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Sample records for shinn toshio kaneko

  1. Gene expression changes triggered by end-of-day far-red light treatment on early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Katou, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Masayuki; Tsuji, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms related to growth promotion in the early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. under end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) treatment, we analyzed the leaf transcriptome of treated (EOD) and untreated plants (Cont) by using RNA-seq technology. EOD-FR treatment for only about 2 weeks in regions with limited sunshine during winter resulted in significantly higher internode length between the 3rd and 4th nodes on the main stem in EOD than in Cont. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to synthesis or transport of auxin, higher levels of YUCCA (CL6581) and PIN4 (CL6181) were noted after treatment in EOD than in Cont in the leaf. In addition, high expression levels of GA20ox (Unigene11862) related to gibberellin (GA) synthesis and transcription factor bHLH 135 (CL7761) were observed in the stem of EOD, 3 h after treatment. A vertical section of the stem showed that the pith length of cells at the 4th node was longer in EOD than in Cont. Collectively, these results suggested that EOD-FR treatment increased the expression of DEGs related to GA and auxin biosynthesis, bHLH transcription factor, and internodal cell elongation along the longitudinal axis of Eustoma plants. PMID:26642764

  2. Gene expression changes triggered by end-of-day far-red light treatment on early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Katou, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Masayuki; Tsuji, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms related to growth promotion in the early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. under end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) treatment, we analyzed the leaf transcriptome of treated (EOD) and untreated plants (Cont) by using RNA-seq technology. EOD-FR treatment for only about 2 weeks in regions with limited sunshine during winter resulted in significantly higher internode length between the 3rd and 4th nodes on the main stem in EOD than in Cont. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to synthesis or transport of auxin, higher levels of YUCCA (CL6581) and PIN4 (CL6181) were noted after treatment in EOD than in Cont in the leaf. In addition, high expression levels of GA20ox (Unigene11862) related to gibberellin (GA) synthesis and transcription factor bHLH 135 (CL7761) were observed in the stem of EOD, 3 h after treatment. A vertical section of the stem showed that the pith length of cells at the 4th node was longer in EOD than in Cont. Collectively, these results suggested that EOD-FR treatment increased the expression of DEGs related to GA and auxin biosynthesis, bHLH transcription factor, and internodal cell elongation along the longitudinal axis of Eustoma plants. PMID:26642764

  3. Ethics and American Power: Speeches by Caspar W. Weinberger and George P. Shultz. Responses by Philip Geyelin, Smith Hempstone, Carl F. H. Henry, Thomas Molnar, Richard John Neuhaus, David D. Newsom, William V. O'Brien, Paul Seabury, Roger L. Shinn, Seymour Siegel, Edward Teller, Richard M. Nixon. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    Two cabinet secretaries address the problems of when and how the United States should use military power. Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger emphasizes the importance of prudence and restraint in the use of military force in chapter 1: "The Uses of Military Power." Secretary of State George P. Shultz stresses the vital importance of…

  4. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan

  5. 8. Photocopy of National Register of Historic Places photo, 1970's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of National Register of Historic Places photo, 1970's RESTORED LOG CABIN - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 INTERIOR - FIREPLACE DETAIL - LIVING ROOM - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - SECOND FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - FIRST FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  10. 1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 (Samuel Shinn House), No. 405, No. 407 (John Elliott House), No. 409, No. 411 (David Simpson House) - Marshall's Court Area Study, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALFDOVETAIL JOINTS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALF-DOVETAIL JOINTS; LATHE AND PLASTER ADDITION; AND CLAPBOARD SIDING - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  12. The Life of the Mind: A Tribute to Three Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kaoru

    2000-01-01

    This speech by a distinguished scholar in educational psychology recounts, with appreciation, his educational experiences under three distinguished professors: Toshio Maki, his undergraduate thesis supervisor in Japan; E. Paul Torrance, the prominent educational psychologist; and C. Gilbert Wrenn, his doctoral advisor. (DB)

  13. 77 FR 55496 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Public Lands in Eastern Lassen County, California, and Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Road, Horn Road, Garate Road, Ramhorn Road, Shinn Ranch Road, Stoney Road, Deep Cut Road, Smoke Creek... Campground and the Dodge Reservoir and Campground are also closed. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director... CONTACT: Lynda Roush, Acting Northern California District Manager, 707-825-2309; or BLM Eagle Lake...

  14. This Little Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michael, Ed.

    In six essays considering overpopulation, pollution, and food supply from the framework of the Judeo-Christian tradition and of world ecology, three theologians (Pollard, Shinn, and Bonifazi), an ecologist (Sears), a geographer (Glacken), and a medical scientist and administrator (Bennett), conclude that the control and preservation of the natural…

  15. Stephanopachys conicola Fisher (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) feeding on decaying western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook. var. occidentalis) berries: a novel association for Bostrichidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of Juniperus occidentalis Hook. var. occidentalis seed ecology, berries and litter were collected from three sites in northeastern California (Madeline, Shinn Peak and Likely; all in Lassen and Modoc Co, California) in 2011 and 2012. Sixty adult Stephanopachys conicola Fisher (Col...

  16. Theme: Agricultural Education ... How Is It Viewed? Whose Perspective? In What Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, James E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Profession's View of Agricultural Education (AE)" (Christiansen, Briers); "AE: A View from Inside the Classroom" (Pieniazek, Pieniazek); "Managing Change in AE" (Herring); "Image vs. Substance" (Shinn et al.); "AE Profession" (Smith); "Expanded Mission, Expanded Challenges for Preservice AE" (Torres, Dormody); and "Is AE Changing Too…

  17. Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe

    2013-01-01

    Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

  18. The Role of Government in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (4th, Hiroshima City, Japan, November 25-28, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The following papers were presented at this international conference: (1) "Key-Note Report by the Research Institute for Higher Education" (Kazuyuki Kitamura); (2) "Major Dimensions in the Relations between the State and Higher Education" (Neil J. Smelser); (3) "The Role of Government in Japanese Higher Education" (Motohisa Kaneko); (4) "The Role…

  19. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  20. [Splitting into two lines: The historical development of the analytical and the gas ultracentrifuge].

    PubMed

    Helmbold, Bernd; Forstner, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In a historical perspective the ultracentrifuge is often taken as perfect example of a research technology according to Shinn and Joerges (Shinn and Joerges 2000, 2002). Research technologies are defined by a generic device, its own metrology and the interstitiality of the historical actors connected with the device. In our paper we give a detailed analysis of the development of the ultracentrifuge and thereby reveal two different lines of development: analytical ultracentrifuges and gas ultra centrifuges used for isotope separation. Surprisingly, we could not find any interstitial and transversal connections for these two lines. The lines end up with two different devices based on two different technical concepts. Moreover, the great majority of the actors stick to one line. These results are in accordance withother authors, who developed the concept of research technologies further and tried to sharpen their definition. PMID:26572680

  1. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    PubMed

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  2. A periodization of research technologies and of the emergency of genericity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    According to the historian and sociologist of science Terry Shinn, the creator of the concept of 'research technologies': "Research technologies may sometimes generate promising packets of instrumentation for yet undefined ends. They may offer technological answers to questions that have hardly been raised. Research technologists's instruments are then generic in the sense that they are base-line apparatus which can subsequently be transformed by experimenters into products tailored to specific economic ends or adapted by experimenters to further cognitive ends in academic research."

  3. Why CO bonds side-on at low coverage and both side-on and upright at high coverage on the Cr(110) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehandru, S. P.; Anderson, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    An atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital study of CO adsorption on the Cr(110) surface shows a high coordinate lying down orientation is favored. This is a result of the large number of empty d-band energy levels in chromium, which allows the antibonding counterparts to sigma and pi donation bonds to the surface to be empty. When lying down, backbonding to CO pi sup * orbitals is enhanced. Repulsive interactions cause additional CO to stand upright at 1/4 monolyer coverage. The results confirm the recent experimental study of Shinn and Madey.

  4. Criminal Regulation of Anti-Forensic Tools in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    This paper discusses the continuing landmark debate in a Japanese Court concerning the development and distribution of a peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing program. The program, known as Winny, facilitates illegal activities such as piracy and the distribution of child pornography because of the encryption and anonymity afforded to users. The court has to determine whether Isamu Kaneko, the designer of Winny, is criminally liable for developing and distributing the program. This paper also assesses whether the judgment in the Winny case might set a precedent for regulating the creation and distribution of anti-forensic tools.

  5. Asymmetric chemical reactions by polarized quantum beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Kensei

    One of the most attractive hypothesis for the origin of homochirality in terrestrial bio-organic compounds (L-amino acid and D-sugar dominant) is nominated as "Cosmic Scenario"; a chiral impulse from asymmetric excitation sources in space triggered asymmetric reactions on the surfaces of such space materials as meteorites or interstellar dusts prior to the existence of terrestrial life. 1) Effective asymmetric excitation sources in space are proposed as polarized quantum beams, such as circularly polarized light and spin polarized electrons. Circularly polarized light is emitted as synchrotron radiation from tightly captured electrons by intense magnetic field around neutron stars. In this case, either left-or right-handed polarized light can be observed depending on the direction of observation. On the other hand, spin polarized electrons is emitted as beta-ray in beta decay from radioactive nuclei or neutron fireballs in supernova explosion. 2) The spin of beta-ray electrons is longitudinally polarized due to parity non-conservation in the weak interaction. The helicity (the the projection of the spin onto the direction of kinetic momentum) of beta-ray electrons is universally negative (left-handed). For the purpose of verifying the asymmetric structure emergence in bio-organic compounds by polarized quantum beams, we are now carrying out laboratory simulations using circularly polarized light from synchrotron radiation facility or spin polarized electron beam from beta-ray radiation source. 3,4) The target samples are solid film or aqueous solution of racemic amino acids. 1) K.Kobayashi, K.Kaneko, J.Takahashi, Y.Takano, in Astrobiology: from simple molecules to primitive life; Ed. V.Basiuk; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, 2008. 2) G.A.Gusev, T.Saito, V.A.Tsarev, A.V.Uryson, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere. 37, 259 (2007). 3) J.Takahashi, H.Shinojima, M.Seyama, Y.Ueno, T.Kaneko, K.Kobayashi, H.Mita, M.Adachi, M.Hosaka, M.Katoh, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, 3044

  6. Plate falling in a fluid: Regular and chaotic dynamics of finite-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2015-05-01

    Results are reviewed concerning the planar problem of a plate falling in a resisting medium studied with models based on ordinary differential equations for a small number of dynamical variables. A unified model is introduced to conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamical behaviors of models of Kozlov, Tanabe-Kaneko, Belmonte-Eisenberg-Moses and Andersen-Pesavento-Wang using common dimensionless variables and parameters. It is shown that the overall structure of the parameter spaces for the different models manifests certain similarities caused by the same inherent symmetry and by the universal nature of the phenomena involved in nonlinear dynamics (fixed points, limit cycles, attractors, and bifurcations).

