Improved deterministic calculational methods for irregularly shaped shields
Dorning, J.J.
1992-12-01
A new discrete nodal transport method has been developed for general two-dimensional curvilinear geometry by using a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation from the general 'physical' coordinates to square 'computational' coordinates. The metrics which appear in the transformed transport equation are expanded using a simple polynomial function, and the angular divergence term is treated in the same way it is treated in S[sub N] methods for curved geometries. Because the metrics of the transformation depend upon the computational coordinates, the technical details of the formal development of the nodal method differ from those of ordinary nodal methods for rectangular geometry. However, the computational process in the transformed rectangular coordinate system is very similar to that used in conventional discrete nodal transport methods. A discrete S[sub N] method also has been developed to solve the boundary-fitted coordinate transformed transport equation. Simple test problems for non-simple geometries were solved using the zeroth-order nodal method, the first-order nodal method, and the S[sub N] method for the same physical and computational grids. The results for the test problems studied showed that, for most performance criteria, the computational efficiency of the zeroth-order nodal method was the highest of the three methods.
Lee, C.; Yang, W. S.
2013-07-01
An improved resonance self-shielding method has been developed to accurately estimate the effective multigroup cross sections for heterogeneous fast reactor assembly and core calculations. In the method, the heterogeneity effect is considered by the use of isotopic escape cross sections while the resonance interference effect is accounted for through the narrow resonance approximation or slowing-down calculations for specific compositions. The isotopic escape cross sections are calculated by solving fixed-source transport equations with the method of characteristics for the whole problem domain. This method requires no pre-calculated resonance integral tables or parameters that are typically necessary in the subgroup method. Preliminary results for multi pin-cell fast reactor problems show that the escape cross sections estimated from the explicit-geometry fixed source calculations produce more accurate eigenvalue and self-shielded effective cross sections than those from conventional one-dimensional geometry models. (authors)
Comparison of hybrid methods for global variance reduction in shielding calculations
Peplow, D. E.
2013-07-01
For Monte Carlo shielding problems that calculate a mesh tally over the entire problem, the statistical uncertainties computed for each voxel can vary widely. This can lead to unacceptably long run times in order to reduce the uncertainties in all areas of the problem to a reasonably low level. Hybrid methods - using estimates from deterministic calculations to create importance maps for variance reduction in Monte Carlo calculations - have been successfully used to optimize the calculation of specific tallies. For the global problem, several methods have been proposed to create importance maps that distribute Monte Carlo particles in such a way as to achieve a more uniform distribution of relative uncertainty across the problem. The goal is to compute a mesh tally with nearly the same relative uncertainties in the low flux/dose areas as in the high flux/dose areas. Methods based on only forward deterministic estimates and methods using both forward and adjoint deterministic methods have been implemented in the SCALE/MAVRIC package and have been compared against each other by computing global mesh tallies on several representative shielding problems. Methods using both forward and adjoint estimates provide better performance for computing more uniform relative uncertainties across a global mesh tally. (authors)
Application of the first collision source method to CSNS target station shielding calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Meng-Teng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Bo; Chen, Yi-Xue; Yin, Wen; Liang, Tian-Jiao
2016-04-01
Ray effects are an inherent problem of the discrete ordinates method. RAY3D, a functional module of ARES, which is a discrete ordinates code system, employs a semi-analytic first collision source method to mitigate ray effects. This method decomposes the flux into uncollided and collided components, and then calculates them with an analytical method and discrete ordinates method respectively. In this article, RAY3D is validated by the Kobayashi benchmarks and applied to the neutron beamline shielding problem of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) target station. The numerical results of the Kobayashi benchmarks indicate that the solutions of DONTRAN3D with RAY3D agree well with the Monte Carlo solutions. The dose rate at the end of the neutron beamline is less than 10.83 μSv/h in the CSNS target station neutron beamline shutter model. RAY3D can effectively mitigate the ray effects and obtain relatively reasonable results. Supported by Major National S&T Specific Program of Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant (2011ZX06004-007), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11505059, 11575061), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (13QN34).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capo, M. A.; Disney, R. K.; Jordan, T. A.; Soltesz, R. G.; Woodsum, H. C.
1969-01-01
Eight computer programs make up a nine volume synthesis containing two design methods for nuclear rocket radiation shields. The first design method is appropriate for parametric and preliminary studies, while the second accomplishes the verification of a final nuclear rocket reactor design.
Holmes, Sean T; Alkan, Fahri; Iuliucci, Robbie J; Mueller, Karl T; Dybowski, Cecil
2016-07-01
(29) Si and (31) P magnetic-shielding tensors in covalent network solids have been evaluated using periodic and cluster-based calculations. The cluster-based computational methodology employs pseudoatoms to reduce the net charge (resulting from missing co-ordination on the terminal atoms) through valence modification of terminal atoms using bond-valence theory (VMTA/BV). The magnetic-shielding tensors computed with the VMTA/BV method are compared to magnetic-shielding tensors determined with the periodic GIPAW approach. The cluster-based all-electron calculations agree with experiment better than the GIPAW calculations, particularly for predicting absolute magnetic shielding and for predicting chemical shifts. The performance of the DFT functionals CA-PZ, PW91, PBE, rPBE, PBEsol, WC, and PBE0 are assessed for the prediction of (29) Si and (31) P magnetic-shielding constants. Calculations using the hybrid functional PBE0, in combination with the VMTA/BV approach, result in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117609
Calculation of shielding parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montoya, Zeferino Jorge
Within the nuclear reaction exists three types of energy producing reactions: (1) radioactive disintegration; (2) fission; and (3) fusion. Besides the radiation produced in these reactions there are radioactive emissions of a different type, and in some of these cases they are of great penetration power and scope. The radiation produces great damage when interacted with materials, in particular the most dangerous are neutrons and gamma photons. For this reason it is necessary to protect people who work in places which operate with radioactive sources from the radiation, in addition to reducing the radiation doses to the most reasonably possible, considering the circumstances of the installations. The three determining factors in the proposition of reducing exposure to radiation are: (1) to maintain control over the reduced exposure in the time of the permanence in the irradiated areas; (2) to increase the distance between the source and the operating personnel as much as possible; and (3) to place an armor-plate between the source and the receptor. The work described in this paper has its objective a calculation of the parameters of an armor-plate in radioactive sources, with the goal of estimating the doses of radiation in protecting people and other biological systems from exposure to radiation produced during the nuclear reactions. The parameters to be principally considered are: (1) characteristics of the source; (2) geometry of the source at the point of exposure; and (3) material and thickness of the armor-plate.
Cho, S; Shin, E H; Kim, J; Ahn, S H; Chung, K; Kim, D-H; Han, Y; Choi, D H
2015-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate the shielding wall design to protect patients, staff and member of the general public for secondary neutron using a simply analytic solution, multi-Monte Carlo code MCNPX, ANISN and FLUKA. Methods: An analytical and multi-Monte Carlo method were calculated for proton facility (Sumitomo Heavy Industry Ltd.) at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The NCRP-144 analytical evaluation methods, which produced conservative estimates on the dose equivalent values for the shielding, were used for analytical evaluations. Then, the radiation transport was simulated with the multi-Monte Carlo code. The neutron dose at evaluation point is got by the value using the production of the simulation value and the neutron dose coefficient introduced in ICRP-74. Results: The evaluation points of accelerator control room and control room entrance are mainly influenced by the point of the proton beam loss. So the neutron dose equivalent of accelerator control room for evaluation point is 0.651, 1.530, 0.912, 0.943 mSv/yr and the entrance of cyclotron room is 0.465, 0.790, 0.522, 0.453 mSv/yr with calculation by the method of NCRP-144 formalism, ANISN, FLUKA and MCNP, respectively. The most of Result of MCNPX and FLUKA using the complicated geometry showed smaller values than Result of ANISN. Conclusion: The neutron shielding for a proton therapy facility has been evaluated by the analytic model and multi-Monte Carlo methods. We confirmed that the setting of shielding was located in well accessible area to people when the proton facility is operated.
A comparison of calculated NMR shielding probes.
Martin, Ned H; Loveless, David M; Wade, Dustin C
2004-12-01
In a strong magnetic field, covalently bonded hydrogen nuclei located over the plane of an anisotropic pi bond-containing functional group experience magnetic shielding (or deshielding) that results from the combined effect of the magnetic anisotropy of the functional group and other nearby covalent bonds plus other intramolecular shielding effects. These effects can now be calculated with reasonable accuracy using ab initio methods. We have investigated several computational probes of the magnetic shielding surface near anisotropic functional groups and compared the results to previous reports of experimental observations in example structures. GIAO-HF in Gaussian 03 was employed to calculate isotropic shielding values and to predict the net NMR shielding increment for several computational probes: methane, diatomic hydrogen, a hydrogen atom, a helium atom, or a ghost atom, each held in various positions over simple test molecules (ethene, ethyne, benzene and HCN) that contain the functional groups studied. Also, the effect of performing single point calculations versus constrained geometry-optimized calculations was examined. In addition, the effect of the angle of the orientation of the probe molecule (in the case of CH(4) and H(2)) relative to the pi bond in the test molecule was studied. Finally, the atomic charges in the molecular probes (CH(4) and H(2)) were computed to investigate the nature of the interaction of the probe with the test molecule. The optimal, most economical computational results were obtained using single point calculations of a diatomic hydrogen probe oriented perpendicular to the surface (or axis) of the test molecule. PMID:15530824
Dorning, J.J.
1992-12-01
A new discrete nodal transport method has been developed for general two-dimensional curvilinear geometry by using a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation from the general `physical` coordinates to square `computational` coordinates. The metrics which appear in the transformed transport equation are expanded using a simple polynomial function, and the angular divergence term is treated in the same way it is treated in S{sub N} methods for curved geometries. Because the metrics of the transformation depend upon the computational coordinates, the technical details of the formal development of the nodal method differ from those of ordinary nodal methods for rectangular geometry. However, the computational process in the transformed rectangular coordinate system is very similar to that used in conventional discrete nodal transport methods. A discrete S{sub N} method also has been developed to solve the boundary-fitted coordinate transformed transport equation. Simple test problems for non-simple geometries were solved using the zeroth-order nodal method, the first-order nodal method, and the S{sub N} method for the same physical and computational grids. The results for the test problems studied showed that, for most performance criteria, the computational efficiency of the zeroth-order nodal method was the highest of the three methods.
Benchmark calculations of the shielding constants in the water dimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pecul, Magdalena; Lewandowski, Józef; Sadlej, Joanna
2001-01-01
The NMR shielding constants in (H 2O) 2 have been calculated using GIAO-SCF, MP2, MP4 and CCSD methods and for a range of basis sets. According to the obtained results the 6-311++G ** or aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets are recommended for SCF calculations, and the aug-cc-pVXZ series is suggested for correlated calculations of the interaction-induced changes in the shielding constants. The counterpoise correction improves the results towards the basis set limit and is essential in the case of 17O shielding. Correlation effects are substantial for the changes in 17O shielding, less so for 1H shielding. They are overestimated by the MP2 method.
Komasa, J.; Cencek, W.; Rychlewski, J. )
1992-09-01
Values of the magnetic shielding constant in the ground state of the hydrogen molecule are calculated using explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The total shielding at equilibrium amounts to 26.73 ppm.
Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation
S.Su
2001-04-12
The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M&O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations.
Diagnostic X-Ray Shielding Calculation.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1986-05-27
Version 00 XSHLD will calculate the primary and/or secondary leakage/scatter barrier requirements for diagnostic radiographic and/or fluorescent x-ray units operating at 50, 70, 100, 125, and 150 kVp. Requirements are given for Pb shielding and for gypsum, plate glass, brick, concrete, and concrete block.
RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections
Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.
2006-07-01
A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)
Shielding design at Fermilab: Calculations and measurements
Cossairt, J.D.
1986-11-01
The development of the Fermilab accelerator complex during the past two decades from its concept as the ''200 BeV accelerator'' to that of the present tevatron, designed to operate at energies as high as 1 TeV, has required a coincidental refinement and development in methods of shielding design. In this paper I describe these methods as used by the radiation protection staff of Fermilab. This description will review experimental measurements which substantiate these techniques in realistic situations. Along the way, observations will be stated which likely are applicable to other protron accelerators in the multi-hundred GeV energy region, including larger ones yet to be constructed.
A converse approach to the calculation of NMR shielding tensors
Thonhauser, Timo; Ceresoli, Davide; Mostofi, Arash A.; Marzari, Nicola N.; Resta, Raffaele; Vanderbilt, David
2009-09-08
We introduce an alternative approach to the first-principles calculation of NMR shielding tensors. These are obtained from the derivative of the orbital magnetization with respect to the application of a microscopic, localized magnetic dipole. The approach is simple, general, and can be applied to either isolated or periodic systems. Calculated results for simple hydrocarbons, crystalline diamond, and liquid water show very good agreement with established methods and experimental results.
Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture
Metzger, Bert Clayton; Brindza, Paul Daniel
2014-03-04
A thermal neutron shield comprising boron shielding panels with a high percentage of the element Boron. The panel is least 46% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of boron shielding panels which includes enriching the pre-cursor mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.
Pivotably mounted reactor shroud shield and shielding method
Hankinson, M.F.
1987-03-31
A method is described for shielding persons working around a nuclear reactor having a reactor head an a shroud extending upward from the reactor head, comprising: (a) mounting a plurality of swingout arms around the shroud, each swingout arm being pivotable about a respective axis that is substantially vertical and that is fixed with respect to the shroud; (b) positioning a shielding member adjacent a swingout arm with a hoist; (c) pivoting the swingout arm horizontally away from the shroud and toward the hoist; (d) transferring the shielding member from the hoist to the swingout arm so that the swingout arm supports the shielding member; (e) pivoting the swingout arm horizontally back toward the shroud; and (f) repeating steps (b) through (c) until the shroud is substantially surrounded by shielding members.
Calculations of nuclear electric shielding in molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazzeretti, P.; Zanasi, R.
1980-05-01
The electric shielding tensor at nuclei in the molecules H 2O, NH 3, CH 4 and CO has been evaluated via coupled Hartree-Fock perturbation theory. The average trace of the shielding tensor is linearly dependent on atomic electronegativities in the isoelectronic series H 2O, NH 3, CH 4.
Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data
Zourari, K.; Peppa, V.; Papagiannis, P.; Ballester, Facundo; Siebert, Frank-André
2014-04-15
Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions
Current status of methods for shielding analysis
Engle, W.W.
1980-01-01
Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed.
Kharrati, Hedi
2005-05-01
In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation.
Thermal neutron shield and method of manufacture
Brindza, Paul Daniel; Metzger, Bert Clayton
2013-05-28
A thermal neutron shield comprising concrete with a high percentage of the element Boron. The concrete is least 54% Boron by weight which maximizes the effectiveness of the shielding against thermal neutrons. The accompanying method discloses the manufacture of Boron loaded concrete which includes enriching the concrete mixture with varying grit sizes of Boron Carbide.
Shielding Calculations for NSLS-II Beamlines.
Job,P.K.; Casey, W.R.
2008-04-13
Brookhaven National Laboratory is in the process of designing a new Electron Synchrotron for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the 'National Synchrotron Light Source II' (NSLS-II), will provide x-ray radiation of ultra-high brightness and exceptional spatial and energy resolution. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. The project scope includes the design, construction, installation, and commissioning of the following accelerators: a 200 MeV linac, a booster accelerator operating from 200 MeV to 3.0 GeV, the storage ring which stores 500 mA current of electrons at an energy of 3.0 GeV and 56 beamlines for experiments. It is planned to operate the facility primarily in a top-off mode, thereby maintaining the maximum variation in stored beam current to < 1%. Because of the very demanding requirements for beam emittance and synchrotron radiation brilliance, the beam life-time is expected to be quite low, on the order of 2 hours. Each of the 56 beamlines will be unique in terms of the source properties and configuration. The shielding designs for five representative beamlines are discussed in this paper.
X-Ray Shield Calculation System.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1984-10-04
Version: 00 NCRP49 will calculate the primary and/or secondary leakage/scatter barrier requirements (in mm of lead) for diagnostic radio-graphic and/or fluoroscopic x-ray units operating at 50, 70, 100, 125 or 150 kV.
D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Chimney LN2 Radiation Shield Attachment Area Calculation
Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab
1993-05-26
A short calculation was done to check the attachment method of the radiation shield to it's LN2 cooling tubes. The case considered was only for the obround chimney section. The proposed attachment method was to use 1/8-inch plug welds spaced every 5-inch along the length of the shield. The calculations were done conservatively for 6-inch spacing between plug welds. The criteria used was that the LN2 shield warmest temperature be less than 2 K above the temperature of the LN2 fluid. Using a very conservative heat transfer model. the calculations predict that the warmest temperature on the radiation shield will be < 1.4 K warmer than the LN2 fluid temperature.
Shield weight optimization using Monte Carlo transport calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, T. M.; Wohl, M. L.
1972-01-01
Outlines are given of the theory used in FASTER-3 Monte Carlo computer program for the transport of neutrons and gamma rays in complex geometries. The code has the additional capability of calculating the minimum weight layered unit shield configuration which will meet a specified dose rate constraint. It includes the treatment of geometric regions bounded by quadratic and quardric surfaces with multiple radiation sources which have a specified space, angle, and energy dependence. The program calculates, using importance sampling, the resulting number and energy fluxes at specified point, surface, and volume detectors. Results are presented for sample problems involving primary neutron and both primary and secondary photon transport in a spherical reactor shield configuration. These results include the optimization of the shield configuration.
Nasrabadi, M N; Mohammadi, A; Jalali, M
2009-01-01
In this paper bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) was applied to aqueous sample analysis using a relative method. For elemental analysis of an unknown bulk sample, gamma self-shielding coefficient was required. Gamma self-shielding coefficient of unknown samples was estimated by an experimental method and also by MCNP code calculation. The proposed methodology can be used for the determination of the elemental concentration of unknown aqueous samples by BSPGNAA where knowledge of the gamma self-shielding within the sample volume is required. PMID:19328700
Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.
2002-01-01
Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.
Spacesuit Radiation Shield Design Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ware, J.; Zeitlin, Cary J.
2006-01-01
Meeting radiation protection requirements during EVA is predominantly an operational issue with some potential considerations for temporary shelter. The issue of spacesuit shielding is mainly guided by the potential of accidental exposure when operational and temporary shelter considerations fail to maintain exposures within operational limits. In this case, very high exposure levels are possible which could result in observable health effects and even be life threatening. Under these assumptions, potential spacesuit radiation exposures have been studied using known historical solar particle events to gain insight on the usefulness of modification of spacesuit design in which the control of skin exposure is a critical design issue and reduction of blood forming organ exposure is desirable. Transition to a new spacesuit design including soft upper-torso and reconfigured life support hardware gives an opportunity to optimize the next generation spacesuit for reduced potential health effects during an accidental exposure.
Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams
Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L.
1995-08-01
In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudo, K.; Maeda, H.; Kawakubo, T.; Ootani, Y.; Funaki, M.; Fukui, H.
2006-06-01
The normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) theory, recently proposed by Filatov and Cremer [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 064104 (2005)], is extended to include magnetic interactions and applied to the calculation of the nuclear magnetic shielding in HX (X =F,Cl,Br,I) systems. The NESC calculations are performed at the levels of the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and the second-order regular approximation (SORA). The calculations show that the NESC-ZORA results are very close to the NESC-SORA results, except for the shielding of the I nucleus. Both the NESC-ZORA and NESC-SORA calculations yield very similar results to the previously reported values obtained using the relativistic infinite-order two-component coupled Hartree-Fock method. The difference between NESC-ZORA and NESC-SORA results is significant for the shieldings of iodine.
Exact calculation of demagnetization field in micromagnetic simulation of shielded read heads
Wang, Lei; Giusti, James H.; Fernandez-de-Castro, Juan
2001-06-01
In micromagnetic simulation of shielded GMR heads, the self-demagnetizing field is usually calculated under the assumption that the two shields extend to infinity beyond the air bearing surface. Under this assumption, the demagnetization tensor for rectangular cells in free space and the method of images are used to calculate the self-demagnetizing field in the sensor. An unanswered question for this approach is how accurate it is. In this work, the Fourier series method is used to calculate the self-demagnetizing field of the sensor in the shielded environment exactly. Simulation results from this rigorous approach and the common approach are compared for both simple spin valve and synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) biased spin valve heads. It is shown that the error of the common approach is very small for a SAF spin valve head and can be as large as 10% for a simple spin valve head. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Development of a New Shielding Model for JB-Line Dose Rate Calculations
Buckner, M.R.
