling and show the resulting expected SHiP sensitivity for a widespread list of benchmark scenarios via numerical simulations. We compare this sensitivity to expected limits from testing the same decay topology at the LHC with ATLAS.

  9. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D. K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In2O3:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag+9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 3.0 × 1013 ions/cm2. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  10. One new species of the genus Nigrimacula Shi, Bian & Zhou, 2016 (Orthoptera: Meconematinae) from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jian; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The paper describels one new species, i.e. Nigrimacula sichuanensis Wang & Shi, sp. nov. from Sichuan, China, and provides photographs of morphological characters. The type material is deposited in the Museum of Hebei University. PMID:27395697

  11. Why I Am Not SHY: A Reply to Tononi and Cirelli

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article I reviewed an influential theory of sleep function, the “synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY.)” According to SHY, sleep renormalizes synapses that are potentiated during prior wakefulness. I concluded that while SHY is a seminal theory with important implications about sleep function and the brain, its underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. In an accompanying article, the authors of SHY responded at length. Their reply is thoughtful and provocative, but unfortunately many of the points I raised were not accurately represented or addressed. In this brief commentary, I attempt to clarify some points of confusion. I also explain why any theory of sleep function is incomplete without an understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:23476811

  12. [Professor Li Shi-zhen's clinical experiences on compatibility application of hegu (LI 4)].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-qi

    2010-02-01

    The present paper introduces professor LI Shi-zhen's clinical experiences on compatibility application of Hegu (LI 4). Hegu (LI 4) is mostly used to treat acute pyreticosis, exterior syndrome of exogenous diseases, mind diseases and deficiency of vital energy. Acupuncture at this acupoint by using reducing method can dispel wind to relieve exterior syndrome, clear away heat to disperse lung. Powerful stimulation by needle can dredge stagnant meridian, open orifice to activate spirit. Acupuncture at this acupoint by using reinforcing method can invigorate qi to strengthen superficies and replenish qi to prevent collapse. Based on this method, reinforcing Zusanli (ST 36) and Baihui (GV 20) can strengthen middle energizer to nourish qi, which show the same benefits as Buzhong Yiqi Decoction; reinforcing Sanyinjiao (SP 6) can nourish both qi and blood, which show the same benefits as Decoction of Eight Ingredients; reducing Neiting (ST 44) can clear away evil heat of qifen in yangming meridians, which show the same benefits as Baihu Decoction. PMID:20214075

  13. SHI induced effects on the electrical and optical properties of HfO2 thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikanthababu, N.; Dhanunjaya, M.; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Pathak, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The continuous downscaling of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices has reached a limit with SiO2 as a gate dielectric material. Introducing high-k dielectric materials as a replacement for the conservative SiO2 is the only alternative to reduce the leakage current. HfO2 is a reliable and an impending material for the wide usage as a gate dielectric in semiconductor industry. HfO2 thin films were synthesized by RF sputtering technique. Here, we present a study of Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation with100 MeV Ag ions for studying the optical properties as well as 80 MeV Ni ions for studying the electrical properties of HfO2/Si thin films. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), profilometer and I-V (leakage current) measurements have been employed to study the SHI induced effects on both the structural, electrical and optical properties.

  14. Meeting Report: Ordinary Meeting and Exhibition Meeting, 2006 June 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H.; Mobberley, M.

    2007-06-01

    Prior to the Ordinary Meeting, the annual Exhibition was opened by Richard Miles, President, who said he was pleased to report that all but two of the Sections had display stands this year, and that most of the Directors had also been able to attend and were available for members who wished to discuss their work. Although we had almost a full day of talks to enjoy, members should not be shy of coming and going from the lecture theatre at will, and in particular must make sure they took sufficient time to do justice to the excellent Exhibition on offer.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors with Tyrosine Kinase Domain Mutations Exhibit Reduced Cbl Association, Poor Ubiquitylation, and Down-regulation but Are Efficiently Internalized

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, David; Sato, Mitsuo; Shay, Jerry W.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Roth, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Some non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain mutations require altered signaling through the EGFR for cell survival and are exquisitely sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR down-regulation was impaired in two NSCLCs with EGFR tyrosine kinase domain mutations. The mutant receptors were poorly ubiquitylated and exhibited decreased association with the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Over-expression of Cbl increased the degradation of EGFR. Treatment with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of the chaperone heat shock protein 90, also increased both wild-type and mutant EGFR degradation without affecting internalization. The down-regulation of the mutant EGFRs was still impaired when they were stably expressed in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the mutations that altered signaling also decreased the interaction of EGFRs with the mechanisms responsible for endosomal sorting. PMID:17699773

  16. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Leichtman, Mara A.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a ‘national’ Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  17. A prototypic modified risk tobacco product exhibits reduced effects on chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of monocytes compared with a reference cigarette.

    PubMed

    van der Toorn, Marco; Frentzel, Stefan; Goedertier, Didier; Peitsch, Manuel; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Monocyte adhesion and migration to the subendothelial space represent critical steps in atherogenesis. Here, we investigated whether extracts from the aerosol of a prototypic modified risk tobacco product (pMRTP), based on heating rather than combusting tobacco, exhibited differential effects on the migratory behavior of monocytes compared with that from the reference cigarette, 3R4F. THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line, and human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) were used to investigate chemotaxis and transendothelial migration (TEM) of monocytes in conventional and impedance-based systems. THP-1 cells migrated through a monolayer of HCAECs in response to C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12), a chemokine involved in diverse cellular functions including chemotaxis and survival of stem cells. Treatment of THP-1 cells with extracts from 3R4F or pMRTP induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity (7-aminoactinomycin D), and inflammation (IL-8 and TNF-α). CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis and TEM were decreased in extract-treated THP-1 cells. Extracts from 3R4F were ~21 times more potent than those from pMRTP in all examined endpoints. Extracts from 3R4F and pMRTP induced concentration-dependent responses in assays of inflammation, cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and TEM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that extracts from a pMRTP are significantly less cytotoxic and induce less inflammation than those from the reference cigarette, 3R4F. PMID:25839901

  18. Simple Hamiltonians which exhibit drastic failures by variational determination of the two-particle reduced density matrix with some well known N-representability conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Maho; Braams, Bastiaan J; Fukuda, Mituhiro; Percus, Jerome K; Yamashita, Makoto; Zhao, Zhengji

    2006-12-28

    Calculations on small molecular systems indicate that the variational approach employing the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM) as the basic unknown and applying the P, Q, G, T1, and T2 representability conditions provides an accuracy that is competitive with the best standard ab initio methods of quantum chemistry. However, in this paper we consider a simple class of Hamiltonians for which an exact ground state wave function can be written as a single Slater determinant and yet the same 2-RDM approach gives a drastically nonrepresentable result. This shows the need for stronger representability conditions than the mentioned ones. PMID:17199342

  19. Enhancing Contextualized Curriculum: Integrated Identity in Young Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian Students' Social Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fartousi, May

    2016-01-01

    This research explored 10 young female Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students' experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The in-depth case study sought to address the dearth of information about Shi'is' experiences in schools…

  20. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT→C) and one (ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT→C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT→C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  1. Novel pH-sensitive lipid-polymer composite microspheres of 10-hydroxycamptothecin exhibiting colon-specific biodistribution and reduced systemic absorption.

    PubMed

    Gan, Li; Gao, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Chun-Liu; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Gan, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Novel lipid-polymer composite microspheres (LP-MS) were prepared by combining pH-sensitive polymer Eudragit S100 with solid lipid Compritol 888 ATO for colonic delivery of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), and pH-dependent controlled drug release has been achieved. The colon-specific biodistribution and uptake by the mucosal tissue were examined using coumarin-6-marked LP-MS. It is proved that good in vitro-in vivo relationship has been achieved, with more drugs being delivered to colon and a higher drug level was maintained for a long period. Moreover, in vivo bioavailability of LP-MS was evaluated with conventional enteric microspheres (enteric MS) as reference. After administration of LP-MS, systemic absorption of HCPT was greatly reduced, with area under the curve from 0 to 24h (AUC0-24 h , 2.186 ± 0.27) being significantly lower than that of enteric MS group (6.352 ± 0.696). In conclusion, the novel pH-sensitive LP-MS has potential for colon-specific drug delivery. PMID:23605625

  2. Mice expressing the A53T mutant form of human alpha-synuclein exhibit hyperactivity and reduced anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dianca R; Sidhu, Anita

    2010-06-01

    Genetic mutations associated with alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is primarily a movement disorder, but patients are known to experience anxiety and other mood disorders. In this study, we examined the effect of the hA53T mutation during development by analyzing the protein expression of norepinephrine (NET), serotonin (SERT), and dopamine (DAT) transporters in addition to assessing locomotor and anxiety-like behavior. We observed significant decreases in DAT expression at 8 months in transgenic animals compared with normal and younger mice. We used the elevated plus maze, open-field test, and rotarod apparatus to evaluate wild-type and hA53T hemizygous mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age. Our results showed that 12-month-old transgenic mice spend more time in the open arms and display a greater number of open entries of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type controls and younger mice. Open-field test results showed that 12-month-old mice travel a greater distance overall and travel more in the inner zone than either wild-type or younger mice. Rotarod testing showed that 8- and 12-month-old transgenic mice perform better than either wild-type controls or younger mice. Overall, 8-12-month-old transgenic mice showed a trend toward reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased hyperactivity. These results indicate a possible role of the A53T alpha-Syn mutation in anxiety-like and hyperactive behaviors in a PD mouse model, suggesting that these behaviors might be comorbid with this disease. PMID:20077428