  7. [Coresidence with parents and marriage in recent Japan. Comment].

    PubMed

    Atoh, M

    1991-10-01

    The increasing rate of unmarried women and of later marriages contribute to a very low fertility rate in Japan. In Kaneko's demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process, the higher educational level of today's women is shown as a factor in the delay in meeting with spousal candidates after entering the marriage market/process. Kaneko's research model based on empirical data will be useful as a tool for projecting 1st marriages and births. Suzuki's study using a sociometrics approach reveals some interesting facts about highly educated unmarried Japanese women. They are liberal in their attitude toward marital and intergenerational relationships and yet very conservative in their attitude toward extramarital sex. Compared to the occidental equivalent, a higher percentage of them are unmarried but rates of cohabitation and sexual activity are low. According to Nakano's study the majority of Japanese women younger than 25 hope to get married and to take 1 of 2 options after marriage: a full time homemaker till children grow up, when they hope to get back on the job market, or to balance married life and career. In reality, in 1989, 37% of 25-29 year olds and 12% of 30-34 year olds are unmarried. Change in awareness is not necessarily matched with change in behavior. Hiroshima's study shows that the Japanese custom of coresiding with parents after marriage is becoming an obstacle for marriage as women's social status improves. It results in later marriages and greater number of unmarried women. PMID:12155038

  8. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  9. Non-intrusive flow measurements on a reentry vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. B.; Satavicca, D. A.; Zimmermann, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of various non-intrusive techniques for the measurement of the flow field on the windward side of the Space Shuttle or a similar re-entry vehicle. Included are linear (Rayleigh, Raman, Mie, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Resonant Doppler Velocimetry) and nonlinear (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman, Laser Induced Fluorescence) light scattering, electron beam fluorescence, thermal emission and mass spectroscopy. Flow field properties are taken from a nonequilibrium flow model by Shinn, Moss and Simmonds at NASA Langley. Conclusions are, when possible, based on quantitative scaling of known laboratory results to the conditions projected. Detailed discussion with researchers in the field contributed further to these conclusions and provided valuable insights regarding the experimental feasibility of each of the techniques.

  10. Evaluation of non-intrusive flow measurement techniques for a re-entry flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. B.; Santavicca, D. A.; Zimmermann, M.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates various non-intrusive techniques for the measurement of the flow field on the windward side of the Space Shuttle orbiter or a similar reentry vehicle. Included are linear (Rayleigh, Raman, Mie, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Resonant Doppler Velocimetry) and nonlinear (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman, Laser-Induced Fluorescence) light scattering, electron-beam fluorescence, thermal emission, and mass spectroscopy. Flow-field properties were taken from a nonequilibrium flow model by Shinn, Moss, and Simmonds at the NASA Langley Research Center. Conclusions are, when possible, based on quantitative scaling of known laboratory results to the conditions projected. Detailed discussion with researchers in the field contributed further to these conclusions and provided valuable insights regarding the experimental feasibility of each of the techniques.

  11. Discovery of the causative organism of Weil's disease: historical view.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y

    2001-03-01

    On January 20, 1915, Inada and Ido announced the discovery of the causative agent of Weil's disease. Subsequently, on February 13, 1915, they published the first paper on the discovery of the causative organism (a new species of Spirochaeta) of Weil's disease. Besides discovering the causative organism of the disease, Inada and colleagues clarified the pure culture in medium, and determined the source and route of the infection, its pathology and morbid anatomy; the distribution of the organism in various organs and tissues; the excretion of the spirochete, and its division, filterability, and morphological characteristics; and the clinical picture, laboratory findings, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of the disease. These studies were conducted by Inada, Ido, Kaneko, Hoki, and Ito, in the years 1914 to 1915. In the early investigation of leptospirosis, Inada and colleagues played a prominent part. We would like to remember these remarkably complete and definitive original achievements on leptospirosis made by Inada and colleagues. PMID:11406751

  12. Inverse scattering for a specific resonating group model nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Pantis, G.; Sofianos, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    An inverse scattering method of Lipperheide and Fiedeldey [Z. Phys. A {bold 286}, 45 (1978); {bold 301}, 81 (1981)] has been used to construct an energy-dependent potential from the elastic-scattering phase shifts of the recently developed {ital K} model of Kaneko, LeMere, and Tang [Phys. Rev. C {bold 44}, 1588 (1991); {bold 46}, 298 (1992)] for the {ital n}{minus}{alpha} and {ital n}{minus}{sup 40}Ca systems. The local momentum of the inversion potential is subsequently used to recover the Wigner transforms of the {ital K} model. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to find, via inversion, an {ital l}-independent Wigner transform, which, when calculated at all energies, can provide us with the full nonlocality. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Inverse scattering for a specific resonating group model nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantis, G.; Sofianos, S. A.

    1996-10-01

    An inverse scattering method of Lipperheide and Fiedeldey [Z. Phys. A 286, 45 (1978); 301, 81 (1981)] has been used to construct an energy-dependent potential from the elastic-scattering phase shifts of the recently developed K model of Kaneko, LeMere, and Tang [Phys. Rev. C 44, 1588 (1991); 46, 298 (1992)] for the n-α and n-40Ca systems. The local momentum of the inversion potential is subsequently used to recover the Wigner transforms of the K model. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to find, via inversion, an l-independent Wigner transform, which, when calculated at all energies, can provide us with the full nonlocality.

  14. Shigeo Satomura: 60 years of Doppler ultrasound in medicine.

    PubMed

    Coman, Ioan M; Popescu, Bogdan A

    2015-01-01

    This year we celebrate 60 years since Shigeo Satomura published the first measurements of the Doppler shift of ultrasonic signals from a beating heart. He demonstrated that Doppler signals can be retrieved from heart movements when insonated with 3 MHz ultrasonic waves. Later, togheter with Ziro Kaneko, he constructed the first Doppler flowmeter to measure the blood flow velocities in peripheral and extracranial brain-supplying vessels using ultrasounds. They proved that ultrasonic Doppler signals from arteries and veins can be recorded from the surface of the skin and pioneered transcutaneous flow analysis in systole and diastole in both normal and diseased blood vessels. These were the first medical applications of Doppler sonography and impressive technologic innovations have been continuing ever since. Over time, Doppler techniques became a key player in diagnostic ultrasound for hemodynamic assessment, replacing cardiac catheterization in many clinical settings. PMID:26699126

  15. [Anti-aging studies on the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) strains].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoya

    2010-01-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse (SAM), a murine model of accelerated senescence, was established by Toshio Takeda and colleagues. SAM consists of series of SAMP (prone) and SAMR (resistant) lines. All SAMP lines (from SAMP1 to SAMP11) are characterized by accelerated accumulation of senile features, earlier onset and faster progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes, such as amyloidosis, impaired immune response, senile osteoporosis and deficits in learning and memory. These SAMP lines are useful for evaluation of putative anti-aging therapies. For example, SAMP1 line is used to study the anti-aging effect of the antioxidant containing foods and various anti-oxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, lycopene. SAMP8 line exhibiting an early onset of impaired learning and memory is often used for test strategies for therapeutic intervention of dementia of early onset. SAMP6 is used as an animal model for developing new strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis in humans. Various lines of SAM (P1, P6, P8, P10 and R1) are now commercially available for research. In this review, I will briefly introduce various usages of SAM in anti-aging research. PMID:20046059

  16. Studies of Plutonium Aerosol Resuspension at the Time of the Maralinga Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2003-08-01

    ), prior to the cleanup (Johnston et al, 1992, Williams 1993, Johnston et al 1993, Burns et al 1994, Burns et al 1995). ARPANSA staff made major contributions to delineate the areas with Pu in the soil, to determine the degree of secondary soil contamination by fission products from nuclear testing, to measure Pu resuspension by wind erosion of the undisturbed soil, and to prepare assessments of the human health risk from residual soil Pu. In addition, ARPANSA supported the Maralinga cleanup to assure compliance with criteria set by an independent technical advisory committee. During the cleanup ARPANSA monitored the residual Pu in the soil and certified that the cleanup was complete according to the criteria. It was not the reduction in potential inhalation exposure that usually was the main driver of the cleanup, but the requirement to also remove individual hot particles and fragments. It is the residual microscopic particles of Pu in the soil, however, that have the potential for long-term human exposure. The resuspension of respirable-size Pu particles has been studied with specialized equipment at the Nevada Test Site (Gilbert et al 1988a, Gilbert et al 1988b, Shinn et al 1989, and Shinn 1992), and at Bikini and Enewetak in the Marshall Islands (Shinn et al 1997). These efforts were in large part contributed by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study reported here is a collaboration between ARPANSA and LLNL, and was jointly supported by the United States Department of Energy, and the Commonwealth of Australia Department of Primary Industry and Energy.