2001-08-09
This report describes the shielding model development for the JB-Line Upgrade project. The product of this effort is a simple-to-use but accurate method of estimating the personnel dose expected for various operating conditions on the line. The current techniques for shielding calculations use transport codes such as ANISN which, while accurate for geometries which can be accurately approximated as one dimensional slabs, cylinders or spheres, fall short in calculating configurations in which two-or three-dimensional effects (e.g., streaming) play a role in the dose received by workers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomsen, III, Donald Laurence (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Methods of building Z-graded radiation shielding and covers. In one aspect, the method includes: providing a substrate surface having about medium Z-grade; plasma spraying a first metal having higher Z-grade than the substrate surface; and infusing a polymer layer to form a laminate. In another aspect, the method includes electro/electroless plating a first metal having higher Z-grade than the substrate surface. In other aspects, the methods include improving an existing electronics enclosure to build a Z-graded radiation shield by applying a temperature controller to at least part of the enclosure and affixing at least one layer of a first metal having higher Z-grade from the enclosure.
Calculation of an optimized design of magnetic shields with integrated demagnetization coils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Z.; Schnabel, A.; Burghoff, M.; Li, L.
2016-07-01
Magnetic shielding made from permalloy is frequently used to provide a time-stable magnetic field environment. A low magnetic field and low field gradients inside the shield can be obtained by using demagnetization coils through the walls, encircling edges of the shield. We first introduce and test the computational models to calculate magnetic properties of large size shields with thin shielding walls. We then vary the size, location and shape of the openings for the demagnetization coils at the corners of a cubic shield. It turns out that the effect on the shielding factor and the expected influence on the residual magnetic field homogeneity in the vicinity of the center of the shield is negligible. Thus, a low-cost version for the openings can be chosen and their size could be enlarged to allow for additional cables and easier handling. A construction of a shield with beveled edges and open corners turned out to substantially improve the shielding factor.
Monserrat, Bartomeu Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.
2014-10-07
We study the effects of atomic vibrations on the solid-state chemical shielding tensor using first principles density functional theory calculations. At the harmonic level, we use a Monte Carlo method and a perturbative expansion. The Monte Carlo method is accurate but computationally expensive, while the perturbative method is computationally more efficient, but approximate. We find excellent agreement between the two methods for both the isotropic shift and the shielding anisotropy. The effects of zero-point quantum mechanical nuclear motion are important up to relatively high temperatures: at 500 K they still represent about half of the overall vibrational contribution. We also investigate the effects of anharmonic vibrations, finding that their contribution to the zero-point correction to the chemical shielding tensor is small. We exemplify these ideas using magnesium oxide and the molecular crystals L-alanine and β-aspartyl-L-alanine. We therefore propose as the method of choice to incorporate the effects of temperature in solid state chemical shielding tensor calculations using the perturbative expansion within the harmonic approximation. This approach is accurate and requires a computational effort that is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of dynamical or Monte Carlo approaches, so these effects might be routinely accounted for.
Validation of calculated self-shielding factors for Rh foils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaćimović, R.; Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.
2010-10-01
Rhodium foils of about 5 mm diameter were obtained from IRMM. One foil had thickness of 0.006 mm and three were 0.112 mm thick. They were irradiated in the pneumatic transfer system and in the carousel facility of the TRIGA reactor at the Jožef Stefan Institute. The foils were irradiated bare and enclosed in small cadmium boxes (about 2 g weight) of 1 mm thickness to minimise the perturbation of the local neutron flux. They were co-irradiated with 5 mm diameter and 0.2 mm thick Al-Au (0.1%) alloy monitor foils. The resonance self-shielding corrections for the 0.006 and 0.112 mm thick samples were calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation and amount to about 10% and 60%, respectively. The consistency of measurements confirmed the validity of self-shielding factors. Trial estimates of Q0 and k0 factors for the 555.8 keV gamma line of 104Rh were made and amount to 6.65±0.18 and (6.61±0.12)×10 -2, respectively.
MCNPX Cosmic Ray Shielding Calculations with the NORMAN Phantom Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Michael R.; Durkee, Joe W.; McKinney, Gregg; Singleterry Robert
2008-01-01
The United States is planning manned lunar and interplanetary missions in the coming years. Shielding from cosmic rays is a critical aspect of manned spaceflight. These ventures will present exposure issues involving the interplanetary Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment. GCRs are comprised primarily of protons (approx.84.5%) and alpha-particles (approx.14.7%), while the remainder is comprised of massive, highly energetic nuclei. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) has commissioned a joint study with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to investigate the interaction of the GCR environment with humans using high-fidelity, state-of-the-art computer simulations. The simulations involve shielding and dose calculations in order to assess radiation effects in various organs. The simulations are being conducted using high-resolution voxel-phantom models and the MCNPX[1] Monte Carlo radiation-transport code. Recent advances in MCNPX physics packages now enable simulated transport over 2200 types of ions of widely varying energies in large, intricate geometries. We report here initial results obtained using a GCR spectrum and a NORMAN[3] phantom.
Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method
Clem, John R.; Clem, John R.
1983-01-01
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.
Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method
Clem, J.R.; Clem, J.R.
1983-10-11
Disclosed are a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped. 5 figs.
Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method
Clem, J.R.
1982-07-09
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.
Standardized Radiation Shield Design Methods: 2005 HZETRN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2006-01-01
Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Neutron source in the MCNPX shielding calculating for electron accelerator driven facility
Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y.
2012-07-01
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the design development of an experimental neutron source facility. It is an accelerator driven system (ADS) utilizing a subcritical assembly driven by electron accelerator. The facility will be utilized for performing basic and applied nuclear researches, producing medical isotopes, and training young nuclear specialists. Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been utilized as a design tool due to its capability to transport electrons, photons, and neutrons at high energies. However the facility shielding calculations with MCNPX need enormous computational resources and the small neutron yield per electron makes sampling difficulty for the Monte Carlo calculations. A method, based on generating and utilizing neutron source file, was proposed and tested. This method reduces significantly the required computer resources and improves the statistics of the calculated neutron dose outside the shield boundary. However the statistical errors introduced by generating the neutron source were not directly represented in the results, questioning the validity of this methodology, because an insufficiently sampled neutron source can cause error on the calculated neutron dose. This paper presents a procedure for the validation of the generated neutron source file. The impact of neutron source statistic on the neutron dose is examined by calculating the neutron dose as a function of the number of electron particles used for generating the neutron source files. When the value of the calculated neutron dose converges, it means the neutron source has scored sufficient records and statistic does not have apparent impact on the calculated neutron dose. In this way, the validity of neutron source and the shield analyses could be verified. (authors)
Methods and Procedures for Shielding Analyses for the SNS
Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.; Remec, Igor; Lu, Wei; Popova, Irina
2014-01-01
In order to provide radiologically safe Spallation Neutron Source operation, shielding analyses are performed according to Oak Ridge National Laboratory internal regulations and to comply with the Code of Federal Regulations. An overview of on-going shielding work for the accelerator facility and neutrons beam lines, methods, used for the analyses, and associated procedures and regulations is presented. Methods used to perform shielding analyses are described as well.
NMR Shielding in Metals Using the Augmented Plane Wave Method
2015-01-01
We present calculations of solid state NMR magnetic shielding in metals, which includes both the orbital and the complete spin response of the system in a consistent way. The latter contains an induced spin-polarization of the core states and needs an all-electron self-consistent treatment. In particular, for transition metals, the spin hyperfine field originates not only from the polarization of the valence s-electrons, but the induced magnetic moment of the d-electrons polarizes the core s-states in opposite direction. The method is based on DFT and the augmented plane wave approach as implemented in the WIEN2k code. A comparison between calculated and measured NMR shifts indicates that first-principle calculations can obtain converged results and are more reliable than initially concluded based on previous publications. Nevertheless large k-meshes (up to 2 000 000 k-points in the full Brillouin-zone) and some Fermi-broadening are necessary. Our results show that, in general, both spin and orbital components of the NMR shielding must be evaluated in order to reproduce experimental shifts, because the orbital part cancels the shift of the usually highly ionic reference compound only for simple sp-elements but not for transition metals. This development paves the way for routine NMR calculations of metallic systems. PMID:26322148
George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.
2002-01-01
MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics Calibration Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.
Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.
1980-08-01
Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV D-T neutrons through laminated slabs of proposed fusion reactor shield materials have been carried out. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared as a function of the thickness and composition of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and Hevimet (a tungsten alloy), and as a function of detector position behind these materials. The measured data were obtained using a NE-213 liquid scintillator using pulse-shape discrimination methods to resolve neutron and gamma ray pulse height data and spectral unfolding methods to convert these data to energy spectra. The calculated data were obtained using two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport methods in a complex calculational network that takes into account the energy-angle dependence of the D-T neutrons and the nonphysical anomalies of the S/sub n/ method.
Shielded beam delivery apparatus and method
Hershcovitch, Ady; Montano, Rory Dominick
2006-07-11
An apparatus includes a plasma generator aligned with a beam generator for producing a plasma to shield an energized beam. An electrode is coaxially aligned with the plasma generator and followed in turn by a vortex generator coaxially aligned with the electrode. A target is spaced from the vortex generator inside a fluid environment. The electrode is electrically biased relative to the electrically grounded target for driving the plasma toward the target inside a vortex shield.
Yan Xiangsheng; Poon, Emily; Reniers, Brigitte; Vuong, Te; Verhaegen, Frank
2008-11-15
Colorectal cancer patients are treated at our hospital with {sup 192}Ir high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy using an applicator that allows the introduction of a lead or tungsten shielding rod to reduce the dose to healthy tissue. The clinical dose planning calculations are, however, currently performed without taking the shielding into account. To study the dose distributions in shielded cases, three techniques were employed. The first technique was to adapt a shielding algorithm which is part of the Nucletron PLATO HDR treatment planning system. The isodose pattern exhibited unexpected features but was found to be a reasonable approximation. The second technique employed a ray tracing algorithm that assigns a constant dose ratio with/without shielding behind the shielding along a radial line originating from the source. The dose calculation results were similar to the results from the first technique but with improved accuracy. The third and most accurate technique used a dose-matrix-superposition algorithm, based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results from the latter technique showed quantitatively that the dose to healthy tissue is reduced significantly in the presence of shielding. However, it was also found that the dose to the tumor may be affected by the presence of shielding; for about a quarter of the patients treated the volume covered by the 100% isodose lines was reduced by more than 5%, leading to potential tumor cold spots. Use of any of the three shielding algorithms results in improved dose estimates to healthy tissue and the tumor.
An update on the circuit approach to calculate shielding effectiveness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bridges, Jack E.
1988-08-01
The shielding effectiveness of an enclosure at low frequencies can be computed using a circuit approach. Not only does this technique include the effects of the properties of the shield material, but it also includes the details of the geometry of the enclosure. This approach allows a nonempirical consideration of mesh enclosures and the effects of resistive seams in enclosure walls. By working with the circuit analog, penetration by transient fields can be computed. Essentially the enclosure is viewed as an antenna. In the case of magnetic shielding effectiveness, the enclosure is viewed as a short-circuited loop antenna. In the case of electric-field penetration, the enclosure is viewed as a fat electric dipole. Using this characterization and exact solutions where available, the current distribution on the outside of the enclosure is determined. Based on the current distribution, the penetrating fields are computed. The equations are developed in such a way as to preserve a lumped circuit analog for the low-frequency region. The basic circuit equations for magnetic-field penetration are rederived from a rigorous solution. Rules to estimate the rise time, fall time, and peak magnitudes of transient penetrating fields are developed. The electric shielding effectiveness is developed in a similar manner.
Ab initio calculation of Ti NMR shieldings for titanium oxides and halides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tossell, J. A.
Titanium NMR shielding constants have been calculated using ab initio coupled Hartree-Fock perturbation theory and polarized double-zeta basis sets for TiF 4, TiF 62-, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, Ti(OH 2) 64+, Ti(OH) 4O, and Ti(OH) 3O -. In all cases the calculations were performed at Hartree-Fuck energy-optimized geometries. For Ti(OH) 4 a S4-symmetry geometry with nonlinear ∠ TiOH was employed. Relative shieldings are in reasonable agreement with experiment for TiF 62-, TiCI 4, and Ti(OR) 4, where R = H or alkyl. Ti(OH 2) 64+ is predicted to be more highly shielded than Ti(OH) 4 by about 340 ppm. The five-coordinate complex Ti(OH) 4O, whose calculated structure matches well that measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure in K 2O · TiO 2 · SiO 2 glass, is actually deshielded compared to Ti(OH) 4 by about 40 ppm. X-ray absorption-near-edge spectral energies have also been calculated for TiF 4, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, and Ti(OH) 4O using an equivalent ionic core virtual-orbital method and the observed reduction in term energy for the five-coordinate species compared to Ti(OH) 4 has been reproduced. Replacement of the H atoms in Ti(OH) 4 by point charges has only a slight effect upon σTi, suggesting a possible means of incorporating second-neighbor effects in NMR calculations for condensed phases.
MORSE Monte Carlo shielding calculations for the zirconium hydride reference reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgart, C. E.
1972-01-01
Verification of DOT-SPACETRAN transport calculations of a lithium hydride and tungsten shield for a SNAP reactor was performed using the MORSE (Monte Carlo) code. Transport of both neutrons and gamma rays was considered. Importance sampling was utilized in the MORSE calculations. Several quantities internal to the shield, as well as dose at several points outside of the configuration, were in satisfactory agreement with the DOT calculations of the same.
Shielding analysis methods available in the scale computational system
Parks, C.V.; Tang, J.S.; Hermann, O.W.; Bucholz, J.A.; Emmett, M.B.
1986-01-01
Computational tools have been included in the SCALE system to allow shielding analysis to be performed using both discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques. One-dimensional discrete ordinates analyses are performed with the XSDRNPM-S module, and point dose rates outside the shield are calculated with the XSDOSE module. Multidimensional analyses are performed with the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo module. This paper will review the above modules and the four Shielding Analysis Sequences (SAS) developed for the SCALE system. 7 refs., 8 figs.
Neutron streaming through shield ducts using a discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo method
Urban, W.T.; Baker, R.S.
1993-08-18
A common problem in shield design is determining the neutron flux that streams through ducts in shields and also that penetrates the shield after having traveled partway down the duct. Obviously the determination of the neutrons that stream down the duct can be computed in a straightforward manner using Monte Carlo techniques. On the other hand those neutrons that must penetrate a significant portion of the shield are more easily handled using discrete ordinates methods. A hybrid discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo cods, TWODANT/MC, which is an extension of the existing discrete ordinates code TWODANT, has been developed at Los Alamos to allow the efficient, accurate treatment of both streaming and deep penetration problems in a single calculation. In this paper we provide examples of the application of TWODANT/MC to typical geometries that are encountered in shield design and compare the results with those obtained using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo code MCNP{sup 3}.
Radiation predictions and shielding calculations for RITS-6
Maenchen, John Eric; O'Malley, John; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Fan, Wesley C.; Bollinger, Lance
2005-06-01
The mission of Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (RITS-6) facility is to provide the underlying science and technology for pulsed-power-driven flash radiographic X-ray sources for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Flash X-ray radiography is a penetrating diagnostic to discern the internal structure in dynamic experiments. Short (~50 nanosecond (ns) duration) bursts of very high intensity Xrays from mm-scale source sizes are required at a variety of voltages to address this mission. RITS-6 was designed and is used to both develop the accelerator technology needed for these experiments and serves as the principal test stand to develop the high intensity electron beam diodes that generate the required X-ray sources. RITS is currently in operation with three induction cavities (RITS-3) with a maximum voltage output of 5.5 MV and is classified as a low hazard non-nuclear facility in accordance with CPR 400.1.1, Chapter 13, Hazards Identification/Analysis and Risk Management. The facility will be expanded from three to six cavities (RITS-6) effectively doubling the operating voltage. The increase in the operating voltage to above 10 MV has resulted in RITS-6 being classified as an accelerator facility. RITS-6 will come under DOE Order 420.2B, Safety of Accelerator Facilities. The hazards of RITS are detailed in the "Safety Assessment Document for the Radiographic Integrated Test Stand Facility." The principal non-industrial hazard is prompt x-ray radiation. As the operating voltage is increased, both the penetration power and the total amount (dose) of x-rays are increased, thereby increasing the risk to local personnel. Fixed site shielding (predominantly concrete walls and a steel/lead skyshine shield) is used to attenuate these x-rays and mitigate this risk. This SAND Report details the anticipated x-ray doses, the shielding design, and the anticipated x-ray doses external to this shielding structure both in areas where administrative access
Calculations of cosmic-ray helium transport in shielding materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.
1993-01-01
The transport of galactic cosmic-ray helium nuclei and their secondaries through bulk shielding is considered using the straight-ahead approximation to the Boltzmann equation. A data base for nuclear interaction cross sections and secondary particle energy spectra for high-energy light-ion breakup is presented. The importance of the light ions H-2, H-3, and He-3 for cosmic-ray risk estimation is discussed, and the estimates of the fractional contribution to the neutron flux from helium interactions compared with other particle interactions are presented using a 1977 solar minimum cosmic-ray spectrum.
Schreckenbach, Georg
2002-12-16
In this and a previous article (J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 8244), the range of application for relativistic density functional theory (DFT) is extended to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings and chemical shifts in diamagnetic actinide compounds. Two relativistic DFT methods are used, ZORA ("zeroth-order regular approximation") and the quasirelativistic (QR) method. In the given second paper, NMR shieldings and chemical shifts are calculated and discussed for a wide range of compounds. The molecules studied comprise uranyl complexes, [UO(2)L(n)](+/-)(q); UF(6); inorganic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)Cl(n), n = 0-6; and organometallic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n), n = 0-5. Uranyl complexes include [UO(2)F(4)](2-), [UO(2)Cl(4)](2-), [UO(2)(OH)(4)](2-), [UO(2)(CO(3))(3)](4-), and [UO(2)(H(2)O)(5)](2+). For the ligand NMR, moderate (e.g., (19)F NMR chemical shifts in UF(6-n)Cl(n)) to excellent agreement [e.g., (19)F chemical shift tensor in UF(6) or (1)H NMR in UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n)] has been found between theory and experiment. The methods have been used to calculate the experimentally unknown (235)U NMR chemical shifts. A large chemical shift range of at least 21,000 ppm has been predicted for the (235)U nucleus. ZORA spin-orbit appears to be the most accurate method for predicting actinide metal chemical shifts. Trends in the (235)U NMR chemical shifts of UF(6-n)L(n) molecules are analyzed and explained in terms of the calculated electronic structure. It is argued that the energy separation and interaction between occupied and virtual orbitals with f-character are the determining factors. PMID:12470051
NASA-Lewis experiences with multigroup cross sections and shielding calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lahti, G. P.
1972-01-01
The nuclear reactor shield analysis procedures employed at NASA-Lewis are described. Emphasis is placed on the generation, use, and testing of multigroup cross section data. Although coupled neutron and gamma ray cross section sets are useful in two dimensional Sn transport calculations, much insight has been gained from examination of uncoupled calculations. These have led to experimental and analytic studies of areas deemed to be of first order importance to reactor shield calculations. A discussion is given of problems encountered in using multigroup cross sections in the resolved resonance energy range. The addition to ENDF files of calculated and/or measured neutron-energy-dependent capture gamma ray spectra for shielding calculations is questioned for the resonance region. Anomalies inherent in two dimensional Sn transport calculations which may overwhelm any cross section discrepancies are illustrated.
Analysis methods for Kevlar shield response to rotor fragments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerstle, J. H.
1977-01-01
Several empirical and analytical approaches to rotor burst shield sizing are compared and principal differences in metal and fabric dynamic behavior are discussed. The application of transient structural response computer programs to predict Kevlar containment limits is described. For preliminary shield sizing, present analytical methods are useful if insufficient test data for empirical modeling are available. To provide other information useful for engineering design, analytical methods require further developments in material characterization, failure criteria, loads definition, and post-impact fragment trajectory prediction.
Evaluation of approximate methods for the prediction of noise shielding by airframe components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahtye, W. F.; Mcculley, G.
1980-01-01
An evaluation of some approximate methods for the prediction of shielding of monochromatic sound and broadband noise by aircraft components is reported. Anechoic-chamber measurements of the shielding of a point source by various simple geometric shapes were made and the measured values compared with those calculated by the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions for the shielding by a semi-infinite plane barrier. The shields used in the measurements consisted of rectangular plates, a circular cylinder, and a rectangular plate attached to the cylinder to simulate a wing-body combination. The normalized frequency, defined as a product of the acoustic wave number and either the plate width or cylinder diameter, ranged from 4.6 to 114. Microphone traverses in front of the rectangular plates and cylinders generally showed a series of diffraction bands that matched those predicted by the approximate methods, except for differences in the magnitudes of the attenuation minima which can be attributed to experimental inaccuracies. The shielding of wing-body combinations was predicted by modifications of the approximations used for rectangular and cylindrical shielding. Although the approximations failed to predict diffraction patterns in certain regions, they did predict the average level of wing-body shielding with an average deviation of less than 3 dB.
Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M
2016-02-01
In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified. PMID:26720262
T. Downar
2009-03-31
The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system.
The TRADE experiment: shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system.
Burn, K W; Carta, M; Casalini, L; Kadi, Y; Monti, S; Nava, E; Palomba, M; Petrovich, C; Picardi, L; Rubbia, C; Troiani, F
2005-01-01
The TRADE project (TRiga Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS--the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket--are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial--in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues--for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits. PMID:16381710
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1990-11-20
Version 00 REX2-87 is a computer code developed for the calculation of self-shielded multigroup average cross sections, and self-shielding factors for total, elastic, fission and capture processes from an ENDF/B formatted nuclear data file in which the tabulated cross sections follow linear interpolation throughout.
Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding
Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L.
2013-10-15
Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were −8%± 16%, −3%± 15%, −16%± 18%, and −9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and −10%± 14%, −5%± 12%, −19%± 17%, and −13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: −0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, −0.3%± 0.3%, and −0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and −0.2%± 0.4%, −0.1%± 0.4%, −0.5%± 0.5%, and −0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave
[Calculation of radiation loads in a space station compartment with a secondary shielding].
Kartashov, D A; Tolochek, R V; Shurshakov, V A; Yarmanova, E N
2013-01-01
Doses from space ionizing radiation were estimated using a model of ISS cosmonaut's quarters (CQ) outfitted with secondary shielding ("Protective shutter" (PS) as part of experiment MATRYOSHKA-R). Protective shutter is a "blanket" of water-containing material with mass thickness of - 6 g/cm2 covering the CQ exterior wall. Calculation was performed specifically for locations of experimental dosimetry assemblies. Agreement of calculations and experimental data reaching accuracy - 15% proves model applicability to estimating protective effectiveness of secondary shielding in the present-day and future space vehicles. This shielding may reduce radiation loading onto crewmembers as an equivalent dose by more than 40% within a broad range of orbit altitudes equally during the solar minimum and maximum. PMID:24660246
Biological shielding assessment and dose rate calculation for a neutron inspection portal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donzella, A.; Bonomi, G.; Giroletti, E.; Zenoni, A.
2012-04-01
With reference to the prototype of neutron inspection portal built and successfully tested in the Rijeka seaport (Croatia) within the EURITRACK (EURopean Illicit Trafficking Countermeasures Kit) project, an assessment of the biological shielding in different set-up configurations of a future portal has been calculated with MCNP Monte Carlo code in the frame of the Eritr@C (European Riposte against Illicit TR@ffiCking) project. In the configurations analyzed the compliance with the dose limits for workers and the population stated by the European legislation is provided by appropriate shielding of the neutron sources and by the delimitation of a controlled area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lahti, G. P.; Mueller, R. A.
1973-01-01
Measurements of MeV neutron were made at the surface of a lithium hydride and depleted uranium shielded reactor. Four shield configurations were considered: these were assembled progressively with cylindrical shells of 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, 13-centimeter-thick lithium hydride, 5-centimeter-thick depleted uranium, and 3-centimeter-thick depleted uranium. Measurements were made with a NE-218 scintillation spectrometer; proton pulse height distributions were differentiated to obtain neutron spectra. Calculations were made using the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DOT and ENDF/B (version 3) cross sections. Good agreement between measured and calculated spectral shape was observed. Absolute measured and calculated fluxes were within 50 percent of one another; observed discrepancies in absolute flux may be due to cross section errors.
Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tossell, J. A.
1995-04-01
13C NMR shieldings have been calculated using the random-phase-approximation, localized-orbital local-origins version of ab initio coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory for CO 2 and and for several complexes formed by the reaction of CO 2 with molecular models for aluminosilicate glasses, H 3TOT'H3 3-n, T,T' = Si,Al. Two isomeric forms of the CO 2-aluminosilicate complexes have been considered: (1) "CO 2-like" complexes, in which the CO 2 group is bound through carbon to a bridging oxygen and (2) "CO 3-like" complexes, in which two oxygens of a central CO 3 group form bridging bonds to the two TH 3 groups. The CO 2-like isomer of CO 2-H 3SiOSiH 3 is quite weakly bonded and its 13C isotropic NMR shielding is almost identical to that in free CO 2. As Si is progressively replaced by Al in the - H terminated aluminosilicate model, the CO 2-like isomers show increasing distortion from the free CO 2 geometry and their 13C NMR shieldings decrease uniformly. The calculated 13C shielding value for H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 is only about 6 ppm larger than that calculated for point charge stabilized CO 3-2. However, for a geometry of H 3SiO(CO 2) AlH 3-1, in which the bridging oxygen to C bond length has been artificially increased to that found in the - OH terminated cluster (OH) 3SiO(CO 2)Al(OH) 3-1, the calculated 13C shielding is almost identical to that for free CO 2. The CO 3-like isomers of the CO 2-aluminosili-cate complexes show carbonate like geometries and 13C NMR shieldings about 4-9 ppm larger than those of carbonate for all T,T' pairs. For the Si,Si tetrahedral atom pair the CO 2-like isomer is more stable energetically, while for the Si,Al and Al,Al cases the CO 3-like isomer is more stable. Addition of Na + ions to the CO 3-2 or H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 complexes reduces the 13C NMR shieldings by about 10 ppm. Complexation with either Na + or CO 2 also reduces the 29Si NMR shieldings of the aluminosilicate models, while the changes in 27Al shielding with Na + or CO 2
Modeling of spacecraft proton shielding by the discrete ordinates method
Drumm, C.R. )
1992-01-01
Radiation in space can be damaging to personnel and electronics in space missions. Solar flare and trapped protons are a significant component of the near-earth radiation environment. It is important to assess the effectiveness of materials (typically aluminum) for shielding protons for manned and unmanned space flights. The discrete ordinates method is a convenient and efficient method for modeling proton transport. With the adjoint capability, a set of proton environments for many different orbit trajectories can be modeled extremely efficiently. Modeling a slab geometry and a spherical shell geometry shield should provide bounds on the dose that a component inside of a satellite would be expected to receive. Neutron and other secondary particle production are neglected in this model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharaf, J. M.; Saleh, H.
2015-05-01
The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05-3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style.
Hartman, Joshua D.; Neubauer, Thomas J.; Caulkins, Bethany G.; Mueller, Leonard J.; Beran, Gregory J. O.
2015-01-01
Ab initio chemical shielding calculations greatly facilitate the interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts in biological systems, but the large sizes of these systems requires approximations in the chemical models used to represent them. Achieving good convergence in the predicted chemical shieldings is necessary before one can unravel how other complex structural and dynamical factors affect the NMR measurements. Here, we investigate how to balance trade-offs between using a better basis set or a larger cluster model for predicting the chemical shieldings of the substrates in two representative examples of protein-substrate systems involving different domains in tryptophan synthase: the N-(4′-trifluoromethoxybenzoyl)-2-aminoethyl phosphate (F9) ligand which binds in the α active site, and the 2-aminophenol (2AP) quinonoid intermediate formed in the β active site. We first demonstrate that a chemically intuitive three-layer, locally dense basis model that uses a large basis on the substrate, a medium triple-zeta basis to describe its hydrogen-bonding partners and/or surrounding van derWaals cavity, and a crude basis set for more distant atoms provides chemical shieldings in good agreement with much more expensive large basis calculations. Second, long-range quantum mechanical interactions are important, and one can accurately estimate them as a small-basis correction to larger-basis calculations on a smaller cluster. The combination of these approaches enables one to perform density functional theory NMR chemical shift calculations in protein systems that are well-converged with respect to both basis set and cluster size. PMID:25993979
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazzeretti, P.; Malagoli, M.; Turci, L.; Zanasi, R.
1993-10-01
Theoretical methods based on the random-phase approximation have been applied to evaluate near Hartree-Fock dynamic electric polarizability and shielding tensors of carbon and hydrogen nuclei in the benzene molecule. Cauchy moments of the various properties have been determined. The results obtained in different gauges (dipole length, velocity, and acceleration) are reported.
Modeling resonance interference by 0-D slowing-down solution with embedded self-shielding method
Liu, Y.; Martin, W.; Kim, K. S.; Williams, M.
2013-07-01
The resonance integral table based methods employing conventional multigroup structure for the resonance self-shielding calculation have a common difficulty on treating the resonance interference. The problem arises due to the lack of sufficient energy dependence of the resonance cross sections when the calculation is performed in the multigroup structure. To address this, a resonance interference factor model has been proposed to account for the interference effect by comparing the interfered and non-interfered effective cross sections obtained from 0-D homogeneous slowing-down solutions by continuous-energy cross sections. A rigorous homogeneous slowing-down solver is developed with two important features for reducing the calculation time and memory requirement for practical applications. The embedded self-shielding method (ESSM) is chosen as the multigroup resonance self-shielding solver as an integral component of the interference method. The interference method is implemented in the DeCART transport code. Verification results show that the code system provides more accurate effective cross sections and multiplication factors than the conventional interference method for UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel cases. The additional computing time and memory for the interference correction is acceptable for the test problems including a depletion case with 87 isotopes in the fuel region. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž
2004-12-01
In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.
van Wüllen, Christoph
2012-03-21
State-of-the art effective core potentials (ECPs) that replace electrons of inner atomic cores involve non-local potentials. If such an effective core potential is added to the Hamiltonian of a system in a magnetic field, the resulting Hamiltonian is not gauge invariant. This means, magnetic properties such as magnetisabilities and magnetic shieldings (or magnetic susceptibilities and nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts) calculated with different gauge origins are different even for exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation. It is possible to restore gauge invariance of the Hamiltonian by adding magnetic field dependent terms arising from the effective core potential. Numerical calculations on atomic and diatomic model systems (potassium mono-cation and potassium dimer) clearly demonstrate that the standard effective core potential Hamiltonian violates gauge invariance, and this affects the calculation of magnetisabilities more strongly than the calculation of magnetic shieldings. The modified magnetic field dependent effective core potential Hamiltonian is gauge invariant, and therefore it is the correct starting point for distributed gauge origin methods. The formalism for gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAO) and individual gauge for localized orbitals methods is worked out. ECP GIAO results for the potassium dimer are presented. The new method performs much better than a previous ECP GIAO implementation that did not account for the non-locality of the potential. For magnetic shieldings, deviations are clearly seen, but they amount to few ppm only. For magnetisabilities, our new ECP GIAO implementation is a major improvement, as demonstrated by the comparison of all-electron and ECP results. PMID:22443751
Park, J; Lee, J; Kim, H; Kim, I; Ye, S
2015-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a tungsten eye-shield on the dose distribution of a patient. Methods: A 3D scanner was used to extract the dimension and shape of a tungsten eye-shield in the STL format. Scanned data was transferred into a 3D printer. A dummy eye shield was then produced using bio-resin (3D systems, VisiJet M3 Proplast). For a patient with mucinous carcinoma, the planning CT was obtained with the dummy eye-shield placed on the patient’s right eye. Field shaping of 6 MeV was performed using a patient-specific cerrobend block on the 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} applicator. The gantry angle was 330° to cover the planning target volume near by the lens. EGS4/BEAMnrc was commissioned from our measurement data from a Varian 21EX. For the CT-based dose calculation using EGS4/DOSXYZnrc, the CT images were converted to a phantom file through the ctcreate program. The phantom file had the same resolution as the planning CT images. By assigning the CT numbers of the dummy eye-shield region to 17000, the real dose distributions below the tungsten eye-shield were calculated in EGS4/DOSXYZnrc. In the TPS, the CT number of the dummy eye-shield region was assigned to the maximum allowable CT number (3000). Results: As compared to the maximum dose, the MC dose on the right lens or below the eye shield area was less than 2%, while the corresponding RTP calculated dose was an unrealistic value of approximately 50%. Conclusion: Utilizing a 3D scanner and a 3D printer, a dummy eye-shield for electron treatment can be easily produced. The artifact-free CT images were successfully incorporated into the CT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The developed method was useful in predicting the realistic dose distributions around the lens blocked with the tungsten shield.
Development and verification of design methods for ducts in a space nuclear shield
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cerbone, R. J.; Selph, W. E.; Read, P. A.
1972-01-01
A practical method for computing the effectiveness of a space nuclear shield perforated by small tubing and cavities is reported. Performed calculations use solutions for a two dimensional transport code and evaluate perturbations of that solution using last flight estimates and other kernel integration techniques. In general, perturbations are viewed as a change in source strength of scattered radiation and a change in attenuation properties of the region.
A Visualization Code System for Gamma and Neutron Shielding Calculations, Version 2.0
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2008-08-01
EASYQAD, Version 2.0, is a standalone Windows XP or Windows 7 code system which facilitates gamma and neutron shielding calculations with user friendly graphical interfaces. It is used to analyze radiation shielding problems and includes: - 8 kinds of geometry types - Various flexible source options - Common material library - Various detector types The update contents of EASYQAD Version 2.0 are below: - Addition of starting option with P-code files - Addition of multi-sourcemore » calculation function - Expansion of source geometries - Addition of warning message - Modifications of EASYQAD program errors a. Coordination application problem in source division b. Source position error c. Rotation problem of source geometry d. Program running error in using more than six gamma energy distribution e. EASYQAD display problem of the right elliptic cylinder, ellipsoid and truncated right cone geometries Through intuitive windows and their interactions inside EASYQAD, the user can specify the dimensions of 3D-shapes, their material compositions, their densities, the type of radioactive sources, the locations of the sources, the type and positions of detectors. With the ease of using these sequences, shielding problems will become simpler and more clearly understandable to the analyzer. Furthermore, the error checking system can prevent users from making mistakes by automatically debugging the user inputs and giving modal dialog windows. The included AECL implementation of QAD-CGGP-A, Version 95.2 (C00645MNYCP00), is run from the user interface.« less
Identification of an unknown material in a radiation shield using the schwinger inverse method.
Favorite, J. A.; Bledsoe, K. C.
2004-01-01
The Schwinger method for solving inverse gamma-ray transport problems was proposed in a previous paper. The method is iterative and requires a set of uncoupled forward and adjoint transport calculations in each iteration. In this paper, the Schwinger inverse method is applied to the problem of identifying an unknown material in a radiation shield by calculating its total macroscopic photon cross sections. The gamma source is known and the total (angle-independent) gamma leakage is measured. In numerical one-dimensional spherical and slab test problems, the Schwinger inverse method successfully calculated the photon cross sections of an unknown material. Material identification was successfully achieved by comparing the calculated cross sections with those in a precomputed material cross section library, although there was some ambiguity when realistic measurements were used. The Schwinger inverse method compared very favorably with the standard single energy transmission technique (SET).
Court, J.D.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Patton, B.W.
1998-07-01
The authors have performed calculations using the LAHET Code System (LCS) to obtain an estimation of the amount of earth berm shielding that will be required for the 1700-MeV proton accelerator proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. A source scenario of 10 nA/m beam loss along the beam line was used to calculate the dose values above a 6-m earth berm from high-energy neutrons, low-energy neutrons, and photons. LAHET, a Monte Carlo based particle transport code, was used to transport a 1700-MeV protons from the beam along a divergence path of 1{degree} from the original beam direction and impacting representative beampipe material along a 300-m beamline. LAHET was then used to track all high-energy neutron production until the neutrons either escape the berm shield, or scatter down in energy to 20 MeV, where their parameters were then written to a source file for MCNP. Photon production data was also written to a source file used by MCNP. MCNP transported all neutrons and photons from the LAHET source file until they (1) were absorbed, scattered down to an energy cutoff, or (2) escaped from the system. Doses were calculated from surface flux tallies obtained from LAHET and MCNP. These doses were then compared to earlier Moyer model calculations.
Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings
Ingersoll, D.T. ); Ingersoll, J.K. )
1992-11-01
This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.
X-ray spectroscopy applied to radiation shielding calculation in mammography
Kuenzel, Roseli; Levenhagen, Ronaldo Savarino; Herdade, Silvio Bruni; Terini, Ricardo Andrade; Costa, Paulo Roberto
2008-08-15
The protective shielding design of a mammography facility requires the knowledge of the scattered radiation by the patient and image receptor components. The shape and intensity of secondary x-ray beams depend on the kVp applied to the x-ray tube, target/filter combination, primary x-ray field size, and scattering angle. Currently, shielding calculations for mammography facilities are performed based on scatter fraction data for Mo/Mo target/filter, even though modern mammography equipment is designed with different anode/filter combinations. In this work we present scatter fraction data evaluated based on the x-ray spectra produced by a Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh target/filter, for 25, 30 and 35 kV tube voltages and scattering angles between 30 and 165 deg. Three mammography phantoms were irradiated and the scattered radiation was measured with a CdZnTe detector. The primary x-ray spectra were computed with a semiempirical model based on the air kerma and HVL measured with an ionization chamber. The results point out that the scatter fraction values are higher for W/Rh than for Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh, although the primary and scattered air kerma are lower for W/Rh than for Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combinations. The scatter fractions computed in this work were applied in a shielding design calculation in order to evaluate shielding requirements for each of these target/filter combinations. Besides, shielding requirements have been evaluated converting the scattered air kerma from mGy/week to mSv/week adopting initially a conversion coefficient from air kerma to effective dose as 1 Sv/Gy and then a mean conversion coefficient specific for the x-ray beam considered. Results show that the thickest barrier should be provided for Mo/Mo target/filter combination. They also point out that the use of the conversion coefficient from air kerma to effective dose as 1 Sv/Gy is conservatively high in the mammography energy range and overestimate the barrier thickness.
Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Qi-Jun
Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2015-01-01
The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment. PMID:26554132
CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS
Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...
Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir
2015-07-01
Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.
Couture, A.
2013-06-07
Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.
Graphene shield enhanced photocathodes and methods for making the same
Moody, Nathan Andrew
2014-09-02
Disclosed are graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, such as high QE photocathodes. In certain embodiments, a monolayer graphene shield membrane ruggedizes a high quantum efficiency photoemission electron source by protecting a photosensitive film of the photocathode, extending operational lifetime and simplifying its integration in practical electron sources. In certain embodiments of the disclosed graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, the graphene serves as a transparent shield that does not inhibit photon or electron transmission but isolates the photosensitive film of the photocathode from reactive gas species, preventing contamination and yielding longer lifetime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pescarini, M.; Sinitsa, V.; Orsi, R.; Frisoni, M.
2013-03-01
This paper presents a synthesis of the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group programme dedicated to generate and validate group-wise cross section libraries for shielding and radiation damage deterministic calculations in nuclear fission reactors, following the data processing methodology recommended in the ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) American Standard. The VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB finegroup coupled n-γ (199 n + 42 γ - VITAMIN-B6 structure) multi-purpose cross section libraries, based on the Bondarenko method for neutron resonance self-shielding and respectively on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data, were produced in AMPX format using the NJOY-99.259 and the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the SCAMPI nuclear data processing systems. Two derived broad-group coupled n-γ (47 n + 20 γ - BUGLE-96 structure) working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, were generated by the revised version of SCAMPI, through problem-dependent cross section collapsing and self-shielding from the cited fine-group libraries. The validation results on the criticality safety benchmark experiments for the fine-group libraries and the preliminary validation results for the broad-group working libraries on the PCA-Replica and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments are reported in synthesis.
The Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC. Radiological Considerations and Shielding calculations
Mao, X.S.; Fasso, A.; Nakao, N.; Rokni, S.H.; Vincke, H.; /SLAC
2005-12-02
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC will be the world's first X-ray free electron laser when it becomes operational in 2009. Pulses of X-ray laser light from LCLS will be many orders of magnitude brighter and several orders of magnitude shorter than what can be produced by other X-ray sources available in the world. These characteristics will enable frontier new science in many areas. This paper describes the LCLS beam parameters and its lay-out. Results of the Monte Carlo calculations for the shielding design of the electron dump line, radiation damage to undulator, the residual radiation and the soil activation around the electron dump are presented.
Calculations of neutron shielding data for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators.
Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Jian, S H
2005-01-01
The characteristics of neutron sources and their attenuation in concrete were investigated in detail for protons with energies ranging from 10 to 100 MeV striking on target materials of C, N, Al, Fe, Cu and W. A two-step approach was adopted: thick-target double-differential neutron yields were first calculated from the (p, xn) cross sections recommended in the ICRU Report 63; further, transport simulations of those neutrons in concrete were performed by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The purpose of this study is to provide reasonably accurate parameters for shielding design for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators. Source terms and the corresponding attenuation lengths in concrete for several target materials are given as a function of proton energies and neutron emission angles. PMID:16604637
Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge
Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.