  3. A SHORT INTERNODES (SHI) family transcription factor gene regulates awn elongation and pistil morphology in barley.

    PubMed

    Yuo, Takahisa; Yamashita, Yuko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lundqvist, Udda; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ichii, Masahiko; Jobling, Stephen A; Taketa, Shin

    2012-09-01

    The awn, an apical extension from the lemma of the spikelet, plays important roles in seed dispersal, burial, and photosynthesis. Barley typically has long awns, but short-awn variants exist. The short awn 2 (lks2) gene, which produces awns about 50% shorter than normal, is a natural variant that is restricted to Eastern Asia. Positional cloning revealed that Lks2 encodes a SHI-family transcription factor. Allelism tests showed that lks2 is allelic to unbranched style 4 (ubs4) and breviaristatum-d (ari-d), for which the phenotypes are very short awn and sparse stigma hairs. The gene identity was validated by 25 mutant alleles with lesions in the Lks2 gene. Of these, 17 affected either or both conserved regions: the zinc-binding RING-finger motif and the IGGH domain. Lks2 is highly expressed in awns and pistils. Histological observations of longitudinal awn sections showed that the lks2 short-awn phenotype resulted from reduced cell number. Natural variants of lks2 were classified into three types, but all shared a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that causes a proline-to-leucine change at position 245 in the IGGH domain. All three lks2 natural variants were regarded as weak alleles because their awn and pistil phenotypes are mild compared with those of the 25 mutant alleles. Natural variants of lks2 found in the east of China and the Himalayas had considerably different sequences in the regions flanking the critical SNP, suggesting independent origins. The available results suggest that the lks2 allele might have a selective advantage in the adaptation of barley to high-precipitation areas of Eastern Asia. PMID:22791834

  4. Search for New Physics in SHiP and at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graverini, E.; Serra, N.; Storaci, B.

    2015-07-01

    SHiP is a newly proposed fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS with the aim of searching for hidden particles that interact very weakly with Standard Model particles. The work presented in this document investigates SHiP's physics reach in the parameter space of the Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (νMSM), a theory that could solve most problems unexplained by the Standard Model by incorporating sterile neutrinos. A model introducing an extra U(1) symmetry in the hidden sector, providing a natural candidate for dark matter, is also explored. This work shows that the SHiP experiment can improve the sensitivity to Heavy Neutral Leptons below 2 GeV by several orders of magnitude, scanning a large part of the parameter space below the B meson mass. The remainder of the νMSM parameter space, dominated by right-handed neutrinos with masses above 2 GeV, can be explored at a future e+e- collider. Similarly, SHiP can greatly improve present constraints on U(1) dark photons.

  5. Social Information Processing and Coping Strategies of Shy/Withdrawn and Aggressive Children: Does Friendship Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Kim B.; Wojslawowicz, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this investigation were to examine the attributions, emotional reactions, and coping strategies of shy withdrawn and aggressive girls and boys "and" to examine whether such social cognitions differ within the relationship context of friendship. Drawn from a sample of fifth and sixth graders (M age=10.79 years; SD=.77), 78…

  6. Moving away from the World: Life-Course Patterns of Shy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avshalom; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used archival data on individuals identified as shy and reserved in late childhood in 1954 to trace the continuities and consequences of the individuals' behavioral style for the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Childhood shyness did not produce pathological or extreme outcomes, but did have significant consequences for later development,…

  7. Shy Adolescents' Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control and Emotional Warmth: Examining Bidirectional Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of parental behaviors--psychological control and emotional warmth--have been linked with children's shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect perceptions of parental behaviors. The participants were 916 seventh to ninth graders in a…

  8. Canadian Early-Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Children's Gendered Shy, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Heather; Bosacki, Sandra; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators' (ECE) perceptions of gender roles may contribute to the development of children's own gender-role identities. This qualitative study examined 40 Canadian female ECEs' perceptions of gender and children's shy, aggressive, and prosocial behaviors. Content analysis of extensive interviews revealed three themes: (1) shyness…

  9. Do Shy Kids Have a Chance of Getting to College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Thomas A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of teacher recommendations for students who exhibit extreme shyness during college interviews. Admission committees at some colleges are apparently questioning the propensity to favor students who evidence leadership, and who are naturally outgoing, in seeking to balance and diversify the…

  10. Gibberellin deficiency is responsible for shy-flowering nature of Epipremnum aureum

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Qiu, Jie; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Chen, Jianjun; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Henny, Richard J.; Jin, Gulei; Fan, Longjiang; Xie, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    Epipremnum aureum is an extremely popular houseplant belonging to the Araceae family of angiosperms, but it does not flower either in the wild or under cultivation. We uncovered the potential causes of its shy-flowering nature by building the transcriptome using next-generation sequencing and identifying floral-related genes that are differentially expressed between vertical growth (VG, adult) and horizontal growth (HG, juvenile) plants. Transcripts of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene EaGA3ox1 and GA-responsive floral meristem identity gene EaLFY were absent in both VG and HG plants, suggesting that a deficiency of bioactive GAs may be responsible for its shy-flowering nature. This hypothesis is supported by undetectable or low levels of three bioactive GAs, and exogenous GA3 triggered flowering in both plants. Our study resolves the mystery why E. aureum fails to flower, and reveals the positive role of GAs in floral transition in perennials. PMID:27345283

  11. Gibberellin deficiency is responsible for shy-flowering nature of Epipremnum aureum.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Qiu, Jie; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Chen, Jianjun; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Henny, Richard J; Jin, Gulei; Fan, Longjiang; Xie, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    Epipremnum aureum is an extremely popular houseplant belonging to the Araceae family of angiosperms, but it does not flower either in the wild or under cultivation. We uncovered the potential causes of its shy-flowering nature by building the transcriptome using next-generation sequencing and identifying floral-related genes that are differentially expressed between vertical growth (VG, adult) and horizontal growth (HG, juvenile) plants. Transcripts of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene EaGA3ox1 and GA-responsive floral meristem identity gene EaLFY were absent in both VG and HG plants, suggesting that a deficiency of bioactive GAs may be responsible for its shy-flowering nature. This hypothesis is supported by undetectable or low levels of three bioactive GAs, and exogenous GA3 triggered flowering in both plants. Our study resolves the mystery why E. aureum fails to flower, and reveals the positive role of GAs in floral transition in perennials. PMID:27345283

  12. Development of a Summarized Health Index (SHI) for Use in Predicting Survival in Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chao-Chin; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Lin, Suen-Chuain

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary care plays an influential role in sea turtle rehabilitation, especially in endangered species. Physiological characteristics, hematological and plasma biochemistry profiles, are useful references for clinical management in animals, especially when animals are during the convalescence period. In this study, these factors associated with sea turtle surviving were analyzed. The blood samples were collected when sea turtles remained alive, and then animals were followed up for surviving status. The results indicated that significantly negative correlation was found between buoyancy disorders (BD) and sea turtle surviving (p < 0.05). Furthermore, non-surviving sea turtles had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotranspherase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), creatinine and uric acid (UA) than surviving sea turtles (all p < 0.05). After further analysis by multiple logistic regression model, only factors of BD, creatinine and UA were included in the equation for calculating summarized health index (SHI) for each individual. Through evaluation by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the result indicated that the area under curve was 0.920 ± 0.037, and a cut-off SHI value of 2.5244 showed 80.0% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity in predicting survival. Therefore, the developed SHI could be a useful index to evaluate health status of sea turtles and to improve veterinary care at rehabilitation facilities. PMID:25803431

  13. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  14. Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-12-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  15. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  16. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  17. San Rafael Schools Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Rafael City Schools, CA.

    The San Rafael City Schools' exhibit which was displayed at the 1983 Marin County Fair (California) is described. The exhibit, entitled "Education - A Real Winner," consisted of 12 display panels illustrating the following aspects of the school system: (1) early history from 1861; (2) present board and administration; (3) present schools and…

  18. Visitors Center Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  19. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  20. Is Silence Golden? Elementary School Teachers' Strategies and Beliefs regarding Hypothetical Shy/Quiet and Exuberant/Talkative Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Hughes, Kathleen; Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine elementary teachers' strategies, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hypothetical shy (i.e., quiet), exuberant (i.e., overly talkative), and average (i.e., typical) children. We explored whether these strategies and beliefs varied as a function of the gender of the hypothetical child as well as…

  1. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  2. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  3. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  4. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  5. SHI Induced Modifications in CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} Thin Film: XRD Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Rajesh A.; Taur, Vidya S.; Sharma, Ramphal; Ghule, Anil V.

    2011-07-15

    CuInSe{sub 2}(CIS nanostructured) thin films were prepared by ion exchange method at room temperature on ITO coated glass substrates in an alkaline medium. The as prepared thin films were irradiated by 120 MeV Au{sup 9+} swift heavy ion (SHI) at 5x10{sup 11} and 5x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence respectively. To study the effect of irradiation, the pristine and irradiated nanostructured thin films were characterized by X ray Diffraction (XRD) and analyzed the improvement in crystalline quality and crystallite size. The observed structural modifications discussed considering the high electronic energy deposition by 120 MeV gold heavy (Au{sup 9+}) ions in CuInSe{sub 2} thin films.

