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1

Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock, New Mexico, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This document contains comments and responses regarding the long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock, New Mexico uranium mine tailings disposal site. Discrepencies and errors within the plan document are noted and corrections are recorded.

Not Available

1994-09-01

2

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

3

Remedial Action Plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a twofold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to effect long-term control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located on the Navajo Reservation at Shiprock, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Shiprock site. Detailed supporting information can be found in appendices and referenced documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3.0 traces the history of operations at the Shiprock site with a description of the present site characteristics. Section 4.0 provides a definition of site-specific problems, a listing of remedial action alternatives which have been considered, and the action which is being proposed. Section 5.0 presents a summary of the conceptual design for the proposed action which includes objectives, design features, schedule, cost, and implementation methods. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the onsite workers. Section 7.0 presents a detailed listing of the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the quality assurance process that will be used by the RAC during construction. Section 9.0 describes the features of the long-term maintenance and surveillance plan. Section 10.0 documents the on-going activities to keep the public informed and participating in the project. Attached as part of the RAP are five appendices which describe in more detail various aspects of the remedial action.

Hill, T.V.; Morley, J.A. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Began, E.T. [Navajo Nation (United States)

1985-06-01

4

APPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY TO GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE SHIPROCK, NM, UMTRA SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shiprock uranium mill tailings pile in far northwestern New Mexico consists of approximately 1.5 million tons of uranium mill tailings from an acid l each mill which operated from 1954 to 1968. Located on land owned by the Navajo Nation, it was one of the first ta ilings piles stabilized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project.

B. M. Thomson; E. J. Henry; M. S. Thombre

5

Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the...

1993-01-01

6

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Other unique MLLW streams will be produced as part of the Hanford program to disposition tank wastes, and will include failed equipment (melters) and immobilized low-activity wastes. These disposal operations are in the early planning stages and will likely require development of specialized disposal facilities. This paper will focus on disposal of the more ''routine'' waste streams, those currently stored onsite in permitted Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) facilities, or those newly-generated MLLW streams requiring management in permitted RCRA facilities. These waste streams typically include RCRA regulated MLLW debris, sludges, soils and solidified liquids. In September 1999, the United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and Fluor Hanford began disposing of Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant MLLW in a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site. This facility, one of two at Hanford, is an integral part of a comprehensive program to treat and dispose of the Hanford inventory of stored MLLW, and may aid the DOE Complex in disposing of its legacy of MLLW. The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) record-of-decision (ROD) for MLLW identifies Hanford as one of the disposal sites for much of the DOE complex MLLW. A few actions remain to be completed before waste from offsite generators can be shipped to the Hanford Mixed Waste Facilities for disposal. These actions include, but are not limited to, completion of the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW EIS), resolving equity issues associated with the receipt of offsite MLLW, and verification that the candidate waste streams meet the Hanford Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The ROD for the SW EIS is expected in 2002, equity discussions are ongoing, and waste acceptance criteria are already established and can be used to determine acceptability.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2001-01-01

7

10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy ...CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical...

2009-01-01

8

10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy ...CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical...

2010-01-01

9

40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a site consists of regulating times, rates, and methods...

2013-07-01

10

Siting, design and operational controls for snow disposal sites.  

PubMed

The Municipality of Anchorage (MOA), at 61 degrees north latitude, ploughs and hauls snow from urban streets throughout the winter, incorporating grit and chloride applied to street surfaces for traffic safety. Hauled snow is stored at snow disposal facilities, where it melts at ambient spring temperatures. MOA studies performed from 1998 through 2001 show that disposal site melt processes can be manipulated, through site design and operation practices, to control chloride and turbidity in meltwater. An experimental passive "V-swale" pad configuration tested by MOA investigators reduced site meltwater turbidity by an order of magnitude (to about 50 NTU from the 500 NTU typical of more conventional planar pad geometry). The MOA has developed new siting, design and operational criteria for snow disposal facilities to conform to the tested V-swale pad configuration. PMID:14703142

Wheaton, S R; Rice, W J

2003-01-01

11

Escarpment seeps at Shiprock, New Mexico. [Risk posed by seep water to human health and the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to characterize the seeps identified at the Shiprock UMTRA Project site during the prelicensing custodial care inspection conducted in December of 1990, to evaluate the relationship between the seeps and uranium processing activities or tailings disposal, and to evaluate the risk posed by the seep water to human health and the environment. The report provides a brief description of the geology, groundwater hydrology, and surface water hydrology. The locations of the seeps and monitor wells are identified, and the water quality of the seeps and groundwater is discussed in the context of past activities at the site. The water quality records for the site are presented in tables and appendices; this information was used in the risk assessment of seep water.

Not Available

1991-10-01

12

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

13

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

14

METHODOLOGY TO INVENTORY, CLASSIFY, AND PRIORITIZE UNCONTROLLED WASTE DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive method to inventory uncontrolled waste disposal sites integrates all available historic, engineering, geologic, land use, water supply, and public agency or private company records in order to develop a complete and accurate site profile. Detailed information on s...

15

Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-01-01

16

Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-12-31

17

Tampa Bay Dredged Material Disposal Site Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ocean Bed Conditions; Disposal Operation Phenomena; Short-Term Fate of Turbidity Plume; Long-Term Fate of Deposited Dredge Material; Appendix A: Example Problem for Change in Maintenance Rate.

D. T. Williams

1983-01-01

18

CONVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE TRANSPORT MODEL FOR WASTES DISPOSED AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-dimensional, convective-dispersive transport model was used to predict bounds on the expected long-term time-averaged dilutions for wastes disposed of at the 106-Mile Ocean Disposal Site (between 38 degrees 40' and 39 degrees 00'N, and 72 degrees 00' and 72 degrees 30'W). o...

19

10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone shall be of adequate dimensions to carry out...

2013-01-01

20

Buffalo Harbor Diked Disposal Sites: Engineering Properties and Drainage Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project was to determine the engineering properties of the placed fill material and the drainage characteristics of diked disposal sites in the Buffalo harbor area. The hydraulic conductivity of the dredged material and the dikes alon...

D. L. Wright R. R. Rumer

1975-01-01

21

EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

22

78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...Environmental protection, Water pollution control. Dated: June...

2013-06-24

23

Rodents as receptor species at a tritium disposal site.  

PubMed

New methods are being employed on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to deal with the disposal of tritium, including the irrigation of a hardwood/pine forest with tritiated water from an intercepted contaminant plume to reduce concentrations of tritium outcropping into Fourmile Branch, a tributary of the Savannah River. The use of this system has proven to be an effective means of tritium disposal. To evaluate the impact of this activity on terrestrial biota, rodent species were captured on the tritium disposal site and a control site during two trapping seasons in order to assess tritium exposure resulting from the forest irrigation. Control site mice had background levels of tritium, 0.02 Bq/mL, with disposal site mice having significantly higher tritium concentrations, mean=34.86 Bq/mL. Whole body tritium concentrations of the mice captured at the disposal site were positively correlated with tritium application and negatively correlated with precipitation at the site. PMID:15829339

Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Seaman, John C; Jagoe, Charles H; Dallas, Cham E; Gaines, Karen F

2005-01-01

24

Aquatic disposal field investigations at Eatons Neck Disposal Site, Long Island Sound. An environmental inventory. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted on the environmental effects of open water dredged material disposal at the Eatons Neck Disposal Site in central Long Island Sound, New York. However, because of local political and public opposition to the dredging project, the field investigation was terminated after Phase I, a 12-month baseline survey of the disposal site and surrounding area. Phase I

S. P. Cobb; J. R. Reese; M. A. Granat; B. W. Holliday; E. H. Klehr

1978-01-01

25

SITE MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA published in 1994 a Final Rule formally designating the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for the disposal of suitable dredged material removed from the San Francisco Bay region and other nearby harbors or dredging sites. This Final Rule contained an extensive ...

26

68 FR 53687 - Ocean Disposal; Proposed Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in the Central and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Western Portions of Long Island Sound, CT AGENCY: Environmental...disposal sites; Central Long Island Sound (CLIS) and Western Long...or endangered species in Long Island Sound. The many organisms at...American lobster is a primary shellfish resource in the...

2003-09-12

27

Health effects of a thorium waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

A case-control study of 112 households residing in the vicinity of a thorium waste disposal site found a higher prevalence of birth defects (RR 2.1) and liver diseases (RR 2.3) among exposed than the unexposed group. The numbers were quite small and the confidence intervals wide, however, so that no definite conclusions can be drawn from these data.

Najem, G.R.; Voyce, L.K. (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

1990-04-01

28

Trace metals monitoring at two ocean disposal sites. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The areal distributions of the concentration of cadmium, copper, nickel, and vanadium in sea scallop and ocean quahog tissue were examined in the vicinity of two ocean disposal sites located off the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast on four cruises conducted in 1974 and 1975. Incidental collections of the surf clams were also made on the last cruise. Patterns of meals distribution

1979-01-01

29

Health effects of a thorium waste disposal site.  

PubMed Central

A case-control study of 112 households residing in the vicinity of a thorium waste disposal site found a higher prevalence of birth defects (RR 2.1) and liver diseases (RR 2.3) among exposed than the unexposed group. The numbers were quite small and the confidence intervals wide, however, so that no definite conclusions can be drawn from these data.

Najem, G R; Voyce, L K

1990-01-01

30

40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each owner or operator of an active waste disposal site that...to the outside air from any active waste disposal site where...the owner or operator of the active waste disposal site shall...the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...

2009-07-01

31

40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each owner or operator of an active waste disposal site that...to the outside air from any active waste disposal site where...the owner or operator of the active waste disposal site shall...the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...

2010-07-01

32

Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

Diaconu, D. R. (Daniela R.); Birdsell, K. H. (Kay H.); Witkowski, M. S. (Marc S.)

2001-01-01

33

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was implemented. (6) At CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie, a UR was implemented. (7) At CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station, no work was performed.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-07-31

34

Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

Taboas, A. L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.; Environmental Assessment; USDOE

2003-01-01

35

Update on the Federal Facilities Compliance Act disposal workgroup disposal site evaluation - what has worked and what has not  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a planning process for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal in conjunction with the affected states for over two years and has screened the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. A radiological performance evaluation was conducted on these fifteen sites to further identify their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. Technical analyses are on-going. The disposal evaluation process has sufficiently satisfied the affected states` concerns to the point that disposal has not been a major issue in the consent order process for site treatment plans. Additionally, a large amount of technical and institutional information on several DOE sites has been summarized. The relative technical capabilities of the remaining fifteen sites have been demonstrated, and the benefits of waste form and disposal facility performance have been quantified. However, the final disposal configuration has not yet been determined. Additionally, the MLLW disposal planning efforts will need to integrate more closely with the low-level waste disposal activities before a final MLLW disposal configuration can be determined. Recent Environmental Protection Agency efforts related to the definition of hazardous wastes may also affect the process.

Case, J.T.; Waters, R.D.

1995-12-31

36

Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof  

DOEpatents

An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

Golden, Martin P. (Hamburg, NY)

1989-01-01

37

36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in operation on...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation...

2013-07-01

38

36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites not in operation...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in...

2009-07-01

39

36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites not in operation...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in...

2010-07-01

40

36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in operation on...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation...

2009-07-01

41

36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in operation on...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation...

2010-07-01

42

Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, S/sup 2 -/.

Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

1983-01-01

43

Bacterial communities of leachate from tire monofill disposal sites.  

PubMed

The disposal of used automobile tires is problematic due to the large number generated each year. Newer methods of tire disposal have been developed in which tires are shredded and used for construction materials or buried in dedicated tire monofill sites. In this study, the bacterial assemblage associated with aqueous leachate collected from tire monofill sites was examined and compared to the bacterial assemblage of reference streams. Leachate from two tire monofill sites in Ohio (USA) was collected four times during the course of one year and analyzed for total bacterial number, culturable bacterial number, and number of the bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The numbers of culturable bacteria (CFU/ml), total bacteria (cells/ml), and A. calcoaceticus (cells/ml) from the leachate at both monofill sites were generally lower or equal to numbers from the reference streams. Exceptions occurred during February when culturable bacteria at one site and total bacteria at the other site were more abundant in the leachate compared to reference streams; correspondingly the leachate temperature in February was higher than the surface waters. Culturable bacteria, total bacteria, and A. calcoaceticus numbers in the leachate ranged from 5.7 x 10(2)-1.8 x 10(4), 5.3 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(6), and 9.9 x 10(1)-1.8 x 10(4) respectively. Twenty isolates were selected for species identification using FAME analysis. Nine of the 17 identified isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas and two isolates each belonged to the Flavobacterium and Aeromonas genera. The culturable bacterial assemblage of tire leachate was found to be similar to natural surface waters. PMID:17651788

Leff, Adam A; McNamara, Christopher J; Leff, Laura G

2007-07-24

44

Application of studies on the overboard placement of dredged sediments to the management of disposal sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the mid 1960's until 1991, dredging and disposal occurred in the northern Chesapeake Bay without guidelines to maximize the capacity and to minimize the spread of the deposits beyond the disposal sites, particularly toward the navigation channel. Planning for future dredging projects is dependant upon the remaining site capacity and the behavior of the disposed sediment. Recent studies have shown that the fate of the deposited sediments is determined primarily by the water depth and bathymetry in the vicinity of the disposal site, and the method of dredging and disposal utilized. Currently used open-water disposal sites in the northern Chesapeake Bay are reaching their maximum capacity. This makes the application of the information from these studies critical, both for the optimal use of current sites and for the evaluation of new sites. Management scenarios utilizing these studies are applied to a disposal site in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

Panageotou, William; Halka, Jeffrey

1994-01-01

45

Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

S. E. Rawlinson

2003-03-01

46

Modeling Groundwater Flow and Infiltration at Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is evaluating representative sites for the potential disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), including consideration of shallow land burial and cavern disposal concepts. A representative site for shallow land burial is on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock. The shallow land burial concept includes an engineered cover to limit infiltration into the waste disposal cell.

B. W. Arnold; C. Lee; C. Ma; R. G. Knowlton

2006-01-01

47

DISPOSAL OF MIXED CERCLA WASTE AT THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION IN AN ON-SITE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

After several false starts dating back to the 1980s, on-site disposal at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) became a reality when a Record of Decision was signed in November 1999 authorizing an on-site disposal facility. The facility will be an integral part of the cleanup of the ORR, which is being conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response,

Joe Williams; Paul Corpstein; P. G. Marty Reif

2000-01-01

48

Evaluating off-site disposal of low-level waste at LANL-9498  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory generates a wide range of waste types, including solid low-level radioactive waste (LL W), in conducting its national security mission and other science and technology activities. Although most ofLANL's LLW has been disposed on-site, limitations on expansion, stakeholder concerns, and the potential for significant volumes from environmental remediation and decontamination and demolition (D&D) have led LANL to evaluate the feasibility of increasing off-site disposal. It appears that most of the LL W generated at LANL would meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Nevada Test Site or the available commercial LL W disposal site. Some waste is considered to be problematic to transport to off-site disposal even though it could meet the off-site Waste Acceptance Criteria. Cost estimates for off-site disposal are being evaluated for comparison to estimated costs under the current plans for continued on-site disposal.

Hargis, Kenneth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; French, Sean B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyance, Julien A [NORTH WIND, INC.

2009-01-01

49

Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review. [Cape Henlopen, Delaware and Cape Hatteras site  

SciTech Connect

Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date.

Jackson, D.W.

1982-06-01

50

Use Of Sediment Transport Calculations In Dredged Material Disposal Site Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of suitable sites for ocean disposal of dredged material is an ongoing problem for federal agencies, local port authorities, and users of marine resources. One of the considerations in site selection is dispersion of dredged material away from the site, either during disposal operations, or afterward. No formal technique for evaluation of sediment dispersion among candidate sites in the

C. R. Sherwood

1989-01-01

51

10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27...custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites...associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are disposed. In such...

2013-01-01

52

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micr...

2010-01-01

53

Using performance assessment to direct site characterization activities: An example from the Greater Confinement Disposal site  

SciTech Connect

Site characterization is an integral component of any environmental assessment or restoration project. However, it is often difficult to know how to prioritize site characterization activities. In the absence of a preliminary analysis, site characterization decisions are sometimes guided by little more than intuition. The objective of this paper is to show that a Performance Assessment Methodology, used very early in a project, can be a useful tool for guiding site characterization activities. As an example, a preliminary'' performance assessment for the Greater Confinement Disposal project is used to demonstrate implementation of the methodology.

Conrad, S.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dickman, P.T. (USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States))

1992-01-01

54

Using performance assessment to direct site characterization activities: An example from the Greater Confinement Disposal site  

SciTech Connect

Site characterization is an integral component of any environmental assessment or restoration project. However, it is often difficult to know how to prioritize site characterization activities. In the absence of a preliminary analysis, site characterization decisions are sometimes guided by little more than intuition. The objective of this paper is to show that a Performance Assessment Methodology, used very early in a project, can be a useful tool for guiding site characterization activities. As an example, a ``preliminary`` performance assessment for the Greater Confinement Disposal project is used to demonstrate implementation of the methodology.

Conrad, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dickman, P.T. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1992-04-01

55

43 CFR 2743.4 - Patented disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND...Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.4 ...has been used for solid waste disposal or for any...

2012-10-01

56

43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743...development, for solid waste disposal or for...Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371) and...disposal of solid wastes and hazardous substances...the Bureau of Land Management, State, and local...substances consistent with household wastes, or...

2010-10-01

57

43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743...development, for solid waste disposal or for...Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371) and...disposal of solid wastes and hazardous substances...the Bureau of Land Management, State, and local...substances consistent with household wastes, or...

2009-10-01

58

Locational conflict and the siting of nuclear waste disposal repositories: an international appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrialized nations of the world have begun to plan for the storage and eventual disposal of their increasing volumes of nuclear wastes. In this paper the authors inventory the progress made by these nations in planning for nuclear waste disposal. A typology based on the adoption of spent-fuel reprocessing programs and of progress toward selection of permanent disposal sites

F M Shelley; B D Solomon; M J Pasqualetti; G T Murauskas

1988-01-01

59

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

60

Disposal site selection. Technical appendix P phase 1 (Central Puget Sound). Volume 3. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is a technical appendix to the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Management Plan Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phase I study area (central Puget Sound). The appendix was prepared by the Disposal Site Work Group (DSWG), assigned the responsibility for identifying potential unconfined, open-water dredged material disposal sites. Part I of the Disposal Site Selection Technical Appendix contains introductory and conceptual information for the remaining parts of the document. Part II contains the detailed presentation of the site-selection process employed by DSWG.