  17. Formation of Complex Amino Acid Precursors in Simulated Primitive Atmosphere and Their Alteration under Simulated Submarine Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kurihara, Hironari; Hirako, Tomoaki; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka

    Since late 1970's a great number of submarine hydrothermal systems (SHSs) has been dis-covered, and they are considered possible sites of chemical evolution and generation of life on the Earth since their discovery in late 1970s. A number of experiments simulating the con-ditions of SHSs were conducted, and abiotic production and polymerization of amino acids were reported. Free amino acids were frequently used as starting materials to examine possible organic reactions in the simulation experiments. In our early studies, not free amino acids but complex amino acids precursors with large molecular weights were formed abiotically from simulated primitive Earth atmosphere (a mixture of CO, N2 and H2 O) (Takano et al., 2004). Such complex organics (hereafter referred as to CNWs) should have been delivered to SHSs in Primitive Ocean, where they were subjected to further alteration. We examined possible alteration of the complex organics in high-temperature high-pressure environments by the su-percritical water flow reactor (SCWFR) (Islam et al.. 2003) and an autoclave. CNWs were quite hydrophilic compounds whose molecular weights were ca. 3000. After heating 573 K for 2 min in the SCWFR, aggregates of organics were formed, which were separated from aque-ous solution with a Nucleopore filter (pore size: 200 nm). We propose the following scenario of chemical evolution: (1) Complex organics including amino acid precursors were formed in primitive atmosphere and/or extraterrestrial environments, (ii) they were delivered to primor-dial SHSs, (iii) hydrothermal alteration occurred in SHSs to give organic aggregates, (iv) quite primitive molecular systems with subtle biological functions were generated in the competition among such aggregates. References: Islam, Md. N., Kaneko, T., and Kobayashi, K (2003). Reactions of Amino Acids with a Newly ConstructedSupercritical Water Flow Reactor Simulating Submarine Hydrothermal Systems. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 76, 1171. Takano, Y

  18. Transfer of radio-cesium from forest soil to woodchips using fungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Huang, Yao; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Takahashi, Terumasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    Raido-cesium released to terrestrial ecosystems by nuclear accidents is know to accumulate forest soil and organic layer on the soil. Forests in Japan are not exceptions. Practically it is impossible to decontaminate large area of forests. However, there is a strong demand from local people, who has been using secondary forests (Satoyama) around croplands in hilly areas, to decontaminate radio-cesium, because those people used to collect wild mushrooms and edible plants, and there are active cultures of mushrooms using logs and sawdusts. These natural resource uses consist substantial part of their economical activities, Therefore it is needed to decontaminate some selected part of forests in Japan to local economy. Clear cutting and scraping surface soil and organic matter are common methods of decontamination. However the efficiency of decontamination is up to 30% reduction of aerial radiation, and the cost to preserve contaminated debris is not affordable. In this study we used wood chips as a growth media for saprotrophic fungi which are known to accumulate redio-cesium. There are many studies indicated that mushrooms accumulated redio-cesium from forest soil and organic layer. It is not practical to collect mushrooms to decontaminate redio-cesium, because biomass of mushrooms are not enough to collect total contaminants. Mushrooms are only minor part of saprotrophic fungi. Fungal biomass in forest soil is about 1% of dead organic matter on forest floor. Our previous study to observe Cs accumulation to decomposing leaf litter indicated 18% absorption of total soil radio-Cs to litter during one year field incubation (Kaneko et al., 2013), and Cs concentration was proportional to fungal biomass on litter. This result indicated that fungi transferred radio-cesium around newly supplied leaf litter free of contamination. Therefore effective decontamination will be possible if we can provide large amount of growth media for saprotrophic fungi, and the media can be

  19. Ectopic expression of two MADS box genes from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) and lily (Lilium longiflorum) alters flower transition and formation in Eustoma grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2009-10-01

    Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn] is a popular cut flower crop throughout the world, and the demand for this plant for cut flowers and potted plants has been increasing worldwide. Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the transformation and regeneration of plants to become a powerful tool for improvement of lisianthus. We have established a highly efficient plant regeneration system and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of E. grandiflorum. The greatest shoot regeneration frequency and number of shoot buds per explant are observed on media supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). We report an efficient plant regeneration system using leaf explants via organogenesis with high efficiency of transgenic plants (15%) in culture of 11 weeks' duration. Further ectopic expression of two MADS box genes, LMADS1-M from lily (Lilium longiflorum) and OMADS1 from orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), was performed in E. grandiflorum. Conversion of second whorl petals into sepal-like structures and alteration of third whorl stamen formation were observed in the transgenic E. grandiflorum plants ectopically expressing 35S::LMADS1-M. 35S::OMADS1 transgenic E. grandiflorum plants flowered significantly earlier than non-transgenic plants. This is the first report on the ectopic expression of two MADS box genes in E. grandiflorum using a simple and highly efficient gene transfer protocol. Our results reveal the potential for floral modification in E. grandiflorum through genetic transformation. PMID:19639326

  20. CAMD studies of coal structure and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, J.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    The macromolecular structure of coal is essential to understand the mechanisms occurring during coal liquefaction. Many attempts to model coal structure can be found in the literature. More specifically for high volatile bituminous coal, the subject of interest the most commonly quoted models are the models of Given, Wiser, Solomon, and Shinn. In past work, the authors`s have used computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) to develop three-dimensional representations for the above coal models. The three-dimensional structures were energy minimized using molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics. True density and micopore volume were evaluated for each model. With the exception of Given`s model, the computed density values were found to be in agreement with the corresponding experimental results. The above coal models were constructed by a trial and error technique consisting of a manual fitting of the-analytical data. It is obvious that for each model the amount of data is small compared to the actual complexity of coal, and for all of the models more than one structure can be built. Hence, the process by which one structure is chosen instead of another is not clear. In fact, all the authors agree that the structure they derived was only intended to represent an {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} coal model rather than a unique correct structure. The purpose of this program is further develop CAMD techniques to increase the understanding of coal structure and its relationship to coal liquefaction.

  1. Applications of molecular modeling in coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Faulon, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, molecular modeling has been applied to study various characteristics of coal molecular structures. Powerful workstations coupled with molecular force-field-based software packages have been used to study coal and coal-related molecules. Early work involved determination of the minimum-energy three-dimensional conformations of various published coal structures (Given, Wiser, Solomon and Shinn), and the dominant role of van der Waals and hydrogen bonding forces in defining the energy-minimized structures. These studies have been extended to explore various physical properties of coal structures, including density, microporosity, surface area, and fractal dimension. Other studies have related structural characteristics to cross-link density and have explored small molecule interactions with coal. Finally, recent studies using a structural elucidation (molecular builder) technique have constructed statistically diverse coal structures based on quantitative and qualitative data on coal and its decomposition products. This technique is also being applied to study coalification processes based on postulated coalification chemistry.

  2. Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from farmed populations of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria L; Faria, Patricia J; Di Cave, David; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-03-01

    Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the skin, fins, eyes and gills of juvenile Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) following two outbreaks of gyrodactylosis amongst stocks held in inshore floating cages on the Adriatic coast of Albania and Croatia. Fish were heavily infected (1000+ gyrodactylids/fish) with G. orecchiae which reportedly resulted in approximately 2-10% mortality amongst the infected stock. Morphologically, the haptoral hooks of G. orecchiae most closely resemble those of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 in the approximate shape of the ventral bar with its pronounced ventral bar processes and marginal hook sickles which possess a square line to the inner edge of the sickle blade and large rounded heels. The marginal hooks are also morphologically similar to those of Gyrodactylus quadratidigitus Longshaw, Pursglove et Shinn, 2003 and Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle et Kritsky, 1967, but G. orecchiae can be readily discriminated from all three species by the characteristic infolding of the hamuli roots and the shape of the marginal hook sickle. Molecular sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 regions (513+157+404 bp, respectively) of G. orecchiae and alignment with other gyrodactylids for which these same genomic regions have been determined, suggests that this is a new species. No similarities were found when the ITS1 region of G. orecchiae was compared with 84 species of Gyrodactylus available on GenBank. PMID:19391328

  3. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  4. First lasing of the Jefferson Lab IR Demo FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S.; Biallas, G.; Bohn, C.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, H. F.; Evans, R.; Fugitt, J.; Hill, R.; Jordan, K.; Krafft, G.; Legg, R.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Neil, G. R.; Oepts, D.; Piot, P.; Preble, J.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.; Walker, R.; Yunn, B.

    1999-06-01

    As reported in previous work (Neil, Proceedings of the 1998 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 1998, p. 88; Shinn, in: Free-Electron Laser Challenges, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 2988, 1997, p. 170), Jefferson Lab is building a free-electron laser capable of generating a continuous wave kilowatt laser beam. The driver-accelerator consists of a superconducting, energy-recovery accelerator. The initial stage of the program was to produce over 100 W of average power with no recirculation. In order to provide maximum gain the initial wavelength was chosen to be 5 μm and the initial beam energy was chosen to be 38.5 MeV. On June 17, 1998, the laser produced 155 W cw power at the laser output with a 98% reflective output coupler. On July 28th, 311 W cw power was obtained using a 90% reflective output coupler. A summary of the commissioning activities to date as well as some novel lasing results will be summarized in this paper. Present work is concentrated on optimizing lasing at 5 μm, obtaining lasing at 3 μm, and commissioning the recirculation transport in preparation for kilowatt lasing this fall.

  5. COMPARISON OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COMPUTING SKY VIEW FACTOR IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. BROWN; S. GRIMMOND; C. RATTI

    2001-07-01

    Sky view factor ({Psi}{sub sky}) is used in radiation balance schemes for the partitioning of longwave and shortwave radiation within urban and forest canopies and complex terrain. In the urban environment, ({Psi}{sub sky}) and 1-({Psi}{sub sky}) give a measure of how much radiation penetrates the canopy and how much will be intercepted by the canopy, respectively. As part of the Oct. 2000 URBAN field Experiment in Salt Lake City (Shinn et al., 2001), photographs were taken in the downtown area at ground level shooting upwards using a fisheye lens. Utilizing image analysis and in-house processing software, ({Psi}{sub sky}) was computed for each photograph. Sky view factor was also computed from 3D building databases using the methodology developed by Ratti and Richens (1999). Although photographic methods for obtaining sky view factor are very accurate, they are time consuming to acquire. Commercial 3D building databases are becoming increasingly more available and sky view factor can be computed from them quite easily. In the future, 3D building datasets might be used to readily compute sky view factor for cities and therefore better estimates of the urban climate could be made. Comparisons of the two methods for computing sky view factor are compared in this paper.

  6. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  7. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  8. Auditory distance perception in fixed and varying simulated acoustic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolmaster, Matthew; Kopčo, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2001-05-01

    Listeners must calibrate to the acoustic environment in order to judge source distance using reverberation. Results of a previous study [Schoolmaster, Kopčo, and Shinn-Cunningham, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2285 (2003)] showed that distance perception is more accurate when the simulated acoustic environment is consistent rather than randomly chosen from trial to trial; however, the environments were very different (anechoic versus a large classroom). The study was replicated here using two rooms that were much more similar. Each subject completed two series of trials. In the fixed-room series, the room (large or small) was fixed within a trial block. In the mixed-room series, the room was randomly chosen from trial to trial. Half of the subjects performed the mixed and half performed the fixed series first. Differences between subject groups were smaller in the current study than when anechoic and reverberant trials were intermingled; performance in the two subject groups was similar for (1) fixed trials and (2) trials simulating the large room. However, there was an interaction between subject group and room. Results suggest that listeners calibrate distance judgments based on past experience, but that such calibration partially generalizes to similar environments [Work supported by AFOSR and the NRC.