  6. [Inheritance of academic idea and experience about using traditional Chinese medicine from JIN Shi-yuan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Luo, Rong; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-08-01

    Professor Jin Shi-yuan has been worked in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over 70 years. He made prominent contributions in identification, processing, dispensing of TCM and reasonable use proprietary Chinese medicine. In over 70 years, he has mastered herbal medicine and traditional Chinese Medicine. It is also professor JIN's academic characteristic. Professor JIN's practical experiences were summarized according to the current situation about clinical medication, change of species of Juhong and Chenpi has been different from species of medical history. The quality is lower than before. Medicinal parts of Danggui, Gancao, Huangqin and Wuyao has been changed. So the actions of these herbal medicines have been changed also. Fresh herbal Qianchangpu has disappeared but it should be used clinically. Medical history, change of species, change of medicinal part, and change of preparing process in professor JIN's academic idea were be summarized periodically. The result is hoped to be referred by administration, manufacture, medical treatment of TCM. PMID:25509316

  7. [Shi Ji Yao Yu, the earliest extant monograph on TCM nursery].

    PubMed

    Fu, W

    1999-07-01

    Nursery of traditional Chinese medicine (NTCM) has a long history. However, due to the change and influence of the era, society, life style, and many other factors, NTCM did not become an independent discipline for a long period. Although there have been many articles about NTCM appearing in various historical books of traditional Chinese medicine, books specializing on NTCM were not available until later. The earliest ancient book, which is still currently available, describing NTCM in details is the "Shi Ji Yao Yu" written by Qian Xiang in the Qing Dynasty. The book explains the key issues of taking care of a patient's emotional well-being, life style, diet, illness, and drug administration which are of great practical significance now and for the future. PMID:11624096

  8. SHI induced modification in structural, optical, dielectric and thermal properties of poly ethylene oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Gnansagar B.; Bhavsar, Shilpa; Singh, N. L.; Singh, F.; Kulriya, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    Poly ethylene oxide (PEO) films were synthesized by solution cast method. These self-standing films were exposed with 60 MeV C+5 ion and 100 MeV Ni+7 ion at different fluences. SHI induced effect was investigated by employing various techniques. The crystalline size decreased upon irradiation as observed from XRD analysis. FTIR analysis reveals the decrement in the peak intensity upon irradiation. Tauc's method was used to determine the optical band gap (Eg), which shows decreasing trends with increase of fluence. The dielectric properties were investigated in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz for unirradiated and irradiated films. The dielectric constant remains same for the broad-spectrum of frequency and increases at lower frequency. The dielectric loss also moderately influence as a function of frequency due to irradiation. DSC analysis validated the results of XRD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that there is significant change in the surface morphology due to irradiation.

  9. Effects of Climate Change and Fisheries Bycatch on Shy Albatross (Thalassarche cauta) in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Robin B; Alderman, Rachael L; Tuck, Geoffrey N; Hobday, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on marine species are often compounded by other stressors that make direct attribution and prediction difficult. Shy albatrosses (Thalassarche cauta) breeding on Albatross Island, Tasmania, show an unusually restricted foraging range, allowing easier discrimination between the influence of non-climate stressors (fisheries bycatch) and environmental variation. Local environmental conditions (rainfall, air temperature, and sea-surface height, an indicator of upwelling) during the vulnerable chick-rearing stage, have been correlated with breeding success of shy albatrosses. We use an age-, stage- and sex-structured population model to explore potential relationships between local environmental factors and albatross breeding success while accounting for fisheries bycatch by trawl and longline fisheries. The model uses time-series of observed breeding population counts, breeding success, adult and juvenile survival rates and a bycatch mortality observation for trawl fishing to estimate fisheries catchability, environmental influence, natural mortality rate, density dependence, and productivity. Observed at-sea distributions for adult and juvenile birds were coupled with reported fishing effort to estimate vulnerability to incidental bycatch. The inclusion of rainfall, temperature and sea-surface height as explanatory variables for annual chick mortality rate was statistically significant. Global climate models predict little change in future local average rainfall, however, increases are forecast in both temperatures and upwelling, which are predicted to have detrimental and beneficial effects, respectively, on breeding success. The model shows that mitigation of at least 50% of present bycatch is required to offset losses due to future temperature changes, even if upwelling increases substantially. Our results highlight the benefits of using an integrated modeling approach, which uses available demographic as well as environmental data

  10. Effects of Climate Change and Fisheries Bycatch on Shy Albatross (Thalassarche cauta) in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on marine species are often compounded by other stressors that make direct attribution and prediction difficult. Shy albatrosses (Thalassarche cauta) breeding on Albatross Island, Tasmania, show an unusually restricted foraging range, allowing easier discrimination between the influence of non-climate stressors (fisheries bycatch) and environmental variation. Local environmental conditions (rainfall, air temperature, and sea-surface height, an indicator of upwelling) during the vulnerable chick-rearing stage, have been correlated with breeding success of shy albatrosses. We use an age-, stage- and sex-structured population model to explore potential relationships between local environmental factors and albatross breeding success while accounting for fisheries bycatch by trawl and longline fisheries. The model uses time-series of observed breeding population counts, breeding success, adult and juvenile survival rates and a bycatch mortality observation for trawl fishing to estimate fisheries catchability, environmental influence, natural mortality rate, density dependence, and productivity. Observed at-sea distributions for adult and juvenile birds were coupled with reported fishing effort to estimate vulnerability to incidental bycatch. The inclusion of rainfall, temperature and sea-surface height as explanatory variables for annual chick mortality rate was statistically significant. Global climate models predict little change in future local average rainfall, however, increases are forecast in both temperatures and upwelling, which are predicted to have detrimental and beneficial effects, respectively, on breeding success. The model shows that mitigation of at least 50% of present bycatch is required to offset losses due to future temperature changes, even if upwelling increases substantially. Our results highlight the benefits of using an integrated modeling approach, which uses available demographic as well as environmental data

  11. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  12. Exhibitions in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    During this past year a vast number of art shows have been exhibited across the United States. Their most striking features were their range and diversity. Here are some comments on Ben Shahn's paintings and photography focusing on social realism, some works by the Polish Constructivists, interested in redefining form in relation to space, the…

  13. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  14. Skylab Exhibit Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A metal strap became tangled over one of the folded solar array panels when Skylab lost its micro meteoroid shield during its launch. Cutters like the ones used to free the solar array were used to cut the ribbon opening to the public a new full-scale Skylab cluster exhibit at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Wielding the cutters are (left to right): Alabama Senator James B. Allen; Marshall Space Flight Center director, Dr. William R. Lucas, Huntsville Mayor, Joe Davis; Madison County Commission Chairman, James Record (standing behind Mayor Davis); and chairman of the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission, Jack Giles. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin used the same type of tool in Earth orbit to cut the aluminum strap which jammed the Skylab solar array.

  15. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  16. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  17. pH-Responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels with reduced ionic strength loading solutions offer improved oral delivery potential for high isoelectric point-exhibiting therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Koetting, Michael C; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2014-08-25

    pH-Responsive hydrogels comprised of itaconic acid copolymerized with N-vinylpyrrolidone (P(IA-co-NVP)) were synthesized and tested as carriers for the oral delivery of high isoelectric point (pI) exhibiting therapeutic proteins. Swelling studies show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater and faster pH-responsive swelling than previously studied methacrylic acid-based hydrogels, achieving up to 68% greater equilibrium swelling and 10.4 times greater swelling in time-limited experiments. Using salmon calcitonin as a model high pI protein therapeutic, we show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater delivery potential than methacrylic acid-based hydrogels. Additionally, we show that utilizing a lower ionic strength solution during drug loading significantly improves drug delivery potential for high pI therapeutics. By using a 1.5mM PBS buffer rather than the standard 150 mM PBS buffer during loading, up to 83 times as much calcitonin can be delivered in neutral conditions, with up to a 9.6-fold improvement in percent release. Using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles and a low ionic strength loading solution, up to 48 μg calcitonin/mg hydrogel can be delivered in small intestinal conditions. Based on expected absorption in the small intestine, this is sufficient delivery potential for achieving therapeutic dosage via a single, regularly-sized pill taken daily. PMID:24853463

  18. [Investigation on circulation of Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Golden mirror of cold pathogenic diseases) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong

    2003-01-01

    Being the earliest extant work on tongue diagnostics, Ao shi jin jing lu was block-printed and published in 1654 after it was spread into Japan, on the basis of which many kinds of manuscripts were made. This book not only exerted profound influence on the Kampo diagnostics in Edo age, but also laid down a foundation for the formation of pulse diagnostic school of tongue diagnostics in Kampo medicine. PMID:12921588

  19. Decaying light particles in the SHiP experiment. III. Signal rate estimates for scalar and pseudoscalar sgoldstinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapov, K. O.; Gorbunov, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    For supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model with light sgoldstinos—scalar and pseudoscalar superpartners of goldstinos—we estimate the signal rate anticipated at the recently proposed fixed target experiment SHiP utilizing a CERN Super Proton Synchrotron beam of 400 GeV protons. We also place new limits on the model parameters from a similar analysis of the published results of the CHARM experiment.