Not Available

1988-06-01

61

Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)  

SciTech Connect

This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; large volume bulk waste streams.

Arnold, P.

2012-10-31

62

Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

1991-12-01

63

Health Assessment for Asbestos Disposal Site (ADS) National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Morris County, New Jersey, Region 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Asbestos Disposal Site consists of four sites located in Morris County, New Jersey which together comprise a National Priority List Site. On-site heavy metals and asbestos are the primary contaminants of concern for all of the sites. Off-site concerns...

1989-01-01

64

Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine.

Stickel, T.

1996-05-09

65

Nevada test site experience with greater confinement disposal  

SciTech Connect

At the NTS, we consider Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) to be a good waste management practice rather than a disposal technology. This is an important distinction because it redefines the nature of GCD. All disposal facilities operate under the principal of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) in reducing personnel and public exposures. ALARA is not a technology or method but a principal put into practice. We view GCD in the same manner.

Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

1986-01-01

66

Navajo birth outcomes in the Shiprock uranium mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of environmental radiation in the etiology of birth defects, stillbirths, and other adverse outcomes of pregnancy was evaluated for 13,329 Navajos born at the Public Health Service\\/Indian Health Service Hospital in the Shiprock, NM, uranium mining area (1964-1981). More than 320 kinds of defective congenital conditions were abstracted from hospital records. Using a nested case-control design, families of

L. M. Shields; W. H. Wiese; B. J. Skipper; B. Charley; L. Benally

1992-01-01

67

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1996-02-01

68

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1996-05-01

69

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1997-04-01

70

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1996-04-01

71

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action alternatives.

Wickline, Alfred

2005-12-01

72

Geographic information system (G.I.S.) research project at Navajo Community College - Shiprock Campus  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo and Hopi GIS Project was established to assess the feasibility and impact of implementing GIS techology at Tribal institutions. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories funded the Navajo and Hopi Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) Project and assigned a mentor from LANL to help guide the project for three summer months of 1995. The six organizations involved were: LANL, LLNL, Navajo Community College, Navajo Nation Land Office, Northern Arizona University and San Juan College. The Navajo Land Office provided the system software, hardware and training. Northern Arizona University selected two students to work at Hopi Water Resource Department. Navajo Community College provided two students and two faculty members. San Juan College provided one student to work with the N.C.C. group. This made up two project teams which led to two project sites. The project sites are the Water Resource Department on the Hopi reservation and Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico.

Yazzie, R.; Peter, C.; Aaspas, B.; Isely, D.; Grey, R.

1995-12-31

73

Greenhouse Gas Emission Potential of the Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open dumping and landfilling are the prevalent solid waste disposal practices in Thailand. Surveys on the disposal sites revealed the presence of 95 landfills and 330 open dumps. Methane emission potential at these sites was estimated by three methods. Results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, Landfill Gas Emission model (LandGEM), and closed flux chamber technique were

Chart Chiemchaisri; Chettiyappan Visvanathan; Nathiya Tanthachoon; Wilai Chiemchaisri; Sayan Tudsri; Sunil Kumar; Josias Zietsman; Muhammad Bari; Aaron Rand; Bhushan Gokhale; Dominique Lord; Jenny Sanderson; Patrick Hettiaratchi; Carlos Hunte; Omar Hurtado; Alejandro Keller; Melissa Weitz; Jeffrey Coburn; Edgar Salinas; Ahmed Soliman; Robert Jacko; Nancy Burton; Atin Adhikari; Yulia Iossifova; Sergey Grinshpun; Tiina Reponen; James Wilson; Maureen Mullen; Andrew Bollman; Kirstin Thesing; Manish Salhotra; Frank Divita; James Neumann; Jason Price; James DeMocker; Mae Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George Fernandez; Ryan LeBouf; Liesel Yesse; Alan Rossner; Deborah Luecken; Alan Cimorelli; Wei-Hsin Chen; Shan-Wen Du; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Jheng-Syun Wu; Diane Ivy; James Mulholland; Armistead Russell

2008-01-01

74

Technical Analysis of On-Site Disposal of Space Grade Plutonium Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River Site is considering disposing of a relatively small volume of waste containing a relatively high radioactivity content of plutonium 238 from the production of power sources for the space program in on-site disposal units. A major part o...

J. R. Cook

2005-01-01

75

COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance

Angela Colarusso; Bruce Crowe; John R. Cochran

2003-01-01

76

Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary

R. A. Ratliff; B. Dornsife; V. Autry; L. Gronemyer; J. Vaden; T. Cashman

1985-01-01

77

Selection of a ground disposal site by sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of radioactive wastes in the ground is not allowed in Japan at ; present mainly because of the difficulties in estimating the ground migration of ; radionuclides and in evaluating the internal dose caused by these wastes. The ; desirable conditions for the ground disposal of radioactive wastes and the ; approximate method for estimating the internal dose are

S. Morisawa; Y. Inoue

1974-01-01

78

In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed.

Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

1994-05-01

79

10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...minimize to the extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the disposed waste, and to resist degradation by surface geologic processes and biotic activity. (5) Surface features must direct surface water...

2013-01-01

80

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

81

Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1997-04-01

82

Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

NONE

1997-09-01

83

Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

NONE

1997-07-01

84

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

NONE

1997-06-01

85

Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

NONE

1997-07-01

86

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance.

NONE

1997-02-01

87

10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disposal shall not take place in a 100-year flood plain, coastal high-hazard area or wetland, as defined in Executive Order 11988...avoided where surface geologic processes such as mass wasting, erosion, slumping, landsliding, or weathering occur with such...

2013-01-01

88

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

NONE

1996-01-01

89

Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

Not Available

1994-03-01

90

Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence  

SciTech Connect

The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung - INE, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2007-07-01

91

Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the

J. J. Walsh; T. A. Kerr

1990-01-01

92

Recovery of low-level radioactive waste packages from deep ocean disposal sites. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the methods used for the recovery of three low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided.

Walden, B.B.

1987-03-01

93

REFERENCE AREA DATABASE FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)  

EPA Science Inventory

In order for a dredging project to be authorized to dispose of dredged material at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS), sediment evaluations (including, as appropriate, physical, chemical, and biological testing) must first be conducted. EPA determines the suita...

94

Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research

Tomas

2003-01-01

95

Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose

Carol M. Jantzen; Dennis F. Bickford; Kevin G. Brown; Alex D. Cozzi; Connie C. Herman; James C. Marra; David K. Peeler; John B. Pickett; Ray F. Schumacher; Mike E. Smith; John C. Whitehouse; Jack R. Zamecnik

2000-01-01

96

36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

2013-07-01

97

36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

2010-07-01

98

36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

2009-07-01

99

Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report.

Not Available

1992-07-01

100

DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

101

Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide\\/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current

Bernhard Kienzler; Horst Geckeis; Klaus Gompper; Reinhardt Klenze

2007-01-01

102

Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

NSTec Environmental Management

2009-01-31

103

Disposal site-selection technical appendix. Phase 2. (North and South Puget Sound)  

SciTech Connect

This document is a technical appendix to both the Proposed Management Plan Report and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Phase II study covering north and south Puget Sound. Results of disposal-site-selection studies for Phase II of PSDDA, are summarized herein. Phase II includes the southern portion of Puget Sound south of the Tacoma Narrows and the northern portion of Puget Sound north of Admiralty Inlet to the U.S./Canadian border and west to Port Angeles. DSWG's task in Phase II was to identify suitable unconfined, open-water disposal sites. This technical appendix summarizes the process by which DSWG carried out its task. Each site includes a 900-foot radius, 58-acre surface disposal zone within which all dredged material must be released. Each of the dispersive sites includes a 1,500-foot radius, 162-acre surface disposal zone within which all dredgfed material must be released. The capacities of the nondispersive disposal sites in the Phase II area are estimated to be several times the probable volume of dredged material projected for disposal through the year 2000.

Kendall, D.; Jamison, D.; Malek, J.; Ehlers, P.

1989-09-01

104

Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1997-05-01

105

Geochemical Studies of Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of source term characterization studies for the commercially operated low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites located in the eastern United States are used to provide an understanding of the importance of hydrological and geochemical factors in c...

R. Dayal R. F. Pietrzak J. H. Clinton

1986-01-01

106

Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

2009-03-01

107

76 FR 32360 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction...Disposal Site in Santa Barbara County, California listed the name of one of the parties...Karen Goldberg at (415) 972-3951. CORRECTION: In the Federal Register of April...

2011-06-06

108

Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report recommends instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are dis...

J. A. Young V. W. Thomas P. O. Jackson

1983-01-01

109

Natural Attenuation Remediation of Lead-Contaminated Soils at a Former Open Burning Propellant Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead-contaminated surface soils at an eleven-acre former open- burning propellant disposal site at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant were scheduled for remediation by phosphate-addition soil stabilization and soil cover construction. Laboratory treatabilit...

G. A. Haupt

1996-01-01

110

Kaeytetyn polttoaineen loppusijoitus - loppusijoituspaikan valintaperusteet. (Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioecon...

P. Anttila

1995-01-01

111

Modeling migration of strontium in sand and gravel aquifer in the candidate VLLW disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) disposal site, it is essential to study the regional hydrogeological condition\\u000a and the transportation process of nuclide in the disposal site with the engineering barrier. The candidate VLLW repository\\u000a located at the confluence of two rivers in the southwest of China, which included the characters of enrichment of the rainfall,\\u000a closing to

Rui Zuo; Yanguo Teng; Jinsheng Wang

2009-01-01

112

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site

M. Takizawa; W. L. Straube; R. T. Hill; R. R. Colwell

1994-01-01

113

Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

2010-10-01

114

A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to

R. G. Knowlton; B. W. Arnold; P. D. Mattie; M. Kuo; N. Tien

2006-01-01

115

Environmental geological assessment of a solid waste disposal site: a case study in Sivas, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of the disposal site is probably the most important step in the development of solid waste management. In site selection, geology plays a determining role. This study evaluates the characteristics of the environment on the basis of the geological, hydrogeological and geo-engineering properties of the solid waste site of the Sivas city, Turkey. The area is underlain by

A. Yilmaz; E. Atmaca

2006-01-01

116

Engineering geological aspects of replacing a solid waste disposal site with a sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solid waste disposal site in the Mamak district of Ankara is being engulfed by the growing city. All varieties of solid wastes, including medical wastes, are stored at the present site in an irregular manner. Topographical and geological conditions at Mamak waste site are favorable for constructing a sanitary landfill. Located at the edge of a topographical depression,

Kamil Kayabali

1996-01-01

117

Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

NONE

1996-05-01

118

Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

NONE

1996-09-01

119

Ramifications of solid waste disposal site relocation in urban areas of developing countries: a case study in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary landfilling is considered to be the most appropriate means of final disposal of solid wastes. Currently in Tanzania, the cheapest method of developing a landfill is by making use of natural depressions or former borrow pits and mine pits. This paper examines the impacts associated with the relocation of a waste disposal site from a crude disposal site at

Mengiseny E. Kasseva; Stephen E. Mbuligwe

2000-01-01

120

76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9442-4] Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...Management of Disposal Sites for Ocean Dumping). DATES: Comments...behalf of the Corps in 2006. Need for Action: The Corps has requested...material from the ARBC when ocean disposal is the preferred...

2011-07-21

121

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action

2002-01-01

122

Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the uranium mill tailings sites and disposal site, Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Old and New Rifle sites cover 66 hectares (164 acres) of private land just outside the town of Rifle, in northwestern Colorado. Approximately 3,161,620 cubic meters (4,135,000 cubic yards) of Residual Radioactive Materials (RRM) contaminates the sites and the adjacent land. The tailings piles at both sites have been partially stabilized, seeded, and irrigated to promote a native vegetation cover. In May 1987, the DOE released its draft EIS on remedial actions at the Rifle sites (DOE, 1987) for public comment. The draft EIS analyzed four alternatives, including: No action; Stabilizing all of the RRM at the New Rifle site; Disposal of all of the RRM at the Estes Guich site, which was the preferred alternative; Disposal of all of the RRM at the Lucas Mesa site.

Not Available

1992-12-01

123

Public acceptance and siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1970's the Love Canal hazardous waste site in New York State, U.S.A. became a benchmark for negative feelings\\u000a towards the siting of future hazardous waste landfills and facilities. At the present time social and political factors often\\u000a dominate the siting process. There is growing anxiety being shown by the public about the location of waste facilities, and

Michael J. Knight

1985-01-01

124

Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

Foster, J. B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G. W.

1984-01-01

125

Low level radioactive waste disposal\\/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal\\/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction,

Sturm; H. F. Jr

1987-01-01

126

FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.  

EPA Science Inventory

This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

127

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

2013-01-01

128

Video transects and their use in the environmental assessment of deep water marine disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental studies of proposed or designated disposal sites are directed by regulations that presently require extensive sampling of all possible components of biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of the sites with little regard for the application of this data to predicting real, as contrasted to perceived, impacts to the environment. These broad-brush studies are poorly focused, may provide little guidance

J. N. Miller; R. H. Wilkens; P. Wathern

2001-01-01

129

Multiattribute utility analysis of alternative sites for the disposal of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five potential sites nominated for the Nation`s first geologic repository for disposing of nuclear waste are evaluated using multiattribute utility analysis. The analysis was designed to aid the Department of Energy in its selection of 3 sites for characterization, a detailed data-gathering process that will involve the construction of exploratory shafts for underground testing and that may cost as much

Miley W. Merkhofer; Ralph L. Keeney

1987-01-01

130

Design of chemical sensor arrays for monitoring disposal sites on the ocean floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop methods for automatic environmental monitoring of disposal sites on the deep ocean floor using chemical sensor arrays and statistical hypothesis testing. Such sites have been proposed to relocate dredge materials from harbors and shipping channels. The transport of pollutants is modeled as a diffusion process, and the measurement and statistical models are derived by exploiting the spatial and

A. Jeremic; Arye Nehorai

1998-01-01

131

Technical Analysis of OnSite Disposal of Space Grade Plutonium Waste  

SciTech Connect

The Risk Based End State Vision Report for the Savannah River Site includes a variance that proposes on-site near surface disposal of waste from the program to produce Pu-238 heat sources for deep space probes. On-site disposal would greatly reduce the risk to workers by eliminating the need to repackage the waste in order to characterize it and ship it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant cost savings can also be realized. A legacy inventory of 6145 m3 containing 590,000 curies of Heat Source plutonium exists at the Savannah River Site. Our plan is to ship as much of this material as possible to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant using currently available facilities and equipment. We estimate that most of the volume can be safely packaged and transported to WIPP. The remainder, 1813 m3 containing 280,000 curies, is proposed to be disposed of at the SRS after demonstrating that all applicable environmental protection regulations can be met. A technical analysis has been done u sing the overall methodology developed for low-level waste disposal performance assessments. The results to date show that groundwater protection will be maintained, but that enhanced engineering measures are needed to meet the performance measures for protection of inadvertent intruders. The release criterion from 40 CFR 191 is achievable. This analysis provides a means of demonstrating the technical basis on-site disposal of Heat Source plutonium to management, stakeholders and regulators.

James, COOK

2004-12-20

132

Environmental geological assessment of a solid waste disposal site: a case study in Sivas, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of the disposal site is probably the most important step in the development of solid waste management. In site selection, geology plays a determining role. This study evaluates the characteristics of the environment on the basis of the geological, hydrogeological and geo-engineering properties of the solid waste site of the Sivas city, Turkey. The area is underlain by the Oligocene-Miocene rocks which have limited aquifer properties. Thin Quaternary alluvium and soil cover overlie the Oligo-Miocene rocks, which are represented as well graded sand and inorganic silt of low plasticity. The Quaternary alluvium and soil cover are classified as inorganic clays having a low plasticity and the permeability varies from 1.210-6 to 3.1110-6 m/s. These values are much higher than 110-8 m/s, which is accepted for waste disposal standards. Seepage waters have a potential to pollute the ground water and the K?z?l?rmak River, which is 500 m to the southwest of the waste disposal area and because the disposal site is close to the river, the potential for flash flooding poses a high pollution risk. The waste disposal area must be covered by clay layers or an impervious artificial membrane. In addition, seepage must be controlled and removed from the site.

Y?lmaz, A.; Atmaca, E.

2006-07-01

133

Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

Not Available

1993-09-01

134

Navajo coal and air quality in Shiprock, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the Navajo people, high levels of respiratory disease, such as asthma, exist in a population with low rates of cigarette smoking. Air quality outdoors and indoors affects respiratory health. Many Navajo Nation residents burn locally mined coal in their homes for heat, as coal is the most economical energy source. The U.S. Geological Survey and Dine College, in cooperation with the Navajo Division of Health, are conducting a study in the Shiprock, New Mexico, area to determine if indoor use of this coal might be contributing to some of the respiratory health problems experienced by the residents. Researchers in this study will (1) examine respiratory health data, (2) identify stove type and use, (3) analyze samples of coal that are used locally, and (4) measure and characterize air quality inside selected homes. This Fact Sheet summarizes the interim results of the study in both English and Navajo.

Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.

2006-01-01

135

Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

NONE

1995-11-01

136

NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

None

1981-02-01

137

Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

NONE

1996-02-01

138

Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project  

SciTech Connect

The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D. [Fluor Fernald, Inc., 7400 Willey Road, Hamilton, Ohio 45013 (United States)

2006-07-01

139

Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

NONE

1996-02-01

140

Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.  

PubMed

The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites. PMID:16359711

Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

2005-12-15

141

Environmental surveillance for low-level waste disposal sites. [Shallow-land burial  

SciTech Connect

All nuclear facilities, including waste disposal sites, are expected to evaluate their effect on the environment. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach to the design of environmental surveillance programs for near-surface disposal sites. Surveillance is broadly considered to include burial trench and other on-site measurements as well as offsite monitoring, and to include both radiological and non-radiological measurements. The objectives of a surveillance program are: to determine the extent of any pollutant migration early enough for corrective action to be taken to minimize adverse impacts, to provide data to assess the impact of site operations on the environment and public, to predict long-term waste behavior, to satisfy regulatory agency requirements, and to obtain data on site and pollutant behavior for the design of future disposal sites and surveillance programs. It should be recognized that shallow-land burial techniques will not retain the waste completely in place over time. Some migration is expected, but it must be acceptable in amount and rate. Surveillance programs will provide the information to determine if this is the case. Proper application of monitoring techniques and principles will result in a program that will meet its objectives and supply the data needed by operators and regulators to maintain a properly operating site. 1 reference.

Sedlet, J.

1984-01-01

142

Recovery of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packages from Deep-Ocean Disposal Sites, September 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the techniques to recover low-level radioactive waste packages from three deep-ocean disposal sites: Atlantic 3800-meter and the Pacific (Farallon Islands) 900-meter. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the subm...

