Sample records for shiprock disposal site

  1. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is one of the first documents for developing an approach for achieving ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies Shiprock site information to a regulatory compliance framework, which identifies strategies for meeting ground water compliance at the site. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA ground water programmatic environmental impact statement.

  2. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the initial document for developing site-specific activities to achieve regulatory compliance in the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The regulatory framework used to select the proposed ground water compliance strategies is presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. The Shiprock site consists of two, interconnected hydrogeologic systems: the terrace system and the floodplain system. Separate compliance strategies are proposed for these two systems. The compliance strategy for the terrace aquifer is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards based on classification of the terrace aquifer as having Class III (limited-use) ground water. The compliance strategy for the floodplain aquifer is active remediation using a subsurface biological barrier. These strategies were selected by applying site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1994a). The site conceptual model indicates that milling-related contamination has impacted the ground water in the terrace and floodplain aquifers. Ground water occurs in both aquifers in alluvium and in fractures in the underlying Cretaceous age Mancos Shale. A mound of ground water related to fluids from the milling operations is thought to exist in the terrace aquifer below the area where settling ponds were in use during the mill operations. Most of the water occurring in the floodplain aquifer is from recharge from the San Juan River.

  3. Applications of permeable barrier technology to ground water contamination at the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Henry, E.J.; Thombre, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The Shiprock uranium mill tailings pile in far northwestern New Mexico consists of approximately 1.5 million tons of uranium mill tailings from an acid leach mill which operated from 1954 to 1968. Located on land owned by the Navajo Nation, it was one of the first tailings piles stabilized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. Stabilization activities were completed in 1986 and consisted principally of consolidating the tailings, contouring the pile to achieve good drainage, and covering the pile with a multi-layer cap to control infiltration of water, radon emanation, and surface erosion. No ground water protection or remediation measures were implemented other than limiting infiltration of water through the pile, although a significant ground water contamination plume exists in the flood plain adjacent to the San Juan River. The major contaminants at the Shiprock site include high concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium. One alternative for remediation may be the use of a permeable barrier in the flood plain aquifer. As proposed for the Shiprock site, the permeable barrier would be a trench constructed in the flood plain that would be backfilled with a media that is permeable to ground water, but would intercept or degrade the pollutants. Work to date has focused on use of a mixed microbial population of sulfate and nitrate reducing organisms. These organisms would produce strongly reducing conditions which would result in precipitation of the metal contaminants (i.e., Se(IV) and U(IV)) in the barrier. One of the first considerations in designing a permeable barrier is developing an understanding of ground water flow at the site. Accordingly, a steady state numerical model of the ground water flow at the site was developed using the MODFLOW code.

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF PERMEABLE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY TO GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE SHIPROCK, NM, UMTRA SITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Thomson; E. J. Henry; M. S. Thombre

    The Shiprock uranium mill tailings pile in far northwestern New Mexico consists of approximately 1.5 million tons of uranium mill tailings from an acid l each mill which operated from 1954 to 1968. Located on land owned by the Navajo Nation, it was one of the first ta ilings piles stabilized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project.

  6. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228...DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site use. (a) Modifications...

  7. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  8. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.434 Cottage site disposal....

  9. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.434 Cottage site disposal....

  10. Chemical Evidence for Uranium Bioreduction at Shiprock, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, J. P.; Long, P. E.; Elias, D.; Krumholz, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings (UMTRA) site at Shiprock, New Mexico includes a mill tailings disposal cell on a mesa overlooking the floodplain of the San Juan River. A plume of contaminated groundwater extends across the floodplain to the river. Although organisms that can reduce uranyl have been identified at the site, the extent of intrinsic reduction is difficult to assess. Uranyl concentrations vary due to mixing between three components: the contaminant plume, river water, and water from a flowing well of deep origin. Chloride and 3H were used to construct a three-component mixing model for floodplain groundwaters. The fraction of each component at each sampling point was used to estimate the uranyl concentration expected from dilution of the plume source by the other components. A much lower concentration than expected was taken to indicate bioreduction. Experimentation indicated that uranyl would only be bioreduced where nitrate was first completely removed; the model results showed evidence for uranyl reduction only where nitrate had been markedly and significantly removed, also by bioreduction. Low nitrate concentrations in these zones may have resulted from post-reduction mixing with nitrate-bearing water.

  11. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...disposal below the water table if it can be conclusively shown that disposal site characteristics will result in molecular diffusion being the predominant means of radionuclide movement and the rate of movement will result in the performance objectives...

  12. Escarpment seeps at Shiprock, New Mexico. [Risk posed by seep water to human health and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the seeps identified at the Shiprock UMTRA Project site during the prelicensing custodial care inspection conducted in December of 1990, to evaluate the relationship between the seeps and uranium processing activities or tailings disposal, and to evaluate the risk posed by the seep water to human health and the environment. The report provides a brief description of the geology, groundwater hydrology, and surface water hydrology. The locations of the seeps and monitor wells are identified, and the water quality of the seeps and groundwater is discussed in the context of past activities at the site. The water quality records for the site are presented in tables and appendices; this information was used in the risk assessment of seep water.

  13. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Leased disposal sites. 2743.3 Section 2743...2743.3 Leased disposal sites. (a) Upon request...determine whether they are contaminated with hazardous substances...of the landfill concerning site management and a review...

  14. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  15. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Di Sanza; J. T. Carilli

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now

  16. STOCHASTIC CONVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE TRANSPORT MODEL FOR WASTES DISPOSED AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-dimensional, stochastic, convective-dispersive transport model was developed to predict expected dilutions for wastes disposed at the 106-Mile Ocean Disposal Site. The major model assumptions were: (1) wastes were completely mixed vertically and remained in the upper mixed ...

  17. CONVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE TRANSPORT MODEL FOR WASTES DISPOSED AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-dimensional, convective-dispersive transport model was used to predict bounds on the expected long-term time-averaged dilutions for wastes disposed of at the 106-Mile Ocean Disposal Site (between 38 degrees 40' and 39 degrees 00'N, and 72 degrees 00' and 72 degrees 30'W). o...

  18. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS...River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c)...

  19. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental...designate four new Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site(s) (ODMDS) located offshore of Texas for the disposal of dredged material from the...

  20. A CEFAS Multidisciplinary Project Team The Rame Head Disposal Site Environmental impacts resulting from disposal of

    E-print Network

    .2. Characteristics of the Seabed 27 3.2.1. Acoustic data 27 3.2.2. Sediment texture 27 3.2.3. Underwater video 28 implications for licencing 24 3. Methods 25 3.1. Monitoring of Rame Head Disposal Site and Adjacent Seabed 25 3 Multidisciplinary Project Team ­ The Rame Head Disposal Site 3 4. Results 36 4.1. Characteristics of the Seabed 36 4

  1. EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

  2. IMPORTANCE OF SITE CHARACTERISTICS IN DESIGNING EFFLUENT DISPOSAL AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les Dawes; Ashantha Goonetilleke

    This paper discusses a research project on on-site sewage treatment undertaken in the Brisbane area. The primary objectives of the project were to relate treatment performance to site and soil conditions. The field study consisted of sixteen sites in the Brisbane urban fringe with the subsurface effluent disposal area located on a number of different soil types. A householder survey

  3. 10 CFR 61.44 - Stability of the disposal site after closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Stability of the disposal site after closure. 61.44... LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance...Objectives § 61.44 Stability of the disposal site after closure. The...

  4. 10 CFR 61.62 - Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization... LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.62 Funding for disposal site closure and...