  9. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  10. Cloning of apg-2 encoding a novel member of heat shock protein 110 family.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Kimura, T; Kishishita, M; Noda, Y; Fujita, J

    1997-04-11

    Chinese hamster heat shock protein 110-encoding gene (hsp110), mouse apg-1 and human hsp70RY are structurally related genes, with the first two encoding about 110-kDa HSPs [Yoon et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 15725-15733; Kaneko et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., in press; Fathallah et al. (1993) J. Immunol. 151, 810-813]. Using apg-1 cDNA as a probe, we isolated a novel cDNA, apg-2 from a mouse testis cDNA library, which was highly homologous to human hsp70RY. However, the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of APG-2 was longer (841 aa) than that of HSP70RY (701 aa) and comparable to those of HSP110 and APG-1. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of apg-2 transcripts was ubiquitous in various mouse tissues, and most abundant in the testis and ovary. While induction of hsp70 transcripts was observed in mouse TAMA26 Sertoli cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts on temperature shift from 37 degrees C to 42 degrees C (traditional heat shock) or from 32 degrees C to 39 degrees C, apg-2 transcripts were not induced under either condition. These results suggest that apg-2 is an isoform of mouse homolog of hsp70RY, but that it belongs to the hsp110 family instead of hsp70 family, and that it plays a role under non-stress conditions. PMID:9161406

  11. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  12. Random matrix theory of singular values of rectangular complex matrices I: Exact formula of one-body distribution function in fixed-trace ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Satoshi Toda, Mikito Kubotani, Hiroto

    2009-11-15

    The fixed-trace ensemble of random complex matrices is the fundamental model that excellently describes the entanglement in the quantum states realized in a coupled system by its strongly chaotic dynamical evolution [see H. Kubotani, S. Adachi, M. Toda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240501]. The fixed-trace ensemble fully takes into account the conservation of probability for quantum states. The present paper derives for the first time the exact analytical formula of the one-body distribution function of singular values of random complex matrices in the fixed-trace ensemble. The distribution function of singular values (i.e. Schmidt eigenvalues) of a quantum state is so important since it describes characteristics of the entanglement in the state. The derivation of the exact analytical formula utilizes two recent achievements in mathematics, which appeared in 1990s. The first is the Kaneko theory that extends the famous Selberg integral by inserting a hypergeometric type weight factor into the integrand to obtain an analytical formula for the extended integral. The second is the Petkovsek-Wilf-Zeilberger theory that calculates definite hypergeometric sums in a closed form.

  13. Overview of transport and MHD stability study: focusing on the impact of magnetic field topology in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kasahara, H.; Evans, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kamiya, K.; Ohdach, S.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sudo, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohno, N.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; T., Ii; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Collaborators

    2015-10-01

    The progress in the understanding of the physics and the concurrent parameter extension in the large helical device since the last IAEA-FEC, in 2012 (Kaneko O et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 095024), is reviewed. Plasma with high ion and electron temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 6 keV) with simultaneous ion and electron internal transport barriers is obtained by controlling recycling and heating deposition. A sign flip of the nondiffusive term of impurity/momentum transport (residual stress and convection flow) is observed, which is associated with the formation of a transport barrier. The impact of the topology of three-dimensional magnetic fields (stochastic magnetic fields and magnetic islands) on heat momentum, particle/impurity transport and magnetohydrodynamic stability is also discussed. In the steady state operation, a 48 min discharge with a line-averaged electron density of 1 × 1019 m-3 and with high electron and ion temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 2 keV), resulting in 3.36 GJ of input energy, is achieved.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Microscopes provide tools of inimitable value for probing the building blocks of the world around us. The identity of the inventor of the first microscope remains under debate, but a name unequivocally linked with early developments in microscopy is Robert Hooke. His Micrographia published in 1665, was the first ever bestseller in science and brought topics in microscopy to the broader public eye with pages of detailed micrographs, most famously the fly's eye and plant cells. Since the first microscopes in the late 16th century, ingenious alternatives to the original optical microscopes have been developed to create images of the world at ever smaller dimensions. Innovations include scanning probe techniques such as the atomic force microscope [1]. As Toshio Ando describes in a review in this issue [2], these devices have also entered a new era in the past decade with the development of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Now, we can not only see the nanoscale components that make up the world around us, but we can watch them at work. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained by a researcher in the early 1930s, 'It is obvious that if the dyes used for selective staining in ordinary microscopical work are supplemented by substances which cause a particular detail of the structure to fluoresce with a specific colour in ultraviolet light, then many strings will be added to the bow of the practical microscopist' [3]. More recently, emphasis on the role of plasmons—collective oscillations of electrons in nanoscale metal structures—has received considerable research attention. Plasmons enhance the local electromagnetic field and can lead to increased fluorescence rates from nearby fluorophores depending on the efficiency of the counteracting process, non-radiative transfer [4]. The 1930s also saw the

  15. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  16. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuffner, I. B.; Hickey, T. D.; Morrison, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reefs are degrading on a global scale, and rates of reef-organism calcification are predicted to decline due to ocean warming and acidification. Systematic measurements of calcification over space and time are necessary to detect change resulting from environmental stressors. We established a network of calcification monitoring stations at four managed reefs along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) from Miami to the Dry Tortugas. Eighty colonies (in two sequential sets of 40) of the reef-building coral, Siderastrea siderea, were transplanted to fixed apparatus that allowed repetitive detachment for buoyant weighing every 6 months. Algal-recruitment tiles were also deployed during each weighing interval to measure net calcification of the crustose coralline algal (CCA) community. Coral-calcification rates were an order of magnitude greater than those of CCA. Rates of coral calcification were seasonal (summer calcification was 53 % greater than winter), and corals in the Dry Tortugas calcified 48 % faster than those at the other three sites. Linear extension rates were also highest in the Dry Tortugas, whereas percent area of the coral skeletons excavated by bioeroding fauna was lowest. The spatial patterns in net coral calcification revealed here correlate well with Holocene reef thickness along the FKRT and, in part, support the "inimical waters hypothesis" proposed by Ginsburg, Hudson, and Shinn almost 50 yrs ago to explain reef development in this region. Due to the homogeneity in coral-calcification rates among the three main Keys sites, we recommend refinement of this hypothesis and suggest that water-quality variables (e.g., carbonate mineral saturation state, dissolved and particulate organic matter, light attenuation) be monitored alongside calcification in future studies. Our results demonstrate that our calcification monitoring network presents a feasible and worthwhile approach to quantifying potential impacts of ocean acidification, warming

  17. Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

  18. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.

    PubMed

    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva

    2016-09-01

    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution. PMID:27522367

  19. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. and G. neretum sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Faria, Patricia J; Shinn, Andrew P

    2010-03-01

    The current work describes two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 collected from pipefish Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann et Kendall) and Syngnathus typhle L. during two separate gyrodactylosis episodes on fish held in a public aquarium located in northern Italy. The gyrodactylids collected from the skin, fins and gills of pipefish were subjected to a morphological analysis of the attachment hooks and the morphometric data were compared to the four species of Gyrodactylus previously described from syngnathid hosts, namely G. eyipayipi Vaughan, Christison, Hansen et Shinn, 2010, G. pisculentui Williams, Kritsky, Dunnigan, Lash et Klein, 2008, G. shorti Holliman, 1963 and G. syngnathi Appleby, 1996. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the morphological data indicated six clusters; two discrete groups among the specimens taken from the pipefisli held in the Italian aquarium and four further groups representing G. eyipayipi, G. pisculentus, G. shorti and G. syngnathi. Molecular sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene for the new species considered here were then compared with those available for other species in GenBank. The comparison did not reveal any identical match, supporting the morphological analysis that Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. from S. typhle and Gyrodactylus neretum sp. n. from S. scovelli represent distinct species. Both G. corleonis and G. neretum possess robust hamuli, marginal hook blades that curve smoothly from their sickle base to a point beyond the toe and, ventral bars with a broad median portion and a reduced membrane. Gyrodactylus corleonis, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its heart-shaped ventral bar; G. neretum has a 1:2 hamulus point:shaft ratio and a rectangular-shaped ventral bar. A redescription of the haptoral hard parts of the four species previously recorded on pipefish is also presented. PMID:20449996

  20. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  1. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Hickey, T.D.; Morrison, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are degrading on a global scale, and rates of reef-organism calcification are predicted to decline due to ocean warming and acidification. Systematic measurements of calcification over space and time are necessary to detect change resulting from environmental stressors. We established a network of calcification monitoring stations at four managed reefs along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) from Miami to the Dry Tortugas. Eighty colonies (in two sequential sets of 40) of the reef-building coral, Siderastrea siderea, were transplanted to fixed apparatus that allowed repetitive detachment for buoyant weighing every 6 months. Algal-recruitment tiles were also deployed during each weighing interval to measure net calcification of the crustose coralline algal (CCA) community. Coral-calcification rates were an order of magnitude greater than those of CCA. Rates of coral calcification were seasonal (summer calcification was 53% greater than winter), and corals in the Dry Tortugas calcified 48% faster than those at the other three sites. Linear extension rates were also highest in the Dry Tortugas, whereas percent area of the coral skeletons excavated by bioeroding fauna was lowest. The spatial patterns in net coral calcification revealed here correlate well with Holocene reef thickness along the FKRT and, in part, support the “inimical waters hypothesis” proposed by Ginsburg, Hudson, and Shinn almost 50 yrs ago to explain reef development in this region. Due to the homogeneity in coral-calcification rates among the three main Keys sites, we recommend refinement of this hypothesis and suggest that water-quality variables (e.g., carbonate mineral saturation state, dissolved and particulate organic matter, light attenuation) be monitored alongside calcification in future studies. Our results demonstrate that our calcification monitoring network presents a feasible and worthwhile approach to quantifying potential impacts of ocean acidification

  2. New Aspects of Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Eliasson, Bengt

    2008-03-01

    Nonlinear collective processes in very dense plasmas / P. K. Shukla, B. Eliasson and D. Shaikh -- Quantum, spin and QED effects in plasmas / G. Brodin and M. Marklund -- Spin quantum plasmas - new aspects of collective dynamics / M. Marklund and G. Brodin -- Revised quantum electrodynamics with fundamental applications / B. Lehnert -- Quantum methodologies in beam, fluid and plasma physics / R. Fedele -- Plasma effects in cold atom physics / J. T. Mendonca ... [et al.] -- General properties of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in different plasma configurations: the plasma foil model / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a plasma foil accelerated by the radiation pressure of an ultra intense laser pulse / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- Generation of galactic seed magnetic fields / H. Saleem -- Nonlinear dynamics of mirror waves in non-Maxwellian plasmas / O. A. Pokhotelov et al. -- Formation of mirror structures near instability threshold / E. A. Kuznetsov, T. Passot and P. L. Sulem -- Nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves in magnetoplasmas / P. K. Shukla ... [et al.] -- Properties of drift and Alfvén waves in collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes, S. Poedts and B. P. Pandey -- Current driven acoustic perturbations in partially ionized collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes ... [et al.] -- Multifluid theory of solitons / F. Verheest -- Nonlinear wavepackets in pair-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas / I. Kourakis et al. -- Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas / A. A. Mamun and P. K. Shukla -- Physics of dust in magnetic fusion devices / Z. Wang et al. -- Short wavelength ballooning mode in Tokamaks / A. Hirose and N. Joiner -- Effects of perpendicular shear superposition and hybrid ions intruduction on parallel shear driven plasma instabilities / T. Kaneko and R. Hatakeyama.