  20. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  1. Longwall - USA: International exhibition & conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Longwall-USA International Exhibition and Conference was held June 4-6, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA. Seventeen papers are included in the proceedings that covered such topics as health and safety, development of gate roads, telemetry monitoring systems, fires, longwall miners, roof support technologies, dust control, moving car bunker systems, reducing longwall noise, vibration of longwall equipment, and the USBM`s strategic structures testing laboratory. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Is behavioral variation along the bold-shy continuum associated with variation in the stress axis in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Oswald, Mary E; Drew, Robert E; Racine, Matt; Murdoch, Gordon K; Robison, Barrie D

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether boldness is associated with attenuation of the physiological stress response in behaviorally selected lines of zebrafish Danio rerio. We measured three component behaviors of boldness: cortisol levels under control and stressed conditions, growth rate, and expression of key genes linked to the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis in the brain. Surprisingly, bold animals did not differ from shy animals with respect to cortisol levels. However, significant differences between these animals in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors and genes that regulate production of stress hormones indicate that there may still be a relationship between bold behavior and the stress axis. Perhaps the most surprising result of this study was the degree of sexual dimorphism: female zebrafish were bolder than male zebrafish, had significantly lower levels of cortisol, and differed significantly in the expression of several genes in the brain. Our data indicate that a bold behavioral type is associated with transcriptional attenuation of stress axis genes, but we do not yet know whether evolution along the bold-shy continuum is attributable to genetic changes in the stress axis. The bold and shy zebrafish lines will be valuable tools for additional research into the relationship between stress and behavior and the mechanisms regulating sexual dimorphism in these traits. PMID:23099468

  3. Development and validation of the Shy Bladder and Bowel Scale (SBBS).

    PubMed

    Knowles, Simon R; Skues, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Currently research exploring paruresis and parcopresis, anxiety relating to urinating and having bowel motions in public respectively is limited. While there are several validated measures of paruresis, no valid measure assessing parcopresis is currently available. The present study investigates the development and validation of the Shy Bladder and Bowel Scale (SBBS) which assesses both paruresis and parcopresis. Two participant groups were utilised to validate this scale, a student psychology cohort (n = 387) and a public cohort (n = 334). An eight-item two-factor model was identified in the psychology cohort and confirmed in the public cohort. The two-factor SBBS was found to be a valid and reliable measure of paruresis and parcopresis. Paruresis and parcopresis-related concerns were associated with social anxiety in both cohorts. Subscales for both paruresis and parcopresis (i.e. difficulty, interference and distress) were positively correlated, suggesting individuals are likely to report similar levels of concerns across both conditions. Further, individuals self-identifying with either paruresis or parcopresis reported significantly higher scores on the respective SBBS subscales than non-identifying paruresis and parcopresis individuals. The SBBS also demonstrated strong test-retest reliability in a small sample of adults (n = 13). Overall, the developed scale provides clinicians and researchers with a valuable tool to evaluate both paruresis and parcopresis. PMID:27216857

  4. Development and validation of the Shy Bladder and Bowel Scale (SBBS)

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Simon R.; Skues, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently research exploring paruresis and parcopresis, anxiety relating to urinating and having bowel motions in public respectively is limited. While there are several validated measures of paruresis, no valid measure assessing parcopresis is currently available. The present study investigates the development and validation of the Shy Bladder and Bowel Scale (SBBS) which assesses both paruresis and parcopresis. Two participant groups were utilised to validate this scale, a student psychology cohort (n = 387) and a public cohort (n = 334). An eight-item two-factor model was identified in the psychology cohort and confirmed in the public cohort. The two-factor SBBS was found to be a valid and reliable measure of paruresis and parcopresis. Paruresis and parcopresis-related concerns were associated with social anxiety in both cohorts. Subscales for both paruresis and parcopresis (i.e. difficulty, interference and distress) were positively correlated, suggesting individuals are likely to report similar levels of concerns across both conditions. Further, individuals self-identifying with either paruresis or parcopresis reported significantly higher scores on the respective SBBS subscales than non-identifying paruresis and parcopresis individuals. The SBBS also demonstrated strong test–retest reliability in a small sample of adults (n = 13). Overall, the developed scale provides clinicians and researchers with a valuable tool to evaluate both paruresis and parcopresis. PMID:27216857

  5. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  6. The Variation of Riverbed Material due to Tropical Storms in Shi-Wen River, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Ping; Tfwala, Samkele S.; Chen, Ching-Nuo

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan, because of its location, is a flood prone region and is characterised by typhoons which brings about two-thirds to three quarters of the annual rainfall amount. Consequently, enormous flows result in rivers and entrain some fractions of the grains that constitute the riverbed. Hence, the purpose of the study is to quantify the impacts of these enormous flows on the distribution of grain size in riverbeds. The characteristics of riverbed material prior to and after the typhoon season are compared in Shi-Wen River located at southern Taiwan. These include grain size variation, bimodality, and roughness coefficient. A decrease (65%) and increase (50%) in geometric mean size of grains were observed for subsurface and surface bed material, respectively. Geometric standard deviation decreased in all sites after typhoon. Subsurface material was bimodal prior to typhoons and polymodal after. For surface material, modal class is in the gravel class, while after typhoons it shifts towards cobble class. The reduction in geometric mean resulted to a decrease in roughness coefficient by up to 30%. Finally, the relationship of Shields and Froude numbers are studied and a change in the bed form to antidunes and transition form is observed, respectively. PMID:24526910

  7. Examining the Tendency of Students‧ Shying Away from Departments of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Noriko

    Although Japan professes to be a scientific and technological country, more and more students have refused to apply to departments of engineering. From fiscal year 1992 through fiscal year 2008 the number of university applicants dropped to 71.6%. The number of applicants for engineering departments dropped to 61.1%, which is sharper than the decline in the number of total applicants. Among all faculties of national and public universities, engineering departments (first stage of individual exam) have the lowest difficulty level. Almost half of the engineering departments in national and public universities allow more than 50% of their applicants to pass the exam. The gap in difficulty level of entrance examinations between topnotch national universities and rural public universities has been expanding. The difficulty of entrance examination of medical technology departments is much higher than that of engineering ones. However, high-performing students have been enrolling in medical technology departments. For private universities, the gap in the number of engineering applicants between major metropolitan universities and rural ones has become considerable. Almost half of the high school teachers have realized the tendency of students' shying away from engineering departments. The contents of learning of engineering departments are too segmentalzed to understand, which makes it difficult for students to get an image of what they can do in their future after graduation. It is crucial for engineering departments to offer easy-to-understand information on future occupations to junior high students and high school students.

  8. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus Carrying a Q136K Mutation in the Neuraminidase Gene Is Resistant to Zanamivir but Exhibits Reduced Fitness in the Guinea Pig Transmission Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Michael M.; Ohnemus, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of influenza A viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors can arise through mutations in the neuraminidase (NA) gene. We show here that a Q136K mutation in the NA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus confers a high degree of resistance to zanamivir. Resistance is accompanied by reduced numbers of NA molecules in viral particles and reduced intrinsic enzymatic activity of mutant NA. Interestingly, the Q136K mutation strongly impairs viral fitness in the guinea pig transmission model. PMID:23192869

  9. Pragmatists, Positive Communicators, and Shy Enthusiasts: Three Viewpoints on Web Conferencing in Health Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Eva, Kevin; Levinson, Anthony; Wainman, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background Web conferencing is a synchronous technology that allows coordinated online audio and visual interactions with learners logged in to a central server. Recently, its use has grown rapidly in academia, while research on its use has not kept up. Conferencing systems typically facilitate communication and support for multiple presenters in different locations. A paucity of research has evaluated synchronous Web conferencing in health sciences education. Objective McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences trialed Wimba’s Live Classroom Web conferencing technology to support education and curriculum activities with students and faculty. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty, staff, and student perceptions of Web conferencing as a support for teaching and learning in health sciences. The Live Classroom technology provided features including real-time VoIP audio, an interactive whiteboard, text chat, PowerPoint slide sharing, application sharing, and archiving of live conferences to support student education and curriculum activities. Methods Q-methodology was used to identify unique and common viewpoints of participants who had exposure to Web conferencing to support educational applications during the trial evaluation period. This methodology is particularly useful for research on human perceptions and interpersonal relationships to identify groups of participants with different perceptions. It mixes qualitative and quantitative methods. In a Q-methodology study, the goal is to uncover different patterns of thought rather than their numerical distribution among the larger population. Results A total of 36 people participated in the study, including medical residents (14), nursing graduate students (11), health sciences faculty (9), and health sciences staff (2). Three unique viewpoints were identified: pragmatists (factor 1), positive communicators (factor 2A), and shy enthusiasts (factor 2B). These factors explained 28% (factor 1) and 11

  10. Application of the precipitation-runoff modeling system to the Ah- shi-sle-pah Wash watershed, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The precipitation-runoff modeling system was applied to the 8.21 sq-mi drainage area of the Ah-shi-sle-pah Wash watershed in northwestern New Mexico. The calibration periods were May to September of 1981 and 1982, and the verification period was May to September 1983. Twelve storms were available for calibration and 8 storms were available for verification. For calibration A (hydraulic conductivity estimated from onsite data and other storm-mode parameters optimized), the computed standard error of estimate was 50% for runoff volumes and 72% of peak discharges. Calibration B included hydraulic conductivity in the optimization, which reduced the standard error of estimate to 28 % for runoff volumes and 50% for peak discharges. Optimized values for hydraulic conductivity resulted in reductions from 1.00 to 0.26 in/h and 0.20 to 0.03 in/h for the 2 general soils groups in the calibrations. Simulated runoff volumes using 7 of 8 storms occurring during the verification period had a standard error of estimate of 40% for verification A and 38% for verification B. Simulated peak discharge had a standard error of estimate of 120% for verification A and 56% for verification B. Including the eighth storm which had a relatively small magnitude in the verification analysis more than doubled the standard error of estimating volumes and peaks. (USGS)

  11. Cystamine Preparations Exhibit Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Maria M.; Holle, Lori A.; Stember, Katherine G.; Devette, Christa I.; Monroe, Dougald M.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  12. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  13. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes.