B. B. Walden

1990-01-01

143

TRACE METALS IN SCALLOPS FROM WITHIN AND AROUND TWO OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The areal distributions of the concentrations of 13 metals in sea scallop tissues were examined in the vicinity of two ocean disposal sites located off the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. Patterns of metals distribution show that: (1) Five specific metals may be used as identification t...

144

Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

Nicholas, J. R.; Healy, R. W.

1988-01-01

145

Region-scale groundwater flow modeling of generic high level waste disposal sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regional-scale groundwater flow modeling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms ...

D. Metcalfe

1996-01-01

146

1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

Black, D.G.

1996-04-01

147

Evaluation of waste disposal site using the DRASTIC system in Southern Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a systematic approach to waste disposal site screening for groundwater pollution protection, the DRASTIC system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was introduced at Younggwang County in Korea. Hydrogeological spatial databases for the system include information on depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topographic slope, hydraulic conductivity and lineament. Using the databases, the DRASTIC

Saro Lee

2003-01-01

148

MONITORING REPORT FOR 1995 AND 1996 - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the findings of Tier 1 monitoring activities at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for calendar years 1995 and 1996. The regional monitoring activities included: collection of regional physical oceanographic data; net sampling of plankton ...

149

Geophysical Signatures of the Abandoned Waste Disposal Sites Mae Hia and Nong Harn, Chiang Mai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of the joint Thai-German project WADIS integrated geophysical investigations were performed to explore and to characterize the geological barrier in the surrounding of two abandoned waste disposals sites near the city of Chiang Mai. Two -dimension resistivity, electromagnetic, seismic, gravity and magnetic surveys provided detailed information about the geological structure, the distribution of sandy and clay -rich

C. Grissemann; A. Schuck; K. Seidel; K. Kndel; G. Lange

150

Simulation of Diffusive Transport of Radionuclides in the Soil of a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusive transport of Cs, Sr and Co in the clay of radioactive waste disposal site at PINSTECH was studied to assess the safety of underlying permeable zone against the release of these radionuclides from buried waste containers in the clay. Diffusion coefficients of these radionuclides were estimated by reservoir to sediment diffusion method via their stable counterparts in a

Tahir Iqbal; Farooq Rashid; Perveen Akhter; Wasim Yawar

2012-01-01

151

Selected element concentrations in alluvial sediments under garbage disposal site (Zagreb, Croatia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ag, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cs, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Zn and Zr concentrations in alluvial sediments were determined by INAA and OES in the area used as a garbage disposal site in the vicinity of a water-well field. Results show that total concentrations of analysed elements depend on

A. Verta?nik; E. Prohi?; M. Jura?i?; D. Barii?; S. Luli?

1997-01-01

152

Estimated PBDE and PBB Congeners in Soil from an Electronics Waste Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated PBDE and PBB congener emissions into the environment from three different e-waste disposal sites that\\u000a consisted of rude broilers (RB), acid baths (AB) and end-up dumps (ED). Different PBDE and PBB congener profiles were analyzed,\\u000a and some of their emission sources were discussed. For the examined sites, the levels of ?PBB and ?PBDE were highest at ED

H.-M. Wang; Y.-J. Yu; M. Han; S.-W. Yang; Q. li; Y. Yang

2009-01-01

153

Electrical methods of detecting contaminated groundwater at the stringfellow waste disposal site, riverside county, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Stringfellow Class I waste-disposal site near Riverside, California, the influence of variations in groundwater chemistry and saturation on electrical measurements made from the surface was tested Spontaneous potential, D C electrical sounding, dipole-dipole resistivity profiles, and mise-a-la-masse measurements were employed to investigate the sub-surface migration of the acidic fluids deposited in this site between 1956 and 1972 Mise-a-la-masse

Donald J. Stierman

1984-01-01

154

Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

Newberry, W.F.

1994-07-01

155

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce.

Anwar F. Al Yaqout; Anwar F

2003-01-01

156

75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...40 CFR 228.5 and 228.6. Need for Action: The USACE has requested...Naval Station Mayport. The need for an additional ODMDS is based...not designating an additional ocean disposal site. The...

2010-07-09

157

78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites...Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites...and the general public on the need for action, the range of alternatives...are unsure that your specific needs can be accommodated,...

2013-01-07

158

Navajo coal and air quality in Shiprock, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the Navajo people, high levels of respiratory disease, such as asthma, exist in a population with low rates of cigarette smoking. Air quality outdoors and indoors affects respiratory health. Many Navajo Nation residents burn locally mined coal in their homes for heat, as coal is the most economical energy source. The U.S. Geological Survey and Dine College, in cooperation with the Navajo Division of Health, are conducting a study in the Shiprock, New Mexico, area to determine if indoor use of this coal might be contributing to some of the respiratory health problems experienced by the residents. Researchers in this study will (1) examine respiratory health data, (2) identify stove type and use, (3) analyze samples of coal that are used locally, and (4) measure and characterize air quality inside selected homes. This Fact Sheet summarizes the interim results of the study in both English and Navajo. This Fact Sheet is available in three versions: * English [800-KB PDF file ] * Navajo [computer must have Navajo language fonts installed - 304-KB PDF file] * Image of the Navajo language version [19.8-MB PDF file

Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.

2006-01-01

159

Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic  

SciTech Connect

Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in connection with preparations for the Czech Republic's accession to the European Union and in connection with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management adopted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1997. According to the approved Concept it is expected that a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic will be built in granitic rocks.

Tomas, J.

2003-02-25

160

Audit of the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) is responsible for managing the Department of Energy`s (Department) surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site (Site). In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996, the Site had 162 surplus facilities and anticipated that 118 more would become surplus within the next 5 years. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Savannah River Operations Office (Operations Office) and Westinghouse had economically and promptly deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of surplus facilities at the Site. Departmental regulations require that surplus facilities be deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of economically and promptly. However, Westinghouse only disposed of one facility and did not completely deactivate or decontaminate any of the 162 facilities identified as surplus at the Site in FY 1996. This occurred because the Operations Office did not compile a Site-wide list, establish priorities, or provide sufficient funding for the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities. As a result, the Department incurred unnecessary costs for the surveillance and maintenance of surplus facilities. For example, the Department could have avoided annual costs of about $1.3 million in surveillance and maintenance costs by spending $1.2 million to perform a deactivation project on the P-Reactor process-water storage tanks. The Operations Office could have funded the project out of its unobligated FY 1996 operating funds. However, it returned the unobligated funds to the Department`s Headquarters at the end of the fiscal year. The Operations Office concurred with the finding and recommendations and initiated corrective action.

NONE

1997-10-23

161

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Httl, R. F.

2009-04-01

162

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

Grant Evenson

2006-04-01

163

Modeling Groundwater Flow and Infiltration at Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan is evaluating representative sites for the potential disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), including consideration of shallow land burial and cavern disposal concepts. A representative site for shallow land burial is on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock. The shallow land burial concept includes an engineered cover to limit infiltration into the waste disposal cell. A representative site for cavern disposal is located on the southeast coast of Taiwan. The tunnel system for this disposal concept would be several hundred meters below the mountainous land surface in argillite bedrock. The LLW will consist of about 966,000 drums, primarily from the operation and decommissioning of four nuclear power plants. Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have collaborated to develop performance assessment models to evaluate the long-term safety of LLW disposal at these representative sites. Important components of the system models are sub-models of groundwater flow in the natural system and infiltration through the engineered cover for the shallow land burial concept. The FEHM software code was used to simulate groundwater flow in three-dimensional models at both sites. In addition, a higher-resolution two-dimensional model was developed to simulate flow through the engineered tunnel system at the cavern site. The HELP software was used to simulate infiltration through the cover at the island site. The primary objective of these preliminary models is to provide a modeling framework, given the lack of site-specific data and detailed engineering design specifications. The steady-state groundwater flow model at the island site uses a specified recharge boundary at the land surface and specified head at the island shoreline. Simulated groundwater flow vectors are extracted from the FEHM model along a cross section through one of the LLW disposal cells for utilization in radionuclide transport simulations in the performance assessment model with the BLT-MS software. Infiltration through the engineered cover is simulated to be about 3 mm/yr and 49 mm/yr, with and without a geomembrane layer, respectively. For the cavern LLW disposal site, the FEHM basin-scale flow model uses specified recharge flux, constant head at the ocean shoreline, and head-dependent flux boundaries along flowing streams. Groundwater flow vectors are extracted along a cross section for use in radionuclide transport simulations. Transport simulations indicate that a significant fraction of contaminants may ultimately discharge to nearby streams. FEHM flow simulations with the drift-scale model indicate that the flow rates within the backfilled tunnels may be more than two orders of magnitude lower than in the host rock. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Arnold, B. W.; Lee, C.; Ma, C.; Knowlton, R. G.

2006-12-01

164

The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective  

SciTech Connect

For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., (United Kindgom); Patera, E.S. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

1994-04-01

165

The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities.

English, M.R.

1991-01-01

166

Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the upper Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

Thalweg disposal experiments have been conducted at three sites on the upper Mississippi River. During normal channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye prior to disposal as a pile in the thalweg. In postdisposal surveys surficial bottom sediment samples were collected in the disposal area and in the thalweg and border areas downstream to determine the movement of the dredged sand relative to environmentally sensitive river habitats. The experiments were initiated in successive years, and the tagged sand has been tracked for 1 to 3 years, depending on the site. Although the downstream movement of the dredged sand was not the same at each site, the general pattern of behavior was similar. Downstream movement was confined primarily to the main channel and occurred in response to periods of high river discharge. There was no statistically significant evidence of dredged sand dispersing out of the main channel into nearby border areas or sloughs. The distributions of dyed sand in cores from one site suggest that the dredged sand has been incorporated into natural bed forms. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Ditmars, J.D.; McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

1986-01-01

167

Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

NONE

1996-11-01

168

Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

1983-12-01

169

Mercury speciation in sediments at a municipal sewage sludge marine disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury speciation was performed in excess activated sewage sludge (ASS) and in marine sediments collected at the AAS disposal site off the Mediterranean coast of Israel in order to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of different mercury species and assess their environmental impact. Total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranged between 0.19 and 1003ng\\/g at the polluted stations and 5.7 and

E. Shoham-Frider; G. Shelef; N. Kress

2007-01-01

170

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹°Sr, \\/sup 239 +240\\/Pu and ²⁴¹Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island

W. L. Robison; V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

171

Degradation of organophosphoric esters in leachate from a sea-based solid waste disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of organophosphoric esters (OPEs) in leachate from a sea-based solid waste disposal site was investigated by laboratory experiment.Aryl-phosphates, tricresyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate, in leachate rapidly decreased to less than the detection limit within 20 days under aerobic condition, suggesting high biodegradability. These phosphates also decreased in sterilized leachate, which suggested a contribution to degradation by reactions (adsorption and

Yasunori Kawagoshi; Sachiko Nakamura; Isao Fukunaga

2002-01-01

172

Tertiary treatment of leachate from a sea?based solid waste disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically pretreated leachate from a sea?based solid waste disposal site was treated using carbon adsorption, ozonation and chemical coagulation. CODp in the leachate was hardly removed by activated carbon. The constants of k and 1\\/n in Freundlich isotherm equation were 0.069 and 2.0, respectively. Ozone oxidation was found ineffective. Ozone?CODp binding coefficient was 0.019 i.e. about 10 times lower than

Kazuhiro Takamizawa; Isao Fukunaga; Osamu Yamamoto; Zensuke Inoue; Atsuhiro Honda

1991-01-01

173

A solid waste disposal site selection procedure based on groundwater vulnerability mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new, GIS-based solid waste site selection tool (DUPIT) is introduced to obtain a systematic and unbiased\\u000a methodology during the evaluation phases of alternative solid waste disposal areas with regards to vulnerability to groundwater\\u000a pollution. The proposed tool is an index technique based on the linear combination of five different hydrogeological parameters\\u000a including Depth to groundwater table,

Celalettin Simsek; Cem Kincal; Orhan Gunduz

2006-01-01

174

Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Theory, methods, and results of a 2-yr study of microclimate and evapotranspiration of vegetated trench caps, conducted at the disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, are presented in the report. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Daily evapotranspiration ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The yearly average for the three methods of 657 mm was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of potential evapotranspiration.

Healy, R.W.; deVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M. Jr.

1989-01-01

175

Potential overflow of Mojave Creek near disposal site, Edwards Air Force Base, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentological evidence in Mojave Creek near Edwards, California, indicates that the largest discharge in the last hundred years near the disposal site of the Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base was a few hundred cubic feet per second. The distal ends of two alluvial fans on the Mojave Creek floodplain near the Main Base Landfill have not been eroded substantially since sediment supply was cut off by a railroad grade completed in 1884. Previous estimates of flood discharges were 4,000 cubic feet per second and larger in this reach; the estimates were calculated by regression equations derived from regional characteristics. However, a 100-year rainfall in 1983 failed to produce erosion in Mojave Creek commensurate with discharges of greater than about 100 cubic feet per second. To test the potential for the creek to overflow and reach the disposal site, a hypothetical discharge was used to determine the depth of flooding at local cross sections. Although the access road from Mojave Boulevard to the Main Base Landfill may be inundated during a flood, the artificial grade at the disposal site would not be reached at a discharge of 2,000 cubic feet per second, which is an order of magnitude greater than the apparent flood discharges that occurred during the past hundred years in Mojave Creek near the present Main Base Landfill.

Dinehart, Randy L.; Harmon, Jerry G.

1998-01-01

176

Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies.

Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

1985-01-01

177

Siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: The public policy dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The book's focus is on one overwhelming problems facing the compacts and states: figuring out where low-level waste disposal sites should be located. The author discusses the central issues underlying this dilemma - authority, trust, risk, justice - and the roles each plays in determining whether the siting processes are regarded as legitimate. The structure of the book provides a mix of narrative, fact and philosophy and adds to the body of well researched information saying that is is not only right but more efficient to develop and implement a just process.

English, M.R.

1993-01-01

178

Electrical methods of detecting contaminated groundwater at the stringfellow waste disposal site, riverside county, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Stringfellow Class I waste-disposal site near Riverside, California, the influence of variations in groundwater chemistry\\u000a and saturation on electrical measurements made from the surface was tested Spontaneous potential, D C electrical sounding,\\u000a dipole-dipole resistivity profiles, and mise-a-la-masse measurements were employed to investigate the sub-surface migration\\u000a of the acidic fluids deposited in this site between 1956 and 1972 Mise-a-la-masse

Donald J. Stierman

1984-01-01

179

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

NSTec Environmental Programs

2010-10-04

180

Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

2007-10-01

181

Recovery of low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites, September 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the techniques to recover low-level radioactive waste packages from three deep-ocean disposal sites: Atlantic 3800-meter and the Pacific (Farallon Islands) 900-meter. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided.

Walden, B.B.

1990-09-01

182

UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

183

Microflora in the combined facultative pond and aerated lagoon system at a sea?based solid waste disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Osaka city, solid waste have been disposed in a pond at a sea?based solid waste disposal site. The leachate is treated by the combined process of a facultative pond and an aerated lagoon. We examined the microflara of the combined process and clarified the relationship between leachate loading and microbial activities. BODs in the aerated lagoon was stably below

Keiichi Kawai; Hiroyuki Horitsu; Kazuhiro Takamizawa; Zensuke Inoue

1988-01-01

184

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Shiprock Quadrangle, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formations and areas in the Shiprock 1 exp 0 x2 exp 0 Quadrangle, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah, evaluated to be favorable for uranium deposits of 100 tons U sub 3 O sub 8 at a minimum ore grade of 0.01% include, in decreasing order of relative ...

M. W. Green V. P. Byers S. M. Condon

1982-01-01

185

Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technolog...

2010-01-01

186

Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet, E-mail: meceng3584@yahoo.co [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Tolga [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kahraman, Cengiz [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15

187

Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

Not Available

1994-08-01

188

Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites.  

PubMed Central

Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area.

Ghiorse, W C; Herrick, J B; Sandoli, R L; Madsen, E L

1995-01-01

189

Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

190

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

191

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

192

A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.  

PubMed Central

To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study.

Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

1991-01-01

193

Technical site characterization of the Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility: A case history  

SciTech Connect

The Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility is a proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility located SW of Princeton, Missouri. The facility is to accept, store, treat and landfill ash residues from RCRA-permitted hazardous waste incineration. The site was characterized for a permit application submitted to the Missouri Department of Natural Resource (MDNR). MDNR was involved during all site characterization stages, including MDNR review, input and oversight during the planning, field execution and report-preparation stages. Both parties agreed upon the needs required for characterizing the sites prior field work, and the MDNR ensured that scope of work stipulations were implemented in the field and reported. Three broad characterization categories were defined: (1) physical characteristics; (2) biological characteristics; and, (3) socio-economic considerations. Physical criteria include the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic and hydrologic site conditions. Threatened and Endangered Species and Wetlands comprised the biologic issues. Socio-economics considered cultural resources, such as history and archeology, market proximity, capacity assurance and transportation.

Allen, R.C.; Walton, C.G.; Zweig, L.T. (Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-03-01

194

Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine comments from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and six from the Grand Junction Project Office for the long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon are documented along with their corresponding responses.

Not Available

1993-11-01

195

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Saltville Waste Disposal Site, Saltville, Virginia (Remedial Alternative Selection), June 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Saltville Waste Disposal site is located along the North Fork of the Holston River (NFHR) between Saltville and Allison Gap in Western Smyth County, Virginia, and partly extends into Washington County, Virginia. The Jefferson National Forest is locate...

1987-01-01

196

Estimation of geomechanical subsidence at Hanford low-level solid waste disposal sites: Empirical analysis based on geological engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geotechnical\\/geomechanical subsidence is of concern at several Hanford Site low-level waste disposal locations. Subsidence may result in long-term maintenance, or perhaps, loss of confinement of contaminants within the boundaries of specific disposal sites. A preliminary method to estimate the magnitude of subsidence is reported. Additionally, graphic relationships are reported that permit estimation of depth and volume of subsidence ground surface

S. J. Phillips; T. W. Gilbert

1985-01-01

197

Proposed Curecanti-Shiprock No. 2 230-kv Transmission Line, Transmission Division, Colorado River Storage Project, Colorado-New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action includes the construction of a 230-kv steel tower transmission line between the Colorado River Storage Project's Curecanti and Shiprock Substations, approximately 9 miles of new access roads, and additional terminal facilities at the C...