2006-01-01
High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.
Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.
1988-07-01
This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.
Overview of active methods for shielding spacecraft from energetic space radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)
2001-01-01
During the 1960's and into the early 1970's, investigations were conducted related to the feasibility of using active radiation shielding methods, such as afforded by electromagnetic fields, as alternatives to passive, bulk material shielding to attenuate space radiations. These active concepts fall into four categories: (1) electrostatic fields; (2) plasma shields; (3) confined magnetic fields; and (4) unconfined magnetic fields. In nearly all of these investigations, consideration was given only to shielding against protons or electrons, or both. During the 1980's and 1990's there were additional studies related to proton shielding and some new studies regarding the efficacy of using active methods to shield from the high energy heavy ion (HZE particle) component of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. In this overview, each concept category is reviewed and its applicability and limitations for the various types of space radiations are described. Recommendations for future research on this topic are made.
Overview of active methods for shielding spacecraft from energetic space radiation.
Townsend, L W
2001-01-01
During the 1960's and into the early 1970's, investigations were conducted related to the feasibility of using active radiation shielding methods, such as afforded by electromagnetic fields, as alternatives to passive, bulk material shielding to attenuate space radiations. These active concepts fall into four categories: (1) electrostatic fields; (2) plasma shields; (3) confined magnetic fields; and (4) unconfined magnetic fields. In nearly all of these investigations, consideration was given only to shielding against protons or electrons, or both. During the 1980's and 1990's there were additional studies related to proton shielding and some new studies regarding the efficacy of using active methods to shield from the high energy heavy ion (HZE particle) component of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. In this overview, each concept category is reviewed and its applicability and limitations for the various types of space radiations are described. Recommendations for future research on this topic are made. PMID:11770543
A method for estimating muon production and penetration through a shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, A. H.
1985-09-01
An approximate expression is derived that describes muon production by high-energy protons and the subsequent attenuation of the muons in a shield. It is shown that the muon flux at x ahead of an interaction by a proton of energy ɛ GeV and where pions have a path length of Δ m in which to decay, will be given by: φ=8.5×10 -2{ɛΔ}/{x 2}e-( {αt}/{ɛ}) μ/ m2, where t is the shield thickness in m and α is an effective muon energy loss rate which has a value of 22 GeV/m for iron and 7.8 GeV/m for concrete. It is further shown that the effective muon attenuation mean-free path is equivalent to {1}/{16} of the range of a muon with the energy of the interacting proton. The width of the muon beam that passes through the shield is also considered and it is shown that the beam profile approximates a Gaussian distribution with a diameter at half-maximum intensity of: d= {4.6x}/{ɛαt}m. Calculated muon fluxes are shown to correspond reasonably with those obtained by more sophisticated computer methods for proton energies up to at least 30 GeV and over the entire range of shield thicknesses of interest for radiation safety. Results of measurements of muon levels behind beam dumps under various conditions are presented and are shown to be in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the above model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leniak, Arkadiusz; Jaźwiński, Jarosław
2015-03-01
Benchmark calculations of 15N NMR shielding constants for a set of model complexes of rhodium(II) tetraformate with nine organic ligands using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods have been carried out. The calculations were performed by means of several methods: the non-relativistic, relativistic scalar ZORA, and spin-orbit ZORA approaches at the CGA-PBE/QZ4P theory level, and the GIAO NMR method using the B3PW91 functional with the 6-311++G(2d,p) basis set for C, H, N, O atoms and the Stuttgart basis set for the Rh atom. The geometry of compounds was optimised either by the same basis set as for the NMR calculations or applying the B3LYP functional with the 6-31G(2d) basis set for C, H, N, O atoms and LANL2DZ for the Rh atom. Computed 15N NMR shielding constants σ were compatible with experimental 15N chemical shifts δ of complexes exhibiting similar structure and fulfil the linear equation δ = aσ + b. The a and b parameters for all data sets have been estimated by means of linear regression analysis. In contrast to the correlation method giving "scaled" chemical shifts, the conversion of shielding constants to chemical shifts with respect to the reference shielding of CH3NO2 provided very inaccurate "raw" δ values. The application of the former to the calculation of complexation shifts Δδ (Δδ = δcompl - δlig) reproduced experimental values qualitatively or semi-quantitatively. The non-relativistic B3PW91/[6-311++G(2d,p), Stuttgart] theory level reproduced the NMR parameters as good as the more expensive relativistic CGA-PBE//QZ4P ZORA approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano
2015-11-01
Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz-Cobos, J. G.
1981-08-01
A FORTRAN 4 code was developed to calculate cross section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors, and average self-indication ratios for non-fissile isotopes, below the inelastic threshold, on the basis of prescriptions for the unresolved resonance region. Monte-Carlo methods are utilized to generate ladders of resonance parameters in he unresolved resonance region, from average resonance parameters and their appropriate distribution functions. The neutron cross sections are calculated by the single level Breit-Wigner formalism, with s, p and d-wave contributions. The cross section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler-broadened cross sections. The various self-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross section probability tables. The program was validated through extensive comparisons with several deterministic codes.
Monte Carlo Modeling of Computed Tomography Ceiling Scatter for Shielding Calculations.
Edwards, Stephen; Schick, Daniel
2016-04-01
Radiation protection for clinical staff and members of the public is of paramount importance, particularly in occupied areas adjacent to computed tomography scanner suites. Increased patient workloads and the adoption of multi-slice scanning systems may make unshielded secondary scatter from ceiling surfaces a significant contributor to dose. The present paper expands upon an existing analytical model for calculating ceiling scatter accounting for variable room geometries and provides calibration data for a range of clinical beam qualities. The practical effect of gantry, false ceiling, and wall attenuation in limiting ceiling scatter is also explored and incorporated into the model. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calibrate the model for scatter from both concrete and lead surfaces. Gantry attenuation experimental data showed an effective blocking of scatter directed toward the ceiling at angles up to 20-30° from the vertical for the scanners examined. The contribution of ceiling scatter from computed tomography operation to the effective dose of individuals in areas surrounding the scanner suite could be significant and therefore should be considered in shielding design according to the proposed analytical model. PMID:26910026
Truflandier, L; Paris, M; Payen, C; Boucher, F
2006-11-01
We present the first density functional theory based calculations of NMR shielding parameters for a transition metal nucleus using periodic boundary conditions. These calculations employ the gauge-including projected augmented-wave pseudopotential approach. The quality of this method is discussed by comparing experimental and calculated chemical shift tensor eigenvalues for the quadrupolar 51V nucleus in the diamagnetic solid-state compound AlVO4. Furthermore, the combination of shielding tensor with fast and accurate projector augmented-wave electric field gradient tensor calculations allows us to determine the relative orientation of these two tensors. PMID:17064085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Melo, Juan I.; Hemmingsen, Lars; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2011-07-01
We investigate the importance of relativistic effects on NMR shielding constants and chemical shifts of linear HgL2 (L = Cl, Br, I, CH3) compounds using three different relativistic methods: the fully relativistic four-component approach and the two-component approximations, linear response elimination of small component (LR-ESC) and zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA). LR-ESC reproduces successfully the four-component results for the C shielding constant in Hg(CH3)2 within 6 ppm, but fails to reproduce the Hg shielding constants and chemical shifts. The latter is mainly due to an underestimation of the change in spin-orbit contribution. Even though ZORA underestimates the absolute Hg NMR shielding constants by ˜2100 ppm, the differences between Hg chemical shift values obtained using ZORA and the four-component approach without spin-density contribution to the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel are less than 60 ppm for all compounds using three different functionals, BP86, B3LYP, and PBE0. However, larger deviations (up to 366 ppm) occur for Hg chemical shifts in HgBr2 and HgI2 when ZORA results are compared with four-component calculations with non-collinear spin-density contribution to the XC kernel. For the ZORA calculations it is necessary to use large basis sets (QZ4P) and the TZ2P basis set may give errors of ˜500 ppm for the Hg chemical shifts, despite deceivingly good agreement with experimental data. A Gaussian nucleus model for the Coulomb potential reduces the Hg shielding constants by ˜100-500 ppm and the Hg chemical shifts by 1-143 ppm compared to the point nucleus model depending on the atomic number Z of the coordinating atom and the level of theory. The effect on the shielding constants of the lighter nuclei (C, Cl, Br, I) is, however, negligible.
Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Melo, Juan I; Hemmingsen, Lars; Sauer, Stephan P A
2011-07-28
We investigate the importance of relativistic effects on NMR shielding constants and chemical shifts of linear HgL(2) (L = Cl, Br, I, CH(3)) compounds using three different relativistic methods: the fully relativistic four-component approach and the two-component approximations, linear response elimination of small component (LR-ESC) and zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA). LR-ESC reproduces successfully the four-component results for the C shielding constant in Hg(CH(3))(2) within 6 ppm, but fails to reproduce the Hg shielding constants and chemical shifts. The latter is mainly due to an underestimation of the change in spin-orbit contribution. Even though ZORA underestimates the absolute Hg NMR shielding constants by ∼2100 ppm, the differences between Hg chemical shift values obtained using ZORA and the four-component approach without spin-density contribution to the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel are less than 60 ppm for all compounds using three different functionals, BP86, B3LYP, and PBE0. However, larger deviations (up to 366 ppm) occur for Hg chemical shifts in HgBr(2) and HgI(2) when ZORA results are compared with four-component calculations with non-collinear spin-density contribution to the XC kernel. For the ZORA calculations it is necessary to use large basis sets (QZ4P) and the TZ2P basis set may give errors of ∼500 ppm for the Hg chemical shifts, despite deceivingly good agreement with experimental data. A Gaussian nucleus model for the Coulomb potential reduces the Hg shielding constants by ∼100-500 ppm and the Hg chemical shifts by 1-143 ppm compared to the point nucleus model depending on the atomic number Z of the coordinating atom and the level of theory. The effect on the shielding constants of the lighter nuclei (C, Cl, Br, I) is, however, negligible. PMID:21806118
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bannister, Tommy; Karr, Gerald R.
1987-01-01
Progress on the modeling of the flow field around a wake shield using a recently obtained code based on the Monte Carlo method is discussed. The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is a method for solving the Boltzman Equation using an approximation to the collision integral term. The collision integrand is evaluated for randomly selected values of its arguments and the summation will approach the integral for large enough samples. The collision effects may be modeled for either hard sphere or various power law potentials. The convective side of the Boltzman equation is approximated over a time step using a simple trajectory calculation of molecules as they travel through the domain of interest.
Calculation of self-shielding factor for neutron activation experiments using GEANT4 and MCNP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-Barrientos, Jaime; Molina, F.; Aguilera, Pablo; Arellano, H. F.
2016-07-01
The neutron self-shielding factor G as a function of the neutron energy was obtained for 14 pure metallic samples in 1000 isolethargic energy bins from 1.10-5eV to 2.107eV using Monte Carlo simulations in GEANT4 and MCNP6. The comparison of these two Monte Carlo codes shows small differences in the final self-shielding factor mostly due to the different cross section databases that each program uses.
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2012-01-01
The article presents a new procedure of calculating the shielding functions for irregular objects formed from a set of nonintersecting (adjacent) triangles covering completely the surface of each object. Calculated and experimentally derived distributions of space ionizing radiation doses in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom (experiment MATRYOSHKA-R) inside the International space station were in good agreement in the mass of phantom depths with allowance for measurement error (-10%). The procedure can be applied in modeling radiation loads on cosmonauts, calculating effectiveness of secondary protection in spacecraft, and design review of radiation protection for future space exploration missions. PMID:23457971
Early Test Facilities and Analytic Methods for Radiation Shielding
Ingersoll, D.T.
1992-01-01
This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting held in Chicago, Illinois on November 15 20,1992. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the 50th anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction, which occurred, not coincidentally, in Chicago. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting.
Method for calculating alloy energetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.
1992-01-01
A semiempirical method for the computation of alloy energies is introduced. It is based on the equivalent-crystal theory of defect-formation energies in elemental solids. The method is both simple and accurate. Heats of formation as a function of composition are computed for some binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Au using the heats of solution in the dilute limit as experimental input. The separation of heats into strain and chemical components helps in understanding the energetics. In addition, lattice-parameter contractions seen in solid solutions of Ag and Au are accurately predicted. Good agreement with experiment is obtained in all cases.
Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads
Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.
1994-01-01
Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.
Method of shielding a liquid-metal-cooled reactor
Sayre, Robert K.
1978-01-01
The primary heat transport system of a nuclear reactor -- particularly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor -- is shielded and protected from leakage by establishing and maintaining a bed of a powdered oxide closely and completely surrounding all components thereof by passing a gas upwardly therethrough at such a rate as to slightly expand the bed to the extent that the components of the system are able to expand without damage and yet the particles of the bed remain close enough so that the bed acts as a guard vessel for the system. Preferably the gas contains 1 to 10% oxygen and the gas is passed upwardly through the bed at such a rate that the lower portion of the bed is a fixed bed while the upper portion is a fluidized bed, the line of demarcation therebetween being high enough that the fixed bed portion of the bed serves as guard vessel for the system.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-10-01
Version 01 GUI2QAD is an aid in preparation of input for the included QAD-CGPIC program, which is based on CCC-493/QAD-CGGP and PICTURE. QAD-CGPIC is a Fortran code for fast neutron and gamma-ray shielding calculations through various shield configurations defined by combinatorial geometry specifications. Provision is available to interactively input the geometry and view the same in three dimensions with arbitrary rotations along x,y,z axis. The salient features of the present package include: a) Handles offmore » centered multiple identical sources b) Axis of cylindrical sources can be parallel to any of the axes. c) Provides plots of buildup factors (ANSI-1990) and material cross sections d) Estimates dose rate for point source-slab shield situations e) Interactive input of CG geometry with 3D view and rotation f) Fission product decay power computation and plots for source term calculations. g) Provision to read and graphical 1y display picture input file.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buck, Henk
In an effort to overcome a significant difference between high-level ab initio calculations and X-ray data of DNA duplexes, Fonseca Guerra et al. 9-11 studied a number of model systems for A-T and G-C basepairs at various levels of nonlocal Density Functional Theory. There was an excellent agreement with the gas-phase experimental bond enthalpies for the A-T and G-C basepairs. On the other hand the hydrogen bond lengths between the bases differ from the X-ray results. After introduction of a molecular environment as local water and Na+ ions, the agreement between theory and experiment was excellent. However, careful analysis shows that this picture is far from correct. In fact, the model was constructed as a backbone-modified DNA duplex in which the nonbonding oxygens of the phosphate linkages are completely shielded by proton addition. Experimental results with respect to backbone-modified DNAs clearly show that changes in the backbone focused on phosphate shielding result in DNA duplexes with a variety in conformational behavior. In addition to an analysis of the aforementioned contradiction, we also give molecular mechanics calculations which show that the A-T and G-C bond enthalpies are of the same order as the corresponding results of Fonseca Guerra et al. under the condition of complete anionic shielding of the nonbonded oxygens in the phosphate linkages.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brendley, K.; Chato, J. C.
1982-01-01
The parameters of the efflux from a helium dewar in space were numerically calculated. The flow was modeled as a one dimensional compressible ideal gas with variable properties. The primary boundary conditions are flow with friction and flow with heat transfer and friction. Two PASCAL programs were developed to calculate the efflux parameters: EFFLUZD and EFFLUXM. EFFLUXD calculates the minimum mass flow for the given shield temperatures and shield heat inputs. It then calculates the pipe lengths, diameter, and fluid parameters which satisfy all boundary conditions. Since the diameter returned by EFFLUXD is only rarely of nominal size, EFFLUXM calculates the mass flow and shield heat exchange for given pipe lengths, diameter, and shield temperatures.
Dose estimation and shielding calculation for X-ray hazard at high intensity laser facilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; James, C. Liu; Sayed, H. Rokni; Michael, B. Woods; Li, Jun-Li
2014-12-01
An ionizing radiation hazard produced from the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets has been observed. Laser-plasma interactions create “hot” electrons, which generate bremsstrahlung X-rays when they interact with ions in the target. However, up to now only limited studies have been conducted on this laser-induced radiological protection issue. In this paper, the physical process and characteristics of the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets are analyzed. The parameters of the radiation sources are discussed, including the energy conversion efficiency from laser to hot electrons, hot electron energy spectrum and electron temperature, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray energy spectrum produced by hot electrons. Based on this information, the X-ray dose generated with high-Z targets for laser intensities between 1014 and 1020 W/cm2 is estimated. The shielding effects of common shielding items such as the glass view port, aluminum chamber wall and concrete wall are also studied using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study provides a reference for the dose estimation and the shielding design of high intensity laser facilities.
Nakanishi, Noriyoshi; Shikata, Takashi; Fujita, Shin; Kosako, Toshiso
1995-10-01
Shielding characteristics of iron, lead, ordinary concrete, heavy concrete, graphite, marble, water, and paraffin were calculated for monoenergetic source neutrons with energies < 400 MeV. The depth dependence of neutron and secondary photon transmitted dose equivalents at the exit surfaces of shields of varying thickness is exhibited for some monoenergetic source neutrons and for each material. Their shielding characteristics are compared and discussed in terms of the degradation process of neutron energy and the change of neutron spectrum in typical shielding materials. Calculations were carried out by using the one-dimensional discrete ordinates code ANISN-JR and the cross-section library DLC-87/HILO. Systematic knowledge concerning the shielding of neutrons with energies < 400 MeV was successfully obtained.
An improved method for correction of air temperature measured using different radiation shields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing
2014-11-01
The variation of air temperature measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most air temperature values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the air temperature errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the temperature error is considered and extreme errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.
Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods
Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.
1989-03-01
Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farshid, Tabbakh; Azim, Ahmadinyar
2008-11-01
In this paper we study the analytical and statistical results of estimating the gamma dose rate at pool access floor in TRR when the core shield accidentally decreases to some non-permitted levels. Due to the risk of experimental techniques, we use the analytical and statistical methods. In normal conditions (no risk), the discrepancies between experiment and two methods are justified and it is found that for such problems we have to normalize these methods to experimental results as follows: the analytical method by factor 0.13 and MCNP by 1.7.
Jabbari, Keyvan; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Saberi, Hosein
2012-07-01
For superficial lesions, the electrons may be used for radiation therapy. The high energy photons and electrons are produced by a Linear accelerator (Linac). Many of electron fields need the shielding of normal or critical organs. The electron shields are usually lead slabs with few millimeter thicknesses which should be placed near the skin, less than 1 cm away from skin. In the inspection of patients setting in a clinic by a physicist, it was noted that in some cases the technician places the shields far away from skin in the way that the shadow of the field still matches the shielded area. This is due to a conceptual mistake in which one assumes that electrons travel in a straight line and matching the shadow of lead slab is enough for the shielding. This project is about Monte Carlo simulation of this case and dosimetry in which the excess dose to the tissue under the shield is calculated. In this study, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for simulation of the Linac and the electron shields. The water phantom as well as the Linac head (NEPTON Linac) is simulated in the electron mode. The simulation is performed in three various cases in which the lead shield is placed in distances of 1, 20, 40 cm from the surface of the phantom. In all cases, the edge of the shield is matched with the light field, so the shields get smaller as they move from the surface because of the divergence of the light field. The simulations were done in two energies, 6 and 13 MeV. The experiments also were done with EDR2 film dosimetry and the simulation results were validated using the experimental results. In all cases, the dose under the shield was normalized to the dose in the center. The dose of the normal organ under the shield was 2, 38, 43% with respect to the center for shield distances of 1, 20, 40 cm, respectively. So there is a considerable increasing of the dose due to the distanced shielding. In this work exact amount of the dose from this mistake (distanced shielding) is
Jabbari, Keyvan; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Saberi, Hosein
2012-01-01
For superficial lesions, the electrons may be used for radiation therapy. The high energy photons and electrons are produced by a Linear accelerator (Linac). Many of electron fields need the shielding of normal or critical organs. The electron shields are usually lead slabs with few millimeter thicknesses which should be placed near the skin, less than 1 cm away from skin. In the inspection of patients setting in a clinic by a physicist, it was noted that in some cases the technician places the shields far away from skin in the way that the shadow of the field still matches the shielded area. This is due to a conceptual mistake in which one assumes that electrons travel in a straight line and matching the shadow of lead slab is enough for the shielding. This project is about Monte Carlo simulation of this case and dosimetry in which the excess dose to the tissue under the shield is calculated. In this study, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for simulation of the Linac and the electron shields. The water phantom as well as the Linac head (NEPTON Linac) is simulated in the electron mode. The simulation is performed in three various cases in which the lead shield is placed in distances of 1, 20, 40 cm from the surface of the phantom. In all cases, the edge of the shield is matched with the light field, so the shields get smaller as they move from the surface because of the divergence of the light field. The simulations were done in two energies, 6 and 13 MeV. The experiments also were done with EDR2 film dosimetry and the simulation results were validated using the experimental results. In all cases, the dose under the shield was normalized to the dose in the center. The dose of the normal organ under the shield was 2, 38, 43% with respect to the center for shield distances of 1, 20, 40 cm, respectively. So there is a considerable increasing of the dose due to the distanced shielding. In this work exact amount of the dose from this mistake (distanced shielding) is
A new method of normal mode calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, N.