    PubMed

    Galán-Vásquez, Edgardo; Sánchez-Osorio, Ismael; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino

    2016-01-01

    The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:26766575

  14. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Vásquez, Edgardo; Sánchez-Osorio, Ismael; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino

    2016-01-01

    The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:26766575

  15. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Low-pH-Active Veillonella parvula Strain SHI-1, Isolated from Human Saliva within an In Vitro Oral Biofilm Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanhui; Watling, Michael; Bumgarner, Roger E.; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; McLean, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    We announce here a draft genome sequence of Veillonella parvula strain SHI-1, obtained from healthy human saliva, discovered to be active at low pH using metatranscriptomics within an in vitro oral biofilm model. The genome is composed of 7 contigs, for a total of 2,200,064 bp. PMID:26893419

  16. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Low-pH-Active Veillonella parvula Strain SHI-1, Isolated from Human Saliva within an In Vitro Oral Biofilm Model.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Anna; Liu, Quanhui; Watling, Michael; To, Thao T; Bumgarner, Roger E; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; McLean, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    We announce here a draft genome sequence of Veillonella parvula strain SHI-1, obtained from healthy human saliva, discovered to be active at low pH using metatranscriptomics within an in vitro oral biofilm model. The genome is composed of 7 contigs, for a total of 2,200,064 bp. PMID:26893419

  17. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  18. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  19. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  20. SHiP: a new facility to search for heavy neutrinos and study ντ properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, M.; SHiP Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a newly designed fixed target facility, proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator, with the aim of complementing searches for New Physics at LHC by searching for light long-lived exotic particles with masses below a few GeV/c2. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow for the first time probing a region of the parameter space where Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses and oscillation could also be explained. A dedicated detector, based on OPERA-like bricks, will provide the first observation of the tau anti-neutrino. Moreover, ντ and ν¯τ cross-sections will be measured with a statistics 1000 times larger than currently available data and will allow extracting the F4 and F5 structure functions, never measured so far. Charm physics studies will be performed with significantly improved accuracy with respect to past experiments.

  1. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Pan, Yu; Yan, Jianye; Huang, Dan; Li, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good therapeutic effect on the model of acute eczema in mice. The alcohol extraction method is the preferable method according to a comprehensive evaluation of each index of seven kinds of methods to extract the egg yolk oil. PMID:26797592

  2. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  3. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson NIH Director Dr. Elias ... addresses visitors to the opening of the exhibition. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson Brothers Niko and Theo ...

  4. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  5. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  6. Application of the structured history taking of medication use tool to optimise prescribing for older patients and reduce adverse events.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Shane; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Background Older patients, due to polypharmacy, co-morbidities and often multiple prescribing doctors are particularly susceptible to medication history errors, leading to adverse drug events, patient harm and increased costs. Medication reconciliation at the point of admission to hospital can reduce medication discrepancies and adverse events. The Structured HIstory taking of Medication use (SHiM) tool was developed to provide a structure to the medication reconciliation process. There has been very little research with regards to SHiM, it's application to older patients and it's potential to reduce adverse events. Objective To determine whether application of SHiM could optimise older patients' prescriptions on admission to hospital, and in-turn reduce adverse events, compared to standard care. Setting A sub-study of a large clinical trial involving hospital inpatients over the age of 65 in five hospitals across Europe. Method A modified version of SHiM was used to obtain accurate drug histories for patients after the attending physician had obtained a medication list via standard methods. Discrepancies between the two lists were recorded and classified, and the clinical relevance of the discrepancies was determined. Whether discrepancies in patients' medication histories, as revealed by SHiM, resulted in actual clinical consequences was then investigated. As this study was carried out during the observation phase of the clinical trial, results were not communicated to the medical teams. Main outcome measure Discrepancies between medication lists and whether these resulted in clinical consequences. Results SHiM was applied to 123 patients. The mean age of the participants was 78 (±6). 200 discrepancies were identified. 90 patients (73 %) had at least one discrepancy with a median of 1.0 discrepancies per patient (IQR 0.00-2.25). 53 (26.5 %) were classified as 'unlikely to cause patient discomfort or clinical deterioration', 145 (72.5 %) as 'having potential

  7. Genome-wide end-sequenced BAC resources for the NOD/MrkTac☆ and NOD/ShiLtJ☆☆ mouse genomes

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Charles A.; Humphray, Sean; Plumb, Bob; Jones, Matthew C.; Quail, Michael A.; Rice, Stephen; Cox, Tony; Davies, Rob; Bonfield, James; Keane, Thomas M.; Nefedov, Michael; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lyons, Paul; Wicker, Linda; Todd, John; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Gulban, Omid; Danska, Jayne; Harrow, Jen; Hubbard, Tim; Rogers, Jane; Adams, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to the progressive loss of insulin-secreting β-cells by an autoimmune driven process. NOD mice represent a valuable tool for studying the genetics of T1D and for evaluating therapeutic interventions. Here we describe the development and characterization by end-sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries derived from NOD/MrkTac (DIL NOD) and NOD/ShiLtJ (CHORI-29), two commonly used NOD substrains. The DIL NOD library is composed of 196,032 BACs and the CHORI-29 library is composed of 110,976 BACs. The average depth of genome coverage of the DIL NOD library, estimated from mapping the BAC end-sequences to the reference mouse genome sequence, was 7.1-fold across the autosomes and 6.6-fold across the X chromosome. Clones from this library have an average insert size of 150 kb and map to over 95.6% of the reference mouse genome assembly (NCBIm37), covering 98.8% of Ensembl mouse genes. By the same metric, the CHORI-29 library has an average depth over the autosomes of 5.0-fold and 2.8-fold coverage of the X chromosome, the reduced X chromosome coverage being due to the use of a male donor for this library. Clones from this library have an average insert size of 205 kb and map to 93.9% of the reference mouse genome assembly, covering 95.7% of Ensembl genes. We have identified and validated 191,841 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for DIL NOD and 114,380 SNPs for CHORI-29. In total we generated 229,736,133 bp of sequence for the DIL NOD and 121,963,211 bp for the CHORI-29. These BAC libraries represent a powerful resource for functional studies, such as gene targeting in NOD embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, and for sequencing and mapping experiments. PMID:19909804

  8. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Rabi A.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Maron, Max J.; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L.; Long, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl− compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K+ and Cl− in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  9. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  10. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  11. Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.

    PubMed

    Abou Jamra, Rami; Philippe, Orianne; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Eck, Sebastian H; Graf, Elisabeth; Buchert, Rebecca; Borck, Guntram; Ekici, Arif; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Munnich, Arnold; Strom, Tim M; Reis, Andre; Colleaux, Laurence

    2011-06-10

    Intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion represents an important fraction of severe cognitive-dysfunction disorders. Yet, the extreme heterogeneity of these conditions markedly hampers gene identification. Here, we report on eight affected individuals who were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and either Sanger sequencing of candidate genes or next-generation exome sequencing, we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in AP4S1 (NM_007077.3: c.124C>T, p.Arg42(∗)), a frameshift mutation in AP4B1 (NM_006594.2: c.487_488insTAT, p.Glu163_Ser739delinsVal), and a splice mutation in AP4E1 (NM_007347.3: c.542+1_542+4delGTAA, r.421_542del, p.Glu181Glyfs(∗)20). Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. Interestingly, two mutations affecting AP4M1 and AP4E1 have recently been found to cause cerebral palsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex. PMID:21620353

  12. Influence of SHI upon nanohole free volume and micro scale level surface modifications of polyethyleneterephthalate polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Paramjit

    2015-05-01

    Topographic micro scale and in-depth nano scale level modifications of polymeric materials play an important role in engineering their physical and chemical properties. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is an important class of semi-crystalline polymers used for gas separation properties. The gas diffusion and permeability parameters are directly related to the free volume fractions and the hole distributions. The controlled and precise ion beam irradiation can be used to induce surface and in-depth modifications in the properties of the polymers which help in modifying free volume holes and their distributions. In the present study, the investigation of free volume (nano scale level) and surface (micro scale level) properties of PET polymeric thin films after SHI treatment were employed by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The PET thin films were irradiated by 50 MeV lithium ions as a function of ion fluence. The value of hole radius (R) and intensity (I3) of o-Ps were observed to be increased after ion beam treatment. The further analyses were employed to calculate the free volume and fractional free volume of holes from the obtained values of R and I3. The AFM studies reveal the surface modifications of the irradiated polymer films. The structural, optical and chemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. Different parameters such as crystallite size and band gap energy were calculated from the obtained data of XRD and UV-vis, respectively.