  5. Health effects of a thorium waste disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Najem; L. K. Voyce

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of 112 households residing in the vicinity of a thorium waste disposal site found a higher prevalence of birth defects (RR 2.1) and liver diseases (RR 2.3) among exposed than the unexposed group. The numbers were quite small and the confidence intervals wide, however, so that no definite conclusions can be drawn from these data.

  6. TRACE METALS MONITORING AT TWO OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal distributions of the concentration of cadmium, copper, nickel, and vanadium in sea scallop and ocean quahog tissue were examined in the vicinity of two ocean disposal sites located off the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast on four cruises conducted in 1974 and 1975. Incidental co...

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was implemented. (6) At CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie, a UR was implemented. (7) At CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station, no work was performed.

  8. Description of Site Operations at the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot laboratories and Waste Management Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Abo Zabal (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. This site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half life less than 30 years for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. This paper describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site: - Waste Inspections: Point of-Origin Inspections, Onsite Inspections; - Waste Handling and Disposal: Packaging, Waste Forms, Vault Design; - Waste Emplacement and Backfilling; - Manifest Tracking and Record Keeping; - Interim Closure; - Rain or Flooding Management; - Institutional Controls; - Environmental Monitoring; - Personnel Training; - Emergency Response. (authors)

  9. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, J. [NSTec; Arnold, P. [NSTec; Saad, M. [SNL; DiSanza, F.; Cabble, K. [NNSA/NSO

    2012-11-05

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012.

  10. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site.

    SciTech Connect

    Taboas, A. L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.; Environmental Assessment; USDOE

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  11. 76 FR 32360 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9314-3] Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis...administrative de minimis settlement concerning the Casmalia Disposal Site in Santa Barbara County, California listed the name...

  12. Health effects of a thorium waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Najem, G R; Voyce, L K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of 112 households residing in the vicinity of a thorium waste disposal site found a higher prevalence of birth defects (RR 2.1) and liver diseases (RR 2.3) among exposed than the unexposed group. The numbers were quite small and the confidence intervals wide, however, so that no definite conclusions can be drawn from these data. PMID:2316775

  13. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P. (Hamburg, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  14. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  15. Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Site Technologies to Address Leachate from the On-Site Disposal

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    LBNL-51387 Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Site Technologies to Address Leachate from the On Management Project ­ On-Site Disposal Facility Leachate Treatment Final Report, October 7, 2002 Disclaimer.1.1 Leachate Recirculation (with air injection as an option)........................... 4 3.1.2 Reverse Osmosis

  16. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Application of studies on the overboard placement of dredged sediments to the management of disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panageotou, William; Halka, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    From the mid 1960's until 1991, dredging and disposal occurred in the northern Chesapeake Bay without guidelines to maximize the capacity and to minimize the spread of the deposits beyond the disposal sites, particularly toward the navigation channel. Planning for future dredging projects is dependant upon the remaining site capacity and the behavior of the disposed sediment. Recent studies have shown that the fate of the deposited sediments is determined primarily by the water depth and bathymetry in the vicinity of the disposal site, and the method of dredging and disposal utilized. Currently used open-water disposal sites in the northern Chesapeake Bay are reaching their maximum capacity. This makes the application of the information from these studies critical, both for the optimal use of current sites and for the evaluation of new sites. Management scenarios utilizing these studies are applied to a disposal site in the northern Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Disposal of Draeger Tubes at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.

    2000-10-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). At SRS Draeger tubes are used to identify the amount and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Draeger tubes rely on a chemical reaction to identify the nature and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Disposal practices for these tubes were identified by performing a hazardous waste evaluation per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Additional investigations were conducted to provide guidance for their safe handling, storage and disposal. A list of Draeger tubes commonly used at SRS was first evaluated to determine if they contained any material that could render them as a RCRA hazardous waste. Disposal techniques for Draeger tubes that contained any of the toxic contaminants listed in South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79. 261.24 (b) and/or contained an acid in the liquid form were addressed.

  19. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  20. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  1. Trace metals in organisms from ocean disposal sites of the middle eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Greig; D. R. Wenzloff; A. Adams; B. Nelson; C. Shelpuk

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, lead, and zinc were determined for selected marine fish and shellfish collected at or near three ocean disposal sites, a control site and three inshore areas of the middle eastern United States. The disposal sites were off New Haven, Connecticut; New York City, and Delaware Bay. The control site was at Chincoteague

  2. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194...PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions ...shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality...

  3. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased.

  4. Source term development for tritium at the Sheffield disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Barletta, R.E.; Smalley, J.F.; Kempf, C.R.; Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site, which ceased operation in 1978, has been the focus of modeling efforts by the NRC for the purpose of predicting long-term site behavior. To provide the NRC with the information required for its modeling effort, a study to define the source term for tritium in eight trenches at the Sheffield site has been undertaken. Tritium is of special interest since significant concentrations of the isotope have been found in groundwater samples taken at the site and at locations outside the site boundary. Previous estimates of tritium site inventory at Sheffield are in wide disagreement. In this study, the tritium inventory in the eight trenches was estimated by reviewing the radioactive shipping records (RSRs) for waste buried in these trenches. It has been found that the tritium shipped for burial at the site was probably higher than previously estimated. In the eight trenches surveyed, which amount to roughly one half the total volume and activity buried at Sheffield, approximately 2350 Ci of tritium from non-fuel cycle sources were identified. The review of RSRs also formed the basis for obtaining waste package descriptions and for contacting large waste generators to obtain more detailed information regarding these waste packages. As a result of this review and the selected generator contacts, the non-fuel cycle tritium waste was categorized. The tritium releases from each of these waste categories were modeled. The results of this modeling effort are presented for each of the eight trenches selected. 3 references, 2 figures.

  5. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site...DC 20460. 10. EPA Web site: http://www...typical of unaffected deep-ocean environments removed...advising to check the Web site for that trip. This...previous monitoring of deep ocean disposal...

  6. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...proposing to designate the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G-DODS...Washington, DC 20460. 10. EPA Web site: http://www.epa...is also typical of unaffected deep-ocean environments removed...temperature differences between the deep ocean disposal site and the...

  7. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

    2008-07-01

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  8. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites. [Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Circulation processes at the acid waste disposal site are highly event-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasters. There is a mean flow to the south alongshore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months, the ocean stratifies with warm water over cold water. A distinct thermocline was observed with expendable bathythermographs during all summer cruises at depths ranging from 10 to 21 meters. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom drogues showed very little movements. The duPont waste plume was observed in LANDSAT satellite imagery during dump up to 54 hours after dump.

  9. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  13. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  14. Some results from the third performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gallegos, D.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has disposed of a small amount of transuranic waste within the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Disposal of transuranic waste is governed by federal regulations 40 CFR 191; consequently, a performance assessment of the site is warranted to determine whether the site will comply with the requirements under 40 CFR 191. DOE has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to perform this assessment. This report discusses some results from this assessment.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action alternatives.