2004-12-01
Numerical method of calculating normal modes of the Earth is classical problem in seismology and many methods have been developed, e.g. MINEOS, OBANI (Woodhouse 1989) and DISPER80 (Saito 1989). These methods are based on direct numerical integration of the governing differential equations (Runge-Kutta method). The methods are efficient for search for (real) eigenvalues of non dissipative cases but have some trouble to seek complex eigenvalues of dissipative or leaky oscillations. On the other hand, in solar seismology, the Henyey type relaxation method is used to calculate acoustic and gravity modes of the sun and stars (e.g. Unno et al. 1989). The latter method is generally more stable for eigenvalue problems of a self-gravitating gaseous body where the density and pressure vary exponentially near its surface. The efficiency of the method is, however, depends on initial guess of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Here we propose a new method to overcome the deficiency of the above methods. This method is formulated with the aid of the concept of the Henyey type relaxation method but does not needs initial guess of eigenfuctions and solves the problem more directly like the Runge-Hutta method. Some mumerical tests show good convergence of complex eigenvalues in our method. So the proposed method is effective to calculate solid modes, acoustic and gravity modes and ocean modes interfered with the other parts of the earth and planets.
Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.
2011-12-01
Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, P.; Priya, S.; Patel, Tarun; Gopalakrishnan, R. K.; Sharma, D. N.
2015-01-01
DD/DT fusion neutron generators are used as sources of 2.5 MeV/14.1 MeV neutrons in experimental laboratories for various applications. Detailed knowledge of the radiation dose rates around the neutron generators are essential for ensuring radiological protection of the personnel involved with the operation. This work describes the experimental and Monte Carlo studies carried out in the Purnima Neutron Generator facility of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai. Verification and validation of the shielding adequacy was carried out by measuring the neutron and gamma dose-rates at various locations inside and outside the neutron generator hall during different operational conditions both for 2.5-MeV and 14.1-MeV neutrons and comparing with theoretical simulations. The calculated and experimental dose rates were found to agree with a maximum deviation of 20% at certain locations. This study has served in benchmarking the Monte Carlo simulation methods adopted for shield design of such facilities. This has also helped in augmenting the existing shield thickness to reduce the neutron and associated gamma dose rates for radiological protection of personnel during operation of the generators at higher source neutron yields up to 1 × 1010 n/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, H.; Ootani, Y.; Fukui, H.
2007-05-01
A previous relativistic shielding calculation theory based on the regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component approach is improved by the inclusion of the magnetic interaction term contained in the metric operator. In order to consider effects of the metric perturbation, the self-consistent perturbation theory is used for the case of perturbation-dependent overlap integrals. The calculation results show that the second-order regular approximation results obtained for the isotropic shielding constants of halogen nuclei are well improved by the inclusion of the metric perturbation to reproduce the fully relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock results. However, it is shown that the metric perturbation hardly or does not affect the anisotropy of the halogen shielding tensors and the proton magnetic shieldings.
Drag calculations of wings using Euler methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dam, C. P.; Chang, I. C.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.; Nikfetrat, Koorosh
1991-01-01
Several techniques for the calculation of drag using Euler-equation formulations are discussed and compared. Surface-pressure integration (a nearfield technique) as well as two different farfield calculation techniques are described and applied to three-dimensional flow-field solutions for an aspect-ratio-7 wing with attached flow. The present calculations are limited to steady, low-Mach-number flows around three-dimensional configurations in the absence of active systems such as surface blowing/suction and propulsion. Although the main focus of the paper is the calculation of aerodynamic drag, the calculation of aerodynamic lift is also briefly discussed. Three Euler methods are used to obtain the flowfield solutions. The farfield technique based on the evaluation of a wake-integral appears to provide the most consistent and accurate drag predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marius Mudd, Simon; Harel, Marie-Alice; Hurst, Martin D.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.; Marrero, Shasta M.
2016-08-01
We report a new program for calculating catchment-averaged denudation rates from cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. The method (Catchment-Averaged denudatIon Rates from cosmogenic Nuclides: CAIRN) bundles previously reported production scaling and topographic shielding algorithms. In addition, it calculates production and shielding on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We explore the effect of sampling frequency across both azimuth (Δθ) and altitude (Δϕ) angles for topographic shielding and show that in high relief terrain a relatively high sampling frequency is required, with a good balance achieved between accuracy and computational expense at Δθ = 8° and Δϕ = 5°. CAIRN includes both internal and external uncertainty analysis, and is packaged in freely available software in order to facilitate easily reproducible denudation rate estimates. CAIRN calculates denudation rates but also automates catchment averaging of shielding and production, and thus can be used to provide reproducible input parameters for the CRONUS family of online calculators.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
Fractional tiers in fast multipole method calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Christopher A.; Head-Gordon, Martin
1996-08-01
One defining characteristic of the fast multipole calculation is the number of tiers (depth of tree) used to group the particles. For three dimensions, the standard boxing scheme restricts the number of lowest level boxes to be a power of eight. We present a method which through a simple scaling of the particle coordinates allows an arbitrary number of lowest level boxes. Consequently, one can better balance the near-field and far-field work by minimizing the variation in the number of particles per lowest level box from its optimal value. Test calculations show systems where this method gives a speedup approaching two times.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.
1986-01-01
An energy-dependent, perturbation expansion solution for heavy ion transport in one dimension is used to perform depth-dose calculations for 670/MeV nucleon Ne-20 beams incident upon a thick water target. Comparisons of predictions obtained by using typical energy-independent approximations and those obtained with fully energy-dependent input parameters are made. It is found that the calculated doses are underestimated when the energy-independent input approximations are used. The major source of error, however, is the lack of charge and mass conservation in the Silberberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters.
Pressure Profile Calculation with Mesh Ewald Methods.
Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál
2016-09-13
The importance of calculating pressure profiles across liquid interfaces is increasingly gaining recognition, and efficient methods for the calculation of long-range contributions are fundamental in addressing systems with a large number of charges. Here, we show how to compute the local pressure contribution for mesh-based Ewald methods, retaining the typical N log N scaling as a function of the lattice nodes N. This is a considerable improvement on existing methods, which include approximating the electrostatic contribution using a large cutoff and the, much slower, Ewald calculation. As an application, we calculate the contribution to the pressure profile across the water/vapor interface, coming from different molecular layers, both including and removing the effect of thermal capillary waves. We compare the total pressure profile with the one obtained using the cutoff approximation for the calculation of the stresses, showing that the stress distributions obtained using the Harasima and Irving-Kirkwood path are quite similar and shifted with respect to each other at most 0.05 nm. PMID:27508458
Simplified methods for calculating photodissociation rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shimazaki, T.; Ogawa, T.; Farrell, B. C.
1977-01-01
Simplified methods for calculating the transmission of solar UV radiation and the dissociation coefficients of various molecules are compared. A significant difference sometimes appears in calculations of the individual band, but the total transmission and the total dissociation coefficients integrated over the entire SR (solar radiation) band region agree well between the methods. The ambiguities in the solar flux data affect the calculated dissociation coefficients more strongly than does the method. A simpler method is developed for the purpose of reducing the computation time and computer memory size necessary for storing coefficients of the equations. The new method can reduce the computation time by a factor of more than 3 and the memory size by a factor of more than 50 compared with the Hudson-Mahle method, and yet the result agrees within 10 percent (in most cases much less) with the original Hudson-Mahle results, except for H2O and CO2. A revised method is necessary for these two molecules, whose absorption cross sections change very rapidly over the SR band spectral range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Chad T.; Haw, Dustin W.; Handler, William B.; Chronik, Blaine A.
2013-09-01
Eddy currents are generated in MR by the use of rapidly switched electromagnets, resulting in time varying and spatially varying magnetic fields that must be either minimized or corrected. This problem is further complicated when non-cylindrical insert magnets are used for specialized applications. Interruption of the coupling between an insert coil and the MR system is typically accomplished using active magnetic shielding. A new method of actively shielding insert gradient and shim coils of any surface geometry by use of the boundary element method for coil design with a minimum energy constraint is presented. This method was applied to shield x- and z-gradient coils for two separate cases: a traditional cylindrical primary gradient with cylindrical shield and, to demonstrate its versatility in surface geometry, the same cylindrical primary gradients with a rectangular box-shaped shield. For the cylindrical case this method produced shields that agreed with analytic solutions. For the second case, the rectangular box-shaped shields demonstrated very good shielding characteristics despite having a different geometry than the primary coils.
A New Iterative Method to Calculate [pi
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dion, Peter; Ho, Anthony
2012-01-01
For at least 2000 years people have been trying to calculate the value of [pi], the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. People know that [pi] is an irrational number; its decimal representation goes on forever. Early methods were geometric, involving the use of inscribed and circumscribed polygons of a circle. However, real…
Efficient pseudospectral methods for density functional calculations
Murphy, R. B.; Cao, Y.; Beachy, M. D.; Ringnalda, M. N.; Friesner, R. A.
2000-06-15
Novel improvements of the pseudospectral method for assembling the Coulomb operator are discussed. These improvements consist of a fast atom centered multipole method and a variation of the Head-Gordan J-engine analytic integral evaluation. The details of the methodology are discussed and performance evaluations presented for larger molecules within the context of DFT energy and gradient calculations. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Neutron and photon shielding benchmark calculations by MCNP on the LR-0 experimental facility.
Hordósy, G
2005-01-01
In the framework of the REDOS project, the space-energy distribution of the neutron and photon flux has been calculated over the pressure vessel simulator thickness of the LR-0 experimental reactor, Rez, Czech Republic. The results calculated by the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C are compared with the measurements performed in the Nuclear Research Institute, Rez. The spectra have been measured at the barrel, in front of, inside and behind the pressure vessel in different configurations. The neutron measurements were performed in the energy range 0.1-10 MeV. This work has been done in the frame of the 5th Frame Work Programme of the European Community 1998-2002. PMID:16604591
The calculation of neutron capture gamma-ray yields for space shielding applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yost, K. J.
1972-01-01
The application of nuclear models to the calculation of neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma yields is discussed. The gamma ray cascade model describes the cascade process in terms of parameters which either: (1) embody statistical assumptions regarding electric and magnetic multipole transition strengths, level densities, and spin and parity distributions or (2) are fixed by experiment such as measured energies, spin and parity values, and transition probabilities for low lying states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teale, Andrew M.; Lutnæs, Ola B.; Helgaker, Trygve; Tozer, David J.; Gauss, Jürgen
2013-01-01
Accurate sets of benchmark nuclear-magnetic-resonance shielding constants and spin-rotation constants are calculated using coupled-cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) theory and coupled-cluster singles-doubles-perturbative-triples [CCSD(T)] theory, in a variety of basis sets consisting of (rotational) London atomic orbitals. The accuracy of the calculated coupled-cluster constants is established by a careful comparison with experimental data, taking into account zero-point vibrational corrections. Coupled-cluster basis-set convergence is analyzed and extrapolation techniques are employed to estimate basis-set-limit quantities, thereby establishing an accurate benchmark data set. Together with the set provided for rotational g-tensors and magnetizabilities in our previous work [O. B. Lutnæs, A. M. Teale, T. Helgaker, D. J. Tozer, K. Ruud, and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 144104 (2009)], 10.1063/1.3242081, it provides a substantial source of consistently calculated high-accuracy data on second-order magnetic response properties. The utility of this benchmark data set is demonstrated by examining a wide variety of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals for the calculation of these properties. None of the existing approximate functionals provide an accuracy competitive with that provided by CCSD or CCSD(T) theory. The need for a careful consideration of vibrational effects is clearly illustrated. Finally, the pure coupled-cluster results are compared with the results of Kohn-Sham calculations constrained to give the same electronic density. Routes to future improvements are discussed in light of this comparison.
A new method to calculate normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Naoki
2007-01-01
We developed a new method to calculate normal modes of the Earth and planets. It can treat anelasticity directly as imaginary parts of elastic constants and leaky modes due to the open boundary condition set at the upper atmosphere. The eigenvalue problem is described in complex numbers. It is formulated based on a similar treatment of the global matrix governing the system of oscillations to that in the Henyey-type relaxation method used in solar seismology. In our method, the complex eigenvalue problem of a large system is reduced to an eigenvalue problem of a quite small size matrix. The eigenvalue of the small problem is a correction of an assumed complex eigenfrequency and components of the eigenvector are values of eigenfunctions at the outer boundary. Starting from an arbitrary complex frequency around the eigenfrequency of a target mode, we can arrive there within, at most, a dozen of steps of iterative calculations. We compared the results of our method with those calculated by DISPER80, and found good agreement between them. The rate of convergence of the method depends on the linearity of the correction around the eigenfrequency. A numerical example shows good behaviour of them. Even for a model with an atmosphere in which the fundamental spheroidal mode 0S29 and the fundamental acoustic mode 0P29 nearly degenerate, we can easily reach the eigenfrequency of 0S29 and distinguish it from that of 0P29 without any confusion. And we found that the eigenfrequency of 0P29 calculated for a realistic atmospheric model which varies annually, most approaches the solid mode in August. The behaviour of 0P29 can be interpreted with the aid of an acoustic potential which characterizes vertical propagation of sound waves. In addition to the efficiency in the convergence to the eigenfrequencies, numerical tests show strong numerical stability of the method. It stems from the stability in the relaxation method because of the similarity in algebraic structure. For those
Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation
Ding Yuan
2010-12-29
A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.
Rokni, S.H.; Khater, H.; Liu, J.C.; Mao, S.; Vincke, H.; /SLAC
2006-01-03
The FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code was used to calculate shielding requirements for the 3 GeV, 500 mA SPEAR3 storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The photon and neutron dose equivalent source term data were simulated for a 3 GeV electron beam interacting with two typical target/shielding geometries in the ring. The targets simulated are a rectangular block of 0.7 cm thick copper and a 5 cm thick iron block, both tilted at 1{sup o} relative to the beam direction. Attenuation profiles for neutrons and photons in concrete and lead as a function of angle at different shield thicknesses were calculated. The first, second and equilibrium attenuation lengths of photons and neutrons in the shield materials are derived from the attenuation profiles. The source term data and the attenuation lengths were then used to evaluate the shielding requirements for the ratchet walls of all front-ends of the SPEAR3 storage ring.
The design of reactive shielded magnet clutches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gertsov, S. M.
1978-01-01
The design of reactive shielded magnet clutches is considered along with their schematics, design formulas and characteristics of clutches in general. The design method suggested makes it possible to reduce calculation errors to 10%.
Sherrod, D.R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, Takahiro
2007-01-01
Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.
Optimation of cooled shields in insulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chato, J. C.; Khodadadi, J. M.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.
1984-01-01
A method to optimize the location, temperature, and heat dissipation rate of each cooled shield inside an insulation layer was developed. The method is based on the minimization of the entropy production rate which is proportional to the heat leak across the insulation. It is shown that the maximum number of shields to be used in most practical applications is three. However, cooled shields are useful only at low values of the overall, cold wall to hot wall absolute temperature ratio. The performance of the insulation system is relatively insensitive to deviations from the optimum values of the temperature and location of the cooling shields. Design curves for rapid estimates of the locations and temperatures of cooling shields in various types of insulations, and an equation for calculating the cooling loads for the shields are presented.
Monte Carlo methods to calculate impact probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rickman, H.; Wiśniowski, T.; Wajer, P.; Gabryszewski, R.; Valsecchi, G. B.
2014-09-01
Context. Unraveling the events that took place in the solar system during the period known as the late heavy bombardment requires the interpretation of the cratered surfaces of the Moon and terrestrial planets. This, in turn, requires good estimates of the statistical impact probabilities for different source populations of projectiles, a subject that has received relatively little attention, since the works of Öpik (1951, Proc. R. Irish Acad. Sect. A, 54, 165) and Wetherill (1967, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 2429). Aims: We aim to work around the limitations of the Öpik and Wetherill formulae, which are caused by singularities due to zero denominators under special circumstances. Using modern computers, it is possible to make good estimates of impact probabilities by means of Monte Carlo simulations, and in this work, we explore the available options. Methods: We describe three basic methods to derive the average impact probability for a projectile with a given semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination with respect to a target planet on an elliptic orbit. One is a numerical averaging of the Wetherill formula; the next is a Monte Carlo super-sizing method using the target's Hill sphere. The third uses extensive minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) calculations for a Monte Carlo sampling of potentially impacting orbits, along with calculations of the relevant interval for the timing of the encounter allowing collision. Numerical experiments are carried out for an intercomparison of the methods and to scrutinize their behavior near the singularities (zero relative inclination and equal perihelion distances). Results: We find an excellent agreement between all methods in the general case, while there appear large differences in the immediate vicinity of the singularities. With respect to the MOID method, which is the only one that does not involve simplifying assumptions and approximations, the Wetherill averaging impact probability departs by diverging toward
Singularity embedding method in potential flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jou, W. H.; Huynh, H.
1982-01-01
The so-called H-type mesh is used in a finite-element (or finite-volume) calculation of the potential flow past an airfoil. Due to coordinate singularity at the leading edge, a special singular trial function is used for the elements neighboring the leading edge. The results using the special singular elements are compared to those using the regular elements. It is found that the unreasonable pressure distribution obtained by the latter is removed by the embedding of the singular element. Suggestions to extend the present method to transonic cases are given.
Health state evaluation of shield tunnel SHM using fuzzy cluster method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Fa; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ke; Shi, Bin
2015-04-01
Shield tunnel SHM is in the path of rapid development currently while massive monitoring data processing and quantitative health grading remain a real challenge, since multiple sensors belonging to different types are employed in SHM system. This paper addressed the fuzzy cluster method based on fuzzy equivalence relationship for the health evaluation of shield tunnel SHM. The method was optimized by exporting the FSV map to automatically generate the threshold value. A new holistic health score(HHS) was proposed and its effectiveness was validated by conducting a pilot test. A case study on Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel was presented to apply this method. Three types of indicators, namely soil pressure, pore pressure and steel strain, were used to develop the evaluation set U. The clustering results were verified by analyzing the engineering geological conditions; the applicability and validity of the proposed method was also demonstrated. Besides, the advantage of multi-factor evaluation over single-factor model was discussed by using the proposed HHS. This investigation indicated the fuzzy cluster method and HHS is capable of characterizing the fuzziness of tunnel health, and it is beneficial to clarify the tunnel health evaluation uncertainties.
Development of deterministic transport methods for low energy neutrons for shielding in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganapol, Barry
1993-01-01
Transport of low energy neutrons associated with the galactic cosmic ray cascade is analyzed in this dissertation. A benchmark quality analytical algorithm is demonstrated for use with BRYNTRN, a computer program written by the High Energy Physics Division of NASA Langley Research Center, which is used to design and analyze shielding against the radiation created by the cascade. BRYNTRN uses numerical methods to solve the integral transport equations for baryons with the straight-ahead approximation, and numerical and empirical methods to generate the interaction probabilities. The straight-ahead approximation is adequate for charged particles, but not for neutrons. As NASA Langley improves BRYNTRN to include low energy neutrons, a benchmark quality solution is needed for comparison. The neutron transport algorithm demonstrated in this dissertation uses the closed-form Green's function solution to the galactic cosmic ray cascade transport equations to generate a source of neutrons. A basis function expansion for finite heterogeneous and semi-infinite homogeneous slabs with multiple energy groups and isotropic scattering is used to generate neutron fluxes resulting from the cascade. This method, called the FN method, is used to solve the neutral particle linear Boltzmann transport equation. As a demonstration of the algorithm coded in the programs MGSLAB and MGSEMI, neutron and ion fluxes are shown for a beam of fluorine ions at 1000 MeV per nucleon incident on semi-infinite and finite aluminum slabs. Also, to demonstrate that the shielding effectiveness against the radiation from the galactic cosmic ray cascade is not directly proportional to shield thickness, a graph of transmitted total neutron scalar flux versus slab thickness is shown. A simple model based on the nuclear liquid drop assumption is used to generate cross sections for the galactic cosmic ray cascade. The ENDF/B V database is used to generate the total and scattering cross sections for neutrons in
EMPLACEMENT DRIFT SHIELDING CALCULATION
A. Nielsen
1999-10-13
The purpose of this analysis is to determine the structural response of a TRIGA Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal canister placed in a 5-Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) waste package (WP) and subjected to a tipover design basis event (DBE) dynamic load; the results will be reported in terms of displacements and stress magnitudes. This activity is associated with the WP design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kost, A.; Jacobs, R. T.; Hahn, A.