  3. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.

    2012-12-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  4. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  5. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  6. Prediction of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae in microscale using macro-scale׳s relationships between bone density and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Cyganik, Łukasz; Binkowski, Marcin; Kokot, Grzegorz; Rusin, Tomasz; Popik, Paulina; Bolechała, Filip; Nowak, Roman; Wróbel, Zygmunt; John, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    According to the literature, there are many mathematical relationships between density of the trabecular bone and mechanical properties obtained in macro-scale testing. In micro-scale, the measurements provide only the ranges of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae, but there are no experimentally tested relationships allowing the calculation of the distribution of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae within these experimental ranges. This study examined the applicability of relationships between bone density and mechanical properties obtained in macro-scale testing for the calculation of Young׳s modulus distribution in micro-scale. Twelve cubic specimens from eleven femoral heads were cut out and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned. A mechanical compression test and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were performed to obtain the experimental displacement and strain full-field evaluation for each specimen. Five relationships between bone density and Young׳s modulus were selected for the test; those were given by Carter and Hayes (1977), Ciarelli et al. (2000), Kaneko et al. (2004), Keller (1994) for the human femur, and Li and Aspden, 1997. Using these relationships, five separate finite element (FE) models were prepared, with different distribution of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae for each specimen. In total, 60 FE analyses were carried out. The obtained displacement and strain full-field measurements from numerical calculations and experiment were compared. The results indicate that the highest accuracy of the numerical calculation was obtained for the Ciarelli et al. (2000) relationship, where the relative error was 17.87% for displacements and 50.94 % for strains. Therefore, the application of the Ciarelli et al. (2000) relationship in the microscale linear FE analysis is possible, but mainly to determine bone displacement. PMID:24837330

  7. Computer survey for likely genes in the one megabase contiguous genomic sequence data of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, M; Kaneko, T; Tabata, S; McIninch, J D; Hayes, W S; Borodovsky, M; Isono, K

    1995-12-31

    Using the computer program GeneMark, the open reading frames (ORFs) previously assigned within the one megabase sequence data of the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 (Kaneko et al., DNA Res. 2: 153-166, 1995), were re-examined. Matrices required by GeneMark for its statistical calculation were generated and modified by running a script termed GeneMark-Genesis that performed recursive application of GeneMark against the Synechocystis data and evaluated the probability scores for optimization. Based on the matrices thus generated, 752 of the 818 previously assigned ORFs (92%) were supported by GeneMark as likely coding sequences, of which 26 were predicted to start at more internal positions than previously assigned. In addition, 50 ORFs were newly identified as likely coding sequences, most of them being shorter than 300 bp. Thus, the procedure was proven to be very powerful to locate likely coding regions within the genomic sequence data of Synechocystis without having prior information concerning their similarity to the genes of other organisms. However, GeneMark did not predict 66 previously assigned ORFs as likely genes: 14 of them showed significant degrees of similarity to known genes and 10 others were found within IS-like elements. It seems that these genes, many of which appear to be exogenous origin, escaped detection by GeneMark as in the case of "class 3 (horizontally transferred) genes" of E. coli, which in turn suggests that genes of different phylogenetic origins might also be detected as such by modifying the matrices. PMID:8867797

  8. Iron Deficiency Protects Against Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Death in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Gwamaka, Moses; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Sorensen, Bess E.; Holte, Sarah; Morrison, Robert; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Fried, Michal

    2012-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Awah and Kaneko, on pages 1145–7.) Background. Iron supplementation may increase malaria morbidity and mortality, but the effect of naturally occurring variation in iron status on malaria risk is not well studied. Methods. A total of 785 Tanzanian children living in an area of intense malaria transmission were enrolled at birth, and intensively monitored for parasitemia and illness including malaria for up to 3 years, with an average of 47 blood smears. We assayed plasma samples collected at routine healthy-child visits, and evaluated the impact of iron deficiency (ID) on future malaria outcomes and mortality. Results. ID at routine, well-child visits significantly decreased the odds of subsequent parasitemia (23% decrease, P < .001) and subsequent severe malaria (38% decrease, P = .04). ID was also associated with 60% lower all-cause mortality (P = .04) and 66% lower malaria-associated mortality (P = .11). When sick visits as well as routine healthy-child visits are included in analyses (average of 3 iron status assays/child), ID reduced the prevalence of parasitemia (6.6-fold), hyperparasitemia (24.0-fold), and severe malaria (4.0-fold) at the time of sample collection (all P < .001). Conclusions. Malaria risk is influenced by physiologic iron status, and therefore iron supplementation may have adverse effects even among children with ID. Future interventional studies should assess whether treatment for ID coupled with effective malaria control can mitigate the risks of iron supplementation for children in areas of malaria transmission. PMID:22354919

  9. 62 years of gastrointestinal research: 1951-2013.

    PubMed

    Guth, Paul H

    2015-03-01

    In 1951, I began a 2-year postdoctoral research fellowship under Dr Simon Komarov at Temple University. Later, as a staff gastroenterologist at the Orange County General Hospital in California, I was interested in the possible role of blood flow alterations in peptic ulcer disease. We adapted Silvio Baez's just described in vivo microscopy technique to study blood flow in the gastric microcirculation in the anesthetized cat. In 1969, I joined the Gastroenterology Service at the West Los Angeles Veterans Administration (VA), primarily because of the presence there of Dr Morton Grossman, one of the leading researchers in gastrointestinal physiology. The most important lesson I learned from Dr Grossman was the importance of openness--investigators sharing their ideas, thoughts, and findings. Dr Harold Wayland, Professor, California Institute of Technology, helped me in setting up my laboratory at the VA and arranged with his friend Dr Masaharu Tsuchiya, Chair of Gastroenterology at Keio University, Tokyo, Japan, for a collaborative effort with fellows from Keio coming for 2-year fellowships with us (under my grant). Harold introduced us to the fluorescein-labeled albumen technique for the study of microvascular permeability. Later, Dr Jonathon Kaunitz, a colleague at the VA, and Kotaro Kaneko, my Keio University fellow, succeeded in modifying this technique to measure pHi in surface gastric cells in vivo. When I retired in 1993, Dr Kaunitz took charge of my laboratory. He and his associate Dr Akiba have completed extensive studies comparing and contrasting how stomach and duodenal surface cells defend themselves against acid loads. In the course of this work, they have become deeply involved in cell signaling and intracellular pathways when nutrients enter the duodenum. They have developed a technique for using confocal microscopy in vivo in this work. Dr Grossman was right: when investigators share their ideas, everyone benefits and science advances. PMID:25827796

  10. [JSPS Asian core program on cutting-edge organic chemistry in Asia].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Minoru; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2009-04-01

    The vision to establish this program was to establish and extend cooperative research efforts beyond the intraregional boundaries. The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) has taken an initiative to support an Asian Core Program, which aims to create world-class research hubs within the Asian region and foster the development of the next generation of leading researchers by establishing sustainable collaborative relations among research and educational institutions in Asian countries. Nagoya University strongly supports and is the Core University of this program with Minoru Isobe and Toshio Nishikawa serving as the coordinator. Representing their respective countries/regions, Guo-Qiang Lin and Zhu-Jun Yao (China, Shanghai), Sunggak Kim and Kwan-Soo Kim (Korea), Somsak Ruchirawat (Thailand), and Chun-Chen Liao and Biing-Jiun Uang (China, Taipei) share in the vision to enhance collaborative efforts. As coordinators they have invited many cooperative universities/institutes in their home countries/regions to start the network since 2005. Singapore (Tech-Peng Loh) has joined lately, and Hong Kong is represented by Henry Wong. All cooperating regions also agreed to support this program by acquiring matching funds for the duration of the program, that is, until March 2010. This program is jointly supported by the JSPS (Japan), the NNSFC (China, Beijing), the NSCT (China, Taipei), the KOSEF/CMDS (Korea), the NRCT/CRI (Thailand), and the IUPAC for an East Asian Network Task group project. Pauline Chiu takes the general secretary work. The initiation of the Asian Core Program and the Inauguration Conference (The 0th International Conference on Cutting-Edge Organic Chemistry in Asia; ICCEOCA-0) was held in Nagoya (2006. 3), which was followed by ICCEOCA-1 in Okinawa, Japan (2006. 10), ICCEOCA-2 in Busan, Korea (2007. 9), ICCEOCA-3 in Hangzhou, China (2008. 10). A post symposium of ICCEOCA-1 was held in Hsinchu, Taiwan (2006. 10), and a satellite symposium of

  11. PREFACE: 11th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Dutta, D.

    2015-06-01

    The International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC) is a prestigious triennial conference series with a rich history. The 11th meeting in the series (PPC-11) was held at Cidade de Goa, Goa, India during 9-14, November, 2014. It was organized by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. The co-organizers were Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam and Indian Association of Nuclear Chemists and Allied Scientists (IANCAS), Mumbai. PPC-11 attracted participants both from academic institutions and industries. About 120 participants from 20 countries representing all continents participated in the conference. The conference continued the tradition of excellence in terms of quality of presentations and discussions. There were 33 plenary and invited talks, 39 oral presentations and 40 posters. The conference stood true to its multidisciplinary tag with papers presented in the fields of fundamentals of positron and positronium chemistry, applications in polymers, porous materials, metals/alloys, studies in liquids, biological applications as well as developments in theory and experimental techniques. The enthusiastic participation of senior researchers and young students made the scientific program a grand success. In order to encourage the student participants (twenty) and promote excellence, a committee of senior members evaluated their presentations and the top three contributions were awarded. The positron and positronium community paid homage to the memory of late Profs. J. Kristiak and A.T. Stewart. A brief sketch of their life and work was presented by Profs. Jan Kuriplach and Toshio Hyodo, respectively. All the papers published in these proceedings have been peer reviewed by the participants of PPC-11. Editors thank all the reviewers for sparing their valuable time and helping us in bringing out the proceedings with 43 contributed articles in the scheduled time. We are

  12. Solar Eclipses in the First Half of the Chunqiu Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Tadato; Sôma, Mitsuru