  16. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  17. Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the

    E-print Network

    Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the Coast of EnglandU, contract SLAB5. #12;2 Cefas Document Control Title: Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around Version Draft (submitted to co-authors) 1.0 S Bolam 1 st November 2011 Draft (edits addressed) 2.0 S Bolam

  18. Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the

    E-print Network

    Cefas contract report: SLAB5 Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around the Coast of England, contract SLAB5. #12;2 Cefas Document Control Title: Dredged Material Disposal Site Monitoring Around: Chris Vivian, May 2011 Version: 4.0 Version Control History Author Date Comment Version Draft (submitted

  19. Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial in disposal sites cited as a significant source of groundwater contamination in both the United States into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques

  20. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Colarusso; Bruce Crowe; John R. Cochran

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance

  1. UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal, WA Rabanco Recycling Co Landfill Roosevelt, WA Waste Management, Columbia Ridge Landfill Arlington Refrigeration Shop Recovery Seattle, WA Fluorescent light tubes - intact Ecolights NW Recycle Seattle, WA Shop

  2. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  3. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-02-24

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program`s primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  8. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  9. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  11. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island Sound; Connecticut...Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern Long Island Sound...

  12. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  13. Geohydrologic descriptions of selected solid waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    1982-01-01

    Fifty solid-waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico were examined in 1977 and ranked according to their potential for degradation of the water resources. Twenty-five of the sites show significant leachate pollution potential. The cover material at 21 sites is relatively permeable and offers insignificant attenuation to leachates. Thirty-six sites are adjacent to streams and nine of these are located in headwater areas. Rainfall is abundant and at 40 of the sites exceeds 1,500 millimeters per years. General descriptions of the 50 disposal sites are given with their geohydrologic setting. Baseline data consisting of specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and common ions were obtained at many of the sites. Such information provides a technical basis for assessing future effects of those solid-waste disposal sites on the quality of water resources. (USGS)

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  16. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island...of one or more Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to serve the eastern...Environmental Policy Act documents for all ocean disposal site designations. The SEIS will...

  17. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

  18. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

  19. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

  20. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

  1. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new...

  2. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Gruebel; R. D. Waters; M. B. Hospelhorn; M. S. Y. Chu

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste

  3. Recovery of low-level radioactive waste packages from deep ocean disposal sites. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents the methods used for the recovery of three low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided.

  4. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report.

  5. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERB DB

    2008-01-01

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to

  6. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  7. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zittel, H. E.

    Factors related to the site suitability of low level waste disposal sites are discussed including those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria, and community involvement are considered. All these factors are based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. It is concluded that problems encountered in siting low level waste facilities are largely societal and political in nature.

  8. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Ocean disposal feasibility study: candidate DOE (FUSRAP) soil characterization. [Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Kupferman; D. R. Anderson; L. H. Brush; L. S. Gomez; L. E. Shephard

    1982-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is to evaluate the radiological conditions at former MED-US AEC sites. Purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP program is to assess the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP waste which contains trace natural radioactive materials. This paper presents soil characterization information on the Middlesex, NJ, Sampling Plant site, and reports preliminary ocean dispersion

  11. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  12. DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

  13. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  14. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk analysis of the disposal of chemical munitions at regional or national sites. Final report, 3 February 1986-25 August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A.W.; Bellis, E.A.; Bolig, C.A.; Deremer, R.K.; Everline, C.J.

    1987-08-01

    This document was prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. This report describes the results of a comprehensive probabilistic assessment of the frequency and magnitude of chemical agent release for the storage, handling, on-site transportation, off-site transportation, and chemical-demilitarization plant operations associated with the disposal of the chemical stockpile at two regional disposal sites or at a single national disposal site. Rail transportation from seven sites, air transportation from two sites and water transportation from one site were the off-site transportation modes analyzed. Both internal accident initiators (e.g., human error, equipment malfunction) and external accident initiators (e.g., earthquakes, airplane crashes) were included in the analysis.

  15. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest.

  16. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  17. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of the St...mouth of the St. Johns River for the disposal of dredged material from the Jacksonville...as not designating an additional ocean disposal site. The existing Jacksonville...

  18. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  1. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  2. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: U.S. Environmental...ODMDS, approximately 4 square nautical miles in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the potential construction...

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Pastor

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole'';

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  6. Multiattribute utility analysis of alternative sites for the disposal of nuclear waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miley W. Merkhofer; Ralph L. Keeney

    1987-01-01

    Five potential sites nominated for the Nation`s first geologic repository for disposing of nuclear waste are evaluated using multiattribute utility analysis. The analysis was designed to aid the Department of Energy in its selection of 3 sites for characterization, a detailed data-gathering process that will involve the construction of exploratory shafts for underground testing and that may cost as much

  7. A Health Study of Two Communites Near the Stringfellow Waste Disposal Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Baker; Sander Greenland; James Mendlein; Patricia Harmon

    1988-01-01

    A health survey of 2,039 persons in 606 households located near the Stringfellow Hazardous Waste Disposal site, Riverside County, California, and in a reference community was conducted to assess whether rates of adverse health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the site. Data included a household questionnaire, medical records of reported cancers and pregnancies, and birth and death certificates.

  8. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

  9. FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

  10. Performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility on the Nevada Test Site: Comparing the performance of two conceptual site models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Baer; L. L. Price; D. P. Gallegos

    1993-01-01

    A small amount of transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site located on the Nevada Test Site`s (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The waste has been buried in several deep (37 m) boreholes dug into the floor of an alluvial basin. For the waste to remain in its current configuration, the DOE

  11. Geographic information system (G.I.S.) research project at Navajo Community College - Shiprock Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Yazzie, R.; Peter, C.; Aaspas, B.; Isely, D.; Grey, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Navajo and Hopi GIS Project was established to assess the feasibility and impact of implementing GIS techology at Tribal institutions. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories funded the Navajo and Hopi Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) Project and assigned a mentor from LANL to help guide the project for three summer months of 1995. The six organizations involved were: LANL, LLNL, Navajo Community College, Navajo Nation Land Office, Northern Arizona University and San Juan College. The Navajo Land Office provided the system software, hardware and training. Northern Arizona University selected two students to work at Hopi Water Resource Department. Navajo Community College provided two students and two faculty members. San Juan College provided one student to work with the N.C.C. group. This made up two project teams which led to two project sites. The project sites are the Water Resource Department on the Hopi reservation and Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  13. Hilbert transform based analyses on ship-rocking signals

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei; Kang, Deyong; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based flight vehicle measurement. Here we have analyzed four groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Our method gives a way to construct an analytic signal on the two-dimensional plane from a one-dimensional time series. The analytic signal share the complete property of the original time series. From the analytic signal of a time series, we have found some information of the original time series which are often hidden from the view of the conventional methods. The analytic signals of interest usually evolve very smoothly on the complex plane. In addition, the phase of the analytic signal is usually moves linearly in time. From the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the original signals as well as the instantaneous amplitudes and phase increments of the analytic signals we have found that the ship-rocking in horizontal directi...

  14. Transport assessment and cost analysis of the shipment of M55 rockets to possible disposal sites. M55 rocket disposal program study: M55CD1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Shappert; D. S. Joy; J. M. Begovich; I. G. Harrison

    1985-01-01

    The US Army is currently studying ways to dispose of M55 rockets. This report identifies the methods that are available to transport the rockets to disposal sites from three storage Depots (the Anniston Army Depot, the Kentucky-Blue Grass Depot, and the Umatilla depot) and the costs associated with handling, inspection, dispatching, and transporting them. The shipping destinations considered were Tooele,

  15. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pyles; Jhon Carilli

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program. However, the NNSA/NSO has identified DOE complex-wide issues: (1) the temporary closure of the Hanford facility to off-site generators leaves the NTS as the only Federal facility able to dispose of MLLW. If the Hanford facility is not permitted to accept waste from off-site generators after December 2010, the DOE complex will have no Federal facility to accept higher activity MLLW. It is not known if commercial disposal options for higher activities MLLW will be available by December 2010. (2) MLLW forecasts to the NTS do not fully utilize the 20,000 cubic meter capacity within five years. The DOE has urged generator facilities to re-prioritize projects and has conducted planning meetings to identify actions to increase the use of the NTS disposal capacity. (3) Generators have requested disposal of classified material in the MLLW disposal cell, however closure, safeguard termination, and “irretrievability” issues must be resolved.