2007-08-01
The shielding of strong electromagnetic fields at power frequency, performed by ferromagnetic plates, is often successfully modelled by the effective reluctivity. This method delivers good results for the RMSvalue of the shielded field. The following paper shows that a small variation of the magnetization curve (e.g.by taking another material charge) can strongly influence the shielded field. The field calculation is performed by the Finite Element Method (FEM), where for the interior plate region a)finite elements and b)non-linear Impedance Boundary Conditions (IBC) are used which circumvents the need to discretize the shielding plate.
Growth of ZnSe single crystal by CVT method with self-moving convection shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujiwara, S.; Namikawa, Y.; Hirota, Y.; Irikura, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Kotani, T.
1999-01-01
The self-moving convection shield was used in the growth of ZnSe single crystal by chemical vapor transport method using iodine as a transport agent. The reduction of the convection enables the growth of a 1-in diameter ZnSe single crystal. The incorporation efficiency of iodine on (1 1 1)B facet was proved to be larger than that on (1 0 0) facet. Impurity-hardening effect of incorporated iodine in the grown ZnSe crystal is also suggested.
Somasundaram, E.; Palmer, T. S.
2013-07-01
In this paper, the work that has been done to implement variance reduction techniques in a three dimensional, multi group Monte Carlo code - Tortilla, that works within the frame work of the commercial deterministic code - Attila, is presented. This project is aimed to develop an integrated Hybrid code that seamlessly takes advantage of the deterministic and Monte Carlo methods for deep shielding radiation detection problems. Tortilla takes advantage of Attila's features for generating the geometric mesh, cross section library and source definitions. Tortilla can also read importance functions (like adjoint scalar flux) generated from deterministic calculations performed in Attila and use them to employ variance reduction schemes in the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance reduction techniques that are implemented in Tortilla are based on the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) method and the LIFT (Local Importance Function Transform) method. These methods make use of the results from an adjoint deterministic calculation to bias the particle transport using techniques like source biasing, survival biasing, transport biasing and weight windows. The results obtained so far and the challenges faced in implementing the variance reduction techniques are reported here. (authors)
Performance analysis of superconducting generator electromagnetic shielding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, D.; Xia, Z.
2015-12-01
In this paper, the shielding performance of electromagnetic shielding systems is analyzed using the finite element method. Considering the non-iron-core rotor structure of superconducting generators, it is proposed that the stator alternating magnetic field generated under different operating conditions could decompose into oscillating and rotating magnetic field, so that complex issues could be greatly simplified. A 1200KW superconducting generator was analyzed. The distribution of the oscillating magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field in rotor area, which are generated by stator winding currents, and the distribution of the eddy currents in electromagnetic shielding tube, which are induced by these stator winding magnetic fields, are calculated without electromagnetic shielding system and with three different structures of electromagnetic shielding system respectively. On the basis of the results of FEM, the shielding factor of the electromagnetic shielding systems is calculated and the shielding effect of the three different structures on the oscillating magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field is compared. The method and the results in this paper can provide reference for optimal design and loss calculation of superconducting generators.
Calculation of NMR chemical shifts. 7. Gauge-invariant INDO method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukui, H.; Miura, K.; Hirai, A.
A gauge-invariant INDO method based on the coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory is presented and applied to the calculation of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of hydrocarbons including ring compounds. Invariance of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic shieldings with respect to displacement of the coordinate origin is discussed. Comparison between calculated and experimental results exhibits fairly good agreement, provided that the INDO parameters of Ellis et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.94, 4069 (1972)) are used with the inclusion of all multicenter one-electron integrals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lahti, G. P.
1972-01-01
A two- or three-constraint, two-dimensional radiation shield weight optimization procedure and a computer program, DOPEX, is described. The DOPEX code uses the steepest descent method to alter a set of initial (input) thicknesses for a shield configuration to achieve a minimum weight while simultaneously satisfying dose constaints. The code assumes an exponential dose-shield thickness relation with parameters specified by the user. The code also assumes that dose rates in each principal direction are dependent only on thicknesses in that direction. Code input instructions, FORTRAN 4 listing, and a sample problem are given. Typical computer time required to optimize a seven-layer shield is about 0.1 minute on an IBM 7094-2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Hada, Masahiko
2013-08-01
We propose a novel Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation including a vector potential A, which can be used to introduce restricted magnetic balance in the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. We also demonstrate that the DKH method can be used in combination with the gauge-including atomic orbital method. For the numerical examination, we calculate the NMR shielding constants and anisotropies of noble gas atoms (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), halogens (F, Cl, Br, I), and chalcogens (O, S, Se, Te) in molecules without using extremely large basis sets.
Shielding measurements for 230-Mev protons
Siebers, J.V.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W. . Dept. of Medical Physics); Coutrakon, G. . Medical Center)
1993-09-01
Energetic neutrons, produced as protons interact with matter, dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton accelerators. Because of the scarcity of data describing the shielding required to protect personnel from these neutrons, absorbed dose and dose-equivalent values are measured as a function of depth in a thick concrete shield at neutron emission angles of 0, 22, 45, and 90 deg for 230-MeV protons incident upon stopping-length aluminum, iron, and lead targets. Neutron attenuation lengths vary sharply with angle but are independent of the target material. Comparing results with prior shielding calculations, the High-Energy Transport Code overestimates neutron production and attenuation lengths in the forward direction. Analytical methods compare favorably in the forward direction but overestimate the production and attenuation lengths at large angles. The results presented are useful for determining the shielding requirements for proton radiotherapy facilities and as a benchmark for future calculations.
Multigrid Methods in Electronic Structure Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Emil
1996-03-01
Multigrid techniques have become the method of choice for a broad range of computational problems. Their use in electronic structure calculations introduces a new set of issues when compared to traditional plane wave approaches. We have developed a set of techniques that address these issues and permit multigrid algorithms to be applied to the electronic structure problem in an efficient manner. In our approach the Kohn-Sham equations are discretized on a real-space mesh using a compact representation of the Hamiltonian. The resulting equations are solved directly on the mesh using multigrid iterations. This produces rapid convergence rates even for ill-conditioned systems with large length and/or energy scales. The method has been applied to both periodic and non-periodic systems containing over 400 atoms and the results are in very good agreement with both theory and experiment. Example applications include a vacancy in diamond, an isolated C60 molecule, and a 64-atom cell of GaN with the Ga d-electrons in valence which required a 250 Ry cutoff. A particular strength of a real-space multigrid approach is its ready adaptability to massively parallel computer architectures. The compact representation of the Hamiltonian is especially well suited to such machines. Tests on the Cray-T3D have shown nearly linear scaling of the execution time up to the maximum number of processors (512). The MPP implementation has been used for studies of a large Amyloid Beta Peptide (C_146O_45N_42H_210) found in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. Further applications of the multigrid method will also be described. (in collaboration D. J. Sullivan and J. Bernholc)
Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.
2014-01-01
Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.
M. Gross
2006-12-08
The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
Free-slit shielding of stress waves by the photoelasticity method
Freishist, N.A.; Dmitrienko, O.L.
1986-05-01
This paper is devoted to the study of an experimental model investigation of the distribution of dynamic stresses beyond a free shielding slit as a longitudinal wave from a blast source strikes the shield. The studies were conducted by the method of photoelasticity on a dynamic polarization apparatus in the stress-study laboratory at the Moscow V.V. Kuibyshev Civil Engineering Institute. The problem was solved in the plane elastic statement on models in the form of plates made of an optically sensitive epoxy-resin-base material. The pulse effect was created by the detonation of a cylindrical lead azide microcharge. The dynamic stressed state at internal points of the model was evaluated from the magnitudes and distribution of maximum tangential stresses, and on the free perimeter of the model from the magnitudes and distribution of the normal stress parallel to the perimeter. The experimental studies indicated that a zone in which the stress amplitude is reduced as compared with the nominal stresses exists beyond the slit in all cases examined. The investigations made it possible to evaluate these relationships within the range of parameters under consideration.
Polynominal Interpolation Methods for Viscous Flow Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1976-01-01
Higher-order collocation procedures resulting in tridiagonal matrix systems are derived from polynomial spline interpolation and by Hermitian (Taylor series) finite-difference discretization. The similarities and special features of these different developments are discussed. The governing systems apply for both uniform and variable meshes. Hybrid schemes resulting from two different polynomial approximations for the first and second derivatives lead to a nonuniform mesh extension of the so-called compact or Pad? difference technique (Hermite 4). A variety of fourth-order methods are described and the Hermitian approach is extended to sixth-order (Hermite 6). The appropriate spline boundary conditions are derived for all procedures. For central finite differences, this leads to a two-point, second-order accurate generalization of the commonly used three-point end-difference formula. Solutions with several spline and Hermite procedures are presented for the boundary layer equations, with and without mass transfer, and for the incompressible viscous flow in a driven cavity. Divergence and nondivergence equations are considered for the cavity. Among the fourth-order techniques, it is shown that spline 4 has the smallest truncation error. The spline 4 procedure generally requires one-quarter the number of mesh points in a given coordinate direction as a central finite-difference calculation of equal accuracy. The Hermite 6 procedure leads to remarkably accurate boundary layer solutions.
Marshall, A.C.
1997-10-01
Three relatively simple mathematical models have been developed to estimate minimum reactor and radiation shield masses for liquid-metal-cooled reactors (LMRs), in-core thermionic fuel element (TFE) reactors, and out-of-core thermionic reactors (OTRs). The approach was based on much of the methodology developed for the Reactor/Shield Mass (RSMASS) model. Like the original RSMASS models, the new RSMASS-derivative (RSMASS-D) models use a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations, along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. All three models vary basic design parameters within a range specified by the user to achieve a parameter choice that yields a minimum mass for the power level and operational time of interest. The impact of critical mass, fuel damage, and thermal limitations are accounted for to determine the required fuel mass. The effect of thermionic limitations are also taken into account for the thermionic reactor models. All major reactor component masses are estimated, as well as instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, and safety system masses. A new shield model was developed and incorporated into all three reactor concept models. The new shield model is more accurate and simpler to use than the approach used in the original RSMASS model. The estimated reactor and shield masses agree with the mass predictions from separate detailed calculations within 15 percent for all three models.
Shielding from the Cosmic Radiation for Interplanetary Missions: Active and Passive Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spillantini, P.; Topical Team Of ESA On Radiation Shielding
Shielding is arguably the main countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during interplanetary exploratory missions. However, shielding of cosmic rays, both of galactic or solar origin, is highly problematic, because of the high-energy of the charged particles involved and the nuclear fragmentation occurring in shielding materials. Although computer codes can predict the shield performance in space, there is a lack of biological and physical measurements to benchmark the codes. An attractive alternative to passive, bulk material shielding is the use of magnetic fields to deflect the charged particles from the spacecraft target. A shielding system based on superconducting magnetic lenses could effectively shield a spacecraft from solar particle events, at least for the portion of energetic particles roughly collinear with the direction of the solar magnetic field. To address these issues, the European Space Agency (ESA) established a Topical Team in 2003 including several European experts in the field of space radiation shielding and superconducting magnets. The Topical Team identified a number of open research questions to be addressed, including development and testing of novel shielding materials, studies on the angular distributions of energetic solar particles, and cooling systems for magnetic lenses in space. A detailed report to ESA will be published within the Fall of the 2004. A summary of the Topical Team conclusions and recommendations will be discussed in this paper. (Work supported by ESA Opportunities for Research in Life Sciences grant # ESA-RA-LS-01-PREP/TT-007).
Overview of multifluid-flow-calculation methods
Stewart, H.B.
1981-01-01
Two categories of numerical methods which may be useful in multiphase flow research are discussed. The first category includes methods which are specifically intended for accurate computation of discontinuities, such as the method of characteristics, particle-in-cell method, flux-corrected transport, and random choice methods. Methods in this category could be applied to research on rocket exhaust plumes and interior ballistics. The second category includes methods for smooth, subsonic flows, such as fractional step methods, semi-implicit method, and methods which treat convection implicitly. The subsonic flow methods could be of interest for ice flows. (LCL)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballarini, F.; Biaggi, M.; De Biaggi, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ottolenghi, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paretzke, H. G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Zankl, M.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)
2004-01-01
Distributions of absorbed dose and DNA clustered damage yields in various organs and tissues following the October 1989 solar particle event (SPE) were calculated by coupling the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code with two anthropomorphic phantoms (a mathematical model and a voxel model), with the main aim of quantifying the role of the shielding features in modulating organ doses. The phantoms, which were assumed to be in deep space, were inserted into a shielding box of variable thickness and material and were irradiated with the proton spectra of the October 1989 event. Average numbers of DNA lesions per cell in different organs were calculated by adopting a technique already tested in previous works, consisting of integrating into "condensed-history" Monte Carlo transport codes--such as FLUKA--yields of radiobiological damage, either calculated with "event-by-event" track structure simulations, or taken from experimental works available in the literature. More specifically, the yields of "Complex Lesions" (or "CL", defined and calculated as a clustered DNA damage in a previous work) per unit dose and DNA mass (CL Gy-1 Da-1) due to the various beam components, including those derived from nuclear interactions with the shielding and the human body, were integrated in FLUKA. This provided spatial distributions of CL/cell yields in different organs, as well as distributions of absorbed doses. The contributions of primary protons and secondary hadrons were calculated separately, and the simulations were repeated for values of Al shielding thickness ranging between 1 and 20 g/cm2. Slight differences were found between the two phantom types. Skin and eye lenses were found to receive larger doses with respect to internal organs; however, shielding was more effective for skin and lenses. Secondary particles arising from nuclear interactions were found to have a minor role, although their relative contribution was found to be larger for the Complex Lesions than for the
Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Billings, M. P.
1972-01-01
Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.
Resonance self-shielding methodology in MPACT
Liu, Y.; Collins, B.; Kochunas, B.; Martin, W.; Kim, K. S.; Williams, M.
2013-07-01
The resonance self-shielding methods of the neutron transport code Michigan Parallel Characteristics based Transport (MPACT) are described in this paper. Two resonance-integral table based methods are utilized to resolve the resonance self-shielding effect. The subgroup method is a mature approach used in MPACT as the basic functionality for the resonance calculation. Another new iterative method, named the embedded self-shielding method is also implemented in MPACT. Comparisons of the two methods as well as their numerical verifications are presented. The results show that MPACT is capable of modeling the resonance self-shielding in a variety of PWR benchmarking cases, including difficult fuel lattice cases with poison, control rods or mixed gadolinia fuel rods. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, J. M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Kafkarkou, A.; Kendellen, D. P.; Sikora, M. H.; Spraker, M. C.; Weller, H. R.; Zimmerman, W. R.
2015-03-01
A novel method to identify Special Nuclear Material was recently developed (Mueller et al., 2014) [1]. This method relies upon using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam to induce photofission of a sample and then comparing the prompt fission neutron yields in and out of the plane of beam polarization. The present paper will describe experimental tests of this new technique and assess its sensitivity in the presence of shielding. The capability of this technique to measure the enrichment of uranium was tested by using combinations of thin 235U and 238U foils of known enrichments. The sensitivity of this assay to shielding by lead, steel, and polyethylene was experimentally measured and simulated using GEANT4. These tests show that the measured asymmetry can indeed be used to determine the enrichment of materials composed of an admixture of 235U and 238U, and this asymmetry is relatively insensitive to moderate amounts of shielding.
Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 3: Multiplication
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Ian
2008-01-01
In this third of a series of four articles, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written multiplication. The approach to multiplication, as set out on pages 12 to 15 of the primary national strategy's "Guidance paper" "Calculation" (DfES, 2007), is divided into six stages: (1) mental multiplication using…
Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.
2003-05-15
The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed.
Pace, J.V.
2002-02-14
Achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data resulting from Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb detonations has been a major problem since the early 1980's. This has been particularly true for the materials that are activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. Since thermal and epithermal neutrons are not transported very far from the weapon, the local shielding environment around the measurement location can be very important. A set of calculations incorporating an average density local-environment material (mush) has been made to demonstrate that the local environment plays an important role in the calculation-measurement agreement process. The optimum solution would be to include the local environment in all thermal neutron response calculations.
Computational methods for probability of instability calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.
1990-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of a dynamic system than can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the roots of the characteristics equation or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on system reliability analysis methods and importance sampling concepts are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the methods.
METHODS FOR CALCULATING AN LC50
A variety of graphical and computational methods can be used to derive a median lethal concentration (LC50) from concentration-mortality data produced by an acute mortality test. In the selection of a method, practical considerations should receive as much attention as the usual ...
Evaluation of a method to shield a welding electron beam from magnetic interference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wall, W. A.
1976-01-01
It is known that electron beams are easily deflected by magnetic and electrostatic fields. Therefore, to prevent weld defects, stray electromagnetic fields are avoided in electron beam welding chambers if at all possible. The successful results of tests conducted at MSFC to evaluate a simple magnetic shield made from steel tubing are reported. Tests indicate that this shield was up to 85 percent effective in reducing magnetic effects on the electron beam of a welding machine. In addition, residual magnetic fields within the shield were so nearly uniform that the net effect on the beam alignment was negligible. It is concluded that the shield, with the addition of a tungsten liner, could be used in production welding.
Examinations of electron temperature calculation methods in Thomson scattering diagnostics
Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha; Wi, Hanmin
2012-10-15
Electron temperature from Thomson scattering diagnostic is derived through indirect calculation based on theoretical model. {chi}-square test is commonly used in the calculation, and the reliability of the calculation method highly depends on the noise level of input signals. In the simulations, noise effects of the {chi}-square test are examined and scale factor test is proposed as an alternative method.
An Integrated Calculation Method to Predict Arc Behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xingwen; Chen, Degui
The precision of magnetic field calculation is crucial to predict the arc behavior using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. A integrated calculation method is proposed to couple the calculation of magnetic field and fluid dynamics based on the commercial software ANSYS and FLUENT, which especially benefits to take into account the existence of the ferromagnetic parts. An example concerning air arc is presented using the method.
Vortex particle methods in aeroacoustic calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huberson, Serge; Rivoalen, Elie; Voutsinas, Spyros
2008-11-01
The connection between vortex particle methods and aeroacoustics is considered within the framework of Lighthill's acoustic analogy which allows to decouple the flow from noise propagation. For the flow, techniques such as tree-algorithms and the particle-mesh method are brought together with the aim to achieve the best possible performance in view of analyzing complex problems. The flow results are then input to the acoustic wave equation which is solved in integral form. It will involve monopole, dipole and quadrupole terms which can be successively integrated. The significance of such an approach is first demonstrated in two problems, both related to vortex-solid interactions. The first is a generic one and considers the interaction of a vortex filament interacting with a sphere while the second considers helicopter noise as an example of a complex engineering set-up.
Enhanced Method for Cavity Impedance Calculations
Frank Marhauser, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang
2009-05-01
With the proposal of medium to high average current accelerator facilities the demand for cavities with extremely low Higher Order Mode (HOM) impedances is increasing. Modern numerical tools are still under development to more thoroughly predict impedances that need to take into account complex absorbing boundaries and lossy materials. With the usually large problem size it is preferable to utilize massive parallel computing when applicable and available. Apart from such computational issues, we have developed methods using available computer resources to enhance the information that can be extracted from a cavities? wakefield computed in time domain. In particular this is helpful for a careful assessment of the extracted RF power and the mitigation of potential beam break-up or emittance diluting effects, a figure of merit for the cavity performance. The method is described as well as an example of its implementation.
Calculating Pi Using the Monte Carlo Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Timothy
2013-11-01
During the summer of 2012, I had the opportunity to participate in a research experience for teachers at the center for sustainable energy at Notre Dame University (RET @ cSEND) working with Professor John LoSecco on the problem of using antineutrino detection to accurately determine the fuel makeup and operating power of nuclear reactors. During full power operation, a reactor may produce 1021 antineutrinos per second with approximately 100 per day being detected. While becoming familiar with the design and operation of the detectors, and how total antineutrino flux could be obtained from such a small sample, I read about a simulation program called Monte Carlo. Further investigation led me to the Monte Carlo method page of Wikipedia2 where I saw an example of approximating pi using this simulation. Other examples where this method was applied were typically done with computer simulations2 or purely mathematical.3 It is my belief that this method may be easily related to the students by performing the simple activity of sprinkling rice on an arc drawn in a square. The activity that follows was inspired by those simulations and was used by my AP Physics class last year with very good results.