    2010-06-01

    In the Chinese chronicle Chunqiu, which describes a partial (722 BC-481 BC) history of the Chunqiu Period (770 BC-403 BC), there are recorded 37 solar eclipse observations, starting in 720 BC and ending in 481 BC. Among these, there are 10 eclipse records that lack either the cyclic day number or a statement of `the new moon', or both. Three explanatory books Zuoshi-Zhuan, Guliang-Zhuan, and Gongyang-Zhuan written in the Zhanguo Period (403 BC-221 BC) have different interpretations concerning these records. Zuoshi-Zhuan simply says that royal astronomers forgot to record these data. On the other hand, Guliang-Zhuan says that these eclipses were observed on the last day of the month or during the night. Gongyang-Zhuan says that these were mainly observed on the second day of the month. A famous astronomer, Liuxin in the Han Dynasty, argued close to the idea of Gongyang-Zhuan. These discussions are related to the problem of establishing a precise calendar system in the Chunqiu Period. Controversial arguments continue until today. A Japanese astronomer, Toshio Watanabe (1958), conjectured that these eclipses may have been observed at sunrise or sunset. In the present report, we intend to confirm Watanabe's conjecture, and after confirming this we use this property to accurately determine the range of ΔT (see section 1 for definition) in this period. We have obtained new ΔT ranges in seconds from five eclipses which accompanied deep contemporaneous solar eclipses: 20153 ≤ ΔT ≤ 21094 at around 720 BC February 22, 18526 ≤ ΔT ≤ 20686 at around 676 BC April 15, 19409 ≤ ΔT ≤ 20402 at around 648 BC April 6 if the site is Paros, or 18353 ≤ ΔT ≤ 19235 at around 648 BC April 6 if the site is Thasos, 19172 ≤ ΔT ≤ 20910 at around 599 BC March 6, 16134 ≤ ΔT ≤ 19101 at around 558 BC May 31.

  13. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Microscopes provide tools of inimitable value for probing the building blocks of the world around us. The identity of the inventor of the first microscope remains under debate, but a name unequivocally linked with early developments in microscopy is Robert Hooke. His Micrographia published in 1665, was the first ever bestseller in science and brought topics in microscopy to the broader public eye with pages of detailed micrographs, most famously the fly's eye and plant cells. Since the first microscopes in the late 16th century, ingenious alternatives to the original optical microscopes have been developed to create images of the world at ever smaller dimensions. Innovations include scanning probe techniques such as the atomic force microscope [1]. As Toshio Ando describes in a review in this issue [2], these devices have also entered a new era in the past decade with the development of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Now, we can not only see the nanoscale components that make up the world around us, but we can watch them at work. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained by a researcher in the early 1930s, 'It is obvious that if the dyes used for selective staining in ordinary microscopical work are supplemented by substances which cause a particular detail of the structure to fluoresce with a specific colour in ultraviolet light, then many strings will be added to the bow of the practical microscopist' [3]. More recently, emphasis on the role of plasmons—collective oscillations of electrons in nanoscale metal structures—has received considerable research attention. Plasmons enhance the local electromagnetic field and can lead to increased fluorescence rates from nearby fluorophores depending on the efficiency of the counteracting process, non-radiative transfer [4]. The 1930s also saw the

  14. The Lithological Constraint To Gas Hydrate Formation: Evidence OF Grain Size Of Sediments From IODP 311 On CASCADIA Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 614 sediment samples at intervals of about 1.5 m from all 5 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 on Cascadia Margin were analyzed using a Beckman Coulter LS-230 Particle Analyzer. The grain-size data were then plotted in depth and compared with other proxies of gas hydrate- occurrence such as soupy/mousse-like structures in sediments, gas hydrate concentration (Sh) derived from LWD data using Archie's relation, IR core images (infrared image) and the recovered samples of gas hydrate¨Cbearing sediments. A good relationship between the distribution of coarse grains in size of 31-63¦Ìm and 63-125¦Ìm sediments and the potential occurrence of gas hydrate was found across the entire gas hydrate stability zone. The depth distribution of grain size from the Site U1326 shows clear excursions at depths of 5-8, 21-26, 50- 123, 132-140, 167-180, 195-206 and 220-240 mbsf, which coincide with the potential occurrence of gas hydrate suggested by soupy/mousse-like structures, logging-derived gas hydrate concentrations (Sh) and the recovered samples of the gas hydrate¨Cbearing sand layers. The lithology of sediments significantly affects the formation of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate forms preferentially within relatively coarse grain-size sediments above 31 ¦Ìm. Key words: grain size of sediments, constraint, occurrence of gas hydrate, IODP 311 IODP Expedition 311 Scientists: Michael Riedel (Co-chief Scientist), Timothy S. Collett (Co-chief Scientist), Mitchell Malone (Expedition Project Manager/Staff Scientist), Gilles Gu¨¨rin, Fumio Akiba, Marie-Madeleine Blanc-Valleron, Michelle Ellis, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Verena Heuer, Yosuke Higashi, Melanie Holland, Peter D. Jackson, Masanori Kaneko, Miriam Kastner, Ji-Hoon Kim, Hiroko Kitajima, Philip E. Long, Alberto Malinverno, Greg Myers, Leena D. Palekar, John Pohlman, Peter Schultheiss, Barbara Teichert, Marta E. Torres, Anne M. Tr¨¦hu, Jiasheng Wang, Ulrich G. Wortmann, Hideyoshi

  15. [Coresidence with parents and marriage in recent Japan. Comment].

    PubMed

    Toshitani, N

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between marriage and parent-child relations was studied. Marriage was understood as formation of a new family and also as an extension and enlargement of a parent generation's family. Kaneko reports that advanced level of education of women, change in norm consciousness, and inequality in sex ratio at marriageable age contribute to the phenomenon called marriage delay/avoidance by influencing a series of events leading up to marriage at some point. He makes a novel attempt to elucidate mechanism and impact of various factors at play through demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process. This attempt is timely because the recent trend in legal sociology is to take more dynamic approach in studying marriage and divorce. For example, they include premarital and exmarital co-habitations in the scope of their study. Suzuki reports that the marriage norm is based upon the notion of marriage for all and traditional gender-associated divisions of roles. He says highly educated women have a different norm and men perceive this as a disadvantage and regression in the marriage norm. The norm has changed: society is severely critical of male extramarital sex and less critical of female premarital sex. Sex norms and marriage norms are relatively independent of each other. Men's attitude toward intergenerational relationships is from the perspective of a child taking care of aged parents, while women's attitude toward the same is from the perspective of an aged parent, especially a widowed parent. Men prefer separate household routines, while women prefer coresidence, both of which reflect the norm consciousness of an aging society. Mr. Nakano concludes in his report that marriage delay and avoidance among unmarried young Japanese women is due to their perception of married life as something of diminishing utility. He analyses this attitude toward marriage from the viewpoint of women's career options. Their opinions of ideals are polarized, either full time

  16. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  17. Orientation and optical properties of methylene blue crystal for better understanding of interactions with clay mineral surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2013-04-01

    twinning of feldspar minerals. Final result of molecular polymerization is represented as crystal framework of methylene blue. Model of the MB molecular aggregation in the crystal structure could be used as a way for the interpretation of the thin layer structure and the molecular aggregation on the clay surface. References - Hang P.T. & Brindley G.W., (1970), Clays and Clay Minerals, 18, 203-212. - Bujdak J., Iyi N., Kaneko Y. and Sasai R., (2003), Clay Minerals (2003), 38, 561-572. - Li F. and Zare R.N., (2005), J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 3330-3333. - Marr III, H.E., Stewart, J.M. and Chiu, M.F., (1973), Acta Cryst. (1973), B29, 847. - Bujdak J., (2006), Applied Clay Science 34 (2006) 58 - 73

  18. [Identification of a novel lytic bacteriophage obtained from clinical MRSA isolates and evaluation of its antibacterial activity].

    PubMed

    Sahin, Fikret; Karasartova, Djursun; Ozsan, T Murat; Gerçeker, Devran; Kıyan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria particularly MRSA is well known as a worldwide problem. Since the rate of development of novel antimicrobial agents has been slowed down during the last years, there have been a need for the exploration of alternative solutions for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections. Treatment of infections by bacteriophages (phages) that specifically kill the infecting pathogen, i.e. by the process known as phage therapy, is considered as a possible approach to treat multidrug resistant bacteria. Phage treatment has also been considered to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of a new lytic phage obtained from clinical MRSA strains. This lytic phage named as f LizAnk was obtained during the phage infectivity studies performed with 13 lysogenic phages against MRSA strains. The antibacterial activity of the f LizAnk phage was determined in vitro in BHI (Brain Heart Infusion) and LB (Leuria Bertani) broths and the in vivo antibacterial activity against MRSA strains and possible cytotoxic effect against mammalian cells were tested on fibroblastic cell cultures (3T3). This study was conducted using 20 MRSA strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Identification of the isolates was performed by conventional methods and methicillin resistance was detected with oxacillin disk diffusion test and mecA gene detection by PCR. The method described by Kaneko et al. [Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997; 61(11): 1960-2] was used with some modifications, for induction and isolation of the phages. In vitro studies indicated that this phage killed the six different MRSA strains (in 107 cfu/ml concentrations) in 8 hours, and this powerful lytic effect was similar in both of the liquid media. In vivo studies were performed by using cell cultures prepared in microplates, and the wells have been inoculated with only phage, phage + MRSA mixture, and only MRSA. The cells were then

  19. PREFACE: Water Interfaces in Physics Chemistry and Biology: a multi-disciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire; Dore, John

    2009-07-01

    meeting as well as five extended abstracts. 1. Initial Filling Mechanism of Predominant Water Adsorption on Hydrophobic Slit-Shaped Carbon Nanopores Tomonori Ohba and Katsumi Kaneko 2. Computer simulation study of water/hydrocarbon interfaces: effects of hydrocarbon branching on interfacial properties Janamejaya Chowdhary and Branka M Ladanyi 3. Thermodynamics of supercooled water in solutions D Corradini, P Gallo and M Rovere 4. Transferability of polarizable models for ion-water electrostatic interaction Marco Masia 5. Quantum chemical study of water impact on the calcium hydroxyapatite V D Khavryuchenko, O V Khavryuchenko, V V Lisnyak 6. Neutron Scattering Studies of Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in a Coupled System of Biopolymer and Its Hydration Water Sow-Hsin Chen, F Mallamace, X Q Chu, C Kim, M Lagi, A Faraone, E Fratini, P Baglioni 7. Looking for the best experimental conditions to detail the protein solvation shell in a binary aqueous solvent via Small Angle Scattering Maria Grazia Ortore, Raffaele Sinibaldi, Francesco Spinozzi, Andrea Carbini, Flavio Carsughi and Paolo Mariani 8. Influence of the water molecules near surface of viral protein on virus activation process S O Shepelenko, A S Salnikov, S V Rak, E P Goncharova and A B Ryzhikov 9. Optical Kerr effect measurements on supercooled water: the experimental perspectives P. Bartolini, A Taschin, R Eramo, R Righini and R Torre 10. Structural studies of water confined in a confined hydrophobic environment J C Dore, M-C Bellissent-Funel, A Burian, H P Castricum, J Jelassi, K Kaneko, T Ohba, H Tanaka and J B W Webber 11. Dynamic transition and glassy behaviour in hydrated proteins F Mezei, M Russina, G Chen, H Frauenfelder, P W Fenimore, P Falus and B Farago 12. Relation between frequency and H bond length in heavy water: Towards the understanding of the unusual properties of H bond dynamics in nanoporous media S Pommeret, R Musat, J-P Renault, J-C Leicknam and S Bratos 13. Quantum confinement of hydrogen in ice