  16. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Pyles; Jhon Carilli

    2007-01-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA\\/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan

  17. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D. [Fluor Fernald, Inc., 7400 Willey Road, Hamilton, Ohio 45013 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  19. 77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Charleston, South...7.18 square miles in size, for the disposal of dredged material from the proposed...Charleston ODMDS. Expand the existing disposal zone and ODMDS to the north, south...

  20. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period. PMID:20089285

  1. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk analysis of the disposal of chemical munitions at regional or national sites. Final report, 3 February 1986-25 August 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Barsell; E. A. Bellis; C. A. Bolig; R. K. Deremer; C. J. Everline

    1987-01-01

    This document was prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. This report describes the results of a comprehensive probabilistic assessment of the frequency and magnitude of chemical agent release for the storage, handling, on-site transportation, off-site transportation, and chemical-demilitarization plant operations associated with the disposal of the chemical

  2. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Ekmekçio?lu; Tolga Kaya; Cengiz Kahraman

    2010-01-01

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW).

  3. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Legend Notation Asbestos Waste Disposal Site 2.5 cm (1...the asbestos-containing waste material that has been deposited...Be covered with a resinous or petroleum-based dust suppression...any used, spent, or other waste oil is not considered a...

  4. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Legend Notation Asbestos Waste Disposal Site 2.5 cm (1...the asbestos-containing waste material that has been deposited...Be covered with a resinous or petroleum-based dust suppression...any used, spent, or other waste oil is not considered a...

  5. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Legend Notation Asbestos Waste Disposal Site 2.5 cm (1...the asbestos-containing waste material that has been deposited...Be covered with a resinous or petroleum-based dust suppression...any used, spent, or other waste oil is not considered a...

  6. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-SITE WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS USING WATER CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was made to determine the ability of existing water conservation hardware to correct malfunctioning on-site wastewater disposal systems resulting from soil clogging and to document, under actual use conditions, possible reduction of wastewater with water conservation hard...

  7. MONITORING REPORT FOR 1995 AND 1996 - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the findings of Tier 1 monitoring activities at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for calendar years 1995 and 1996. The regional monitoring activities included: collection of regional physical oceanographic data; net sampling of plankton ...

  8. Inventory of wells near a former waste-disposal site, Nashua, New Hampshire, June 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1994-01-01

    Domestic, public-supply, and observation wells near a former waste-disposal site along Gilson Road in Nashua, New Hampshire, were inventoried in June 1993. Data include hydrogeologic information on 13 domestic wells, 11 observation wells in an adjacent municipal landfill, 3 abandoned public-supply wells, 3 observation wells, and l test boring drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  9. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoskinson

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) at two candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate

  10. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...System) and are calculated using the North American Datum of 1983] Point ID No. Latitude Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.9625 ?122.00056 2 36.9625 ?121.99861 3 36.96139 ?121.99833...

  11. Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

  12. NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Gold, Art

    NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN, C. G. McKiel ABSTRACT: The nitrogen removal abilities of recirculating sand filter/rock tank (RSF. The degree of total nitrogen removal was a function of both nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification

  13. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  14. Preliminary performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site. Volume 2, Technical discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Price; S. H. Conrad; N. E. Olague; W. B. Cox; J. T. McCord; C. P. Harlan; D. A. Zimmerman; K. C. Gaither

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE\\/NV) has disposed of a small quantity of transuranic waste at the Greater Confinement Disposal facility in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. In 1989, DOE\\/NV contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to perform a preliminary performance assessment of this disposal site. This preliminary performance assessment consisted of analyses designed to assess the

  15. Preliminary performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Price; S. H. Conrad; N. E. Olague; W. B. Cox; J. T. McCord; C. P. Harlan; D. A. Zimmerman; K. C. Gaither

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE\\/NV) has disposed of a small quantity of transuranic waste at the Greater Confinement Disposal facility in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. In 1989, DOE\\/NV contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to perform a preliminary performance assessment of this disposal site. This preliminary performance assessment consisted of analyses designed to assess the

  16. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Economics; Hemphill, R.; Kohout, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy.

  17. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

  18. Pollution potential of pit quarries employed as waste-disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rechtien, R.D.; Woodbury, C.; Awalt, L.; McDonnell, S.

    1982-11-22

    The use of abandoned pit quarries as waste-disposal sites presents a problem of potential water pollution if leachate is carried through existing channels to areas far removed from the depositional site. A geophysical procedure based upon an electrical resistivity method was used to map small concentrations (volumes) that would represent leakage, or migration, of the leachate from the filled pit. The dipole-dipole electrical resistivity field procedure was found suitable for monitoring leachate from the waste-disposal site known as the Gray Clay mine. An inverse modeling procedure employing alpha centers was adopted to locate small pockets of highly conductive leachate. Although the alpha-center-inversion technique appears to be quite promising as a method of monitoring sanitary landfills for their pollution potential, considerable work is required to refine the method to a practical application method.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  20. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Frank G.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory constraints based on the intruder analysis are well above conservative estimates of the OSWDF inventory and, based on intruder disposal limits; about 7% of the disposal capacity is reached with the estimated OSWDF inventory.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  2. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /Navarro/NSTec

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program.

  3. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., (United Kindgom); Patera, E.S. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  4. Navajo birth outcomes in the Shiprock uranium mining area

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, L.M.; Wiese, W.H.; Skipper, B.J.; Charley, B.; Benally, L. (Navajo Community College, Shiprock, NM (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The role of environmental radiation in the etiology of birth defects, stillbirths, and other adverse outcomes of pregnancy was evaluated for 13,329 Navajos born at the Public Health Service/Indian Health Service Hospital in the Shiprock, NM, uranium mining area (1964-1981). More than 320 kinds of defective congenital conditions were abstracted from hospital records. Using a nested case-control design, families of 266 pairs of index and control births were interviewed. The only statistically significant association between uranium operations and unfavorable birth outcome was identified with the mother living near tailings or mine dumps. Among the fathers who worked in the mines, those of the index cases had histories of more years of work exposure but not necessarily greater gonadal dosage of radiation. Also, birth defects increased significantly when either parent worked in the Shiprock electronics assembly plant. Overall, the associations between adverse pregnancy outcome and exposure to radiation were weak and must be interpreted with caution with respect to implying a biogenetic basis.

  5. A solid waste disposal site selection procedure based on groundwater vulnerability mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celalettin Simsek; Cem Kincal; Orhan Gunduz

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new, GIS-based solid waste site selection tool (DUPIT) is introduced to obtain a systematic and unbiased\\u000a methodology during the evaluation phases of alternative solid waste disposal areas with regards to vulnerability to groundwater\\u000a pollution. The proposed tool is an index technique based on the linear combination of five different hydrogeological parameters\\u000a including Depth to groundwater table,

  6. Geological criteria for the selection of unconfined dredged material disposal sites in estuaries and lagoons

    E-print Network

    McHam, Robert Michael

    1977-01-01

    generated along the 4. 5 mi (7. 2 km) fetch to the northwest. 47 23 Generalized map of upper Galveston Bay showing the location of Atkinson Island. Photograph showing clay balls within the Atkinson Island dredged material. These clay balls are sur... Island 80 80 84 84 86 86 92 92 SELECTION OF DISPOSAL SITES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 REFERENCES i a o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ r e e o ~ e e ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 14...