The application of the phase space time evolution method to electron shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cordaro, M. C.; Zucker, M. S.
1972-01-01
A computer technique for treating the motion of charged and neutral particles and called the phase space time evolution method was developed. This technique employs the computer's bookkeeping capacity to keep track of the time development of a phase space distribution of particles. This method was applied to a study of the penetration of electrons. A 1 MeV beam of electrons normally incident on a semi-infinite slab of aluminum was used. Results of the calculation were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results. Time-dependent PSTE electron penetration results for the same problem are presented.
Patient-specific dose calculation methods for high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Emily S.
In high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy, the radiation dose received by the patient is calculated according to the AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) formalism. This table-based dose superposition method uses dosimetry parameters derived with the radioactive 192Ir source centered in a water phantom. It neglects the dose perturbations caused by inhomogeneities, such as the patient anatomy, applicators, shielding, and radiographic contrast solution. In this work, we evaluated the dosimetric characteristics of a shielded rectal applicator with an endocavitary balloon injected with contrast solution. The dose distributions around this applicator were calculated by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code and measured by ionization chamber and GAFCHROMIC EBT film. A patient-specific dose calculation study was then carried out for 40 rectal treatment plans. The PTRAN_CT MC code was used to calculate the dose based on computed tomography (CT) images. This study involved the development of BrachyGUI, an integrated treatment planning tool that can process DICOM-RT data and create PTRAN_CT input initialization files. BrachyGUI also comes with dose calculation and evaluation capabilities. We proposed a novel scatter correction method to account for the reduction in backscatter radiation near tissue-air interfaces. The first step requires calculating the doses contributed by primary and scattered photons separately, assuming a full scatter environment. The scatter dose in the patient is subsequently adjusted using a factor derived by MC calculations, which depends on the distances between the point of interest, the 192Ir source, and the body contour. The method was validated for multicatheter breast brachytherapy, in which the target and skin doses for 18 patient plans agreed with PTRAN_CT calculations better than 1%. Finally, we developed a CT-based analytical dose calculation method. It corrects for the photon attenuation and scatter based upon the radiological paths determined by ray tracing
The TAB method for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orourke, P. J.; Amsden, A. A.
A short history is given of the major milestones in the development of the stochastic particle method for calculating liquid fuel sprays. The most recent advance has been the discovery of the importance of drop breakup in engine sprays. A new method, called TAB, for calculating drop breakup is presented. Some theoretical properties of the method are derived; its numerical implementation in the computer program KIVA is described; and comparisons are presented between TAB-method calculations and experiments and calculations using another breakup model.
Heat Shielding: A Novel Method of Colonial Thermoregulation in Honey Bees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starks, Philip T.; Gilley, David C.
Honey bees, Apis mellifera, maintain constant colony temperatures throughout the year. Honey bees fan their wings to cool the colony, and often spread fluid in conjunction with this behavior to induce evaporative cooling. We present an additional, previously undescribed mechanism used by the honey bee to maintain constant colony temperature in response to localized temperature increases. Worker bees shield the comb from external heat sources by positioning themselves on hot interior regions of the hive's walls. Although honey comb and brood comb were both shielded, the temperature-sensitive brood received a greater number of heat shielders and was thus better protected from overheating. Heat shielding appears to be a context-dependent adaptive behavior performed by worker bees who would previously have been considered "unemployed."
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fieno, D.
1972-01-01
Perturbation theory for fixed sources was applied to radiation shielding problems to determine changes in neutron and gamma ray doses due to changes in various shield layers. For a given source and detector position, the perturbation method enables dose derivatives due to all layer changes to be determined from one forward and one inhomogeneous adjoint calculation. The direct approach requires two forward calculations for the derivative due to a single layer change. Hence, the perturbation method for a obtaining dose derivatives permits an appreciable savings in computation for a multilayered shield. A comparison was made of the fractional change in the dose per unit change in shield layer thickness as calculated by perturbation theory and by successive direct calculations; excellent agreement was obtained between the two methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fieno, D.
1972-01-01
The perturbation theory for fixed sources was applied to radiation shielding problems to determine changes in neutron and gamma ray doses due to changes in various shield layers. For a given source and detector position the perturbation method enables dose derivatives due to all layer changes to be determined from one forward and one inhomogeneous adjoint calculation. The direct approach requires two forward calculations for the derivative due to a single layer change. Hence, the perturbation method for obtaining dose derivatives permits an appreciable savings in computation for a multilayered shield. For an illustrative problem, a comparison was made of the fractional change in the dose per unit change in the thickness of each shield layer as calculated by perturbation theory and by successive direct calculations; excellent agreement was obtained between the two methods.
Some methods for calculation of perturbations in nuclear reactors
Abramov, B. D.
2015-12-15
Some methods for calculation of local perturbations of neutron fields and reactivity effects accompanying them are considered. Existence, uniqueness, properties and methods for finding solutions to the considered problems are discussed.
Kuehl, Kerry S; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; O'Rourke, Holly P; DeFrancesco, Carol; Miočević, Milica; Valente, Matthew; Sleigh, Adriana; Garg, Bharti; McGinnis, Wendy; Kuehl, Hannah
2016-05-01
The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) Study is a worksite wellness team-based intervention among police and sheriff departments assessing the program's effectiveness to reduce occupational risks and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. The SHIELD program focused on improving diet, physical activity, body weight and sleep, and reducing the effects of unhealthy stress and behaviors, such as tobacco and substance abuse. The SHIELD team-based health promotion program was found to be feasible and effective at 6 months in improving diet, sleep, stress, and overall quality of life of law enforcement department personnel. Both intervention and control groups were followed for 24 months, and we report those durability findings, along with qualitative group interview results that provide insight into the changes of the long-term outcomes. Long-term effects were observed for consumption of fruits and vegetables, and there was some evidence for effects on tobacco and alcohol use. Assessment of dietary habits, physical activity behaviors, weight loss maintenance, and substance use is rare more than 1 year following an intervention, and in general, initial positive changes do not persist in prior research. The SHIELD program was feasible, effective, and durable for improving dietary changes. PMID:27158956
Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark
Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G.
2013-07-01
Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)
A method for calculating the productivity of cable communications networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulikin, S. N.; Shulikina, M. S.; Maryin, S. S.; Vinogradova, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, M. E.
2016-04-01
A probabilistic-mathematical instrument was used to develop a method for calculating the productivity of a cable line. The effect of deviation of factors from data of recording devices was determined when identifying random stream characteristics. The developed method was used to perform predictive calculation of the productivity of the modern cable communication line.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, D.
1976-01-01
An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
Urbatsch, T.J.
1995-11-01
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.
Mainardi, E.; Premuda, F.; Lee, E.
2002-07-01
For heavy-ion beam driven inertial fusion ''liquid-protected'' reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II, a mixture of molten salts made of F{sup 10}, Li{sup -6}, Li{sup 7} and Be{sup 9} (called flibe) allows small chambers and final-focus magnets closer to the target with superconducting coils suffering higher radiation damage, though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. This work has been primarily focusing on verifying that total energy deposited by fusion neutrons and induced gamma rays remain under such limit values and the final purpose is the optimization of the shielding of the magnetic lens system from the points of view of the geometrical configuration and of the physical nature of the materials adopted. The system is analyzed in terms of six geometrical models going from simplified up to much more realistic representations of a system of 192 beam lines, each focused by six magnets. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts, that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The quantities analyzed, using the two codes MCNP and TART include: neutron mean free path and total path length dependence on energy, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated in the whole energy range, and the neutron spectrum in different zones of the system. The technical nature of the design problem and the methodology followed were presented in a previous paper by summarizing briefly the results for the deposited energy distribution on the six focal magnets. Now a much more extensive comparison of the performances of the two codes for different configurations of the system is discussed, separating the n and {gamma} contributions, in the light of the physical interpretation of the results in terms of first flight and of scattered neutron fluxes, of primary {gamma} and of secondary {gamma} generated by inelastically scattered or radiatively
ToA Coordinate Calculation Method Using a PID Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jae Ho; Kim, Jae Moung
This paper introduces a coordinate calculation method for a real-time locating system. A ToA algorithm is used to obtain the target node coordinates, but a conventional DC method, which incurs heavy calculation time, is not suitable for embedded systems. This paper proposes the use of a P-control in the PID control algorithm to resolve real-time locating system issues. Performance measures of the accumulated operator number and position error are evaluated. It is shown that the PID method has less calculation and more robust performance than the DC method.
Point-Kernel Shielding Code System.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1982-02-17
Version 00 QAD-BSA is a three-dimensional, point-kernel shielding code system based upon the CCC-48/QAD series. It is designed to calculate photon dose rates and heating rates using exponential attenuation and infinite medium buildup factors. Calculational provisions include estimates of fast neutron penetration using data computed by the moments method. Included geometry routines can describe complicated source and shield geometries. An internal library contains data for many frequently used structural and shielding materials, enabling the codemore » to solve most problems with only source strengths and problem geometry required as input. This code system adapts especially well to problems requiring multiple sources and sources with asymmetrical geometry. In addition to being edited separately, the total interaction rates from many sources may be edited at each detector point. Calculated photon interaction rates agree closely with those obtained using QAD-P5A.« less
A method of calculating the ultimate strength of continuous beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newlin, J A; Trayer, George W
1931-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of continuous beams after the elastic limit has been passed. As a result, a method of calculation, which is applicable to maximum load conditions, has been developed. The method is simpler than the methods now in use and it applies properly to conditions where the present methods fail to apply.
A Multigroup Method for the Calculation of Neutron Fluence with a Source Term
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinbockel, J. H.; Clowdsley, M. S.
1998-01-01
Current research on the Grant involves the development of a multigroup method for the calculation of low energy evaporation neutron fluences associated with the Boltzmann equation. This research will enable one to predict radiation exposure under a variety of circumstances. Knowledge of radiation exposure in a free-space environment is a necessity for space travel, high altitude space planes and satellite design. This is because certain radiation environments can cause damage to biological and electronic systems involving both short term and long term effects. By having apriori knowledge of the environment one can use prediction techniques to estimate radiation damage to such systems. Appropriate shielding can be designed to protect both humans and electronic systems that are exposed to a known radiation environment. This is the goal of the current research efforts involving the multi-group method and the Green's function approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christiansen, Eric L. (Inventor); Crews, Jeanne L. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
Flexible multi-shock shield system and method are disclosed for defending against hypervelocity particles. The flexible multi-shock shield system and method may include a number of flexible bumpers or shield layers spaced apart by one or more resilient support layers, all of which may be encapsulated in a protective cover. Fasteners associated with the protective cover allow the flexible multi-shock shield to be secured to the surface of a structure to be protected.
Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making
Jones, David Alexander
2016-04-26
The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.
Neutron streaming analysis for shield design of FMIT Facility
Carter, L.L.
1980-12-01
Applications of the Monte Carlo method have been summarized relevant to neutron streaming problems of interest in the shield design for the FMIT Facility. An improved angular biasing method has been implemented to further optimize the calculation of streaming and this method has been applied to calculate streaming within a double bend pipe.
Elongation method for electronic structure calculations of random DNA sequences.
Orimoto, Yuuichi; Liu, Kai; Aoki, Yuriko
2015-10-30
We applied ab initio order-N elongation (ELG) method to calculate electronic structures of various deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) models. We aim to test potential application of the method for building a database of DNA electronic structures. The ELG method mimics polymerization reactions on a computer and meets the requirements for linear scaling computational efficiency and high accuracy, even for huge systems. As a benchmark test, we applied the method for calculations of various types of random sequenced A- and B-type DNA models with and without counterions. In each case, the ELG method maintained high accuracy with small errors in energy on the order of 10(-8) hartree/atom compared with conventional calculations. We demonstrate that the ELG method can provide valuable information such as stabilization energies and local densities of states for each DNA sequence. In addition, we discuss the "restarting" feature of the ELG method for constructing a database that exhaustively covers DNA species. PMID:26337429
Magnetic shielding for a spaceborne adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Brent A.; Shirron, Peter J.; Castles, Stephen H.; Serlemitsos, Aristides T.
1991-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center has studied magnetic shielding for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. Four types of shielding were studied: active coils, passive ferromagnetic shells, passive superconducting coils, and passive superconducting shells. The passive superconducting shells failed by allowing flux penetration. The other three methods were successful, singly or together. Experimental studies of passive ferromagnetic shielding are compared with calculations made using the Poisson Group of programs, distributed by the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Agreement between calculation and experiment is good. The ferromagnetic material is a silicon iron alloy.
Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.
2012-07-01
More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO{sub 2} fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)
A Recursive Method for Calculating Certain Partition Functions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodrum, Luther; And Others
1978-01-01
Describes a simple recursive method for calculating the partition function and average energy of a system consisting of N electrons and L energy levels. Also, presents an efficient APL computer program to utilize the recursion relation. (Author/GA)
Comparison of finite-difference and analytic microwave calculation methods
Friedlander, F.I.; Jackson, H.W.; Barmatz, M.; Wagner, P.
1996-12-31
Normal modes and power absorption distributions in microwave cavities containing lossy dielectric samples were calculated for problems of interest in materials processing. The calculations were performed both using a commercially available finite-difference electromagnetic solver and by numerical evaluation of exact analytic expressions. Results obtained by the two methods applied to identical physical situations were compared. The studies validate the accuracy of the finite-difference electromagnetic solver. Relative advantages of the analytic and finite-difference methods are discussed.
Comparison of Fourier transform methods for calculating MTF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaVeigne, Joseph D.; Burks, Stephen D.; Nehring, Brian
2008-04-01
Fourier transform methods common in infrared spectroscopy were applied to the problem of calculating the modulation transfer function (MTF) from a system's measured line spread function (LSF). Algorithms, including apodization and phase correction, are discussed in their application to remove unwanted noise from the higher frequency portion of the MTF curve. In general, these methods were found to significantly improve the calculated MTF. Apodization reduces the proportion of noise by discarding areas of the LSF where there is no appreciable signal. Phase correction significantly reduces the rectification of noise that occurs when the MTF is calculated by taking the power spectrum of the complex optical transfer function (OTF).
Turbomachinery flow calculation on unstructured grids using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koschel, W.; Vornberger, A.
An explicit finite-element scheme based on a two-step Taylor-Galerkin algorithm allows the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Mesh generation methods for unstructured grids are described which lead to efficient flow calculations. Turbulent flow is calculated by using an algebraic turbulence model. To test the numerical accuracy, a laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and the supersonic flow in a corner has been calculated. For validation the method is applied to the simulation of the inviscid flow through a transonic turbine cascade and the viscous flow through a subsonic turbine cascade.
Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry
Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican
2010-12-01
We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xiaozheng; Shen, Zhigang
2009-09-01
Ni-coated cenosphere particles were successfully fabricated by an ultrasonic-assisted magnetron sputtering equipment. Their surface morphology and microstructure were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FE-SEM results indicate that the Ni films coated by magnetron sputtering are uniform and compact. Ni film uniformity was related with the sputtering power and a large uniform film could be achieved at lower sputtering power. XRD results imply that the Ni film coated on cenospheres was a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure and the crystallization of film sample increases with increasing the sputtering power. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of Ni-coated cenosphere particles were measured to be 4-27 dB over a frequency range 80-100 GHz, higher than those of uncoated cenosphere particles. The higher sputtering power and Ni film thickness are the higher EMI SE of the specimens. Ni-coated cenosphere particles are most promising alternative candidates for millimeter wave EMI shielding due to their lightweight, low cost, ease of processing, high floating time, good dispersion and tunable conductivities as compared with typical electromagnetic wave countermeasure materials.
Experimental verification of a recursive method to calculate evapotranspiration
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recently, a recursive combination method (RCM) to calculate potential and crop evapotranspiration (ET) was given by Lascano and Van Bavel (Agron. J. 2007, 99:585–590). The RCM differs from the Penman-Monteith (PM) method, the main difference being that the assumptions made regarding the temperature ...
A Simple Method for Calculating Clebsch-Gordan Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a simple method for calculating Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the tensor product of two unitary irreducible representations (UIRs) of the rotation group. The method also works for multiplicity-free irreducible representations appearing in the tensor product of any number of UIRs of the rotation group. The generalization to…
New methods for neutron response calculations with MCNP
Hendricks, J.S.
1997-05-01
MCNP4B was released for international distribution in February, 1997. The author summarized the new MCNP4B features since the release of MCNP4A over three years earlier and compare some results. Then he describes new methods being developed for future code releases. The focus is methods and applications of ex-core neutron response calculations.
Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.
1991-01-01
An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.
Calculation of Solar Radiation by Using Regression Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kızıltan, Ö.; Şahin, M.
2016-04-01
In this study, solar radiation was estimated at 53 location over Turkey with varying climatic conditions using the Linear, Ridge, Lasso, Smoother, Partial least, KNN and Gaussian process regression methods. The data of 2002 and 2003 years were used to obtain regression coefficients of relevant methods. The coefficients were obtained based on the input parameters. Input parameters were month, altitude, latitude, longitude and landsurface temperature (LST).The values for LST were obtained from the data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) satellite. Solar radiation was calculated using obtained coefficients in regression methods for 2004 year. The results were compared statistically. The most successful method was Gaussian process regression method. The most unsuccessful method was lasso regression method. While means bias error (MBE) value of Gaussian process regression method was 0,274 MJ/m2, root mean square error (RMSE) value of method was calculated as 2,260 MJ/m2. The correlation coefficient of related method was calculated as 0,941. Statistical results are consistent with the literature. Used the Gaussian process regression method is recommended for other studies.
Refinement of thermal imager minimum resolvable temperature difference calculating method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolobrodov, V. G.; Mykytenko, V. I.
2015-11-01
Calculating methods, which accurately predict minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), are of significant interest for many years. The article deals with improvement the accuracy of determining the thermal imaging system MRTD by elaboration the visual perception model. We suggest MRTD calculating algorithm, which is based on a reliable approximation of the human visual system modulation transfer function (MTF) proposed by N. Nill. There was obtained a new expression for the bandwidth evaluation, which is independent of angular size of the Foucault bar target.
Method and models for R-curve instability calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orange, Thomas W.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a simple method for performing elastic R-curve instability calculations. For a single material-structure combination, the calculations can be done on some pocket calculators. On microcomputers and larger, it permits the development of a comprehensive program having libraries of driving force equations for different configurations and R-curve model equations for different materials. The paper also presents several model equations for fitting to experimental R-curve data, both linear elastic and elastoplastic. The models are fit to data from the literature to demonstrate their viability.
Method and models for R-curve instability calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orange, Thomas W.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a simple method for performing elastic R-curve instability calculations. For a single material-structure combination, the calculations can be done on some pocket calculators. On microcomputers and larger, it permits the development of a comprehensive program having libraries of driving force equations for different configurations and R-curve model equations for different materials. The paper also presents several model equations for fitting to experimental R-curve data, both linear elastic and elastoplastic. The models are fit to data from the literature to demonstrate their viability.
Armstrong, Jerawan C.; Favorite, Jeffrey A.
2012-06-20
The Levenberg-Marquardt (or simply Marquardt) and differential evolution (DE) optimization methods were recently applied to solve inverse transport problems. The Marquardt method is fast but convergence of the method is dependent on the initial guess. While it has been shown to work extremely well at finding an optimum independent of the initial guess, the DE method does not provide a global optimal solution in some problems. In this paper, we apply the Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem of material interface location identification in one-dimensional spherical radiation source/shield systems, and we compare the results obtained by MADS to those obtained by Levenberg-Marquardt and DE.
Shape integral method for magnetospheric shapes. [boundary layer calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michel, F. C.
1979-01-01
A method is developed for calculating the shape of any magnetopause to arbitrarily high precision. The method uses an integral equation which is evaluated for a trial shape. The resulting values of the integral equation as a function of auxiliary variables indicate how close one is to the desired solution. A variational method can then be used to improve the trial shape. Some potential applications are briefly mentioned.
The heterogeneous anti-radiation shield for spacecraft*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telegin, S. V.; Draganyuk, O. N.