  20. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr

  1. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr

  2. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    resonance imaging and cancer treatment by hyperthermia. The introduction of scanning probe microscopy in the 1980s transposed the physics of nanoscale structures from elegant mathematical hypotheses to concrete observables. But if seeing is believing, control is power. Atomic force microscope probes could also be adopted as patterning devices, empowering researchers to manipulate the nanoworld to exacting designs [6]. There is even a report of early graphene fabrication from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using this approach [7]. One of the natural advantages of patterning with a microscope probe is the opportunity for real-time monitoring of the process [8], and such dual functionality may be applied to current state of the art high-speed atomic force microscopy systems. With the 'coming of age' of high-speed atomic force microscopy, it is now possible to record movies of biological systems at the nanoscale to reveal the processes governing these systems in action [9]. As Toshio Ando explains in his recent review of the field, attempts at manipulating samples with the same probe used for high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging have already been reported. The vista of possibilities this opens includes the potential to observe the re-assembly of biological systems following deliberate breaking and the examination of complicated molecular architectures. The escalating interest in nanoscale research opened the flood gates for ZnO studies, as the community became captivated by the potential application of the nanomaterial's electronic properties in transparent electrodes in liquid crystal displays, thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes. Zinc oxide's piezoelectric properties have also inspired researchers to investigate the energy harvesting potential of these structures [10]. The functions can be combined to produce self-powered vibration [11] and gas [1] sensing devices. In the sensor reported by Zhong Lin Wang and his colleagues in this issue, the Zn

  3. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-07-01

    The development of scanning probe microscopy repositioned modern physics. When Rohrer and Binnig first used electronic tunnelling effects to image atoms and quantum states they did more than pin down theoretical hypotheses to real-world observables; the scanning tunnelling microscope fed imaginations, prompting researchers to consider new directions and possibilities [1]. As Rohrer once commented, 'We could show that you can easily manipulate or position something small in space with an accuracy of 10 pm.... When you can do that, you simply have ideas of what you can do' [2]. The development heralded a cavalry of scanning probe techniques—such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) [3-5], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [6-8] and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) [9, 10]—that still continue to bring nanomaterials and nanoscale phenomena into fresh focus. Not long after the development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, Binnig, Quate and Gerber collaborating in California in the US published work on a new type of microscope also capable of atomic level resolution [3]. The original concept behind scanning tunnelling microscopy uses electrical conductance, which places substantial limitations on the systems that it can image. Binnig, Quate and Gerber developed the AFM to 'feel' the topology of surfaces like the needle of an old fashioned vinyl player. In this way insulators could be imaged as well. The development of a force modulation mode AFM extended the tool's reach to soft materials making images of biological samples accessible with the technique [4]. There have now been a number of demonstrations of image capture at rates that allow dynamics at the nanoscale to be tracked in real time, opening further possibilities in applications of the AFM as described in a recent review by Toshio Ando at Kanazawa University [5]. Researchers also found a way to retrieve optical information at 'super-resolution' [6, 7]. Optical microscopy provides spectral

  4. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  5. Reconstruction of paleo coastal environment and tsunami deposits from the Kanto earthquakes in Ena bay, Miura Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Sugai, T.; Nishiyama, A.; Harada, T.; IMAI, K.; Namegaya, Y.; Ueno, T.

    2013-12-01

    Interplate earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis leave geological evidence such as tsunami deposits and environmental changes due to the crustal movement in coastal regions, therefore studies of coastal paleo-environment changes and tsunami deposits from paleo-earthquake by geological and microfossil analysis are important for long-term earthquake forecast. Recurrence interval of the great interplate earthquakes, called Taisho-type Kanto earthquake, along the Sagami Trough was estimated to be 200-400 years. In contrast, Genroku-type was estimated to be 2000-2700 years. However, earthquake histories prior to the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake are little known, while some candidates were proposed from historical literature (Ishibashi, 1991, 1994; Kaneko, 2011). On the other hand, Shimazaki et al. (2011) conducted Geo-slicer surveys in Koajiro Bay of Miura Peninsula and suggested that the 1293 earthquake was the Kanto earthquake prior to the 1703 Genroku earthquake. However, paleo-seismological data of past Kanto earthquakes are still limited. Moreover, there are hardly natural coastal wetlands that would preserve tsunami deposits, because the natural environments were collapsed by revetments in Kanto. In order to reveal the histories of Kanto earthquakes, we conducted coring surveys using 3m handy Geo-slicers at Ena bay in Miura Peninsula, and obtained nine event layers of coarse sediments including shell fragments and gravels in tidal and subtidal muddy sediments. Each of these event deposits have sharp lower contact indicating that they accompanied with a strong current. Changes of diatom assemblages show a fluctuation of relative abundance of marine species, suggesting changes in a paleo-sea depth. Namely, marine benthic species gradually decrease prior to the deposition of tsunami deposits indicating coastal subsidence before tsunami, and benthic species increase above event deposits indicating coastal uplift after the tsunami. The tide gauge in the nearby bay

  6. Investigating Fault Slip and Rheology Along the San Andreas Fault in the San Juan Bautista Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Burgmann, R.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    An improved understanding of the connection between seismic behavior and fault-zone rheology at depth is an essential step toward understanding the underlying mechanics of the faulting process. We investigate the seismicity along the northernmost creeping section of the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista (SJB), California, by systematically examining spatiotemporal behaviors of the aftershock sequences following the 12 August 1998 Mw 5.1 SJB earthquake. This 1998 SJB earthquake was the largest historic earthquake in the SJB area and was associated with a large slow slip event. Using a waveform cross-correlation approach (Peng and Zhao, 2009, NatureGeo), we have detected previously uncataloged earthquakes (about 500 events), resolving details of the aftershock activity in a zone at a depth of 9 km about 7 km northwest of the 1998 SJB mainshock. This aftershock zone is marked by one of the highest changes in the seismicity rate, exhibiting a delayed peak (about 20 hours after the mainshock) in the rate of aftershocks preceded by a period of very low rate of aftershocks since the mainshock. Subsequently, the rate of aftershocks shows power-law decay with time for about 1 month, and then the aftershock activity approached the pre-earthquake background level. This temporal behavior of the aftershock activity is different from the predicted aftershock decay based on the model of Dieterich (1994, JGR). Instead, our observation is more consistent with the decay rate of aftershocks occurring in the transition zone between locked and stable slip, as simulated numerically by Kaneko and Lapusta (2008, JGR). Our waveform analysis also identifies over 20 repeating microearthquake sequences (or groups of earthquakes with similar waveforms) associated with the 1998 SJB mainshock. The majority of the sequences have events occurring in the first month of the postseismic period. In other words, they reflect short-lived, accelerated repeater recurrences activated by the 1998 SJB

  7. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  8. Valid garnet biotite (GB) geothermometry and garnet aluminum silicate plagioclase quartz (GASP) geobarometry in metapelitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ben-He

    2006-06-01

    At present there are many calibrations of both the garnet-biotite (GB) thermometer and the garnet-aluminum silicate-plagioclase-quartz (GASP) barometer that may confuse geologists in choosing a reliable thermometer and/or barometer. To test the accuracy of the GB thermometers we have applied the various GB thermometers to reproduce the experimental data and data from natural metapelitic rocks of various prograde sequences, inverted metamorphic zones and thermal contact aureoles. We have concluded that the four GB thermometers (Perchuk, L.L., Lavrent'eva, I.V., 1983. Experimental investigation of exchange equilibria in the system cordierite-garnet-biotite. In: Saxena, S.K. (ed.) Kinetics and equilibrium in mineral reactions. Springer-Verlag New York, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 199-239.; Kleemann, U., Reinhardt, J., 1994. Garnet-biotite thermometry revised: the effect of Al VI and Ti in biotite. European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 925-941.; Holdaway, M.J., 2000. Application of new experimental and garnet Margules data to the garnet-biotite geothermometer. American Mineralogist 85, 881-892., Model 6AV; Kaneko, Y., Miyano, T., 2004. Recalibration of mutually consistent garnet-biotite and garnet-cordierite geothermometers. Lithos 73, 255-269. Model B) are the most valid and reliable of this kind of thermometer. More specifically, we prefer the Holdaway (Holdaway, M.J., 2000. Application of new experimental and garnet Margules data to the garnet-biotite geothermometer. American Mineralogist 85, 881-892.) and the Kleemann and Reinhardt (Kleemann, U., Reinhardt, J., 1994. Garnet-biotite thermometry revised: the effect of Al VI and Ti in biotite. European Journal of Mineralogy 6, 925-941.) calibrations due to their small errors in reproducing the experimental temperatures and good accuracy in successfully discerning the systematic temperature changes of the different sequences. In addition, after applying the GASP barometer to 335 natural metapelitic samples containing one kind