  7. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  8. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  9. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

  10. Recovery of low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites, September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, B.B.

    1990-09-01

    The report presents the techniques to recover low-level radioactive waste packages from three deep-ocean disposal sites: Atlantic 3800-meter and the Pacific (Farallon Islands) 900-meter. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided.

  11. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  12. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations.

  13. Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ekmekçio?lu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-01-01

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights. PMID:20303733

  15. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet, E-mail: meceng3584@yahoo.co [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Tolga [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kahraman, Cengiz [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  16. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites...

  17. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Cover the asbestos-containing waste material with at least 60 centimeters...exposure of the asbestos-containing waste; or (4) For inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos tailings, a resinous or petroleum-based dust suppression...

  18. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Cover the asbestos-containing waste material with at least 60 centimeters...exposure of the asbestos-containing waste; or (4) For inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos tailings, a resinous or petroleum-based dust suppression...

  19. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango. Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document contains comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission upon their review of the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Responses to the comments are also included in the document.

  20. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  1. Technical site characterization of the Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.C.; Walton, C.G.; Zweig, L.T. (Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility is a proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility located SW of Princeton, Missouri. The facility is to accept, store, treat and landfill ash residues from RCRA-permitted hazardous waste incineration. The site was characterized for a permit application submitted to the Missouri Department of Natural Resource (MDNR). MDNR was involved during all site characterization stages, including MDNR review, input and oversight during the planning, field execution and report-preparation stages. Both parties agreed upon the needs required for characterizing the sites prior field work, and the MDNR ensured that scope of work stipulations were implemented in the field and reported. Three broad characterization categories were defined: (1) physical characteristics; (2) biological characteristics; and, (3) socio-economic considerations. Physical criteria include the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic and hydrologic site conditions. Threatened and Endangered Species and Wetlands comprised the biologic issues. Socio-economics considered cultural resources, such as history and archeology, market proximity, capacity assurance and transportation.

  2. Distribution of organophosphoric acid triesters between water and sediment at a sea-based solid waste disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Kawagoshi; Isao Fukunaga; Hisao Itoh

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphoric acid triester (OPE) concentration levels in water and bottom sediment at the Osaka North Port Sea-Based Solid\\u000a Waste Disposal Site were investigated, and the behavior of OPEs in the water environment of the waste disposal site was examined.\\u000a The more highly water-soluble OPEs were frequently detected in raw water. Of the OPEs detected, TCEP and TCPP showed very\\u000a high

  3. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  4. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...too quickly in shallow water. The designation of...material disposal in ocean waters. The proposed Sites...locations within the footprint of each Site and will...Position, Depth of Water, Bottom Topography...designation of the Sites. Transportation of dredges or...

  5. Example of a Risk-Based Disposal Approval: Solidification of Hanford Site Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.M.; Hyatt, J.E.; Martin, P.W.; Prignano, A.L. [Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26, 2005 to June 9, 2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP. (authors)

  6. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  8. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action. Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to minimize transport of waste from the repository. The hydrology of a flow system containing a repository is greatly affected by the engineering of the repository site. Prediction of the performance of the repository is a complex problem, hampered by problems of characterizing the natural and manmade features of the flow system and by the limitations of models to predict flow and geochemical processes in the saturated and unsaturated zones. Disposal in low-permeability unfractured clays in the saturated zone may be feasible where the radionuclide transport is controlled by diffusion rather than advection.

  11. Human pathogenic viruses at sewage sludge disposal sites in the Middle Atlantic region.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Adams, W N; O'Malley, M L; Lear, D W

    1984-01-01

    Human enteric viruses were detected in samples of water, crabs, and bottom sediments obtained from two sewage sludge disposal sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Viruses were isolated from sediments 17 months after the cessation of sludge dumping. These findings indicate that, under natural conditions, viruses can survive for a long period of time in the marine environment and that they may present potential public health problems to humans using these resources for food and recreation. The isolation of viruses in the absence of fecal indicator bacteria reinforces previous observations on the inadequacy of these bacteria for predicting the virological quality of water and shellfish. PMID:6334495

  12. Leachate migration from a pesticide waste disposal site in Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprinkle, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1972, approximately 300,000 drums (55-gallon steel barrels) of waste derived from the manufacturing of pesticides were buried on 45 acres of land in northern Hardemen County, Tennessee. Leachates from these wastes are migrating from the disposal site in surface runoff, through shallow perched water zones, and through the local water-table aquifer. Compounds identified in the leachates included: dieldrin, endrin , chlordene, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, pentachlorocyclopentadiene, and hexachloro-bicycloheptadiene. The rate of migration of some of the leachate compounds in the water-table aquifer was found to be at least 80 feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, RCRA requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A grouping of waste disposal units according to waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements identified six closure units: LLW Unit, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111 under FFACO, Asbestiform LLW Unit, Pit 3 MWDU, TRU GCD Borehole Unit, and TRU Trench Unit. The closure schedule of all units is tied to the closure schedule of the Pit 3 MWDU under RCRA.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units is listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) which was agreed to by the state of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). CAU 543 sites are located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. All Area 15 CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, which operated from 1963 to 1981 and was used to support animal experiments involving the uptake of radionuclides. Each of the Area 15 CASs, except CAS 15-23-01, is associated with the disposal of waste effluent from Building 15-06, which was the primary location of the various tests and experiments conducted onsite. Waste effluent disposal from Building 15-06 involved piping, sumps, outfalls, a septic tank with leachfield, underground storage tanks, and an aboveground storage tank (AST). CAS 15-23-01 was associated with decontamination activities of farm equipment potentially contaminated with radiological constituents, pesticides, and herbicides. While the building structures were removed before the investigation took place, all the original tanks, sumps, piping, and concrete building pads remain in place. The Area 6 CAS is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, a facility which operated from 1971 to 2001 and was used to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, clothing, and other materials that had become contaminated during nuclear testing activities. The CAS includes the effluent collection and distribution systems for Buildings 6-605, 6-606, and 6-607, which consists of septic tanks, sumps, piping, floor drains, drain trenches, cleanouts, and a concrete foundation. Additional details of the site history are provided in the CAU 543 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2004a), and the CAU 543 Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2005).

  15. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities. PMID:18029091

  16. Modeling of reactive chemical transport of leachates from a utility fly-ash disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.; Zhu, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kitanidis, P.K.; Freyberg, D.L.; Ronan, A.D.; Itakagi, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1991-04-01

    Fly ash from fossil-fuel power plants is commonly slurried and pumped to disposal sites. The utility industry is interested in finding out whether any hazardous constituents might leach from the accumulated fly ash and contaminate ground and surface waters. To evaluate the significance of this problem, a representative site was selected for modeling. FASTCHEM, a computer code developed for the Electric Power Research Institute, was utilized for the simulation of the transport and fate of the fly-ash leachate. The chemical evolution of the leachate was modeled as it migrated along streamtubes defined by the flow model. The modeling predicts that most of the leachate seeps through the dam confining the ash pond. With the exception of ferrous, manganous, sulfate and small amounts of nickel ions, all other dissolved constituents are predicted to discharge at environmentally acceptable concentrations.