1973-01-01

198

Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-09

199

Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)  

SciTech Connect

During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

NONE

1996-11-01

200

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2008-01-01

201

Site-specific emergency response concept plans for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

Site-specific emergency response concept plans were developed to help initiate enhanced emergency preparedness for continued storage of the stockpile and the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) at the eight army installations storing the unitary chemical stockpile -- Aberdeen Proving Ground, Anniston Army Depot, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pueblo Depot Activity, Tooele Army Depot, and Umatilla Depot Activity. This document summarizes the emergency response plans for all the sites and highlights similarities and differences among them. Section 2 summarizes site-specific differences in stockpile hazard and risk by showing differences in planning-basis accident categories and distributions of topographical features, meteorological conditions, and populations at risk. Section 3 presents a summary of the methodology used to identify the emergency planning zones for each site and the actual recommended boundaries of those zones for the eight sites. Section 4 identifies feasible and recommended protective actions for the sites and explains reasons for differences in them. Finally, Section 5 notes the dependence of protective action effectiveness on the development and implementation of command and control and warning systems that can be implemented in a timely manner, it also identifies the differences in recommended lead times (i.e., from the onset of an accidental release) needed at the sites for effective implementation of protective actions. 17 refs., 11 figs. , 12 tabs.

Carnes, S.A.

1989-12-01

202

Probabilistic Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site on the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site has been disposing of low-level, mixed low-level, and transuranic radioactive waste since 1961. In 1988, the U.S. Department of Energy implemented performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste disposal site performance and required all site operators to prepare a performance assessment. Since then, an iterative performance assessment process has been implemented that consists of repeated cycles of site characterization, conceptual model formation/revision, and performance assessment modeling. At the end of each cycle uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are used to determine the need for revision and to identify topics requiring additional research and development. The performance assessment model is implemented in the GoldSim{reg_sign} probabilistic simulation platform. The current site conceptual model, based on site characterization data and process model results, assumes that there is no groundwater pathway under current climatic conditions and that radionuclide releases are predominately upward to the land surface. Radionuclides are released to the land surface by upward liquid advection/diffusion, gas diffusion, biointrusion, and inadvertent human intrusion. The model calculates dose for four members of public exposure scenarios and two intruder scenarios. The highest mean-dose, 0.04 mSv yr{sup -1}, is expected for a low-probability exposure scenario: establishment of a rural community at the site boundary at the end of institutional control. At the end of institutional control, doses are contributed primarily by {sup 3}H in agricultural products produced onsite. After approximately 300 years, the doses are contributed equally by {sup 99}Tc and {sup 210}Pb ingested in vegetables grown at the residence. Technetium is released to the surface by the coupled processes of liquid advection/diffusion occurring deep in the cover and plant uptake/animal burrowing occurring at shallower depths. Lead-210 is deposited in shallow cover soil by the radioactive decay of {sup 222}Rn diffusing in the gas phase. The highest mean dose for the more likely exposure scenario of transient recreational use of the site is 0.002 mSv yr{sup -1}. The transient visitor's dose is contributed predominantly by external irradiation from {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, deposited in the cover by diffusion of {sup 222}Rn.

G. J. Shott; V. Yucel; L. T. Desotell

2008-03-01

203

Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 1. Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted at two sites on the Upper Mississippi River to determine whether and how quickly hydraulically dredged sand would move away from a thalweg disposal site into sensitive habitat areas. Hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited in the thalweg. Bathymetric surveys and surficial bottom sampling were conducted on several occasions within 588 and 249 days following disposal at the Gordon'

McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

1984-10-01

204

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

205

Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-01

206

Application of Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling for Optimization of Maintenance Studies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration of the Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose defense-generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed radioactive waste, and ''classified waste'' in shallow trenches and pits. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated by the DOE under DOE Order 435.1. This Order requires formal review of a performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA; assessment of all interacting radiological sources) for each LLW disposal system followed by an active maintenance program that extends through and beyond the site closure program. The Nevada disposal facilities continue to receive NTS-generated LLW and defense-generated LLW from across the DOE complex. The PA/CAs for the sites have been conditionally approved and the facilities are now under a formal maintenance program that requires testing of conceptual models, quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty, and implementing confirmatory and long-term background monitoring, all leading to eventual closure of the disposal sites. To streamline and reduce the cost of the maintenance program, the NNSA/NV is converting the deterministic PA/CAs to probabilistic models using GoldSim, a probabilistic simulation computer code. The output of probabilistic models will provide expanded information supporting long-term decision objectives of the NTS disposal sites.

Crowe, B.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; DiSanza, F.

2002-02-25

207

Greenhouse gas emission potential of the municipal solid waste disposal sites in Thailand.  

PubMed

Open dumping and landfilling are the prevalent solid waste disposal practices in Thailand. Surveys on the disposal sites revealed the presence of 95 landfills and 330 open dumps. Methane emission potential at these sites was estimated by three methods. Results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, Landfill Gas Emission model (LandGEM), and closed flux chamber technique were compared. The methane emission potential of 366 Gg/yr using the IPCC method was higher than the estimations of the LandGEM and closed flux chamber method of 115 Gg/yr and 103 Gg/yr, respectively. An understanding of the methane emission potential initiated the analysis of upgrading the open dumps into landfills, adding landfills to meet the future needs and utilization of landfill gases. Upgrading the open dumps to landfills increased the methane emission rates and their utilization potential. Approximately 20 additional landfills may be required to meet future demands. Landfill gas (LFG) utilization appears to be feasible in the large-scale landfills. PMID:18512439

Chiemchaisri, Chart; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

2008-05-01

208

The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.  

PubMed

A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts. PMID:20124318

Rucker, Dale Franklin

2010-02-02

209

Characterization of dredged river sediments in 10 upland disposal sites of Alabama  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa Research Center in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers under interagency Agreement No. 14-09-0078-1510, conducted a comprehensive sampling program of 10 upland disposal sites along the Alabama, Black Warrior, and Tombigbee River systems in Alabama. Samples from each site were characterized according to particle size, chemical analysis, mineralogical content, and potential end use. Additionally, samples were subjected to the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Procedure to determine the presence of potentially harmful heavy metals. Based on the results of these studies, each sample was determined to have properties amenable for use as aggregate in general-purpose portland cement concretes and certain asphalt concrete applications.

Smith, C.W.

1995-09-01

210

Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.  

PubMed

Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. PMID:20615596

Lions, Julie; Gurin, Valrie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agns

2010-07-07

211

Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, RCRA requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A grouping of waste disposal units according to waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements identified six closure units: LLW Unit, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111 under FFACO, Asbestiform LLW Unit, Pit 3 MWDU, TRU GCD Borehole Unit, and TRU Trench Unit. The closure schedule of all units is tied to the closure schedule of the Pit 3 MWDU under RCRA.

L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

2008-03-01

212

Aquatic Disposal Field Investigations, Duwamish Waterway Disposal Site, Puget Sound, Washington. Appendix A. Effects of Dredged Material Disposal on Demersal Fish and Shellfish in Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cooperative research program, sponsored by the Office, Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, was conducted in Elliott Bay near Seattle, Wash., to determine the effects of disposal of dredged material from the Duwamish Waterway in open water. The study involved...

J. R. Hughes W. E. Ames D. A. Misitano G. F. Slusser

1978-01-01

213

Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

1995-12-01

214

Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC`s position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ``one-bad-year`` scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ``critical cross section`` study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity.

Not Available

1994-12-01

215

Study of contaminant transport at an open-tipping waste disposal site.  

PubMed

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to estimate concentration of potential contaminants from landfill in the underlying groundwater, leachate, and surface water. Samples collected in the vicinity of the landfill were analyzed for physiochemical parameters, organic contaminants, and toxic heavy metals. Water quality results obtained were compared from published data and reports. The results indicate serious groundwater and surface water contamination in and around the waste disposal site. Analysis of the organic samples revealed that the site contains polychlorinated biphenyls and other organo-chlorine chemicals, principally chloro-benzenes. Although the amount of PCB concentration discovered was not extreme, their presence indicates a potentially serious environmental threat. Elevated concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, manganese, cadmium, and cobalt at the downgradient indicate that the contamination plume migrated further from the site, and the distribution of metals and metals containing wastes in the site is nonhomogeneous. These results clearly indicate that materials are poorly contained and are at risk of entering the environment. Therefore, full characterization of the dump contents and the integrity of the site are necessary to evaluate the scope of the problem and to identify suitable remediation options. PMID:23292199

Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Yusoff, Ismail; Yusof, Mohamad; Alias, Yatimah

2013-01-05

216

Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

Booth, J. S.; Winters, W. J.; Poppe, L. J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R. S.

1989-01-01

217

1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997.

Fuchs, R. L.

1998-08-01

218

Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE\\/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all

Charles T. Kincaid; Robert W. Bryce; John W. Buck

2004-01-01

219

Impacts of a Solid Waste Disposal Site on Soil, Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste disposal sites are potentially serious sources of pollution to the environment, especially when located very close to water sources and operated haphazardly. The high pollution potential of these sites is due to the fact that they usually contain almost all types of pollutants from the source community. The contaminants can leach out through the soil, contaminating the soil

Gabriel R. Kassenga; Stephen E. Mbuligwe

2009-01-01

220

Methodology for selecting low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with application to the Oak Ridge Reservation. [Shallow land burial  

SciTech Connect

A methodology was developed to select an environmentally acceptable site for low-level radioactive waste disposal for a predetermined region of interest using prescribed site suitability requirements. The methodology provides a defensible means for identifying candidate areas within the region, candidate sites within the areas, and an environmentally preferred site from the candidate sites. This is accomplished in site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The methodology was applied to the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. 6 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.

1984-01-01

221

The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site.

Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hechnova, A. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center of Environmental Studies; Jacobson, R. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Voss, C. [Golder Associates, Inc. (United States); Waters, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sully, M.; Levitt, D. [Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1999-03-01

222

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

223

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. CAU 543 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven CASs: {sm_bullet} CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad {sm_bullet} CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield {sm_bullet} CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping From January 24, 2005 through April 14, 2005, CAU 543 site characterization activities were conducted, and are reported in Appendix A of the CAU 543 Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005). The recommended corrective action as stated in the approved CADD is No Further Action for five of the CAU 543 CASs, and Closure In Place for the remaining two CASs.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2006-09-01

224

Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: Geology; Hydrogeology; Hydrochemistry; Geotechnical; Radionuclide Transport Properties; Thermal Properties; and Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component of the safety assessment within the environmental safety case. In preparing for these surface-based investigations at a site or sites, NDA-RWMD has explored the processes and tools that have been used in overseas radioactive waste management programmes for processing, interpreting and modelling the various data acquired through site characterisation. This research will inform the scope and approach to site characterisation proposed by NDA-RWMD when a site(s) is selected for a geological disposal facility in the future. This paper discusses the work that has been undertaken to increase the understanding for the interpretation and modelling for each of the Site Descriptive Model disciplines identified. Where appropriate reference will be made to experience from other international radioactive waste management programmes.

Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.

2012-04-01

225

Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

Kaplan, M.F.

1984-12-31

226

Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

Dickman, P. T.

1989-01-01

227

Corrective Action Decision Document\\/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)\\/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of

Alfred Wickline

2008-01-01

228

Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: (Final technical report)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

Ostendorf, D.W.; Noss, R.R.; Miller, A.B.; Phillips, H.S.

1987-01-01

229

Evaluation of temporal and spatial trends of groundwater quality alteration in the area of mining waste disposal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of data from long-term monitoring studies carried out in the impact area of the Smolnica coal mining waste disposal site in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (Poland), the extent and propagation of originally good groundwater quality degradation that resulted from infiltration to the Quaternary aquifer of contaminants leached from the disposal site, as well as major trends of the natural water quality alteration were evaluated. For assessment of spatial and temporal groundwater quality trends in the vicinity of the disposal site, geostatistical methods were applied. Water quality alteration trends were monitored with use of two major constituents: chlorides and sulfates showing significant changes in time and space. The spatial variability was assessed with use of the GeoEas and Surfer models; for data aggregation and trend analysis, the SigmaPlot was used; preliminary data analysis was accomplished with use of the Statgraphics Plus for Windows software. The hydrogeochemical background of two analyzed compounds for each separate hydrogeochemical zone in the waste disposal area was simulated by a probabilistic method. Time- and space-dependent characteristics of chloride and sulfate distribution along with assessed data for the hydrogeochemical background provided a basis for the long-term evaluation of the groundwater chemical composition and deterioration rate variability in the area of the mining waste disposal site.

Kmiecik, Ewa; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Szczepanska, Jadwiga; Twardowska, Irena

2004-10-01

230

1981 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

This state-by-state report again uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the nation baseline figure. A volume of 87,789 m/sup 3/ of radioactive waste containing 279,863 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1981. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1 and a summary of estimated volumes by generator categories is contained in Table 2. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1981 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available reactor information was obtained directly from the utility. The reported quantities of solid radioactive wastes generated by government installations shipped to commercial disposal sites are annually summarized in the SWIMS report. Records of radioactive wastes shippped to commercial disposal sites from the US Navy nuclear-powered ships and support facilities are maintained by the Nuclear Power Directorate, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, and are reported on an annual basis. Available information from other military departments such as the Army and the Air Force were included in this study. Wastes from these other military commands do not constitute a significant volume of radioactive source.

Not Available

1982-12-01

231

Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

2004-07-09

232

DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

2011-01-13

233

Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 2. Savanna Bay and Duck Creek sites  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted on the Upper Mississippi River at two sites, Savanna Bay and Duck Creek, to investigate the movement of dredged sand after disposal in the thalweg. These experiments are part of a larger study, which includes similar experiments conducted earlier at two other sites on the Upper Mississippi River. At the Savanna Bay site, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg. Bathymetric surveys and surficial bottom sampling were conducted on five occasions over a nine-month period following disposal to identify changes in the topography of the pile and to detect the presence of dyed sand. At the Duck Creek site, only bathymetric surveys were conducted. The general behavior of the disposal piles at these two new sites was similar to that of the piles at the first two sites. Topographic evidence of the piles disappeared, and bottom conditions similar to the predisposal conditions were reestablished following the first period of high river flows after disposal. At Savanna Bay, as had happened at the first two sites, the tagged sand remained in the main river channel as it moved downstream in response to flood currents and did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs. 6 references, 89 figures, 2 tables.

Paddock, R.A.; McCown, D.L.

1984-12-01

234

Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited.

Not Available

1991-03-01

235

1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

Fuchs, R.L.

1996-09-01

236

1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

NONE

1995-09-01

237

1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

Fuchs, R.L.

1997-09-01

238

Siting a municipal solid waste disposal facility, Part One: An evaluation of different scenarios for a site selection procedure.  

PubMed

This study includes an application of the first two phases of a new three-phased decision-making structure that was developed to overcome the problems related to ecological safety and social justice in site selection applications. It was conducted on a current site selection problem related to the municipal solid waste disposal facilities in Kocaeli, the most industrialized region of Turkey. In order to assess the deficiencies of the legal site selection procedures related to ecological safety, two different decision tree modes were applied separately. The first mode ("Legislation") concerns the current buffer zone applications given in the regulations, while the second one ("Proposed") includes the applications of the new decision-making structure proposed in this study. Since it was assumed that the subjective tendencies of the decision makers on the weightings would have a significant effect on the final decision, these two modes were assessed by employing two different weighting models. The results were obtained from all of the scenarios related to selection of suitable sites with three different area requirements (15, 250, and 500 acres) for the solid wastes generated in the Kocaeli region. The results showed that the possible changes in the decision structure could cause significant differences in the final decision related to selection of the most suitable sites. The most highest and lowest differences were at the "Legislation" mode for 15 acres and 500 acres, respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained in the study showed that the possible differentiations in the criteria weightings could also cause significant differences in the suitability ranking. Therefore, to get a reliable final decision, a statistical assessment of these differentiations should be made. Implications: The results showed that the possible changes in the decision structure could cause significant differences in the final decision related to selection of the most suitable sites. Furthermore, the results obtained in the study showed that the possible differentiations in the criteria weightings could also cause significant differences in the suitability ranking. Therefore, to get a reliable final decision, a statistical assessment of these differentiations should be made. PMID:24010368

Korucu, M Kemal; Arslan, Ozan; Karademir, Aykan

2013-08-01

239

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 333: U-3auS Disposal Site Annual Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U-3auS Disposal Site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 333 is a closed construction landfill located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure of this site was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA\\/NV) dated June 27, 2001. Post-closure

K. K. Knapp

2003-01-01

240

Hazardous Waste Disposal Options, Costs and Disposal Site Evaluation for Coal Gasification/Liquefaction Facilities. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study develops a system for evaluating potential secured landfill sites and correlates the results with various secured landfill design options and costs. This report contains: a summary of regulatory requirements and constraints; development and cos...

1980-01-01

241

70 FR 32498 - Ocean Disposal; Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Central and Western Long Island...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sites in Long Island Sound over the...and western Long Island Sound, the cultural resources that have...significant cultural resources. The Connecticut...historic or cultural resources. EPA specifically...area around Long Island Sound to...

2005-06-03

242

Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here. Parameters necessary for estimating surface contaminant flux due to native plants expected to inhabit the NTS RWMSS are developed in this report. The model is specific to the plant communities found at the NTS and is designed for both short-term (<1,000 years) and long-term (>1,000 years) modeling efforts. While the model has been crafted for general applicability to any NTS PA, the key radionuclides considered are limited to the transuranic (TRU) wastes disposed of at the NTS.

BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

1999-09-01

243

Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

1995-01-01

244

Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

245

Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

Healy, R. W.; Gray, J. R.; De Vries, G. M.; Mills, P. C.

1989-01-01

246

Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1995-08-01

247

Susceptibility of the Memphis water supply to contamination from the pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Public concern has been expressed over the possiblity that leachates from a pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee, might eventually reach the Memphis area and endanger the city 's water supply. An examination of the possible pathways and means of transport of these contaminants reveals that, the Memphis area in detectable concentrations is unlikely. (USGS)

Rima, Donald Robert

1979-01-01

248

Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

1990-07-01

249

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

2013-01-01

250

Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. DOE`s responses to the comments are also included.

NONE

1996-10-01

251

Disposal of a 60Co self-shielded irradiator through the Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Project.  

PubMed

An Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Gamma Cell 220 self-shielded irradiator acquired in 1974 by the VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System was disposed of through the Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Project in 2006. PMID:19590268

Vernig, Peter Graham

2009-08-01

252

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review.  

PubMed

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure. PMID:1790043

Najem, G R; Cappadona, J L

253

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure.71 references.