  9. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    KhodelVictorKurchatov Institute, Moscowvak@wuphys.wustl.edu KimuraMasaakiHokkaido University, Sapporomasaaki@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp LacroixDenisGANIL, Caenlacroix@ganil.fr LiangHaozhaoPeking University, Beijinghzliang@pku.edu.cn MargueronJérômeIPN Orsayjerome.margueron@ipno.in2p3.fr MassotElisabethIPN Orsaymassot@ipno.in2p3.fr MengJiePeking University, Beijingmengj@pku.edu.cn MillerTomaszWarsaw University of Technologymillert@student.mini.pw.edu.pl MoghrabiKassemIPN Orsaymoghrabi@ipno.in2p3.fr NapolitaniPaoloIPN Orsaynapolita@ipno.in2p3.fr NeffThomasGSI Darmstadtt.neff@gsi.de NguyenVan GiaiIPN Orsaynguyen@ipno.in2p3.fr OtsukaTakaharuUniversity of Tokyootsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp PilletNathalie-MarieCEA-DAM, Arpajonnathalie.pillet@cea.fr QiChongKTH Stockholmchongq@kth.se RamananSunethraICTP Triestesramanan@ictp.it RingPeterTU Munichring@ph.tum.de Rios HuguetArnauUniversity of Surreya.rios@surrey.ac.uk RivetMarie-FranceIPN Orsayrivet@ipno.in2p3.fr RobledoLuisUniversidad Autonoma de Madridluis.robledo@uam.es Roca MazaXavierINFN Milanoxavier.roca.maza@mi.infn.it RöpkeGerdRostock Universitygerd.roepke@uni-rostock.de RowleyNeilIPN Orsayrowley@ipno.in2p3.fr SagawaHiroyukiUniversity of Aizusagawa@u-aizu.ac.jp SandulescuNicolaeIFIN-HH, Bucharestsandulescu@theory.nipne.ro SchuckPeterIPN Orsayschuck@ipno.in2p3.fr SedrakianArmenGoethe Universität Frankfurtsedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de SeveryukhinAlexeyJINR Dubnasever@theor.jinr.ru SogoTakaakiIPN Orsaysogo@ipno.in2p3.fr SomàVittorioCEA Saclayvittorio.soma@cea.fr StrinatiGiancarloUniversità di Camerinogiancarlo.strinati@gmail.com SuharaTadahiroKyoto Universitysuhara@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp SukhoruchkinSergeiPetersburg Nuclear Physics Institutesergeis@pnpi.spb.ru SuzukiToruTokyo Metropolitan Universitysuzukitr@tmu.ac.jp SuzukiToshioNihon University, Tokyosuzuki@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp TarpanovDimitarINRNE, Sofiadimitert@yahoo.co.uk Tohsaki-SuzukiAkihiroOsaka Universitytohsaki@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp TypelStefanGSI Darmstadts

  10. Laboratory observation of evolution of IEDD-wave-modified equilibrium and density-gradient effects on SMIA wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Eric W.

    2009-12-01

    It was previously found that sheared ion-flow alters the dispersion of waves in plasma [Koepke et al., 1994, 1998a]. Many aspects of sheared ion-flow effects were demonstrated for ion-acoustic waves [Teodorescu et al., 2002a], ion-cyclotron waves [ Teodorescu et al., 2002b; Koepke et al., 1999; Amatucci et al., 1998] and drift waves [Kaneko et al., 2003]. This dissertation further investigates ion-cyclotron waves and ion-acoustic waves in the WVU Q machine plasma in the presence of sheared parallel (magnetic-field aligned) ion-flow and further investigates ion-cyclotron waves in the WVU Q machine plasma in the presence of sheared perpendicular ion-flow. Experiments were performed to measure the time evolution of the density profile, plasma-potential profile and ion-velocity distribution function is measured, upon onset of the wave. The wave is observed to heat the ions perpendicular to the magnetic field. Evidence is presented that wave-particle resonance is responsible for this heating. Because it increases the perpendicular ion-temperature, this wave-particle interaction is observed to decrease the shear in the perpendicular ion-flow and decrease density gradients that coexist with the gradient in plasma potential. Comparison to the predictions of a theory for the inhomogeneous energy-driven instability [Ganguli et al., 1985; Gavrishchaka et al., 1996; Koepke et al., 1994; Amatucci et al., 1996] indicates that the final equilibrium state is considered stable if ion-temperature anisotropy is not included but unstable when it is included. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the damping rate, measured immediately after reducing suddenly the parallel electron drift velocity below threshold, decreases with increasing ion-temperature anisotropy. This work illustrates the importance of including ion-temperature anisotropy in the interpretation of plasma equilibrium, for example, in the case where ion-temperature anisotropy is observed to exist in

  11. The relationship between continental collision process and metamorphic pattern in the Himalayan collision belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Whan

    2015-04-01

    Both UHP and HP eclogites are reported from the Kaghan Valley and Tso Morari Massif in the western part of the Himalayan collision belt (Ghazanfar and Chaudhry, 1987; Thakur, 1983). UHP eclogites in the Kaghan record peak metamorphic conditions of 770 °C and 30 kbar (O'Brien et al., 2001) and was retrograded into the epidote-amphibolite or blueschist (580-610 °C, 10-13 kbar; Lombardo and Rolfo, 2000). Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe dating of zircon reveals that the UHP eclogite formed at ca. 46 Ma (Kaneko et al., 2003; Parrish et al., 2006). The Tso Morari UHP eclogite had formed at 750 °C, > 39 kbar (Mukheerjee et al., 2003; Bundy, 1980) and underwent amphibolite facies retro-grade metamorphism (580 °C, 11 kbar) during uplift (Guillot et al., 2008). Peak metamorphism of the Tso Morari Massif was dated at ca. 53-55 Ma (Leech et al., 2005). Only HP eclogites have been reported from the mid-eastern part of the Himalayan collision belt (Lombardo and Rolfo, 2000; Corrie et al., 2010). The HP eclogite in the mid-eastern part may have formed at ca. > 780 °C and 20 kbar and was overprinted by high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (780-750°C, 12-10 kbar) at ca. 30 Ma (Groppo et al. 2007; Corrie et al., 2010). HP granulite (890 °C, 17-18 kbar) is reported from the NBS, at the eastern terminus of the Himalayan collision belt; the granulite was subjected to retrograde metamorphism to produce lower-pressure granulite (875-850°C, 10-5 kbar), representing near-isothermal decompression (Liu and Zhong, 1997). The HP granulite metamorphism may have occurred at ca. 22-25 Ma. Along the Himalayan collision belt, peak metamorphism changes eastward from UHP eclogite facies through HP eclogite facies to high-pressure granulite facies, indicating a progressive eastwards decrease in the depth of subduction of continental crust and an eastwards increase in the geothermal gradient. The peak metamorphic ages also decrease from 53-46 Ma in the west to 22-25 Ma in the

  12. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    resonance imaging and cancer treatment by hyperthermia. The introduction of scanning probe microscopy in the 1980s transposed the physics of nanoscale structures from elegant mathematical hypotheses to concrete observables. But if seeing is believing, control is power. Atomic force microscope probes could also be adopted as patterning devices, empowering researchers to manipulate the nanoworld to exacting designs [6]. There is even a report of early graphene fabrication from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using this approach [7]. One of the natural advantages of patterning with a microscope probe is the opportunity for real-time monitoring of the process [8], and such dual functionality may be applied to current state of the art high-speed atomic force microscopy systems. With the 'coming of age' of high-speed atomic force microscopy, it is now possible to record movies of biological systems at the nanoscale to reveal the processes governing these systems in action [9]. As Toshio Ando explains in his recent review of the field, attempts at manipulating samples with the same probe used for high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging have already been reported. The vista of possibilities this opens includes the potential to observe the re-assembly of biological systems following deliberate breaking and the examination of complicated molecular architectures. The escalating interest in nanoscale research opened the flood gates for ZnO studies, as the community became captivated by the potential application of the nanomaterial's electronic properties in transparent electrodes in liquid crystal displays, thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes. Zinc oxide's piezoelectric properties have also inspired researchers to investigate the energy harvesting potential of these structures [10]. The functions can be combined to produce self-powered vibration [11] and gas [1] sensing devices. In the sensor reported by Zhong Lin Wang and his colleagues in this issue, the Zn

  13. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro

    2012-04-01

    disease', 'appropriate DOTS method for each patient', 'existence of side effects', or 'the relationship between treatment supporters'. Through working for the patients whose treatment management was difficult, we have learned that our attitude towards the patients is a most important first step to build a good relationship and mutual trust with the patients, and DOT is an important tool. For treatment supporters,'the patient-centered care', 'care by staying close to the patients' or 'cuddling the patient' s mind' is most necessary to lead the patients to cure. 5. Patient's view: Through DOTS, my life has been renewed: Kuniyoshi MAEDA (Himawari no kai; Ex-homeless TB patients self-help group). It is an unforgettable memory that I was hospitalized due to TB back in 2009. I was seriously ill with also diabetes mellitus. Because I had lost everything due to my friend's cheating, I could not trust anyone before the TB treatment. But I learned how to think of others through the daily communication with doctors, nurses, other staff at the hospital, and Public Health Center. They encouraged me every day and I came to desire to answer to their expectations. Public health nurses taught me that building the reliable relationship is so essential for humans, and I may not have realized this importance if I had not been treated for TB, or treated outside Shinjuku. I would rather say that I was lucky to have got TB, as I have become able to trust other people through DOTS TB care. DOTS is not only for medication, but also general health care and counseling. I hope that as many as poor people, especially homeless can have a similar experience by knowing more about TB and using a health service. I would like to cooperate with TB services if I can be useful. health: Toshio TAKATORIGE (Graduate School of Safety Science, Kansai University). Tuberculosis was ever the biggest health problem in Japan. Ministry of Health and Welfare and Public Health Centers were founded to push forward

  14. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    China) gave plenary talks on novel MR shear thickening fluids, MR rubber composites and MR plastomers, respectively. H J Choi (INHA University, Korea), X Zhao (Northwestern Polytechnical University, China) and R Tao (Temple University, USA) delivered plenary lectures on issues relating to the area of electrorheological (ER) fluids. In their talks, Choi and Zhao covered novel ER materials with core-shell structured microspheres and micro/nano hierarchical structured titania particles, respectively, and Tao focused on the reduction of the viscosity of liquid suspensions for energy applications in transporting crude oil via pipelines. Attendance of the presentations was exceptionally high. Poster presentations were divided into two sessions and held in the afternoons after the close of the sessions, which were filled with stimulating discussions. The award for the best student research in the area of electrorheological fluids, sponsored by the Winslow family, was given to Y D Liu of INHA University, Korea on research entitled 'Copolyaniline coated monodisperse polystyrene microparticles and their electrorheological response'. The award for the best student research on magnetorheological suspensions, sponsored by the LORD Corporation, was given to S Kaneko of Keio University, Japan on research entitled 'Effect of a magnetic field on sloshing pressure in a magnetic fluid'. Besides the purely scientific program during the five days, some special events were also organized. A guided tour of the old city and some important landmarks of the capital city of Ankara were organized before the Gala Dinner. Special samples of Turkish classical music and folk dancing were performed by a group from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism to exhibit Turkish culture to the delegates at Gala Night, which was truly appreciated. Following the conclusion of this successful meeting, the next conference is expected to be organized at the University of Granada, Spain by Professor