  17. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  18. PAST, PRESENT, AND ANTICIPATED LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND CHARACTERISTICS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Bentz; C. B. Bentz; T. D. O'Hora

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been identified in recent, national U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reports as playing a key role in the future disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) originating from waste management, site remediation, and other programs of the DOE Complex. The potential volumes and characteristics of these wastes -- as well as their proposed shipment to

  19. Definition of intrusion scenarios and example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of conducting performance assessments of its radioactive waste sites and disposal systems to ensure that public health and safety are protected, the environment is preserved, and that no remedial actions after disposal are required. Hanford Site low-level waste performance assessments are technical evaluations of waste sites or disposal systems that provide a basis for making decisions using established criteria. The purpose of this document is to provide a family of scenarios to be considered when calculating radionuclide exposure to individuals who may inadvertently intrude into near-surface waste disposal sites. Specific performance assessments will use modifications of the general scenarios described here to include additional site/system details concerning the engineering design, waste form, inventory, and environmental setting. This document also describes and example application of the Hanford-specific scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document\\/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)\\/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of

  1. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  2. Introduction to Special Section on Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, H. W.

    1987-07-01

    A symposium on "Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites" was held at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 13, 1982. Since then, five of the papers presented at the symposium have been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research and an additional six papers are included in this issue. Three of the current papers involve geophysical research at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; two papers are on subsurface structure and fracturing of the Strath-Halladale granite in northern Scotland, a prime candidate for rad waste storage in the United Kingdom; and a general paper is included on the application of various geophysical methods for characterizing all the potential storage sites in the United States under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy. In 1982, the following nine sites in the United States (Figure 1) were under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy for the first U.S. repository of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The host rock at each site is noted in parentheses (from NW to SE): Hanford, Washington (Miocene basalt flows); Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Tertiary tuff); Davis Canyon, Utah, (bedded salt); Lavender Canyon, Utah (bedded salt); Deaf Smith, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Swisher County, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Vacherie dome, Louisiana (domal salt); Richton dome, Mississippi (domal salt); and Cypress Creek dome, Mississippi (domal salt)

  3. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ann T.W., E-mail: bsannyu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  4. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  5. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 2. Savanna Bay and Duck Creek sites

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; McCown, D.L.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Upper Mississippi River at two sites, Savanna Bay and Duck Creek, to investigate the movement of dredged sand after disposal in the thalweg. These experiments are part of a larger study, which includes similar experiments conducted earlier at two other sites on the Upper Mississippi River. At the Savanna Bay site, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg. Bathymetric surveys and surficial bottom sampling were conducted on five occasions over a nine-month period following disposal to identify changes in the topography of the pile and to detect the presence of dyed sand. At the Duck Creek site, only bathymetric surveys were conducted. The general behavior of the disposal piles at these two new sites was similar to that of the piles at the first two sites. Topographic evidence of the piles disappeared, and bottom conditions similar to the predisposal conditions were reestablished following the first period of high river flows after disposal. At Savanna Bay, as had happened at the first two sites, the tagged sand remained in the main river channel as it moved downstream in response to flood currents and did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs. 6 references, 89 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  7. Geostatistical risk estimation at waste disposal sites in the presence of hot spots.

    PubMed

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Modis, Kostas

    2009-05-30

    The present paper aims to estimate risk by using geostatistics at the wider coal mining/waste disposal site of Belkovskaya, Tula region, in Russia. In this area the presence of hot spots causes a spatial trend in the mean value of the random field and a non-Gaussian data distribution. Prior to application of geostatistics, subtraction of trend and appropriate smoothing and transformation of the data into a Gaussian form were carried out; risk maps were then generated for the wider study area in order to assess the probability of exceeding risk thresholds. Finally, the present paper discusses the need for homogenization of soil risk thresholds regarding hazardous elements that will enhance reliability of risk estimation and enable application of appropriate rehabilitation actions in contaminated areas. PMID:18930591

  8. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal SiteFiscal Year 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D BRENT. Barnett; JoAnne T. Rieger; Edward C. Thornton

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which is not removed by the ETF, and is discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During fiscal year (FY) 2003 to date (through August 31, 2003), approximately 96-million liters (25.3-million gallons) of

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  10. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here. Parameters necessary for estimating surface contaminant flux due to native plants expected to inhabit the NTS RWMSS are developed in this report. The model is specific to the plant communities found at the NTS and is designed for both short-term (<1,000 years) and long-term (>1,000 years) modeling efforts. While the model has been crafted for general applicability to any NTS PA, the key radionuclides considered are limited to the transuranic (TRU) wastes disposed of at the NTS.

  11. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  12. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Urandium mill tailings remedial action program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH06, Shiprock, New Mexico, August-November 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Flynn; A. L. Justus; C. M. Sholeen; W. H. Smith; R. A. Wynveen

    1984-01-01

    The radiological assessment conducted at the Shiprock vicinity property SH06 by the ANL Radiological Survey Group indicated background levels of radioactivity within the residential structure. Radiation exposure rates were less than the 20 ..mu..R\\/h above background limit specified in the EPA Standard (40 CFR 192.12(b)(2)). Short-term radon daughter measurements did not exceed the 0.02 WL (or 20 mWL) limit for

  15. Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK with contrasting soil

    E-print Network

    Owens, Philip

    Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK), primarily due to investment in secondary sewage treatment works. In 2003, 98.8% of UK bathing waters sewage treatment has been made (Wyer et al. 1996; Kay et al. 1999). Also, the proportion of compliant

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. DeRouen; R. W. Hann; D. M. Casserly; C. Giammona; V. J. Lascara

    1983-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge

  17. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria from sediment of sea-based waste disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Kawagoshi; Yasuhiro Nakamura; Hirotaka Kawashima; Koichiro Fujisaki; Aya Fujimoto; Kenji Furukawa

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from a sea-based waste disposal site and discusses the construction of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of bacteria related to Candidatus Scalindua wagneri along with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the continuous bioreactor culture under a

  18. Obstacle factors and overcoming plans of public communication: With an emphasis on radioactive waste disposal facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hae-Woon [Organization for Atomic Energy Awareness, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang-Taeg [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Korea is confronting a serious social conflict, which is phenomenon of local residents reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility. This phenomenon is traced back to the reason that the project sponsors and local residents do not communicate sufficiently each other. Accordingly, in order to overcome local residents` reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility siting effectively, it is absolutely necessary to consider the way of solutions and strategies with regard to obstacle factors for public communication. In this content, this study will review three cases (An-myon Island, Gul-up Island, Yang-yang) on local residents reaction to facility siting. As a result of analysis, authoritarian behavior of project sponsors, local stigma, risk, antinuclear activities of environmental group, failures in siting the radioactive waste disposal facility, etc. has negative impact on public communication of the radioactive waste disposal facility siting. In this study, 5 strategies (reform of project sponsor`s authoritarianism, incentive offer, strengthening PA activities, more active talks with environmental groups, promoting credibility of project sponsors) arc suggested to cope with obstacle factors of public communication.

  19. Comment and response document for the final long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains comments made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission addressing their concerns over the long-term monitoring program for the Green River Disposal Site, UMTRA project. Responses are included as well as plans for implementation of changes, if any are deemed necessary.

  20. Comparative fate of [¹⁴C]trichloroethylene in the root zone of plants from a former solvent disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd A. Anderson; Barbara T. Walton

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental fate of [¹⁴]trichloroethylene ([¹⁴C]TCE) in vegetated and nonvegetated soils from a contaminated field site indicated increased mineralization (¹⁴COâ production) in soils containing vegetation. Mineralization in soils containing Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont), Pinus taeda (L.), Solidago sp. (all collected from a former chlorinated solvent disposal site), and Glycine max, germinated from commercially available seeds, accounted for >

  1. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of a nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Dale F.; Levitt, Marc T.; Greenwood, William J.