Najem, G.R.; Cappadona, J.L. (Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States))

1991-11-01

254

Judgments of policies designed to elicit local cooperation on LLRW disposal siting: Comparing the public and decision makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here solicited the opinions of the general public of the State of Pennsylvania and of key decision makers in environmental, civic, industry, and health groups, on various policy issues connected with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Specifically, the focus was on their judgment of options designed to elicit local cooperation and their trust in

Richard J. Bord

1987-01-01

255

Evaluation of shale hosted low-level waste disposal sites in semi-arid environments: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the findings of a multidisciplinary investigation intended to delineate critical factors and concerns associated with shale hosted, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites located in semiarid environments. The investigations focus primarily upon concerns regarding the hydrology, geochemistry, and meteorology of such an environment. The studies described within this report specifically do not constitute an evaluation of any one

W. M. Roggenthen; P. H. Rahn; R. C. Arthur; J. R. Miller; W. J. Bangsund; J. Eberlin

1985-01-01

256

Problems of site selection for nuclear waste disposal in a loess-covered hill environment in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of the long-term storage of nuclear waste produced by the Paks power plant have recently come to the fore in Hungary. After an extensive debate between investors and the local population the decision makers took the side of those having opposed the establishment of the waste disposal site in the initially proposed environment. Several studies have been conducted to

Jnos Balogh; Ferenc Schweitzer; Tibor Tiner

1995-01-01

257

Ground Waters Quality In Potential Zone Of Influence Of Ash Disposal Site At The Thermal Power Plant \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kosovo Thermal Power Plant which is situated near Prishtina presents major industrial capacity production in our country. From their production capacity after coals is burned a huge amount of ash is obtained, which is disposed near of the thermal power plant. The ash dump site of the thermal power plant Kosovo \\

Lule Beqa; Liridon Berisha; Tahir Arbneshi

258

Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.] [eds.

1996-03-01

259

Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of a nuclear waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional (3D) modeling study was completed on a very large electrical resistivity survey conducted at a nuclear waste site in eastern Washington. The acquisition included 47 pole-pole two dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles collected along parallel and orthogonal lines over an area of 850 m570 m. The data were geo-referenced and inverted using EarthImager3D (EI3D). EI3D runs on a Microsoft 32-bit operating system (e.g. WIN-2K, XP) with a maximum usable memory of 2 GB. The memory limits the size of the domain for the inversion model to 200 m200 m, based on the survey electrode density. Therefore, a series of increasing overlapping models were run to evaluate the effectiveness of dividing the survey area into smaller subdomains. The results of the smaller subdomains were compared to the inversion results of a single domain over a larger area using an upgraded form of EI3D that incorporates multi-processing capabilities and 32 GB of RAM memory. The contours from the smaller subdomains showed discontinuity at the boundaries between the adjacent models, which do not match the hydrogeologic expectations given the nature of disposal at the site. At several boundaries, the contours of the low resistivity areas close, leaving the appearance of disconnected plumes or open contours at boundaries are not met with a continuance of the low resistivity plume into the adjacent subdomain. The model results of the single large domain show a continuous monolithic plume within the central and western portion of the site, directly beneath the elongated trenches. It is recommended that where possible, the domain not be subdivided, but instead include as much of the domain as possible given the memory of available computing resources.

Rucker, Dale F.; Levitt, Marc T.; Greenwood, William J.

2009-12-11

260

Nutrient couplings between on-site sewage disposal systems, groundwaters, and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a one-year study to determine the effects of on-site sewage disposal systems (OSDS, septic tanks) on the nutrient\\u000a relations of limestone groundwaters and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys. Monitor wells were installed on canal\\u000a residences with OSDS and a control site in the Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge on Big Pine Key. Groundwater and surface\\u000a water

Brian E. Lapointe; Julie D. O'Connell; George S. Garrett

1999-01-01

261

Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This is the Comment and Response Document dated November 1996 for the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site in Falls City, Texas. The site is part of the U.S. DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). Several comments regarding the hydrology and surface erosion described in the Long-Term Surveillance Plan are addressed in this document.

NONE

1996-11-01

262

Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite analysis of low-level radioactive waste disposal and other radioactive sources was recently completed for the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington State. Impacts from source release and environmental transport were estimated for a 1000-year period following Site closure in a multi-step process involving 1) estimation of radiological inventories and release, 2) assessment of contaminant migration through the vadose zone,

Charles T. Kincaid; Marcel P. Bergeron; Charles R. Cole; Mark D. Freshley; Vernon G. Johnson; D. I. Kaplan; R. Jeffrey Serne; Gary P. Streile; Dennis L. Strenge; Paul D. Thorne; Lance W. Vail; Greg A. Whyatt; Signe K. Wurstner

2000-01-01

263

Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the report is to present results and implications of approximately 10 years of hydrologic research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. Hydrologic research at the site, located near Sheffield, Illinois, has included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench

B. J. Ryan; M. P. Devries; R. W. Healy; J. R. Gray; P. C. Mills

1991-01-01

264

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant

W. J. Waugh; M. K. Kastens; L. R. L. Sheader; C. H. Benson; W. H. Albright; P. S. Mushovic

2008-01-01

265

Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

266

Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual low-level radioactive contamination. A total of 31 sites that may require remedial action has been identified. The purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP Program, which began in March 1981, is to assess the technical, environmental, and institutional feasibility of disposing, in the ocean and on the ocean floor, of FUSRAP soil and rubble which contains traces of natural radioactive materials. The initial focus has been on the Middlesex, New Jersey, Sampling Plant site and surrounding properties, which contain on the order of 100,000 metric tons of material. The Belgian Congo uranium ore and other uranium ores used by the United States were handled at the sampling plant site. In studying the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP material from Middlesex, New Jersey, we have begun to examine institutional requirements to be met, the composition of the source material with regard to its inventory of toxic chemical and radiochemical components and the impact of the source material in the marine environment. To date we have found nothing that would preclude safe and inexpensive disposal of this material in the ocean.

Kupferman, S.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Brush, L.H.; Gomez, L.S.; Laul, J.C.; Shephard, L.E.

1982-01-01

267

Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone  

SciTech Connect

Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-01-01

268

Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone  

SciTech Connect

Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-12-31

269

PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY  

SciTech Connect

It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

Phifer, M.

2012-01-31

270

Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois  

SciTech Connect

From July through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at the low-level, radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: energy-budget, aerodynamic-profile, and water-budget. Estimates by the first two methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close-648 and 626 mm, respectively. Daily estimates ranged from 0 to 6 mm. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly gamma-attenuation, soil-moisture-content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 655 mm and included only the months of April through October. The yearly (March through November) average of 657 millimeters for the three methods was equivalent to 70% of precipitation and 75% of Penman potential evapotranspiration. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and emitted longwave and short-wave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at three heights. 59 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs.

Healy, R.W.; deVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M.

1987-01-01

271

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in the SAFER Plan. In addition, the septic tank associated with CAU 356 will be closed in accordance with applicable regulations.

NNSA /NV

2002-11-12

272

Use of geophysical monitoring systems and data to identify and designate ocean sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report provides information applicable to using geophysical instruments and survey methods, and the data collected, in the process of designating sites for ocean disposal of low level radioactive wastes. The geophysical ocean survey methods described in the report are envisioned as preceding any sediment sampling required to characterize disposal sites.

Neiheisel, J.

1988-07-01

273

Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringen...

A. R. Dutton H. S. Nance

2003-01-01

274

Nematodes as Sensitive Indicators of Change at Dredged Material Disposal Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonstration of the recovery of marine habitats from perturbation, or of the effectiveness of protective measures, is dependent on the sensitivity of the target group in responding to change. This paper highlights the utility of the nematode component of the meiofauna as a tool for assessing disturbance from dredgings disposal. Transect surveys were conducted at three major dredged material disposal

S. E. Boyd; H. L. Rees; C. A. Richardson

2000-01-01

275

43 CFR 2743.2-1 - Patent provisions for new disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION...Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743...pay the Bureau of Land Management the fair market value...been used for solid waste disposal or for...

2012-10-01

276

Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

Fischer, John N.

1986-01-01

277

National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of Compensation and Incentives in Siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radio...

1985-01-01

278

Development of the Remedial Action Priority System: An Improved Risk Assessment Tool for Prioritizing Hazardous and Radioactive-Mixed Waste Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to brid...

G. Whelan D. L. Strenge B. L. Steelman K. A. Hawley

1985-01-01

279

1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

1991-09-01

280

Performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility on the Nevada Test Site: Comparing the performance of two conceptual site models  

SciTech Connect

A small amount of transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site located on the Nevada Test Site`s (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The waste has been buried in several deep (37 m) boreholes dug into the floor of an alluvial basin. For the waste to remain in its current configuration, the DOE must demonstrate compliance of the site with the TRU disposal requirements, 40 CFR 191. Sandia`s approach to process modelling in performance assessment is to use demonstrably conservative models of the site. Choosing the most conservative model, however, can be uncertain. As an example, diffusion of contaminants upward from the buried waste in the vadose zone water is the primary mechanism of release. This process can be modelled as straight upward planar diffusion or as spherical diffusion in all directions. The former has high fluxes but low release areas, the latter has lower fluxes but is spread over a greater area. We have developed analytic solutions to a simple test problem for both models and compared the total integrated discharges. The spherical diffusion conceptual model results in at least five times greater release to the accessible environment than the planar model at all diffusivities. Modifying the planar model to allow for a larger release, however, compensated for the smaller original planar discharge and resulted in a new planar model that was more conservative that the spherical model except at low diffusivities.

Baer, T.A. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [SAIC, Melbourne, FL (United States); Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-31

281

Siting new or expanded treatment, storage, or disposal facilities: the pigs in the parlors of the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

There are no signs that the controversy over siting new treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities for hazardous wastes or expanding existing facilities is abating. Few communities want a TSD facility because of safety concerns. Public fear has moved the siting issue from a technical problem into the institutional bog of risk-benefit analysis. A review of the legal issues, including that of state control and federal preemption, concludes that states face difficult choices in designing statutes because of conflict between technical and political problems. The most positive aspects of siting statutes is the back door they open to the basic problem of waste-stream reduction. 138 references.

Tarlock, A.D.

1984-01-01

282

Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration.

Nyhan, J.; Barnes, F.

1989-02-01

283

Arsenic concentration in porewater of an alkaline coal ash disposal site: Roles of siderite precipitation/dissolution and soil cover.  

PubMed

The geochemical behavior of As in porewaters of an alkaline coal ash disposal site was investigated using multilevel samplers. The disposal site was in operation from 1983 until 1994 and was covered with 0.3-0.5m thick soils in 2001 when this study was initiated. Sequential extraction analyses and batch leaching experiments were also performed using the coal ash samples collected from the disposal site. The results suggest the important roles of siderite (FeCO(3)) precipitation/dissolution and soil cover, which have been ignored previously. Arsenic levels in the porewater were very low (average of 10microgL(-1)) when the site was covered with soil due to coprecipitation with siderite. The soil cover enabled the creation of anoxic conditions, which raised the Fe concentration by the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides. Because of the high alkalinity generated from the alkaline coal ash, even a small increase in the Fe concentration (0.66mgL(-1) on average) could cause siderite precipitation. When the soil cover was removed, however, an oxidizing condition was created and triggered the precipitation of dissolved Fe as (hydr)oxides. As a result, the dissolution of previously precipitated As-rich siderite caused higher As concentration in the porewater (average of 345microgL(-1)). PMID:19682722

Kim, Kangjoo; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Jinsam; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Moon, Jeong-Tae; Hwang, Gab-Soo; Cha, Wang-Seog

2009-08-13

284

Bulk Transport of Waste Slurries to Inland and Ocean Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary report of a three volume study principally concerned with the development of regional land and ocean pipeline disposal systems for digested sewage sludge and maintenance dredgings.

E. J. Wasp T. L. Thompson P. E. Snoek J. P. Kenny J. C. Carney

1969-01-01

285

43 CFR 2743.3-1 - Patent provisions for leased disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES...Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.3-1 Patent...

2012-10-01

286

TRANSPORT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE SOIL AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Transport studies were conducted to assess ocean disposal of soil contaminated with low-level natural radioisotopes. he experimental approach involved characterization of the soil for parameters affecting transport and fate of radionuclides- Radioactivity was associated with disc...

287

Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Results of approximately 10 years of hydrologic research conducted by the US Geological Survey at a commercial low-level, radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, are presented. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapped research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. 65 refs., 61 figs., 4 tabs.

Louthian, B.L.; Gann, E.E.

1989-01-01

288

Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

2001-09-28

289

Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned

C. T. Kincaid; M. P. Bergeron; C. R. Cole

1998-01-01

290

Comparison of radiation protection programs at US power reactors, uranium mills, and low-level waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power reactor in March 1979 and subsequent investigations identified serious concerns involving several aspects of radiation protection programs in general. Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories was contracted by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to characterize and evaluate radiation protection programs at power reactors, uranium mills and commercial low-level waste disposal sites in the United States. These evaluations were termed appraisals because they were structured to facilitate an integrated look at the total radiation protection programs, delve into areas for which explicit regulatory requirements did not exist, and emphasize evaluation of capability and performance rather than compliance with regulations. This paper contains some of the results of 48 power reactor appraisals, 10 uranium mill appraisals and 3 commercial low-level waste disposal site appraisals. The appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions will be discussed. It was observed from this effort that there is a difference in the adequacy of radiation protection programs as compared between the three types of nuclear facilities. It was observed, based on the risks involved, that the program elements at low-level waste disposal sites and power reactors were substantially better than at the uranium mills. 3 references.

Hadlock, D.E.; Hooker, C.D.; Munson, L.H.

1983-10-01

291

An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

1996-05-01

292

Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

Not Available

1989-06-06

293

Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered.

Gruebel, M.R. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

294

Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.  

PubMed

Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose zone has low saturated hydraulic conductivities on the order of 10(-5)cm/s and in this respect is well-suited for the disposal of LILW. The saturated formations are primarily made up of silt and moderately-to-slightly weathered granite, which exhibit even lower hydraulic conductivities, on the order of 10(-6)cm/s, also favorable for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Chemical analyses indicate that the groundwaters at the site are of the HCO(3)-Na Ca and HCO(3) SO(4)-Na Ca types and are weakly corrosive to concrete and steel. Geochemical analyses indicate that the rock and soil materials (particularly weathered granite) at the site contain very small fractions of colloidal particles and exhibit low Cation Exchange Capacities (CEC), and would therefore have limited capacity for sorption of radionuclides. Groundwater flow and solute transport models of the candidate site have been developed using MODFLOW and MT3DMS, incorporating the data obtained during the assessment program. Calibration was based on the available measured groundwater level fluctuations and tracer concentrations from in situ dispersion tests. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient as determined in calibration is equal to 5.0 10(-3) m(2)/d. Numerical sensitivity analyses indicate that the hydraulic conductivity and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient are the key parameters controlling the transport of radionuclides, while the numerical model is not sensitive to changes in the effective porosity and the specific yield. Preliminary predictions have been performed with the calibrated model both for the natural setting of the site and the graded site in which the valleys of the site are backfilled with low permeable materials. Results indicate that the proposed site grading increases the safety of the site for disposal of LILW by reducing both the groundwater level and the hydraulic gradient and that radionuclide transport would not likely be a problem or cause groundwater contamination. Although there are some problems remaining to be addressed in future work, the conclusion

Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

2011-11-25

295

Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to present results and implications of approximately 10 years of hydrologic research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. Hydrologic research at the site, located near Sheffield, Illinois, has included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry.

Ryan, B.J.; Devries, M.P.; Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; Mills, P.C.

1991-01-01

296

Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily awnless brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic profile, and (3) a soil-based water budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data and then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates (for March through November) by these methods were in close agreement: 648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates reach a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of total precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soilmoisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) at the Sheffield site were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service stations. Solar radiation averaged 65 percent of that normally expected under clear skies. Net radiation averaged 70.1 watts per square meter and was highest in July and negative during some winter months. Wind direction varied but was predominately south-southeasterly. Wind speed at the 2-meter height averaged 3.5 meters per second and was slightly higher in winter months than the rest of the year. The amount of water stored within the soil zone was greatest in early spring and least in late summer. Seasonal and diurnal trends of evapotranspiration rates mirrored those of net radiation; July was usually the month with the highest evapotranspiration rate. The ratio of sensible- to latentheat fluxes (commonly called the Bowen ratio) for the 2-year study period was 0.38, as averaged from the three methods. Monthly Bowen ratios fluctuated somewhat but averaged about 0.35 for late spring through summer. In fall, the ratio declined to zero or to slightly negative values. When the ratio was negative, the latent-heat flux was slightly greater than the net radiation because of additional energy supplied by' the cooling soil and air. Evapotranspiration calculated by the three methods averaged 75 percent of potential evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Penman equation. There was no apparent seasonal trend in the relation between actual and potential evapotranspiration rates.

Healy, R. W.; DeVries, M. P.; Sturrock, Alex M., Jr.

1989-01-01

297

Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax\\/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax\\/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring

Jason M. Dixon; Daniel G. Levitt; Stuart E. Rawlinson

2001-01-01

298

Study of Heavy Metals in a Wetland Area Adjacent to a Waste Disposal Site Near Resolute Bay, Canadian High Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination in High Arctic systems is of growing concern. Studies have been conducted measuring long range and large point source pollutants, but little research has been done on small point sources such as municipal waste disposal sites. Many Arctic communities are coastal, and local people consume marine wildlife in which concentrations of heavy metals can accumulate. Waste disposal sites are often located in very close proximity to the coastline and leaching of these metals could contaminate food sources on a local scale. Cadmium and lead are the metals focussed on by this study, as the Northern Contaminants Program recognizes them as metals of concern. During the summer of 2003 a study was conducted near Resolute, Nunavut, Canada, to determine the extent of cadmium and lead leaching from a local dumpsite to an adjacent wetland. The ultimate fate of these contaminants is approximately 1 km downslope in the ocean. Transects covering an area of 0.3 km2 were established downslope from the point of disposal and water and soil samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium and lead. Only trace amounts of cadmium and lead were found in the water samples. In the soil samples, low uniform concentrations of cadmium were found that were slightly above background levels, except for adjacent to the point of waste input where higher concentrations were found. Lead soil concentrations were higher than cadmium and varied spatially with soil material and moisture. Overall, excessive amounts of cadmium and lead contamination do not appear to be entering the marine ecosystem. However, soil material and moisture should be considered when establishing waste disposal sites in the far north

Lund, K. E.; Young, K. L.

2004-05-01

299

Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

1998-03-01

300

Sampling and analyses of colloids at the Drigg low level radioactive waste disposal site.  