  13. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  14. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  15. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  17. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  18. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Mortillaro, C.; Ducceschi, C.; Rawlings, P.; Stocco, K.; Tobola, K.; Olendzenski, L.; Angermiller, L.

    2001-03-01

    A JSC-SCH team has produced an astrobiology exhibit and education module to augment the 'Microbes!' traveling exhibit. The astrobiology section focuses on life in extreme environments and considers the possibility of extraterrestrrial life.

  19. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  20. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  1. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  2. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  3. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  4. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  5. Test of Shi et al. Method to Infer the Magnetic Reconnection Geometry from Spacecraft Data: MHD Simulation with Guide Field and Antiparallel Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.

    2012-01-01

    When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient

  6. [Discussion on academic origin of Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Records of golden mirror on cold pathogenic diseases].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Wang, Zhaoping

    2002-07-01

    Ao shi shang han jin jing lu (Ao's Records of Golden Mirror on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) is the extant first work of lingual diagnosis. It is demonstrated that the author of this book is categorized under the school of Liu Wansu based on the location of disease, the nature of disease, therapies and drugs, and pathogenesis in pathological lingual pictures described in this book. The lingual diagnosis was based on Liu Wansu's theory of fire - heat, and used for diagnosing warm diseases. Intuitionistic vision was used in this book to prove the direct relation between red tongue and heat syndrome, which was the important joint for the theory of warm diseases to derive from the theory of cold pathogenic diseases. At the same time, the set up of the model of diagnosis and treatment for red tongue - inner heat syndrome, and clearing inner heat is established. PMID:12639446

  7. Stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Erpenbeck, Michael F.

    1982-01-01

    This report illustrates and describes the detailed stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation exposed in isolated badlands and along washes within a 20-mile outcrop belt in the Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, southwestern San Juan Basin, Nex Mexico (see index). The stratigraphic framework showing the vertical and lateral distributions of rock types and the lateral continuity of coal beds is illustrated in cross sections. The cross sections were constructed from 112 stratigraphic sections measured at an average distance of 0.4 mi apart. Each section contained key marker beds (sandstone, coal, and tonstein) that were physically traced to adjacent sections. Each measured section was "hung" on multiple marker beds arranged in a geometric best-fit method that accounts for the differential compaction and facies associations of the deposits. 

  8. Sh-I-048A, an in vitro non-selective super-agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors: the approximated activation of receptor subtypes may explain behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Poe, Michael M; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Namjoshi, Ojas; Batinić, Bojan; Radulović, Tamara; Marković, Bojan; Roth, Brian L; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-03-20

    Enormous progress in understanding the role of four populations of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors was paralleled by the puzzling findings suggesting that substantial separation of behavioral effects may be accomplished by apparently non-selective modulators. We report on SH-I-048A, a newly synthesized chiral positive modulator of GABAA receptors characterized by exceptional subnanomolar affinity, high efficacy and non-selectivity. Its influence on behavior was assessed in Wistar rats and contrasted to that obtained with 2mg/kg diazepam. SH-I-048A reached micromolar concentrations in brain tissue, while the unbound fraction in brain homogenate was around 1.5%. The approximated electrophysiological responses, which estimated free concentrations of SH-I-048A or diazepam are able to elicit, suggested a similarity between the 10mg/kg dose of the novel ligand and 2mg/kg diazepam; however, SH-I-048A was relatively more active at α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors. Behaviorally, SH-I-048A induced sedative, muscle relaxant and ataxic effects, reversed mechanical hyperalgesia 24h after injury, while it was devoid of clear anxiolytic actions and did not affect water-maze performance. While lack of clear anxiolytic actions may be connected with an enhanced potentiation at α1-containing GABAA receptors, the observed behavior in the rotarod, water maze and peripheral nerve injury tests was possibly affected by its prominent action at receptors containing the α5 subunit. The current results encourage further innovative approaches aimed at linking in vitro and in vivo data in order to help define fine-tuning mechanisms at four sensitive receptor populations that underlie subtle differences in behavioral profiles of benzodiazepine site ligands. PMID:24472579

  9. SH-I-048A, AN IN VITRO NONSELECTIVE SUPER-AGONIST AT THE BENZODIAZEPINE SITE OF GABAA RECEPTORS: THE APPROXIMATED ACTIVATION OF RECEPTOR SUBTYPES MAY EXPLAIN BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Aleksandar Lj.; Joksimović, Srđan; Poe, Michael M.; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Namjoshi, Ojas; Batinić, Bojan; Radulović, Tamara; Marković, Bojan; Roth, Brian; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M.; Savić, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Enormous progress in understanding the role of four populations of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors was paralleled by the puzzling findings suggesting that substantial separation of behavioral effects may be accomplished by apparently non-selective modulators. We report on SH-I-048A, a newly-synthesized chiral positive modulator of GABAA receptors characterized by exceptional subnanomolar affinity, high efficacy and non-selectivity. Its influence on behavior was assessed in Wistar rats and contrasted to that obtained with 2 mg/kg diazepam. SH-I-048A reached micromolar concentrations in brain tissue, while the unbound fraction in brain homogenate was around 1.5%. The approximated electrophysiological responses, which estimated free concentrations of SH-I-048A or diazepam are able to elicit, suggested a similarity between the 10 mg/kg dose of the novel ligand and 2 mg/kg diazepam; however, SH-I-048A was relatively more active at α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors. Behaviorally, SH-I-048A induced sedative, muscle relaxant and ataxic effects, reversed mechanical hyperalgesia 24 hours after injury, while it was devoid of clear anxiolytic actions and did not affect water-maze performance. While lack of clear anxiolytic actions may be connected with an enhanced potentiation at α1-containing GABAA receptors, the observed behavior in the rotarod, water maze and peripheral nerve injury tests was possibly affected by its prominent action at receptors containing the α5 subunit. The current results encourage further innovative approaches aimed at linking in vitro and in vivo data in order to help define fine-tuning mechanisms at four sensitive receptor populations that underlie subtle differences in behavioral profiles of benzodiazepine site ligands. PMID:24472579

  10. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  11. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  12. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  13. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  14. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  15. An Attention Model for Museum Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, John W.

    A qualitative study determined which factors in the museum exhibit environment or within the museum visitor may influence the visitor to attend an exhibit. Observations and interviews were conducted of 14 groups that visited a Chesapeake & Ohio steam locomotive at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. An inductive or grounded theory…

  16. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  17. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  3. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  4. Shikonin reduces TGF-β1-induced collagen production and contraction in hypertrophic scar-derived human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Dong, Ying; Xie, Yan; Su, Yonghua; Zhang, Xufang; Leavesley, David; Upton, Zee

    2015-10-01

    Hypertrophic scarring/hypertrophic scars (HS) is a highly prevalent condition following burns and trauma wounds. Numerous studies have demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF‑β1) plays an essential role in the wound healing process by regulating cell differentiation, collagen production and extracellular matrix degradation. The increased expression of TGF-β1 is believed to result in the formation of HS. Shikonin (SHI), an active component extracted from the Chinese herb, Radix Arnebiae, has previously been found to downregulate the expression of TGF-β1 in keratinocyte/fibroblast co-culture conditioned medium. In view of this, in this study, we aimed to further investigate the effects of SHI on TGF-β1-stimulated hypertrophic scar-derived human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and examined the underlying mechanisms. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using alamarBlue and CyQUANT assays. The total amount of collagen and cell contraction were examined using Sirius red staining and the cell contraction assay kit. Gene expression and signalling pathway activation were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Our results revealed that SHI reduced TGF-β1‑induced collagen production through the ERK/Smad signalling pathway and attenuated TGF-β1‑induced cell contraction by downregulating α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in the HSFs. The data from this study provide evidence supporting the potential use of SHI as a novel treatment for HS. PMID:26239419

  5. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1996. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1996 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award-winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  6. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1997. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1997 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  7. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  8. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  9. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  10. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  11. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  12. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  13. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  14. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  15. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  16. Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1 Versus Dexamethasone in the Treatment of Sjögren’s Syndrome-Like NOD/ShiLtJ Mice - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Easley, Justin T; Nelson, Joel W; Mellas, Rachel E; Sommakia, Salah; Wu, Chunhua; Trump, Bryan; Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF-α-mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of treatment with AT-RvD1 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on inflammation (i.e., lymphocytic infiltration, cytokine expression and apoptosis) observed in submandibular glands (SMG) from the NOD/ShiLtJ Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) mouse model before experimenting with a larger population. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were treated intravenously with NaCl (0.9%, negative control), AT-RvD1 (0.01–0.1 mg/kg) or DEX (4.125–8.25 mg/kg) twice a week for 14 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. At 18 weeks of age, SMG were collected for pathological analysis and detection of SS-associated inflammatory genes. The AT-RvD1 treatment alone did not affect lymphocytic infiltration seen in NOD/ShiLtJ mice while DEX partially prevented lymphocytic infiltration. Interestingly, both AT-RvD1 and DEX caused downregulation of SS-associated inflammatory genes and reduction of apoptosis. Results from this pilot study suggest that a systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 and DEX alone attenuated inflammatory responses observed in the NOD/ShiLtJ mice; therefore, they may be considered as potential therapeutic tools in treating SS patients when used alone or in combination. PMID:27110599

  17. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  18. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Application for Authorization to Transmit Electric Energy... used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map shall... or fixing of rates for the purchase, sale or transmission of electric energy. (f) Exhibit F....