    2009-12-11

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling study was completed on a very large electrical resistivity survey conducted at a nuclear waste site in eastern Washington. The acquisition included 47 pole-pole two dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles collected along parallel and orthogonal lines over an area of 850 m×570 m. The data were geo-referenced and inverted using EarthImager3D (EI3D). EI3D runs on a Microsoft 32-bit operating system (e.g. WIN-2K, XP) with a maximum usable memory of 2 GB. The memory limits the size of the domain for the inversion model to 200 m×200 m, based on the survey electrode density. Therefore, a series of increasing overlapping models were run to evaluate the effectiveness of dividing the survey area into smaller subdomains. The results of the smaller subdomains were compared to the inversion results of a single domain over a larger area using an upgraded form of EI3D that incorporates multi-processing capabilities and 32 GB of RAM memory. The contours from the smaller subdomains showed discontinuity at the boundaries between the adjacent models, which do not match the hydrogeologic expectations given the nature of disposal at the site. At several boundaries, the contours of the low resistivity areas close, leaving the appearance of disconnected plumes or open contours at boundaries are not met with a continuance of the low resistivity plume into the adjacent subdomain. The model results of the single large domain show a continuous monolithic plume within the central and western portion of the site, directly beneath the elongated trenches. It is recommended that where possible, the domain not be subdivided, but instead include as much of the domain as possible given the memory of available computing resources.

  2. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...Manufacturing, Continental Heat Treating, Continental Manufacturing Co., Cook Paint Company, Cool Transports, Inc., Coral Chemical Company, Costco, County of Nevada, Crest Beverage, LLC, Crossfield Products Corporation, Crown Disposal...

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in the SAFER Plan. In addition, the septic tank associated with CAU 356 will be closed in accordance with applicable regulations.

  6. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) at two candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate locations were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning in System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data were overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Two species of rare vascular plants have previously been reported to occur in the vicinity of the candidate locations. Two C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. No significant ecological impact is anticipated if the MLLWDF were constructed on either candidate location. However, both candidate locations are in the central area of the INEL where there is minimal disturbance to the ecosystem by facilities or humans.

  7. SOIL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES AT ORNL: CRITERIA AND TECHNIQUES OF SITE SELECTION AND MONITORING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Cowser; F. L. Parker

    1958-01-01

    The ability of soil to remove and retain the but of the fission product ; cations from aqueous solution is used as the basis for disposal of large ; volumes of intermediate level wastes. An experimental system consisting of three ; 1 million gal disposal pits has been developed at ORNL and through December 1858, ; received a total of

  8. Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.; Barnes, F.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration.

  9. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  10. Structure of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: a potential nuclear-waste disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A potential nuclear-waste disposal site is being evaluated at Yucca Mountain, southern Nye County, Nevada. The site is within Tertiary volcanic rocks, and much of the surrounding region is underlain by such rocks. The volcanic rocks are as much as 3000 m thick north and west of the site but thin to as little as 1200 m under the site

  11. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Gruebel; R. D. Waters; B. S. Langkopf

    1997-01-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport

  12. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria from sediment of sea-based waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Hirotaka; Fujisaki, Koichiro; Fujimoto, Aya; Furukawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from a sea-based waste disposal site and discusses the construction of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of bacteria related to Candidatus Scalindua wagneri along with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the continuous bioreactor culture under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.4 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). PMID:19147111

  13. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Blake; Nancy J. Maciolek; Allan Y. Ota; Isabelle P. Williams

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1m2, cut to a depth of 10cm, and sieved through a 300-?m mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to

  14. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Kincaid; M. P. Bergeron; C. R. Cole

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned

  15. Long-term changes in soil and plant metal concentrations in an acidic dredge disposal site receiving sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Palazzo; C. M. Reynolds

    1991-01-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted to determine the distribution of sludge-borne metals applied to a revegetated acidic dredge spoil disposal site. The initial soil was infertile and highly acidic (pH 2.4). Sewage sludge and lime were applied in 1974 at the rates of 100 and 23 mt ha-1, respectively, and tilled into the soil to a depth of 20 cm.

  16. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  17. Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-06

    The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

  18. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...section, use an alternative emissions control method that has...Procedures to be used to control emissions during the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...may require changes in the emission control procedures to...

  19. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...section, use an alternative emissions control method that has...Procedures to be used to control emissions during the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...may require changes in the emission control procedures to...

  20. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from the SALDS have been detected in the tritium-tracking wells. Concentrations of all chemical constituents were within Permit limits or were below method detection limits when sampled during FY08. A summary of the chemical constituent concentrations or method detection limits is provided in Table 3-2 in the main text discussion. This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring and tritium-tracking samples from the SALDS facility during FY08. Due to the 30-day laboratory turnaround for analysis of proximal well groundwater samples, this report addresses available date extending from August 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008 (August 2007 data were not included in the FY07 report). Updated background information, which is necessary to understand the results of the groundwater analyses, is also provided on facility operations. Interpretive discussions and recommendations for future monitoring are also provided, where possible.

  1. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose zone has low saturated hydraulic conductivities on the order of 10(-5)cm/s and in this respect is well-suited for the disposal of LILW. The saturated formations are primarily made up of silt and moderately-to-slightly weathered granite, which exhibit even lower hydraulic conductivities, on the order of 10(-6)cm/s, also favorable for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Chemical analyses indicate that the groundwaters at the site are of the HCO(3)-Na · Ca and HCO(3) · SO(4)-Na · Ca types and are weakly corrosive to concrete and steel. Geochemical analyses indicate that the rock and soil materials (particularly weathered granite) at the site contain very small fractions of colloidal particles and exhibit low Cation Exchange Capacities (CEC), and would therefore have limited capacity for sorption of radionuclides. Groundwater flow and solute transport models of the candidate site have been developed using MODFLOW and MT3DMS, incorporating the data obtained during the assessment program. Calibration was based on the available measured groundwater level fluctuations and tracer concentrations from in situ dispersion tests. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient as determined in calibration is equal to 5.0 × 10(-3) m(2)/d. Numerical sensitivity analyses indicate that the hydraulic conductivity and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient are the key parameters controlling the transport of radionuclides, while the numerical model is not sensitive to changes in the effective porosity and the specific yield. Preliminary predictions have been performed with the calibrated model both for the natural setting of the site and the graded site in which the valleys of the site are backfilled with low permeable materials. Results indicate that the proposed site grading increases the safety of the site for disposal of LILW by reducing both the groundwater level and the hydraulic gradient and that radionuclide transport would not likely be a problem or cause groundwater contamination. Although there are some problems remaining to be addressed in future work, the conclusion

  2. Utilization of the Baker soil test in synthetic soil preparation for reclamation of coal ash disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, J.P.; Baker, D.E.; Amistadi, M.K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1993-12-01

    Application of procedures developed for preparation of synthetic soils for reclamation of two coal ash disposal sites in Pennsylvania is presented. These procedures include determination of water holding properties, lime requirement, and the Baker Soil Test (BST) for chemical element analysis. Results from soil and plant analyses following establishment of vegetation on the sites have shown that the BST predicts plant incorporation of chemical elements from the synthetic soils. The results confirm the utility of the BST in planning and executing successful reclamation on disturbed lands in a manner which protects the soil-plant-animal food chain.