PubMed

Water samples have been extracted from inside (from standpipes) and from outside (from boreholes) of the trenches at the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, UK. The samples were taken anaerobically from between 8.5 and 10.0 m below the surface using a submersible pump at low flow rates to ensure that the waters in the standpipes and boreholes were maintained at constant levels. To ensure representative samples, the Eh, pH. conductivity, temperature, iron and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the waters were taken during initial purging and during sampling. The gross tritium, gross non-tritium beta, gross alpha and gamma activities of each sample were determined using suitable sample preparation and counting techniques. Samples were then anaerobically, sequentially filtered through 12 microm, 1 microm, 30 kDa and 500 Da filter membranes. The filtrates were analysed for gross alpha, gross non-tritium beta and gamma activities. SEM and STEM analyses were used to determine the colloid population. An energy dispersive analyser on the SEM was used to determine the major elements present in the colloids. UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry and high performance size exclusion liquid chromatography were used to analyse the waters before and after treatment with ion exchange materials to determine whether natural organic matter was present in the waters. Results showed that two major types of colloids (iron containing colloids and silicon containing colloids) were present in the waters. There were also a small number of other colloids that contain, as major elements, aluminium, calcium and chromium. Organic colloids were also present. The majority of the radioactivity in the waters was due to tritium. Waters taken from outside the trenches contained low levels of non-tritium beta activities and alpha activities which were lower than the minimum detectable amount. Waters taken from the trenches contained non-tritium beta activities and low levels of alpha emitters. Filtration of the trench waters showed that some of the alpha activity was retained by the 30 kDa and 500 Da membranes suggesting that this activity was associated with small colloids. Radioactivity was not found to be associated with colloids present in the waters taken from outside the trenches. Possible reasons for this observation could be that radionuclide bearing colloids have not yet reached the far-field or that the radionuclide concentration is diluted to below the minimum detectable amount. After concentrating two of the samples by factors of x20 and x 16 respectively, 2.4+/-0.1 and 0.6+/-0.1 Bq dm(-3) of 137Cs were measured. PMID:11993761

Warwick, P; Allinson, S; Beckett, K; Eilbeck, A; Fairhurst, A; Russel-Flint, K; Verrall, K

2002-04-01

301

Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

2002-02-26

302

Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

Hunt, A.; Jones, G. [Fluor Daniel Fernald, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Nelson, K. [Jacobs Engineering (United States)

1998-03-01

303

Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

1984-07-01

304

Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy-budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic-profile, and (3) a soil-based water-budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close--648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates range up to a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soil-moisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service stations. Solar radiation averaged 65 percent of that normally expected under clear skies. Net radiation averaged 70.1 watts per square meter and was highest in July and negative during some winter months. Wind direction varied but was predominately out of the south-southeast. Wind speed at the 2-meter height averaged 3.5 meters per second and was slightly higher in winter months than the rest of the year. The amount of water stored within the soil zone was greatest in early spring and least in late summer. Seasonal and diurnal trends in evapotranspiration rates mirrored those in net radiation; July was usually the month with the highest rate. The ratio of sensible- to latent-heat fluxes (commonly called the Bowen ratio) for the 2-year period was 0.38, as averaged from the three methods. Monthly Bowen ratios fluctuated somewhat but averaged about 0.35 for late spring through summer. In fall, the ratio declined to zero or to slightly negative values. When the ratio was negative, the latent-heat flux was slightly greater than the net radiation because of additional energy supplied by the cooling soil and air. Evapotranspiration calculated by the three methods averaged 75 percent of potential evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Penman equation. There was no apparent seasonal trend in the relation between actual and potential evapotranspiration rates.

Healy, R. W.; DeVries, M. P.; Sturrock, A. M.

1987-01-01

305

Geophysical Investigations at a Buried Disposal Site on Fort Richardson, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Poleline Road Disposal Area, located on Fort Richardson, Alaska, was a U.S. Army dump in the early 1950s. In 1990 it was identified as an area potentially contaminated with volatile organic compounds. CRREL conducted extensive geophysical investigatio...

A. J. Delaney J. C. Strasser D. E. Lawson S. A. Arcone E. B. Evenson

1997-01-01

306

1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

BLACK, D.G.

1999-03-25

307

Utilizing Geographic Information Systems in Assessing Unauthorized Waste Disposal Sites In Olmsted County Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of illegal dumping is a broad problem that affects many rural and urban communities economically and environmentally. Economic impacts are felt when income from user fees for legally operated dumping and recycling facilities are lost due to illegal dumping and disposal practices. Consequently, funding dollars must be spent in providing staff technical support in the investigating and mitigating

Alexander S. Webb

308

Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed.

Pin, F.G.

1985-01-01

309

Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Phase I. Assessment of the Potential for Groundwater Contamination, Edwards Air Force Base Waste Disposal Site Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Envirodyne Engineers, Inc. (EEI) evaluated the potential for groundwater contamination at nine hazardous waste storage and disposal sites at Edwards Air Force Base, California. This evaluation consisted of an Initial Assessment Survey based on published a...

1981-01-01

310

An investigation of the presence of methane and other gases at the UzundereIzmir solid waste disposal site, Izmir, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Izmir is a large metropolitan city with a population of 3,114,860. The city consists of 27 townships, each township has a population of not less than 10,000 inhabitants. The two major solid waste disposal sites are in the townships of Uzundere and Harmandal?. The amount of solid waste that is disposed at each of these sites is about 800 and

T. Onargan; K. Kucuk; M. Polat

2003-01-01

311

Criteria needs for siting, licensing, operation, closure, stabilization, and decommissioning of shallow land-disposal sites for radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

The identified criteria needs are as follows: (1) long-term objective and time frame for the isolation of radioactive waste in a shallow land burial site must be specified; objective for optimum and minimum acceptable geological formations for the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste must be specified; type of radioactive waste acceptable for shallow land burial must be specified; appropriate segregation of radioactive waste for burial into shallow land must be specified; acceptability of site design for both dry and humid regions must be specified; objectives to be accomplished through proper operational methods and procedures during burial must be specified; minimum acceptable nonradiological occupational protection program for a shallow land burial site must be identified; objectives of a recordkeeping system for burial of radioactive waste in shallow land must be identified; objectives of an emergency response plan for a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste must be identified; recommended limits of radiation exposure to the general population from the disposal of radioactive waste into shallow land must be identified; what constitutes a stabilized site, acceptable for final closure must be identified; long-term objectives during institutional care by a governmental agency following closure must be specified; minimum financial surety required to avoid expenditure of government funds in the event of premature closure of a shallow land burial site must be identified;long-term financial requirements to properly maintain a shallow land burial site after closure must be identified; objectives of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the burial of radioactive waste into shallow land must be identified; objectives of environmental monitoring during preoperational, operational, closure, and postclosure of a shallow land burial site muste be specified.

Not Available

1982-11-01

312

Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

1997-05-01

313

Uranium mill tailings remedial action program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH03, Shiprock, NM, July-November 1982  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive survey of the vicinity property designated as SH03 was conducted on an intermittent basis from July 26 to November 11, 1982. At the time of the survey, three structures were located on the property - a residential trailer, the main structure, and an old gas pump housing. The lands surrounding the structures were either sparsely covered with arid vegetation or paved. The assessment activities included determination of indoor and outdoor surface radiation levels, for both fixed and removable contamination, through direct instrument and smear (indoor only) surveys; measurement of ambient external penetrating radiation levels at 1-meter heights; and analyses of air, soil, and other material samples. No evidence of radioactive contamination was found inside the trailer. However, the results of the radiological assessment did indicate the occurrence of elevated levels of gamma, surface alpha, and radon daughter radioactivity within the main structure. The short-term radon daughter measurements exceeded the limit of 0.02 Working Level for average annual concentration including background. The assessment also indicated elevated levels of radioactivity in the outdoor environs, encompassing about 32,000 ft/sup 2/ of the grounds adjacent to and surrounding the main structure on the east, south, and west sides. The contamination appeared to be due to the presence of unprocessed uranium ore. Analysis of surface soil samples collected from the environs indicated radium concentrations in excess of the limit of 5 pCi/g above background specified in the EPA Standard. Subsurface soil sampling was not conducted, and thus the vertical extent of the radiological contamination is not known. Since the surface soil contamination levels exceeded the limits specified in the EPA Standard, remedial action for this vicinity site should be considered.

Flynn, K F; Justus, A L; Sholeen, C M; Smith, W H; Wynveen, R A

1984-04-01

314

Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent-Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey.  

PubMed

The appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Also, many environmental, economical, and political considerations must be adhered to. In this study, landfill site selection is performed using the Geographic Information System (GIS), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and the remote sensing methods for the Senirkent-Uluborlu Basin. The basin is located in the E?irdir Lake catchment area, which is one of the most important fresh water in Turkey. So, waste management must be regulated in the basin. For this aim, ten different criteria (lithology, surface water, aquifer, groundwater depth, land use, lineaments, aspect, elevation, slope, and distance to roads) are examined in relation to landfill site selection. Each criterion was identified and weighted using AHP. Then, each criterion is mapped using the GIS technique, and a suitability map is prepared by overlay analyses. The results indicate that 96.3% of the area in the basin is unsuitable; 1.6%, moderately suitable; and 2.1%, most suitable. Finally, suitable regions in the basin are determined for solid waste landfill disposal and checked in the field. The selected and investigated regions are considered to be suitable for the landfill. PMID:20213053

Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Karagzel, Remzi

2010-03-07

315

Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

1989-06-01

316

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to locate previously unidentified features at CASs 03-20-07, 03-20-09, 03-20-10, 03-20-11, and 06-20-03. (4) Perform field screening. (5) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (6) Collect quality control samples for laboratory analyses to evaluate the performance of measurement systems and controls based on the requirements of the data quality indicators. (7) If COCs are present at the surface/near surface (< 15 feet below ground surface), collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. (8) If COCs are present in the subsurface (i.e., base of disposal hole), collect additional samples to define the vertical extent of contamination. A conservative use restriction will be used to encompass the lateral extent of subsurface contamination. (9) Stake or flag sample locations in the field, and record coordinates through global positioning systems surveying. (10) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management and minimization purposes. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'', this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan.

Laura Pastor

2006-05-01

317

ALTERNATIVE ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS ON SEVERELY LIMITED SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several research and evaluation studies were performed on alternative onsite systems on sites with severe limitations for conventional systems. The major limitations included slow permeability, a seasonally high water table, and limiting soil horizons. Several typical site evalua...

318

POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 333: U-3auS DISPOSAL SITE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2005-JUNE 2006  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 333, U-3auS Disposal Site, is a closed construction landfill located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of this site was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) dated June 27, 2001. Post-closure requirements are described in a letter from NNSA/NV to NDEP dated October 9, 2001, and were approved by the NDEP in a letter dated November 5, 2001. This report covers the period July 2005 through June 2006 and consists of copies of the inspection checklist and field notes, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions.

NONE

2006-08-01

319

Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, Hazardous Materials Disposal Sites, Eglin AFB, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Phase I study results at Eglin AFB, FL. The effort determines if there may exist hazardous waste site on-site via a records search and personnel interviews. Thirty potential sites were iden...

1981-01-01

320

Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 3. Additional results at Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites  

SciTech Connect

During routine channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg at three sites on the Upper Mississippi River. As discussed in the first two volumes of this report, bathymetry was measured and surface sediments were sampled to study changes in the topography of the disposal pile and the downstream movement of the tagged sand. At all three sites, topographic evidence of the pile disappeared after the first period of high river flow, which was followed by redevelopment of dunes in the disposal area. The tagged sand did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs, remaining in the main channel as it moved downstream. This volume presents the results of additional surveys at the Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites. At Gordon's Ferry, 25 bottom cores were taken to examine the three-dimensional distribution of tagged sand in the bottom sediments. The core analyses indicated that much of the tagged sand had been incorporated into the dune structure and that it resided primarily in the crests of the dunes.

McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

1985-04-01

321

Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

2001-02-01

322

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

323

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

324

COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF LLW DISPOSAL FACILITIES AT THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Composite Analyses (CA's) are required per DOE Order 435.1 [1], in order to provide a reasonable expectation that DOE low-level waste (LLW) disposal, high-level waste tank closure, and transuranic (TRU) waste disposal in combination with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) actions, will not result in the need for future remedial actions in order to ensure radiological protection of the public and environment. This Order requires that an accounting of all sources of DOE man-made radionuclides and DOE enhanced natural radionuclides that are projected to remain on the site after all DOE site operations have ceased. This CA updates the previous CA that was developed in 1997. As part of this CA, an inventory of expected radionuclide residuals was conducted, exposure pathways were screened and a model was developed such that a dose to the MOP at the selected points of exposure might be evaluated.

Hiergesell, R; Mark Phifer, M; Frank02 Smith, F

2009-01-08

325

GPS monitoring of bedrock stability at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site in Finland from 1996 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site since mid-90's. Biannual GPS measurement has been carried out in two local GPS networks. This paper analyses the GPS data processing effects on the coordinate solutions and presents the results of GPS monitoring from 1996 to 2012. The GPS data was processed using Bernese GPS Software 5.0. The GPS data processing and baseline analysis showed a 1.0 mm (max RMS) level agreement of observation and high bedrock stability in the area. Most of the horizontal trends were smaller than 0.1 mm/a. The troposphere estimation strategy had a clear effect on the horizontal trends at some sites. The strain rates were all very small, but we could detect motions near the Olkiluoto permanent station.

Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

2013-09-01

326

Adjustment of benthic fauna following sediment disposal at a site with multiple stressors in Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shallow subtidal macrobenthos at Port Valdez, Alaska, was examined to assess faunal adjustment following disposal of dredged sediments over a three-year period. Prior to sediment disposal, the infauna consisted of a relatively species-rich assemblage dominated by sessile polychaetes and bivalves. Six months after disposal, virtually all taxa present prior to dredging and disposal were rare or absent with opportunistic

Arny L. Blanchard; Howard M. Feder

2003-01-01

327

Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-12-01

328

Performance assessment methodology as applied to the Greater Confinement Disposal site: Preliminary results of the third performance iteration  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has contracted Sandia National Laboratories to conduct a performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Nevada. The performance assessment is an iterative process in which transport models are used to prioritize site characterization data collection. Then the data are used to refine the conceptual and performance assessment models. The results of the first two performance assessment iterations indicate that the site is likely to comply with the performance standards under the existing hydrologic conditions. The third performance iteration expands the conceptual model of the existing transport system to include possible future events and incorporates these processes in the performance assessment models. The processes included in the third performance assessment are climate change, bioturbation, plant uptake, erosion, upward advection, human intrusion and subsidence. The work completed to date incorporates the effects of bioturbation, erosion and subsidence in the performance assessment model. Preliminary analyses indicate that the development of relatively deep-rooting plant species at the site, which could occur due to climate change, irrigated farming or subsidence, poses the greatest threat to the site`s performance.

Brown, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baer, T.A. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

329

Emanation of tritiated water from disposal sites at Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The level of contamination induced by the presence of tritiated water (HTO) on the Bandelier tuff near Los Alamos, New Mexico has been seen to decrease vertically and horizontally at the same rate. This decrease in radioactivity with distance from the source has been measured around three different disposal shafts and found to be somewhat slower than the decrease in emanation rate with distance from the source. Physical factors, suspected of influencing HTO emanation, were entered as independent variables in a regression equation including measurements taken over a 14 month period. The physical variables studied were of thermal, hydrological, and meteorological origin or a combination of the above. Only four variables were retained as significant although they explained only 71% of the variation in the HTO flux.

Abeele, W.V.

1982-01-01

330

Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content  

SciTech Connect

AV Miljo is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH{sub 4}) emission from the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH{sub 4} (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH{sub 4} (27%) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) (71%), containing no CO{sub 2}. The results indicated that the gas composition in the shredder waste was governed by chemical reactions as well as microbial reactions. CH{sub 4} mass balances from three individual waste cells showed that a significant part (between 15% and 67%) of the CH{sub 4} generated in cell 1.3 and 2.2.2 was emitted through leachate collection wells, as a result of the relatively impermeable covers in place at these two cells preventing vertical migration of the gas. At cell 1.5.1, which is un-covered, the CH{sub 4} emission through the leachate system was low due to the high gas permeability of the shredder waste. Instead the gas was emitted through the waste resulting in some hotspot observations on the shredder surface with higher emission rates. The remaining gas that was not emitted through surfaces or the leachate collection system could potentially be oxidized as the measured oxidation capacity exceeded the potential emission rate. The whole CH{sub 4} emission from the disposal site was found to be 820 {+-} 202 kg CH{sub 4} d{sup -1}. The total emission rate through the leachate collection system at AV Miljo was found to be 211 kg CH{sub 4} d{sup -1}. This showed that approximately 1/4 of the emitted gas was emitted through the leachate collections system making the leachate collection system an important source controlling the overall gas migration from the site. The emission pathway for the remaining part of the gas was more uncertain, but emission from open cells where waste is being disposed of or being excavated for incineration, or from horizontal leachate drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely.

Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Nedenskov, Jonas, E-mail: jne@amfor.dk [AV Miljo, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2011-05-15

331

Pilot study of dredging and disposal alternatives for the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom sediments in New Bedford Harbor are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and heavy metals to the extent that the site is considered one of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites and is being studied by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Superfund program. At the request of EPA, the Corps of Engineers has evaluated the feasibility

Otis

1992-01-01

332

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

333

Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1994-12-31

334

Status of performance assessment studies for the disposal of low- level radioactive waste in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200 West Area, Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance assessment analysis is being performed at the Hanford Site to support the disposal of low-level waste. The analysis is required to achieve compliance with US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A, which states that a performance assessment analysis be submitted and approved for a particular disposal facility. Performance objectives defined in the order and other informal guidance are used

Wood

1992-01-01

335

Respiratory and general health impairments of workers employed in a municipal solid waste disposal at an open landfill site in Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the respiratory and general health of workers employed in a municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal at an open landfill site in India. Ninety-six landfill workers of Okhla landfill site, Delhi, and 90 controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic conditions were enrolled. Health data was obtained from questionnaire surveys, clinical examination and

Manas Ranjan Ray; Sanghita Roychoudhury; Gopeshwar Mukherjee; Senjuti Roy; Twisha Lahiri

2005-01-01

336

HANFORD SITE 300 AREA 618-4 BURIAL GROUND TECHNOLOGY BASELINE FOR TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF DEPLETED URANIUM WITH RCRA AND TSCA CONSTRAINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During remediation activities at a Hanford Site burial ground, a large cache of drummed waste was unexpectedly encountered. Most of the drums contained depleted uranium metal chips submerged in oil. A combination of attributes including multiple phases, p yrophoriticy, toxicity, and radioactivity presented complex and costly treatment\\/disposal issues that were not addressed through any established Hanford Site processes. A safe,

Jeff Lerch

337

Long term effect of municipal waste disposal on soil properties and productivity of sites used for urban agriculture in Abakaliki, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment on the impact of long term (20 years) municipal waste disposal on soil physicochemical properties and soil productivity in municipal waste dump sites was carried out in urban Abakaliki, southeastern Nigeria. Profile pits were dug at selected points and auger and core samples were collected from different soil horizons of dump and non-dump sites using free survey technique

M. A. N Anikwe; K. C. A Nwobodo

2002-01-01

338

Geophysical methods for fracture characterization in and around potential sites for nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Historically, geophysical methods have been used extensively to successfully explore the subsurface for petroleum, gas, mineral, and geothermal resources. Their application, however, for site characterization, and monitoring the performance of near surface waste sites or repositories has been somewhat limited. Presented here is an overview of the geophysical methods that could contribute to defining the subsurface heterogeneity and extrapolating point measurements at the surface and in boreholes to volumetric descriptions in a fractured rock. In addition to site characterization a significant application of geophysical methods may be in performance assessment and in monitoring the repository to determine if the performance is as expected.