  19. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  20. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  1. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE INTERSTATE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES §...

  2. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... favorably only when not in conflict with recruiting requirements. (i) Requests for exhibits must be... among the Armed Forces, or with other agencies of the Federal Government. (i) All Navy activities will... concerned, via the chain of command. (3) The official OASD(PA) Request Form for Armed Forces...

  3. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engineering design data in explanation and support of the diagrams and the proposed project, setting forth: (i... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  5. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  6. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... computation of interest coverage Actual for the year ended mm-dd-yy OMB control No. 1902-0043, pro forma for the year ended mm-dd-yy Net income Add: Interest on Long-Term Debt, Interest on Short-Term Debt,...

  7. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... outlet connections at each compressor station. (iv) Pressures and volumes of gas at each intake...

  8. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  9. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  10. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  11. 24 CFR 180.645 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibits. 180.645 Section 180.645... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Procedures at Hearing § 180.645... evidence could not reasonably be anticipated at that time. (c) Authenticity. The authenticity of...

  12. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  13. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  14. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  15. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export... Seismic Risk Map of the United States, or where there is a risk of surface faulting or ground liquefaction... the Seismic Review of LNG Facilities,” NBSIR 84-2833. This document may be obtained from the...

  16. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such enterprises or operations, a detailed explanation of each such relationship, including the... relationship. (5) Exhibit F—Location of facilities. A geographical map of suitable scale and detail showing all...—Construction, operation, and management. A concise statement setting forth arrangements for...

  17. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explanation of each such relationship, including the percentage of voting strength represented by such... detailed explanation of each such relationship. (5) Exhibit E—Other pending applications and filings. A... abandoned. This map, or an additional map, shall clearly show the relationship of the new facilities to...

  18. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  19. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  20. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  1. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  2. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  3. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  4. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  5. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  6. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  7. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  8. Non-swarming grasshoppers exhibit density-dependent phenotypic plasticity reminiscent of swarming locusts.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Steven; Song, Hojun

    2013-11-01

    Locusts are well known for exhibiting an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity known as locust phase polyphenism. At low density, locust nymphs are cryptically colored and shy, but at high density they transform into conspicuously colored and gregarious individuals. Most of what we know about locust phase polyphenism come from the study of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), which is a devastating pest species affecting many countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The desert locust belongs to the grasshopper genus Schistocerca Stål, which includes mostly non-swarming, sedentary species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the desert locust is the earliest branching lineage within Schistocerca, which raises a possibility that the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity may be a plesiomorphic trait for the whole genus. In order to test this idea, we have quantified the effect of rearing density in terms of the resulting behavior, color, and morphology in two non-swarming Schistocerca species native to Florida. When reared in both isolated and crowded conditions, the two non-swarming species, Schistocerca americana (Drury) and Schistocerca serialis cubense (Saussure) clearly exhibited plastic reaction norms in all traits measured, which were reminiscent of the desert locust. Specifically, we found that both species were more active and more attracted to each other when reared in a crowded condition than in isolation. They were mainly bright green in color when isolated, but developed strong black patterns and conspicuous background colors when crowded. We found a strong effect of rearing density in terms of size. There were also more mechanoreceptor hairs on the outer face of the hind femora in the crowded nymphs in both species. Although both species responded similarly, there were some clear species-specific differences in terms of color and behavior. Furthermore, we compare and contrast our findings with

  9. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ(13)C (-8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ(15)N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ(13)C (-15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ(15)N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  10. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  11. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices. PMID:23919764

  12. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  13. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) tuber mucilage exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2002-12-01

    The yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber mucilage (YTM) was extracted and partially purified by SDS and heating treatments. This purified YTM exhibited antioxidant activities in a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC 50, was 0.86 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC 50 was 22 microg/mL) scavenging activity assays, reducing power test, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-human low density lipoprotein peroxidation tests (IC 50 was 145.46 microg/mL) using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), reduced glutathione, or ascorbic acid for comparisons. With electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, the intensities of the EPR signals were decreased by the increased amounts of YTM added (IC 50 was 1.62 mg/mL). These results suggest that mucilage of yam tuber might play roles as antiradicals and antioxidants. PMID:12494332

  14. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. PMID:26332996

  15. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2014-07-22

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  16. Nanoporous frameworks exhibiting multiple stimuli responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pintu K.; Olsen, Gregory L.; Kiss, Vladimir; Klajn, Rafal

    2014-04-01

    Nanoporous frameworks are polymeric materials built from rigid molecules, which give rise to their nanoporous structures with applications in gas sorption and storage, catalysis and others. Conceptually new applications could emerge, should these beneficial properties be manipulated by external stimuli in a reversible manner. One approach to render nanoporous frameworks responsive to external signals would be to immobilize molecular switches within their nanopores. Although the majority of molecular switches require conformational freedom to isomerize, and switching in the solid state is prohibited, the nanopores may provide enough room for the switches to efficiently isomerize. Here we describe two families of nanoporous materials incorporating the spiropyran molecular switch. These materials exhibit a variety of interesting properties, including reversible photochromism and acidochromism under solvent-free conditions, light-controlled capture and release of metal ions, as well reversible chromism induced by solvation/desolvation.

  17. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  19. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  20. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    PubMed

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs. PMID:26071622

  1. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  2. Extract from Ceratonia siliqua Exhibits Depigmentation Properties.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Momtaz, Saeideh; Hussein, Ahmed; Naidoo, Sanushka; Nqephe, Mabatho; Crampton, Bridget

    2015-11-01

    Skin hyper-pigmentation is a condition initiated by the overproduction of melanin existing in the melanocytes. Melanin pigment is responsible for the colour of skin in humans. It is formed through a series of oxidative reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the key enzyme tyrosinase. In continuation with our efforts to identify tyrosinase inhibitors from plants sources, the methanol extract from leaf, bark and fruit of Ceratonia siliqua were screened for tyrosinase inhibition and diphenolase activity. The bark extract exhibited significant inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine as a substrate and showed diphenolase activity. The extract further significantly lowered tyrosinase mRNA levels in B16-F10 mouse melanocytes. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six compounds. Compounds (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose and gallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed tyrosinase inhibitions with the IC50 values of 27.52, 83.30 and 28.30 µg/mL, respectively. These compounds also exhibited L-DOPA activities with IC50 values of >200, 150 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. A clinical study was conducted using 20 volunteers in a patch testing trial for irritancy potential and skin depigmentation. The clinical results showed the sample to be non-irritant with irritancy potential of -34.21 and depigmentation trial showed an improvement in the even skin tone of UV induced pigmentation at 3% after 28 days of application. PMID:26201055

  3. A WHEAT DNA FRAGMENT EXHIBITS REDUCED POLLEN TRANSMISSION IN TRANSGENIC MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8.2 kb fragment of wheat genomic DNA containing the Glu1-Dx5 gene has been transferred to maize using biolistic transformation. The Glu1-Dx5 gene encodes the 1Dx5 high molecular weight glutenin subunit, a seed storage protein associated with good bread making properties. The transgenic maize plan...

  4. A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, Alexander H.; Adachi, Michael M.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Sargent, Edward H.; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha

    2015-04-06

    A simple two-step method was used to produce efficient planar organolead halide perovskite solar cells. Films produced using solely iodine containing precursors resulted in poor morphology and failed devices, whereas addition of chlorine to the process greatly improved morphology and resulted in dense, uniform perovskite films. This process was used to produce perovskite solar cells with a fullerene-based passivation layer. The hysteresis effect, to which planar perovskite devices are otherwise prone, was greatly suppressed through the use of this interface modifier. The combined techniques resulted in perovskite solar cells having a stable efficiency exceeding 11%. This straightforward fabrication procedure holds promise in development of various optoelectronic applications of planar perovskite films.