2016-04-01
The paper deals with modeling of elemental composition and properties of heterogeneous layers in multilayered shields to protect spacecraft onboard equipment from radiation emitted by the natural Earth’s radiation belt. This radiation causes malfunctioning of semiconductor elements in electronic equipment and may result in a failure of the spacecraft as a whole. We consider four different shield designs and compare them to the most conventional radiation-protective material for spacecraft - aluminum. Out of light and heavy chemical elements we chose the materials with high reaction cross sections and low density. The mass attenuation coefficient of boron- containing compounds is 20% higher than that of aluminum. Heterogeneous shields consist of three layers: a glass cloth, borated material, and nickel. With a protective shield containing heavy metal the output bremsstrahlung can be reduced. The amount of gamma rays that succeed to penetrate the shield is 4 times less compared to aluminum. The shields under study have the thicknesses of 5.95 and 6.2 mm. A comparative analysis of homogeneous and multilayered protective coatings of the same chemical composition has been performed. A heterogeneous protective shield has been found to be advantageous in weight and shielding properties over its homogeneous counterparts and aluminum. The dose characteristics and transmittance were calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The results of our study lead us to conclude that a three-layer boron carbide shield provides the most effective protection from radiation. This shield ensures twice as low absorbed dose and 4 times less the number of penetrated gamma-ray photons compared to its aluminum analogue. Moreover, a heterogeneous shield will have a weight 10% lighter than aluminum, with the same attenuation coefficient of the electron flux. Such heterogeneous shields can be used to protect spacecraft launched to geostationary orbit. Furthermore, a protective boron-containing and
A method for trap factor calculation and its effect
Xinguo, Z. )
1992-01-01
The accumulations and distributions of oil and gas in fault-block oil field are greatly controlled by various faults. Such oil field is characterized by complicated structure, multiple reservoirs, complex contact between oil and water, and big oil abundance difference among the reservoirs. The properties bring many troubles to the exploration and development of such oil and gas fields. There is no uniform statistical calculation standard that is special for multitudinous fault block traps. Common trap factor calculation methods are suitable for anticlinal trap, but they are not applicable to complicated fault block traps. In this paper, a new factor calculation method for fault traps in which there are quite thick reservoir and overlying formation is presented on the basis of fault trap property and interrelations among the factors which influence trap characteristics. Quite accurate closing areas of oil traps have been obtained by using the method in Dongpu seg.
Calculation of infrared system operating distance by spectral bisection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yu; Wu, Ping; Sun, Wenfang
2014-03-01
During the transmission of infrared radiation, the atmospheric transmittance could be a complex parameter due to the absorbing and scattering of atmosphere, as well as the influences from the environment and transmission distance. With the help of a spectral bisection method, a new assessing formula and solution is raised by calculating the operating distance of infrared system. In the small segments, MODTRAN can be used to figure out the percentage of penetration, which is called by advanced program, so as to get the infrared radiation in those segments. The calculated data of the segments were summed up and used to calculate the operating distance of the infrared system. Compared with the conventional calculation methods that the transmittance was used as a constant or a average, The calculation precise of the operating distance is highly increased by this method the results of all small segments by comparing with the traditional methods. The whole computing process becomes more clear and effective by taking the influences from visibility of atmosphere, altitude, targets zenith angle and spatial frequency into consideration, and by building an instant monitoring system of the operating distance. The final computing result and real effecting distance are based on the general simulation for penetration rate and the tendency of operating distance in all conditions.
New methods for calculating short-wave radio paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A. V.; Tsedilina, E. E.; Cherkashin, Iu. N.
Recent research on the calculation of short-wave paths at IZMIRAN (the Soviet Institute for the Study of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and the Propagation of Radio Waves) is reviewed. Particular attention is given to: (1) the development of approximate analytical methods for ray-tracing calculations and for determining the geometrical-optics characteristics of a radio signal in a horizontally irregular ionosphere; (2) investigations of the long-range and short-wave propagation of decametric waves; and (3) the development of a parabolic-equation method for considering diffraction and scattering in a medium with regular and random irregularities.
A simplified spherical harmonic method for coupled electron-photon transport calculations
Josef, J.A.
1997-12-01
In this thesis the author has developed a simplified spherical harmonic method (SP{sub N} method) and associated efficient solution techniques for 2-D multigroup electron-photon transport calculations. The SP{sub N} method has never before been applied to charged-particle transport. He has performed a first time Fourier analysis of the source iteration scheme and the P{sub 1} diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) scheme applied to the 2-D SP{sub N} equations. The theoretical analyses indicate that the source iteration and P{sub 1} DSA schemes are as effective for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. In addition, he has applied an angular multigrid acceleration scheme, and computationally demonstrated that it performs as well as for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. It has previously been shown for 1-D S{sub N} calculations that this scheme is much more effective than the DSA scheme when scattering is highly forward-peaked. The author has investigated the applicability of the SP{sub N} approximation to two different physical classes of problems: satellite electronics shielding from geomagnetically trapped electrons, and electron beam problems.
Composite electron propagator methods for calculating ionization energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Dolgounitcheva, O.; Zakrzewski, V. G.; Ortiz, J. V.
2016-06-01
Accurate ionization energies of molecules may be determined efficiently with composite electron-propagator (CEP) techniques. These methods estimate the results of a calculation with an advanced correlation method and a large basis set by performing a series of more tractable calculations in which large basis sets are used with simpler approximations and small basis sets are paired with more demanding correlation techniques. The performance of several CEP methods, in which diagonal, second-order electron propagator results with large basis sets are combined with higher-order results obtained with smaller basis sets, has been tested for the ionization energies of closed-shell molecules from the G2 set. Useful compromises of accuracy and computational efficiency employ complete-basis-set extrapolation for second-order results and small basis sets in third-order, partial third-order, renormalized partial-third order, or outer valence Green's function calculations. Analysis of results for vertical as well as adiabatic ionization energies leads to specific recommendations on the best use of regular and composite methods. Results for 22 organic molecules of interest in the design of photovoltaic devices, benzo[a]pyrene, Mg-octaethylporphyrin, and C60 illustrate the capabilities of CEP methods for calculations on large molecules.
Composite electron propagator methods for calculating ionization energies.
Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V
2016-06-14
Accurate ionization energies of molecules may be determined efficiently with composite electron-propagator (CEP) techniques. These methods estimate the results of a calculation with an advanced correlation method and a large basis set by performing a series of more tractable calculations in which large basis sets are used with simpler approximations and small basis sets are paired with more demanding correlation techniques. The performance of several CEP methods, in which diagonal, second-order electron propagator results with large basis sets are combined with higher-order results obtained with smaller basis sets, has been tested for the ionization energies of closed-shell molecules from the G2 set. Useful compromises of accuracy and computational efficiency employ complete-basis-set extrapolation for second-order results and small basis sets in third-order, partial third-order, renormalized partial-third order, or outer valence Green's function calculations. Analysis of results for vertical as well as adiabatic ionization energies leads to specific recommendations on the best use of regular and composite methods. Results for 22 organic molecules of interest in the design of photovoltaic devices, benzo[a]pyrene, Mg-octaethylporphyrin, and C60 illustrate the capabilities of CEP methods for calculations on large molecules. PMID:27305999
Snyder, Keith W.
2002-01-01
A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.
Numerical Method for the Astronomical Almanac and Orbit Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kap-Sung
1993-12-01
We have calculated the astronomical almanac 1994 and simulated the trajectory of a satellite orbit considering all perturbative forces with various initial conditions. In this work, Gauss Jackson multistep integration method has been used to calculate our basic equation of motion with high numerical accuracy. It has been found that our results agree well with the Astronomical Almanac Data distributed by JPL of NASA and the orbit simulations have been carried out with fast speed, stability and excellent round-off error accumulation, comparing with other numerical methods. In order to be carried out our works on almanac and orbit calculations easily by anyone who uses a personal computer, we have made a computer program on graphical user interface to provide various menus for detail works selected by a mouse.
A method for calculating externally blown flap noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, M. R.
1978-01-01
Several basic noise components were described. These components are: (1) compact lift dipoles associated with the wing and flaps; (2) trailing edge noise associated with the last trailing edge; and (3) quadrupole noise associated with the undeflected exhaust jet and the free jet located downstream of the trailing edge. These noise components were combined to allow prediction of directivity and spectra for under the wing (UTW) slotted flaps with conventional or mixer nozzles, UTW slotless flaps, upper surface blowing (USB) slotless flaps, and engine in front of the wing slotted flaps. A digital computer program listing was given for this calculation method. Directivities and spectra calculated by this method were compared with free field data for UTW and USB configurations. The UTRC method best predicted the details of the measured noise emission, but the ANOP method best estimated the noise levels directly below these configurations.
An Annotated Bibliography of the Chisanbop Method of Finger Calculation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dougherty, Mary K.
The term Chisanbop is the trademark for the finger calculation method originally developed by a Korean, Sung Jin Pai. It was refined and simplified by his son, Hang Young Pai, who introduced the technique to the United States in 1976. This annotated bibliography has been organized in five categories. Readings in the first category, Historical…
Further Stable methods for the calculation of partition functions
Wilson, B G; Gilleron, F; Pain, J
2007-06-27
The extension to recursion over holes of the Gilleron and Pain method for calculating partition functions of a canonical ensemble of non-interacting bound electrons is presented as well as a generalization for the efficient computation of collisional line broadening.
Emergy Algebra: Improving Matrix Methods for Calculating Tranformities
Transformity is one of the core concepts in Energy Systems Theory and it is fundamental to the calculation of emergy. Accurate evaluation of transformities and other emergy per unit values is essential for the broad acceptance, application and further development of emergy method...
Calculating Resonance Positions and Widths Using the Siegert Approximation Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rapedius, Kevin
2011-01-01
Here, we present complex resonance states (or Siegert states) that describe the tunnelling decay of a trapped quantum particle from an intuitive point of view that naturally leads to the easily applicable Siegert approximation method. This can be used for analytical and numerical calculations of complex resonances of both the linear and nonlinear…
30 CFR 282.41 - Method of royalty calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of royalty calculation. 282.41 Section 282.41 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR Payments § 282.41...
LEGO-Method--New Strategy for Chemistry Calculation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molnar, Jozsef; Molnar-Hamvas, Livia
2011-01-01
The presented strategy of chemistry calculation is based on mole-concept, but it uses only one fundamental relationship of the amounts of substance as a basic panel. The name of LEGO-method comes from the famous toy of LEGO[R] because solving equations by grouping formulas is similar to that. The relations of mole and the molar amounts, as small…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fieno, D.
1972-01-01
Perturbation theory formulas were derived and applied to determine changes in neutron and gamma-ray doses due to changes in various radiation shield layers for fixed sources. For a given source and detector position, the perturbation method enables dose derivatives with respect to density, or equivalently thickness, for every layer to be determined from one forward and one inhomogeneous adjoint calculation. A direct determination without the perturbation approach would require two forward calculations to evaluate the dose derivative due to a change in a single layer. Hence, the perturbation method for obtaining dose derivatives requires fewer computations for design studies of multilayer shields. For an illustrative problem, a comparison was made of the fractional change in the dose per unit change in the thickness of each shield layer in a two-layer spherical configuration as calculated by perturbation theory and by successive direct calculations; excellent agreement was obtained between the two methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, R.; Bohn, C. L.; Bisognano, J. J.
1997-05-01
There have been several studies([1] J. S. Nodvick and D. S. Saxon, Phys. Rev.) 96, 180 (1954); [2] S. A. Kheifets and B. Zotter, CERN SL-95-92 (AP), 1995; [3] B. Murphy, S. Krinsky, and R. L. Gluckstern, Phys. Rev. E 35, 2584 (1996). on the shielding effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian bunch on a circular orbit in the center plane between two parallel plates. A functional dependence of the beam and machine parameters was given in [2] using the asymptotic analysis in the frequency domain. It indicates the shielded CSR mainly arises from harmonics n_th < n < n_c, where the threshold harmonic is n_th = √2/3(π ρ /h)^3/2, and harmonic cutoff is nc = ρ/σ (ρ: bend radius, h: spacing between plates, σ_s: bunch rms length). In this paper, we extend the frequency domain analysis to the parameter regime n_th > n_c, and the result is compared with the steady state CSR power obtained using the image charge method.
Iron shielded MRI optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borghi, C. A.; Fabbri, M.
1998-09-01
The design of the main current systems of an actively shielded and of an iron shielded MRI device for nuclear resonance imaging, is considered. The model for the analysis of the magnetic induction produced by the current system, is based on the combination of a Boundary Element technique and of the integration of two Fredholm integral equations of the first and the second kind. The equivalent current magnetization model is used for the calculation of the magnetization produced by the iron shield. High field uniformity in a spherical region inside the device, and a low stray field in the neighborhood of the device are required. In order to meet the design requirements a multi-objective global minimization problem is solved. The minimization method is based on the combination of the filled function technique and the (1+1) evolution strategy algorithm. The multi-objective problem is treated by means of a penalty method. The actively shielded MRI system results to utilize larger amount of conductor and produce higher magnetic energy than the iron shield device. On veut étudier le projet du système des courants principaux d'un MRI à écran en fer et d'un MRI à écran actif. Le modèle d'analyse du champ magnétique produit par le système de courants est basé sur la combinaison d'une technique Boundary Element et de l'intégration de deux équations intégrales de Fredholm de première et de seconde sorte. On utilise pour calculer la magnétisation produite par l'écran en fer le modèle à cou rants de magné ti sa tion équivalents. On exige une élévation uniforme du champ dans une région sphérique au cœur de l'appareil et un bas champ magnétique dispersé à proximité de l'appareil. Dans le but de répondre aux impératifs du projet, on va résoudre un problème multiobjectif de minimisation globale. On utilise une technique de minimisation obtenue par la combinaison des méthodes “Filled Function” et “(1+1) Evolution Strategy”. Le probl
Magnetic Shield for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chui, Talso C.; Haddad, Nicolas E.
2013-01-01
A new method was developed for creating a less expensive shield for ADRs using 1018 carbon steel. This shield has been designed to have similar performance to the expensive vanadium permendur shields, but the cost is 30 to 50% less. Also, these shields can be stocked in a variety of sizes, eliminating the need for special forgings, which also greatly reduces cost.
Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.
1959-02-17
Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.
Improved numerical method for subchannel cross-flow calculations
Kaya, S.; Anghaie, S.
1986-01-01
COBRA-OSU is a fast running computer code for coupled kinetic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor core subchannels, currently under development at Oregon State University. This code is a modified version of COBRA-IV with two major improved features. First, COBRA-OSU uses the Gaussian elimination method instead of Gauss-Seidel iteration for subchannel cross-flow calculation. Second, COBRA-OSU has an additional model for regionwise point reactor kinetics which includes all major feedback reactivity effects on calculation of the axial power profile during the course of a transient. This paper summarizes the improved numerical features of the COBRA-OSU code.
Real-space method for highly parallelizable electronic transport calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Baruch; Seideman, Tamar; Hod, Oded; Kronik, Leeor
2014-07-01
We present a real-space method for first-principles nanoscale electronic transport calculations. We use the nonequilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory and implement absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs, also known as complex absorbing potentials, or CAPs) to represent the effects of the semi-infinite leads. In real space, the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix is highly sparse. As a result, the transport problem parallelizes naturally and can scale favorably with system size, enabling the computation of conductance in relatively large molecular junction models. Our use of ABCs circumvents the demanding task of explicitly calculating the leads' self-energies from surface Green's functions, and is expected to be more accurate than the use of the jellium approximation. In addition, we take advantage of the sparsity in real space to solve efficiently for the Green's function over the entire energy range relevant to low-bias transport. We illustrate the advantages of our method with calculations on several challenging test systems and find good agreement with reference calculation results.
Accelerating molecular property calculations with nonorthonormal Krylov space methods.
Furche, Filipp; Krull, Brandon T; Nguyen, Brian D; Kwon, Jake
2016-05-01
We formulate Krylov space methods for large eigenvalue problems and linear equation systems that take advantage of decreasing residual norms to reduce the cost of matrix-vector multiplication. The residuals are used as subspace basis without prior orthonormalization, which leads to generalized eigenvalue problems or linear equation systems on the Krylov space. These nonorthonormal Krylov space (nKs) algorithms are favorable for large matrices with irregular sparsity patterns whose elements are computed on the fly, because fewer operations are necessary as the residual norm decreases as compared to the conventional method, while errors in the desired eigenpairs and solution vectors remain small. We consider real symmetric and symplectic eigenvalue problems as well as linear equation systems and Sylvester equations as they appear in configuration interaction and response theory. The nKs method can be implemented in existing electronic structure codes with minor modifications and yields speed-ups of 1.2-1.8 in typical time-dependent Hartree-Fock and density functional applications without accuracy loss. The algorithm can compute entire linear subspaces simultaneously which benefits electronic spectra and force constant calculations requiring many eigenpairs or solution vectors. The nKs approach is related to difference density methods in electronic ground state calculations and particularly efficient for integral direct computations of exchange-type contractions. By combination with resolution-of-the-identity methods for Coulomb contractions, three- to fivefold speed-ups of hybrid time-dependent density functional excited state and response calculations are achieved. PMID:27155623
Accelerating molecular property calculations with nonorthonormal Krylov space methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furche, Filipp; Krull, Brandon T.; Nguyen, Brian D.; Kwon, Jake
2016-05-01
We formulate Krylov space methods for large eigenvalue problems and linear equation systems that take advantage of decreasing residual norms to reduce the cost of matrix-vector multiplication. The residuals are used as subspace basis without prior orthonormalization, which leads to generalized eigenvalue problems or linear equation systems on the Krylov space. These nonorthonormal Krylov space (nKs) algorithms are favorable for large matrices with irregular sparsity patterns whose elements are computed on the fly, because fewer operations are necessary as the residual norm decreases as compared to the conventional method, while errors in the desired eigenpairs and solution vectors remain small. We consider real symmetric and symplectic eigenvalue problems as well as linear equation systems and Sylvester equations as they appear in configuration interaction and response theory. The nKs method can be implemented in existing electronic structure codes with minor modifications and yields speed-ups of 1.2-1.8 in typical time-dependent Hartree-Fock and density functional applications without accuracy loss. The algorithm can compute entire linear subspaces simultaneously which benefits electronic spectra and force constant calculations requiring many eigenpairs or solution vectors. The nKs approach is related to difference density methods in electronic ground state calculations and particularly efficient for integral direct computations of exchange-type contractions. By combination with resolution-of-the-identity methods for Coulomb contractions, three- to fivefold speed-ups of hybrid time-dependent density functional excited state and response calculations are achieved.
[General calculation method of diffraction efficiency of concave blazed gratings].
Li, Ting; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Xu, Bang-Lian; Li, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tao, Chun-Xian; Ling, Jin-Zhong; Zhuang, Song-Lin
2013-07-01
In order to make diffraction energy of concave gratings more concentrated in the desired order, the present paper puts forward that the concave blazed grating with variable groove angles could be fabricated on the concave substrates by mechanical ruling method, and the theoretical method of simultaneously calculating the diffraction efficiency in the main section and non-main section is deduced by using Fresnel-Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, which makes up the shortage of the diffraction efficiency calculated only in the main section. Finally, the diffraction efficiency curves varied with wavelength is simulated by Matlab software, and the variation laws of the diffraction efficiency are compared for different production methods and application parameters, which provides a valuable reference for the design and production of the concave gratings. PMID:24059218
A simplified spherical harmonic method for coupled electron-photon transport calculations
Josef, J.A.
1996-12-01
In this thesis we have developed a simplified spherical harmonic method (SP{sub N} method) and associated efficient solution techniques for 2-D multigroup electron-photon transport calculations. The SP{sub N} method has never before been applied to charged-particle transport. We have performed a first time Fourier analysis of the source iteration scheme and the P{sub 1} diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) scheme applied to the 2-D SP{sub N} equations. Our theoretical analyses indicate that the source iteration and P{sub 1} DSA schemes are as effective for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. Previous analyses have indicated that the P{sub 1} DSA scheme is unstable (with sufficiently forward-peaked scattering and sufficiently small absorption) for the 2-D S{sub N} equations, yet is very effective for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. In addition, we have applied an angular multigrid acceleration scheme, and computationally demonstrated that it performs as well for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. It has previously been shown for 1-D S{sub N} calculations that this scheme is much more effective than the DSA scheme when scattering is highly forward-peaked. We have investigated the applicability of the SP{sub N} approximation to two different physical classes of problems: satellite electronics shielding from geomagnetically trapped electrons, and electron beam problems. In the space shielding study, the SP{sub N} method produced solutions that are accurate within 10% of the benchmark Monte Carlo solutions, and often orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo. We have successfully modeled quasi-void problems and have obtained excellent agreement with Monte Carlo. We have observed that the SP{sub N} method appears to be too diffusive an approximation for beam problems. This result, however, is in agreement with theoretical expectations.
A Graphical Method for Calculating Reflection Errors in Radiation Thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, D. R.; Saunders, P.
2008-02-01
This article presents a graphical method to calculate reflection corrections for radiation thermometry. The method is based on the observation that the measured radiance of a target is a linear combination of radiances dependent on the emissivity of the target. The method is most easily implemented as a nomogram, enabling thermometer users to estimate reflection corrections immediately when measurements are taken. The nomogram also provides a visual means of explaining the impact of reflection errors on measurements and for explaining the impact of measurement uncertainties on temperature measurements corrected for reflections.