Majer, E.L.; Lee, K.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Morrison, H.F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

1992-08-01

339

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Saltville Waste Disposal Site, Saltville, Virginia (remedial alternative selection), June 1987. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Saltville Waste Disposal site is located along the North Fork of the Holston River (NFHR) between Saltville and Allison Gap in Western Smyth County, Virginia, and partly extends into Washington County, Virginia. The Jefferson National Forest is located approximately one-half mile north of the site. From 1895 to 1972, Olin Corporation and its predecessors (Mathieson Chemical Corporation and Mathieson Alkali Works) used the site for various chemical manufacturing operations. The site includes a former plant area and two waste ponds, 5 and 6. Between 1951 and 1972, the Olin Corporation operated an electrolytic chlorine and caustic soda plant which released mercury into the process wastes and onto the plant grounds. Mercury losses were estimated by Olin Corporation to be 100 lbs/day from the chlor-alkali processes. In 1963, Waste Pond 6 was constructed to receive waste overflow from Waste Pond 5. According to Olin corporation, no wastes containing mercury were dumped into Waste Pond 6, but structural components of the old plant reportedly were buried at the eastern edge of the pond.

Not Available

1987-06-30

340

Radionuclides in soil and water near a low-level disposal site and potential ecological and human health impacts.  

PubMed

Material Disposal Area G is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and is adjacent to Pueblo of San Ildefonso lands. Pueblo residents and Los Alamos scientists are concerned about radiological doses resulting from uptake of Area G radionuclides by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus), then consumption of deer and elk meat by humans. Tissue samples were collected from deer and elk accidentally killed near Area G and were analyzed for 3H, 90Sr, total U, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs. These data were used to estimate human doses based on meat consumption of 23 kg y(-1). Human doses were also modeled using RESRAD, and dose rates to deer and elk were estimated with a screening model. Dose estimates to humans from tissue consumption were 2.9 x 10(-3) mSv y(-1) and 1.6 x 10(-3) mSv y(-1) from deer and elk, respectively, and RESRAD dose estimates were of the same order of magnitude. Estimated dose rates to deer and elk were 2.1 x 10(-4) mGy d(-1) and 4.7 x 10(-4) mGy d(-1), respectively. All estimated doses were significantly less than established exposure limits or guidelines. PMID:11944797

Ferenbaugh, J K; Fresquez, P R; Ebinger, M H; Gonzales, G J; Jordan, P A

2002-03-01

341

Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert wastes on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properieties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. 30 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Colizza, E.; Fontolan, G.; Brambati, A. [Universita degli Studi, Trieste (Italy)

1996-06-01

342

Modeling a potential atmospheric release from a waste disposal facility at the savannah river site as an area source.  

PubMed

The Saltstone Facility was designed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to treat and dispose of certain low-level liquid radioactive wastes. The final product of Saltstone is several large concrete vaults. As part of the performance assessment for Saltstone, reduction of dose to receptors downwind of the vaults have been estimated for treating the vaults as an area atmospheric source as opposed to a point source. The CAP88 model has the ability to handle area sources, but the methods are not appropriate for receptors close to the source such as those modeled at 100 m. Use of the area source as opposed to the point source can reduce the dose by as much as a factor of 5 depending on vault size. A method for quickly assessing the dose from an area source for near-in exposures is demonstrated here. PMID:16823269

Simpkins, A A; Lee, P L

2006-08-01

343

HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION & PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT & EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

2006-01-18

344

Full-scale demonstration of a sequencing batch reactor for a hazardous waste disposal site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The full-scale Demonstration of a Sequencing Batch Reactor for a Hazardous Waste Disposal Site was performed in order to prove the technical feasibility, as well as the eocnomic benefit, of using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the treatment of dilute aqueous organic waste materials. Efforts were focused on determining the reactor's treatment efficiency based upon phenol and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal rates, as well as showing the energy-saving benefits gained by using the reactor prior to carbon adsorption treatment for the removal of organics. Both bench- and full-scale trials were performed involving a wide variety of feed streams, reactor operating strategies and temperatures. The results of this demonstration showed that superior aqueous organic waste treatment is effected by the use of an SBR system and that significant financial savings can be realized due to a reduction in facility operating costs.

Staszak, C.N.

1985-08-01

345

National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of compensation and incentives in siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1. [Contains definitions  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facilities. Compensations may be in the form of grants to enable host communities to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed facility. Compensations may also include reimbursements to the host community for costs incurred during facility construction, operation and closure. These may include required improvements to local roads, new equipment, and payments for revenue losses in local property taxes when disposal sites are removed from the tax base. Incentives provide benefits to the community beyond the costs directly related to the operation of the facility. Greater local control over waste facilities can be a powerful incentive. Local officials may be more willing to accept a facility if they have some control over the operation and monitoring associated with the facility. Failure to secure new disposal sites may cause such problems as illegal dumping which would create public health hazards. Also, lack of disposal capacity may restrict research and medical use of radioactive materials. The use of compensation and incentives may increase acceptance of communities for hosting a low-level waste disposal facility.

Not Available

1985-10-01

346

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2004-05-03

347

Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: Lysimeter facility design and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface barriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural

S. J. Phillips; M. S. Ruben; R. R. Kirkham

1988-01-01

348

40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or less along the property line of the site or along the perimeter...letter sizes and styles of a visibility at least equal to those specified... Spacing between any two lines must be at least equal to the height of the upper of the two lines. (2) The perimeter...

2013-07-01

349

Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material

J. L. Buelt; V. Q. Hale; S. M. Barnes; D. J. Silviera

1981-01-01

350

Site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive waste can be classified into low and intermediate level waste (LILW), spent fuel (SF) and high level waste according to the level of the emitted radioactivity in Korea.Currently radioactive waste is temporarily stored in the four nuclear power plant sites, where the LILW and SF are expected to be saturated from 2008 and 2016, respectively. Therefore the construction

Si-Tae Yun

2008-01-01

351

Evaluation of Liners for a Uranium-Mill Tailings Disposal Site: A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospecti...

J. L. Buelt V. Q. Hale S. M. Barnes D. J. Silviera

1981-01-01

352

Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators. (authors)

Wrapp, J.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Shott, G. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Sponsored by: J. Carilli, U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (United States)

2008-07-01

353

Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators.

D. Wieland, V. Yucel, L. Desotell, G. Shott, J. Wrapp

2008-04-01

354

Program criteria for subseabed disposal of radioactive waste: site qualification plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the evolving methodology which is being used to identify, and study sites in subseabed geological formations which may be candidates for use as repositories for high-level nuclear waste. Two primary criteria guide all phases of this work: the stability and barrier criteria. The stability criterion defines areas of the seabed that are unlikely to be disturbed by tectonic forces and oceanographic changes durig the lifetime of a waste repository. The barrier criterion defines those subseabed geological formations most likely to form an effective barrier to the release of radionuclides. Because of the large area of the oceans, a phased approach has been adopted through which successively smaller areas of the sea floor are studied in ever greater detail. The first phase, which is complete, has identified abyssal clay deposits that are remote from tectonic boundaries and continental margins as being the regions (>10/sup 5/ km/sup 2/) on the sea floor within which acceptable sites might be most readily identified. The second phase involves downgrading less desirable areas (>10/sup 4/ km/sup 2/) within these regions, using archived seismic reflection profiling, sediment cores, and oceanographic data. This winnowing process identifies locations about one degree square (greater than or equal to 10/sup 4/ km/sup 2/) for more detailed field studies during the first part of the third phase. From these locations candidate sites (less than or equal to 10/sup 4/ km/sup 2/) will be chosen based on detailed geological and geophysical surveying. In the second part of the third phase, detailed monitoring of the candidate sites will begin to determine long-term baseline conditions. After monitoring is underway, a pilot repository will be established using waste canisters. Based on this work, a site selection/rejection report will be written. The fourth and last phase will involve extended monitoring of oceanographic conditions at each repository.

Laine, E.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Hollister, C.D.

1982-05-01

355

An investigation of the presence of methane and other gases at the Uzundere-Izmir solid waste disposal site, Izmir, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Izmir is a large metropolitan city with a population of 3,114,860. The city consists of 27 townships, each township has a population of not less than 10,000 inhabitants. The two major solid waste disposal sites are in the townships of Uzundere and Harmandali. The amount of solid waste that is disposed at each of these sites is about 800 and 1800 t/day, respectively. In Uzundere, compost is produced from the organic fraction of urban solid wastes while the residual material is deposited at a disposal site with a remaining capacity of 700,000 m{sup 3} as of 2001. Gas monitoring and measurements were carried out at the disposal site in Uzundere. For this purpose, nine sampling wells were drilled on selected locations. Each well was furnished with perforated metal pipes suitable for gas monitoring and measurements. The following gases were monitored: O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. The most important finding was that the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in the wells ranged from 7 to 57%. Dilution of the CH{sub 4} by O{sub 2} down to the LEL levels (5-15%) is always possible and poses a continuing risk at the site. Furthermore, the levels of O{sub 2} require that access to the site be limited to only authorized personnel.

Onargan, T.; Kucuk, K.; Polat, M

2003-07-01

356

Application of a hazard-assessment research strategy for waste disposal at 106-mile ocean disposal site (Chapter 14). Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-106 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimating the risk to the aquatic environment. The exposure assessment related source inputs of contaminants to environmental concentration fields through

J. F. Paul; V. J. Bierman; H. A. Walker; J. H. Gentile; D. W. Hood

1989-01-01

357

1991 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites. National Low-Level Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed of in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1991 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1987 through 1991; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1991. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that which was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

1992-09-01

358

Possible storage sites for disposal and environmental control of atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

To control the increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and mitigate its environmental effects, an investigation of possible storage sites for CO/sub 2/ as liquid in depleted oil and gas wells and excavated salt domes has been made. The storage capacity versus CO/sub 2/ production from the use of fossil fuels in the US for the three types of sites indicates low capacity for oil wells, intermediate for gas wells and high capacity for salt domes. Salt domes appear to provide CO/sub 2/ storage for many decades, but at an annual excavation cost in the tens of billions of dollars amounting to minimum of 13% of the total cost of power production which includes removal and storage of CO/sub 2/. The total cost of removal, recovery and storage of CO/sub 2/ from power plants could almost double the total conventional cost of power production utilizing fossil fuel.

Horn, F.L.; Steinberg, M.

1982-09-01

359

Evaluation of proposed designs for streamflow monitoring structures at waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Design of small surface water monitoring stations associated with waste sites requires an approach that balances several problems. The monitoring site must have a capacity for a wide range of flows, allow accurate measurements over the full performance range, minimize effects from accumulation of contaminated sediments, and minimize costs of construction and operation. Selecting a station design that takes these factors into consideration can be done systematically through use of formal decision analysis. The paper discusses the effectiveness of various hydraulic structures as flumes and weirs to monitor stream flow and drainage. The process has produced the most viable alternative designs and yielded fully documented guidelines for designing new stations as they are needed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Clapp, R.B.; Borders, D.M.; Tardiff, M.F.; Huff, D.D.

1991-01-01

360

Wastewater movement near four treatment and disposal sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the effects on nearby streams and lakes of treated wastewater effluents that percolate from sewage lagoons at four sites in Yellowstone National Park. A network of observation wells has been established near the sites, and water level and water quality data were collected from 1974 through 1982. Groundwater mounds occur under the lagoons as percolation of effluents occurs. The percolating effluents mix with groundwater and form plumes of water that contain chemical constituents from the effluents. These plumes move down the hydraulic gradient toward groundwater discharge areas. The directions of movement of percolating effluents have been determined by analyzing water samples from wells near the lagoons for specific conductance, chloride concentration, and nitrite plus nitrate concentration. Other constituents and properties also were determined. The percolating effluents are diluted by groundwater and have no discernible effects on the quality of water in the nearby streams and lakes. (USGS)

Cox, E. R.

1986-01-01

361

Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

Hakonson, T.E.

1986-02-01

362

Treatment and disposal of a mixed F006 plating line sludge at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is implementing a program to treat and stabilize approximately 750,000 gallons of an F006 mixed (radioactive\\/hazardous) plating line wastewater sludge. The uraniun contaminated sludge resulted from nickel plating of depleted uranium targets, which were subsequently irradiated to produce

J. B. Pickett; J. C. Musall; H. L. Martin

1993-01-01

363

Hydrogeology of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sheffield low-level radioactive-waste facility is located on 20 acres of rolling terrain 3 miles southwest of Sheffield, Illinois. The shallow hydrogeologic system is composed of glacial sediments. Pennsylvania shale and mudstone bedrock isolate the regional aquifers below from the hydrogeologic system in the overlying glacial deposits. Pebbly sand underlies 67 percent of the site. Two ground-water flow paths were identified. The primary path conveys ground water from the site to the east through the pebbly-sand unit; a secondary path conveys ground water to the south and east through less permeable material. The pebbly-sand unit provides an underdrain that eliminates the risk of water rising into the trenches. Digital computer model results indicate that the pebbly-sand unit controls ground-water movement. Tritium found migrating in ground water in the southeast corner of the site travels approximately 25 feet per year. A group of water samples from wells which contained the highest tritium concentrations had specific conductivities, alkalinities, hardness, and chloride, sulfate, calcium, and magnesium contents higher than normal for local shallow ground water. (USGS)

Foster, J. B.; Erickson, J. R.; Healy, R. W.

1984-01-01

364

Geochemical survey of an illegal waste disposal site under a waste emergency scenario (Northwest Naples, Italy).  

PubMed

Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled landfills. The aim was to characterise a former cave located in Roccarainola (Naples, Italy) for its eventual destination to a controlled landfill site. A detailed hydro-geochemical survey of the area was carried out through drilling of 14 boreholes and four monitoring wells. Samples of water, sediment and soil were analysed for heavy metals and organic contaminants from a dew pond placed in the middle of the cave. The underneath aquifer was also surveyed. The nature of gases emitted from the site was investigated. Results of the geognostic survey revealed the presence of huge volumes of composite wastes, approximately half a million of cubic metre, which accumulated up to a thickness of 25.6m. In some points, wastes lie below the free surface level of the aquifer. The sampled material from the boreholes revealed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Tl and Zn exceeding the intervention legal limits. Outstanding loads of Cd, Pb and Zn were found, with levels exceeding of about 50, 100 and 1,870 times the limit. In several points, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was extremely high, 35 vs 1mgkg(-1) of the threshold. The aquifer was also very heavily polluted by Cd, Cr-tot, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, with impressive high load of Cr and Mn, up to 250-370 times the limits. Hot gases up to 62C with presence of xylene and ethylbenzene were found. Results indicated that the site needs an urgent intervention of recovery to avoid compromising the surrounding areas and aquifers of the Campania plain. PMID:22766923

Ferrara, L; Iannace, M; Patelli, A M; Arienzo, M

2012-07-06

365

Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

1997-04-01

366

Application of a site-binding, electrical, double-layer model to nuclear waste disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model was applied to adsorption of Cs for both a montmorillonite clay and powdered SiO2. Agreement between experimental and predicted results indicates that Cs(+) is adsorbed by a simple cation-exchange mechanism. Further application of a combination equilibrium thermodynamic model and site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model was made to predict the behavior of U(VI) in solutions contacting either the montmorillonite clay or powdered SIO2. Given the existing information about the probable U solution species, it was possible to determine that UO2(+2) is most likely adsorbed by cation-exchange at pH 5. At higher values (pH 7 and 9), it was shown that UO2(OH)2(0) is probably the most strongly adsorbed U solution species. It was also found that high NaCl solution concentrations at higher pH values lowered U concentrations.

Relyea, J. F.; Silva, R. J.

1981-09-01

367

Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.  

PubMed

A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. PMID:18614203

Agero, A; Pinedo, P; Simn, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Prez-Snchez, D

2008-07-09

368

Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action.

Payne, B.A.

1982-01-01

369

Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

1981-05-01

370

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the November 2002, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs will be canceled, and the postings and signage at each site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at these sites that are unrelated to the FFACO URs such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at these sites.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

371

Status of performance assessment studies for the disposal of low- level radioactive waste in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200 West Area, Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A performance assessment analysis is being performed at the Hanford Site to support the disposal of low-level waste. The analysis is required to achieve compliance with US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A, which states that a performance assessment anal...

M. I. Wood

1992-01-01

372

Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (?26000tonday?1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of

D. A. de la Rosa; A. Velasco; A. Rosas; T. Volke-Seplveda

2006-01-01

373

Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax\\/bl at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax\\/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to

Daniel G. Levitt; Thomas M. Fitzmaurice

2001-01-01

374

Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and ?-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

2010-12-01

375

Probabilistic Assessment of Radon Transport at the Monticello, Utah Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One objective of the cover design at the Monticello site is attenuation of the radon emanation from the mill tailings to the atmosphere. The landfill cover acts as a diffusion barrier, allowing time for the decay of the relatively short-lived Rn-222 gas during migration through the pore spaces of the cover soil. The conceptual model of radon migration through the landfill cover is one-dimensional upward transport driven by the difference in concentration in the tailings and the atmosphere. The processes affecting transport are molecular diffusion and radioactive decay. Uncertainty in the radon emanation rate from the tailings, as well as uncertainties in the effective diffusion coefficient and moisture content for individual layers in the landfill cover are assessed for both present and future conditions. Transport of radon gas by diffusion is enhanced at higher moisture content because of the reduced air phase volume in the soil under these conditions. In a competing manner, higher moisture content results in a lower effective diffusion coefficient for radon gas. Multiple realizations of the system and simulations of radon transport were performed using the RAECOM and FRAMES computer programs. Results indicate a very low probability of exceeding the regulatory limit of 20 pCi/m2/s under present conditions and a low probability of exceedence for future conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Arnold, B. W.; Ho, C. K.; Cochran, J. R.; Taira, R. Y.