  5. Mice lacking NCF1 exhibit reduced growth of implanted melanoma and carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Kelkka, Tiina; Pizzolla, Angela; Laurila, Juha Petteri; Friman, Tomas; Gustafsson, Renata; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Olof; Leanderson, Tomas; Rubin, Kristofer; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex is a professional producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is mainly expressed in phagocytes. While the activity of the NOX2 complex is essential for immunity against pathogens and protection against autoimmunity, its role in the development of malignant tumors remains unclear. We compared wild type and Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice, which lack functional NOX2 complex, in four different tumor models. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly smaller tumors in two melanoma models in which B16 melanoma cells expressing a hematopoietic growth factor FLT3L or luciferase reporter were used. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly fewer Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but the tumors that did develop, grew at a pace that was similar to the wild type mice. In the spontaneously arising prostate carcinoma model (TRAMP), tumor growth was not affected. The lack of ROS-mediated protection against tumor growth was associated with increased production of immunity-associated cytokines. A significant increase in Th2 associated cytokines was observed in the LLC model. Our present data show that ROS regulate rejection of the antigenic B16-luc and LLC tumors, whereas the data do not support a role for ROS in growth of intrinsically generated tumors. PMID:24358335

  6. Nebulin-deficient mice exhibit shorter thin filament lengths and reduced contractile function in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Marie-Louise; Li, Xiaodong; Littlefield, Ryan; Bremner, Shannon; Thor, Andrea; Knowlton, Kirk U.; Lieber, Richard L.; Chen, Ju

    2006-01-01

    Nebulin is a giant modular sarcomeric protein that has been proposed to play critical roles in myofibrillogenesis, thin filament length regulation, and muscle contraction. To investigate the functional role of nebulin in vivo, we generated nebulin-deficient mice by using a Cre knock-in strategy. Lineage studies utilizing this mouse model demonstrated that nebulin is expressed uniformly in all skeletal muscles. Nebulin-deficient mice die within 8–11 d after birth, with symptoms including decreased milk intake and muscle weakness. Although myofibrillogenesis had occurred, skeletal muscle thin filament lengths were up to 25% shorter compared with wild type, and thin filaments were uniform in length both within and between muscle types. Ultrastructural studies also demonstrated a critical role for nebulin in the maintenance of sarcomeric structure in skeletal muscle. The functional importance of nebulin in skeletal muscle function was revealed by isometric contractility assays, which demonstrated a dramatic reduction in force production in nebulin-deficient skeletal muscle. PMID:16769824

  7. A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Quan, Li Na; Adachi, Michael M.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-04-01

    A simple two-step method was used to produce efficient planar organolead halide perovskite solar cells. Films produced using solely iodine containing precursors resulted in poor morphology and failed devices, whereas addition of chlorine to the process greatly improved morphology and resulted in dense, uniform perovskite films. This process was used to produce perovskite solar cells with a fullerene-based passivation layer. The hysteresis effect, to which planar perovskite devices are otherwise prone, was greatly suppressed through the use of this interface modifier. The combined techniques resulted in perovskite solar cells having a stable efficiency exceeding 11%. This straightforward fabrication procedure holds promise in development of various optoelectronic applications of planar perovskite films.

  8. Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit Reduced Toxicity to Mammalian Cells and Retain Antimicrobial Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanomaterial stems from their antimicrobial properties. AgNPs are being added to clothing, paint, refrigerators, washing machines and a variety of other commercially available items. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies, howe...

  9. Naïve prey exhibit reduced antipredator behavior and survivorship

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Prey naiveté has been hypothesized to be one of the major driving forces behind population declines following the introduction of novel predators or release of inexperienced prey into predator rich environments. In these cases, naïve prey may lack sufficient antipredator behavior and, as a result, suffer increased mortality. Despite this, some evidence suggests that many prey utilize a generalized response to predators. Here, the naiveté hypothesis is tested using a predator–prey pair sharing an evolutionary history: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1852) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède, 1802). Using farm-reared, naïve crayfish and wild-caught, experienced individuals, laboratory experiments demonstrated that naïve, farmed crayfish lack behavioral responses to chemical cues from bass, both in terms of movement and use of structural refuge. In contrast, experienced crayfish responded strongly to the same cues. In a subsequent field tethering experiment, these naïve individuals suffered a three-fold increase in predation rate. Based on these results, recognition of predators may not be innate in all prey, and previous experience and learning likely play a key role in the development of antipredator behavior. PMID:25392763

  10. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  11. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  12. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  13. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C—Provisions Exhibit... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  14. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  15. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  16. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  17. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  18. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  19. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species. PMID:23324742

  20. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  1. Bortezomib reduces the tumorigenicity of multiple myeloma via downregulation of upregulated targets in clonogenic side population cells.

    PubMed

    Nara, Miho; Teshima, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ito, Mitsugu; Iwamoto, Keiko; Kitabayashi, Atsushi; Kume, Masaaki; Hatano, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Naoto; Iida, Shinsuke; Sawada, Kenichi; Tagawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells in cancers, including multiple myeloma, exhibit tumor-initiating characteristics. In the present study, we isolated SP cells from human myeloma cell lines and primary tumors to detect potential therapeutic targets specifically expressed in SP cells. We found that SP cells from myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11) express CD138 and that non-SP cells include a CD138-negative population. Serial transplantation of SP and non-SP cells into NOD/Shi-scid IL-2γnul mice revealed that clonogenic myeloma SP cells are highly tumorigenic and possess a capacity for self-renewal. Gene expression analysis showed that SP cells from five MM cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11, JJN3) express genes involved in the cell cycle and mitosis (e.g., CCNB1, CDC25C, CDC2, BIRC5, CENPE, SKA1, AURKB, KIFs, TOP2A, ASPM), polycomb (e.g., EZH2, EPC1) and ubiquitin-proteasome (e.g., UBE2D3, UBE3C, PSMA5) more strongly than do non-SP cells. Moreover, CCNB1, AURKB, EZH2 and PSMA5 were also upregulated in the SPs from eight primary myeloma samples. On that basis, we used an aurora kinase inhibitor (VX-680) and a proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) with RPMI 8226 and AMO1 cells to determine whether these agents could be used to selectively target the myeloma SP. We found that both these drugs reduced the SP fraction, though bortezomib did so more effectively than VX-680 due to its ability to reduce levels of both phospho-histone H3 (p-hist. H3) and EZH2; VX-680 reduced only p-hist. H3. This is the first report to show that certain oncogenes are specifically expressed in the myeloma SP, and that bortezomib effectively downregulates expression of their products. Our approach may be useful for screening new agents with which to target a cell population possessing strong tumor initiating potential in multiple myeloma. PMID:23469177

  2. Bortezomib Reduces the Tumorigenicity of Multiple Myeloma via Downregulation of Upregulated Targets in Clonogenic Side Population Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nara, Miho; Teshima, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ito, Mitsugu; Iwamoto, Keiko; Kitabayashi, Atsushi; Kume, Masaaki; Hatano, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Naoto; Iida, Shinsuke; Sawada, Kenichi; Tagawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells in cancers, including multiple myeloma, exhibit tumor-initiating characteristics. In the present study, we isolated SP cells from human myeloma cell lines and primary tumors to detect potential therapeutic targets specifically expressed in SP cells. We found that SP cells from myeloma cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11) express CD138 and that non-SP cells include a CD138-negative population. Serial transplantation of SP and non-SP cells into NOD/Shi-scid IL-2γnul mice revealed that clonogenic myeloma SP cells are highly tumorigenic and possess a capacity for self-renewal. Gene expression analysis showed that SP cells from five MM cell lines (RPMI 8226, AMO1, KMS-12-BM, KMS-11, JJN3) express genes involved in the cell cycle and mitosis (e.g., CCNB1, CDC25C, CDC2, BIRC5, CENPE, SKA1, AURKB, KIFs, TOP2A, ASPM), polycomb (e.g., EZH2, EPC1) and ubiquitin-proteasome (e.g., UBE2D3, UBE3C, PSMA5) more strongly than do non-SP cells. Moreover, CCNB1, AURKB, EZH2 and PSMA5 were also upregulated in the SPs from eight primary myeloma samples. On that basis, we used an aurora kinase inhibitor (VX-680) and a proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) with RPMI 8226 and AMO1 cells to determine whether these agents could be used to selectively target the myeloma SP. We found that both these drugs reduced the SP fraction, though bortezomib did so more effectively than VX-680 due to its ability to reduce levels of both phospho-histone H3 (p-hist. H3) and EZH2; VX-680 reduced only p-hist. H3. This is the first report to show that certain oncogenes are specifically expressed in the myeloma SP, and that bortezomib effectively downregulates expression of their products. Our approach may be useful for screening new agents with which to target a cell population possessing strong tumor initiating potential in multiple myeloma. PMID:23469177

  3. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  4. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  5. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  6. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  7. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  8. Developing Visualization Tools for Geographic Literacy in a Museum Exhibit: An Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Gina; Petersen, Naomi Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    As a result of reduced formal instruction and reduced direct experience in the natural environment, students suffer from a deficiency in geographic literacy. Informal learning environments, such as a model railroad exhibit at a history museum, can be exploited to introduce key geographic concepts (e.g., scalar compression, landscape…

  9. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-Fayoumy, Eman A.

    2011-01-01

    The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%). However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:21869863

  10. Naturally segregating loci exhibit epistasis for fitness

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Patrick J.; Kelly, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which gene interaction or epistasis contributes to fitness variation within populations remains poorly understood, despite its importance to a myriad of evolutionary questions. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating fitness of Mimulus guttatus genetic lines in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an otherwise uniform background. An allele at QTL x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—positively affects survival if combined with one genotype at quantitative trait locus x10a (aa) but has negative effects when combined with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel phenotypic differences for the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with fecundity across genotypes, indicating antagonistic pleiotropy for fitness components. This trade-off reduces the genetic variance for total fitness relative to the individual fitness components and thus may serve to maintain variation. Additionally, we find that the effects of each locus and their interaction often vary with the environment. PMID:26246336