2001-12-01

376

Uptake of strontium by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing over a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern of managers at low-level waste burial site facilities is that plant roots may translocate contaminants up to the soil surface. This study investigates the uptake of strontium (⁹°Sr), a biologically mobile element, by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), a deep-rooted shrub plant, growing in a former liquid waste disposal site (Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003[c]) at Los Alamos

P. R. Fresquez; T. S. Foxx; L. Jr. Naranjo

1996-01-01

377

Removal site evaluation report L-area rubble pile (131-3L) gas cylinder disposal facility (131-2L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Removal Site Evaluation Report (RSER) is prepared in accordance with Sections 300.410 and 300.415 of the National Contingency Plan and Section XIV of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at the L-Area Rubble Pile (LRP) (131-3L) and the L-Area Gas Cylinder Disposal Facility (LGCDF) (131-

E. R. Palmer; J. T. Mason

1997-01-01

378

Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20200

Kathy Goetz Troost; B. Brandon Curry

1991-01-01

379

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority...

2010-01-01

380

Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. [Trench waters from Maxey Flats, Kentucky and West Valley, New York  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly /sup 60/Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables.

Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

1982-01-01

381

Availability of heavy metals for uptake by Salix viminalis on a moderately contaminated dredged sediment disposal site.  

PubMed

Extractability of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in a dredged sediment disposal site was assessed using single extraction procedures (H2O; 0.01 M CaCl2; 1 M NH4OAc; NH4OAc-EDTA; CaCl2-TEA-DTPA). Only Cd and Zn were found to exceed statutory threshold values for total content. The field was planted with Salix viminalis "Orm" and accumulation of heavy metals in bark, leaves, roots, and wood was evaluated at seven sampling locations along an observed gradient in texture and pollution. Biomass production was high, ranging from 13.2 to 17.8 t ha(-1) y(-1) dry weight. Metal accumulation in aboveground plant parts was low, amounting to the following annually extracted mass of metals per ha: 5034 g Zn, 83 g Cd, 145 g Cu, 83 g Pb, 12 g Ni and 6 g Cr. The use of accumulating clones and the use of soil amendments might enhance extraction efficiency in future research. PMID:15963374

Meers, E; Lamsal, S; Vervaeke, P; Hopgood, M; Lust, N; Tack, F M G

2005-09-01

382

Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be

R. V. Guzowski; G. Newman

1993-01-01

383

Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

Zettwoch, Douglas D.

2002-01-01

384

Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and strategies to reduce uranium concentration in the leachate.

Hazen, Terry

2002-08-26

385

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

SciTech Connect

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

2003-02-27

386

Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B. [and others

1996-03-01

387

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

Veil, J.A.

1997-10-01

388

Possible Salt Mine and Brined Cavity Sites for Radioactive Waste Disposal in the Northeastern Southern Peninsula of Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern s...

K. K. Landes H. L. Bourne

1976-01-01

389

40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...describe any limitations on approved waste streams or waste characterization processes...revised processes, equipment, or waste streams until EPA has provided written...revised processes, equipment, or waste streams may be disposed at WIPP...

2011-07-01

391

Savannah River Site Public and regulatory involvement in the transuranic (TRU) program and their effect on decisions to dispose of Pu-238 heat source tru waste onsite  

SciTech Connect

The key to successful public involvement at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been and continues to be vigorous, up-front involvement of the public and state regulators with technical experts. The SRS Waste Management Program includes all forms of radioactive waste. All of the decisions associated with the management of these wastes are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without including the public up-front in the program formulation. Serious problems can result if program decisions are made without public involvement, and if the public is informed after key decisions are made. This paper will describe the regulatory and public involvement program and their effects on the decisions concerning the disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) of heat source Pu-238 TRU waste. As can be imagined, a decision to dispose of TRU waste onsite versus shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal is of considerable interest to the stakeholders in South Carolina. The interaction between the stakeholders not only include the general public, but also the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and Region IV of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The discussions, educational sessions, and negotiations include resolution of equity issues as well and moved forward to an understanding of the difficulties including risk management faced by the Ship-to- WIPP program. Once the program was better understood, the real negotiations concerning equity, safety, and risk to workers from handling Pu-238 waste could begin. This paper will also discuss the technical, regulatory, and public involvement aspects of disposal onsite that must be properly communicated if the program is to be successful. The Risk Based End State Vision Report for the Savannah River Site includes a variance that proposes on-site near surface disposal of waste from the program to produce Pu-238 heat sources for deep space probes. On-site disposal would greatly reduce the risk to workers by eliminating the need to repackage the waste in order to characterize it and ship it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant cost savings can also be realized. A performance assessment was completed to demonstrate that on-site disposal of this waste can be done while meeting the Department of Energy and EPA performance objectives for disposal of TRU waste in a non-WIPP location such as the SRS. This analysis provides a means of demonstrating the technical basis for this alternative to management, stakeholders and regulators. The technical analysis is required to demonstrate that the performance objectives contained in 40 CFR 191, Environmental Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes will be met over a 10,000 year period. This paper will describe the successful results of this technical, regulatory, and public involvement program, explore why and how the accomplishments occurred, and describe the future challenges along with the road map for the future. In doing this, the TRU Ship-to-WIPP program must be described to give the readers an understanding of the technical complexities that must be communicated successfully to achieve constructive stakeholder participation and regulatory approval. (authors)

Bert Crapse, H.M. [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington (United States); Sonny, W.T. [Goldston Washington Savannah River Company (United States)

2007-07-01

392

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)  

SciTech Connect

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process knowledge. Recirculation processes within the mud pits enhance volatilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thereby reducing the potential concentrations of any VOCs that may be present. A secondary source of contaminants from random truck dumping activities and leaking vehicle discharge may have released fuels, grease, motor oil, and hydraulic fluids into the mud pit effluent stream. Radionuclide contamination is not expected at these CASs based on historical information. The primary radioisotopes that could be expected, if present, are cesium-137, tritium, and strontium-90. The SAFER process ends with closure of the site based on the laboratory analytical results of the environmental samples. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 356 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

2001-08-21

393

Evaluation of isotope migration-land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 11, October-December 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected by anoxic procedures from trenches 2, 19S, 26, 27, 32, 33L-4, and 33L-18 and from well UB1-A at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site. In-situ measurements of pH, Eh, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and temperature were made. The results of inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are reported. Acid-base titration curves of the trench

P. Colombo; A. J. Weiss

1979-01-01

394

Evaluation of isotope migration, land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 10, July-September 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected by anoxic procedures from trenches 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9 at the West Valley, New York low-level radioactive waste disposal site. In-situ measurements of pH, Eh, specific conductance, and temperature were made. The results of inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are reported. Acid-base titration curves exhibit the complex nature of these waters compared to

P. Colombo; A. J. Weiss

1979-01-01

395

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax\\/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax\\/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et

J. L. Smith

2001-01-01

396

Work plan for monitor well/groundwater elevation data recorder installation at the Cheney Disposal site, Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

In May 1990, during the excavation for the Grand Junction, Colorado, Cheney Reservoir disposal cell (Cheney), a water bearing paleochannel was encountered along the northern boundary of the excavation (designated the Northwest Paleochannel). To ensure the long-term integrity of the disposal embankment, remedial actions were taken including the excavation of the paleochannel and underlying material to bedrock, backfilling of the trapezoidal trench with granular material, and placement of a geotextile liner above the granular material. Compacted clay backfill was placed above the reconstructed paleochannel trench, and the northwest corner was restored to the designated grade. Investigation of other paleochannels determined that ground water flow terminated before it migrated as far west as the disposal cell. Therefore, flow in these paleochannels would have no impact on the disposal cell. Although characterization efforts did not indicate the presence of a ground water-bearing paleochannel south of the disposal cell, the potential could not be ruled out. As a best management practice for long-term monitoring at Cheney, two monitor wells will be installed within the paleochannels. One well will be installed within 50 feet (ft) west of the reconstructed Northwest Paleochannel. The second well will be installed near the southwestern (downgradient) corner of the disposal cell. The purposes of these wells are to characterize ground water flow (if any) within the paleochannels and to monitor the potential for water movement (seepage) into or out of the disposal cell. Initial monitoring of the paleochannels will consist of water level elevation measurement collection and trend analysis to evaluate fluctuations in storage. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of two ground water monitor wells and two ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at Cheney.

Not Available

1994-09-01

397

Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

NONE

1996-03-01

398

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et al., 1996). CAU 110 consists of one Corrective Action Site 03-23-04, described as the U-3ax/bl Subsidence Crater. Certifications of closure are located in Appendix A. The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 RWMS located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit was closed under the RCRA, as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]) of waste. NTS atmospheric nuclear device testing generated approximately 95% of the total waste volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl; 80% of the total volume was generated from the Waste Consolidation Project. Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is normally in a state of moisture deficit.

J. L. Smith

2001-08-01

399

Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the closure cover provide soil water content data, whereas sensors installed in the lysimeters provide soil water content, soil water potential, soil temperature, and drainage data for a detailed evaluation of the cover performance. Revegetation establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration and reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

2001-02-01

400

Proposed Department of Energy design and operations criteria for low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Shallow land burial activities were divided into site selection, site design, site operation, waste acceptance, site closure/postclosure and corrective actions. Criteria for each of the six areas were developed by a committee process, in order to meet site performance objectives (10 CFR 61). This document discusses the site design and operating criteria. (DLC)

Williams, H.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Grey, A.E.

1982-01-01

401

Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site.

Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

1999-01-01

402

Geophysical and chemical investigations of ground water at five industrial or waste-disposal sites in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1983-87  

SciTech Connect

Five former or active industrial or waste disposal sites in Logan Township were identified by the Federal government and by the State of New Jersey as potential threats to the quality of groundwater there. The sites are: (1) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. waste disposal site; (2) Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc.; (3) Chemical Leaman Tank Lines, Inc.; (4) Monsanto Company; and (5) Rollins Environmental Services, Inc. Quality of groundwater was determined by chemical analysis of samples from wells at four of the five sites and elsewhere in the township. Groundwater in the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-magothy aquifer system in Logan Township and surrounding areas is dominated by sodium and chloride ions and is slightly saline. Calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the upper and middle aquifers; the concentration of dissolved solids is low. Concentrations of iron and manganese in the groundwater range from 6 to 73,000 microgm/L, and from 33 to 1,100 microgm/L. Concentrations of organic carbon range from 0.60 to 4.2 mg/L. Areas of high apparent conductivity were detected east of the waste oil lagoon at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc. site. Inorganic groundwater contamination at the site is characterized by concentrations of cadmium and lead that exceed Federal and State primary drinking water regulations. Groundwater at the Chemical Leaman site also is characterized by elevated concentrations of organic nitrogen, and concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Hg that exceed Federal primary drinking water regulations. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 339 to 3,530 mg/L at the Monsanto Site and typically are much higher than background levels, but the cause is unclear. 86 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Kzonski, J.; Lacombe, P.J.; Hochreiter, J.J.; Lewis, J.C. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States))

1990-01-01

403

Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 60 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP. Soil moisture will be monitored within the cover for a period of at least two years prior to establishing performance criteria for NDEP regulatory purposes.

T. M. Fitzmaurice

2000-08-01

404

Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

2001-09-01

405

Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records search, hazardous materials disposal sites, Eglin AFB, Florida. Report for Apr-Oct 81  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Phase I study results at Eglin AFB, FL. The effort determines if there may exist hazardous waste site on-site via a records search and personnel interviews. Thirty potential sites were identified. This effort will be followed by IRP Phase II in which field data will be collected to verify and define the sites.

Not Available

1981-10-01

406

Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: A synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.  

PubMed

The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ?4.0/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. PMID:23792820

Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

2013-06-20

407

Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

Foster, J. B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G. W.

1984-01-01

408

Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A

H. D. Freeman; E. O. Jones; J. P. Depner

1989-01-01

409

Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

Heuze, F.E.

1981-02-01

410

Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

2011-04-01

411

Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Campinas City, Brazil Using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of solid waste in most countries is on the rise as a result of rapid population growth, urbanization, industrial development and changes in consumption habits. Amongst the various forms of waste disposals, landfills are today the most viable for the Brazilian reality, both technically and economically. Proper landfill construction practices allow minimizing the effects of the two main sources of pollution from solid waste: landfill gas and slurry. However, minimizing is not synonymous with eliminating; consequently, the landfill alone cannot resolve all the problems with solid waste disposal. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the content of trace elements in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry arising from local solid waste disposals in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Samples were collected at the Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli landfills. At the Delta and Santa Barbara sites, values above the maximum permitted level established by CETESB for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Pb were observed in samples of groundwater, while at the Pirelli site, elements with concentrations above the permitted levels were Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb. At Delta, values above levels permitted by the CONAMA 357 legislation were still observed in surface water samples for Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, whereas in slurry samples, values above the permitted levels were observed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Slurry samples were prepared in accordance with two extraction methodologies, EPA 3050B and EPA 200.8. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were higher than the limit established by CONAMA 357 for most samples collected at different periods (dry and rainy) and also for the two extraction methodologies employed.

de Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana

2011-12-01

412

Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs.

Word, J Q; Ward, J A; Woodruff, D L

1990-09-01

413

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

414

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

415

Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA\\/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of

L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

2008-01-01

416

Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography.

Glanzman, V.M.

1980-01-01

417

Evaluating waste disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal systems conventionally exhibit many problems, such as difficulties in finding final disposal sites for incinerator\\u000a residues and the issue of how to recycle waste materials. Some new technologies have been developed to solve such problems,\\u000a including ash melting and gasification melting. Furthermore, to improve the power generation efficiency of waste treatment\\u000a facilities so that their energy is used

Yasuhiko Wada; Takuma Okumoto; Nariaki Wada

2008-01-01

418

Savannah River Site Public and Regulatory Involvement in the Cercla Low-Level Waste (LLW) Program and Their Effect on Decisions to Dispose of LLW Generated by Cercla  

SciTech Connect

The key to successful public involvement at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been and continues to be vigorous, up-front involvement of the public, federal and state regulators with technical experts. The SRS Waste Management Program includes all forms of radioactive waste. All of the decisions associated with the management of these wastes are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without including the public up-front in the program formulation. Serious problems can result if program decisions are made without public involvement, and if the public is informed after key decisions are made. This paper will describe the regulatory and public involvement program and their effects on the decisions concerning the disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) of LLW generated from CERCLA Removal and Remedial Actions. At SRS the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) project has generated large amounts of LLW from the removal of buildings and processing facilities. The D and D project is expected to generate even larger amounts of LLW in the future. The most cost effective disposal alternated is to use the onsite LLW disposal facility in E-Area. The E-Area LLW Facility is owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) under its authority granted by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Since the disposal of CERCLA generated waste is also governed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CERCLA regulations, it is important that EPA, DOE, and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) work together to resolve any conflicts in implementation of the D and D project so that all regulations are followed and the project can be continued successfully. An issue of particular significance will be described in this paper that, were it not resolved successfully, would have jeopardized the completion of one project and resulted in higher overall project costs. The EPA determined in review of the E-Area LLW Facility groundwater monitoring that a 'release' under CERCLA had occurred. As a result, EPA determined that it was necessary to issue a 'Notice of Unacceptability' to SRS revoking the CERCLA Off-Site Rule approval for the E-Area LLW Facility, thus, no longer allowing the E-Area LLW Facility Slit trenches to receive CERCLA waste for disposal. It became critical to the success of the D and D project to reestablish CERCLA Off-Site Rule approval. The discussions and negotiations Comment [HB1]: with the South Carolina regulators and EPA were conducted in full view of the public and as such, an informed decision as to resolution included the public interactions. This paper will describe the successful results of this technical, regulatory, and public involvement program, explore the challenges, how the accomplishments occurred, and describe the future challenges along with the road map for the future. In doing this, the SRS D and D project must be described to give the readers an understanding of the technical complexities that must be communicated successfully to achieve constructive stakeholder participation and regulatory approval. (author)

Belencan, H. [U. S. Department of Energy, W. T. (Sonny) Goldston, Washington Savannah River Company (United States)

2008-07-01

419

Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison disposal site, Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report contains site inspection concerns and recommendations relating to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at an abandoned uranium mill site in Gunnison, Colorado. Plans for implementation of these recommendations are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

420

Evaluation of isotope migration - land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Status report through September 30, 1979. [West Valley, NY; Maxey-Flats, KY; Barnwell, SC; Sheffield, IL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide an understanding of and to monitor the behavior of existing low-level sites and to provide experimental research support to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for development of criteria for the selection and licensing of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. One of the significant factors in the development of these criteria is the

A. J. Weiss; P. Colombo

1980-01-01

421

Disposal of Non-routine High Level Waste in DWPF Canisters at Savannah River Site - A Precedent Throughout The DWPF Complex  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been actively reducing the inventory of radioactive material stored in its Shielded Cells Facility. Part of this inventory was a large number of 500 mL stainless steel beakers containing SRS radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge immobilized in a borosilicate glass. Since the beakers at SRNL contain HLW, federal mandate requires that this material be shipped to the geologic repository for permanent disposal. A detailed assessment was prepared that included a full characterization of the borosilicate glass as well as an evaluation of the impacts of placing the SRNL beakers in the canisters produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additionally, special equipment had to be designed and fabricated for use at SRNL along with the vitrification facility since DWPF was designed only to receive HLW slurries pumped from SRS waste tanks that would be processed into molten glass and poured from the melter into DWPF canisters. Different tasks were required to be performed at SRNL for implementation of this activity including confirmation of the beaker material, beaker tab removal and loading of the magazine tube and magazine rack with the beakers. New as well as existing procedures were utilized at DWPF to place the beakers into DWPF canisters and fill the canisters with molten borosilicate glass. This disposal path for the HLW glass-filled stainless steel beakers sets a precedent throughout the DOE complex since it is expected that other non-routine HLW at SRS and other DOE production facilities will need to be placed in permanent disposal at the federal repository. (authors)

Ray, J.W.; Iverson, D.C. [Defense Waste Processing Facility, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); George, J.C.; Gordon, J.R.; Bibler, N.E.; Blessing, R.W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2006-07-01

422

Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Troost, K. G.; Curry, B. B.

1991-01-01