  3. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazen

    2002-01-01

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was

  4. Ordnance Reef (HI-06) served as a disposal site for discarded military munitions (DMM) after World War II. Since then, a number of incidents of munitions retrieval and

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    iv Abstract Ordnance Reef (HI-06) served as a disposal site for discarded military munitions (DMM health. Identification, research and monitoring of sea munitions disposal areas were authorized by H) after World War II. Since then, a number of incidents of munitions retrieval and washing ashore raised

  5. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  6. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  7. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, Alex M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily awnless brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic profile, and (3) a soil-based water budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data and then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates (for March through November) by these methods were in close agreement: 648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates reach a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of total precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soilmoisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) at the Sheffield site were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service stations. Solar radiation averaged 65 percent of that normally expected under clear skies. Net radiation averaged 70.1 watts per square meter and was highest in July and negative during some winter months. Wind direction varied but was predominately south-southeasterly. Wind speed at the 2-meter height averaged 3.5 meters per second and was slightly higher in winter months than the rest of the year. The amount of water stored within the soil zone was greatest in early spring and least in late summer. Seasonal and diurnal trends of evapotranspiration rates mirrored those of net radiation; July was usually the month with the highest evapotranspiration rate. The ratio of sensible- to latentheat fluxes (commonly called the Bowen ratio) for the 2-year study period was 0.38, as averaged from the three methods. Monthly Bowen ratios fluctuated somewhat but averaged about 0.35 for late spring through summer. In fall, the ratio declined to zero or to slightly negative values. When the ratio was negative, the latent-heat flux was slightly greater than the net radiation because of additional energy supplied by' the cooling soil and air. Evapotranspiration calculated by the three methods averaged 75 percent of potential evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Penman equation. There was no apparent seasonal trend in the relation between actual and potential evapotranspiration rates.

  8. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the Berea sandstone aquiver over time and does not conform to standard private water well construction practices. The bottom-line is that all predicted doses from the base case and five sensitivity cases fall well below the DOE all-pathways 25 mrem/yr Performance Objective.

  9. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  10. Evapotranspiration and microclimate at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    From July 1982 through June 1984, a study was made of the microclimate and evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Vegetation at the site consists of mixed pasture grasses, primarily brome (Bromus inermis) and red clover (Trifoleum pratense). Three methods were used to estimate evapotranspiration: (1) an energy-budget with the Bowen ratio, (2) an aerodynamic-profile, and (3) a soil-based water-budget. For the aerodynamic-profile method, sensible-heat flux was estimated by a profile equation and evapotranspiration was then calculated as the residual in the energy-balance equation. Estimates by the energy-budget and aerodynamic-profile methods were computed from hourly data, then summed by days and months. Yearly estimates for March through November, by these methods, were quite close--648 and 626 millimeters, respectively. Daily estimates range up to a maximum of about 6 millimeters. The water-budget method produced only monthly estimates based on weekly or biweekly soil-moisture content measurements. The yearly evapotranspiration estimated by this method (which actually included only the months of April through October) was 655 millimeters. The March-through-November average for the three methods of 657 millimeters was equivalent to 70 percent of precipitation. Continuous measurements were made of incoming and reflected shortwave radiation, incoming and emitted longwave radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, horizontal windspeed, and wet- and dry-bulb air temperature. Windspeed and air temperature were measured at heights of 0.5 and 2.0 meters (and also at 1.0 meter after September 1983). Soil-moisture content of the soil zone was measured with a gamma-attenuation gage. Annual precipitation (938 millimeters) and average temperature (10.8 degrees Celsius) were virtually identical to long-term averages from nearby National Weather Service stations. Solar radiation averaged 65 percent of that normally expected under clear skies. Net radiation averaged 70.1 watts per square meter and was highest in July and negative during some winter months. Wind direction varied but was predominately out of the south-southeast. Wind speed at the 2-meter height averaged 3.5 meters per second and was slightly higher in winter months than the rest of the year. The amount of water stored within the soil zone was greatest in early spring and least in late summer. Seasonal and diurnal trends in evapotranspiration rates mirrored those in net radiation; July was usually the month with the highest rate. The ratio of sensible- to latent-heat fluxes (commonly called the Bowen ratio) for the 2-year period was 0.38, as averaged from the three methods. Monthly Bowen ratios fluctuated somewhat but averaged about 0.35 for late spring through summer. In fall, the ratio declined to zero or to slightly negative values. When the ratio was negative, the latent-heat flux was slightly greater than the net radiation because of additional energy supplied by the cooling soil and air. Evapotranspiration calculated by the three methods averaged 75 percent of potential evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Penman equation. There was no apparent seasonal trend in the relation between actual and potential evapotranspiration rates.

  11. Sorption of strontium and fractal scaling of the heterogeneous media in a candidate VLLW disposal site

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Sorption of strontium and fractal scaling of the heterogeneous media in a candidate VLLW disposal and the distri- bution coefficient of some radionuclides, such as strontium. We have studies the correlation of strontium was deter- mined in the heterogeneous media, and sorption and distribution of strontium

  12. Selection of a ground disposal site for radioactive wastes: an approach to its safety evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Inoue; S. Morisawa

    1974-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive solids or solidified wastes in the ground is ; not allowed in Japan mainly because of-the difficulties in estimating the ; migration of escaped radionuclides and their effect on the human body (internal ; dose). In this report, the action of radionuclides in an environment is ; quantified, and the dose rate of internal irradiation is

  13. Ground-water contamination near a uranium tailings disposal site in Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Goode; Russell J. Wilder

    1987-01-01

    Contaminants from uranium tailings disposed of at an active mill in Colorado have seeped into the shallow ground water onsite. This ground water discharges into the Arkansas River Valley through a superposed stream channel cut in the resistant sandstone ridge at the edge of a synclinal basin. In the river valley, seasonal surface-water irrigation has a significant impact on hydrodynamics.

  14. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  16. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

  17. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site--Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Rieger, Joanne T.

    2001-10-12

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated liquids derived from Hanford Site facilities. The clean water generated by these processes is occasionally enriched in tritium, and is discharged to the 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents is required by the state-issued permit at 22 wells surrounding the facility. During FY 2001, tritium activities in the SALDS proximal well 699-48-77A increased (maximum 670,000 pCi/L) as a result of the resumption of tritium disposal in September 2000, following a 16-month hiatus in significant tritium discharges. Well 699-48-77C, where tritium results reached a maximum value of 980,000 pCi/L, is reflecting the result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer from 1999 SALDS tritium discharges. Speculation in FY 2000 (Barnett 2000b) that tritium may have reached two wells due south of the facility is probably premature. FY 2001 results indicate no departures from historical levels of tritium in these wells.

  18. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for their erosion potential, ability to overflow the proposed disposal facility, and for their ability to increase migration of contaminants from the facility. The assessment of available literature suggests that the likelihood of detrimental flood water impacting the proposed RH-LLW facility is extremely low. The annual exceedance probability associated with uncontrolled flows in the Big Lost River impacting either of the proposed sites is 1x10-5, with return interval (RI) of 10,000yrs. The most probable dam failure scenario has an annual exceedance probability of 6.3x10-6 (1.6x105 yr RI). In any of the scenarios generating possible on-site water, the duration is expected to be quite short, water depths are not expected to exceed 0.5 m, and the erosion potential can easily be mitigated by emplacement of a berm (operational period), and an engineered cover (post closure period). Subsurface mobilization of radionuclides was evaluated for a very conservative flooding scenario resulting in 50 cm deep, 30.5 day on-site water. The annual exceedance probability for which is much smaller than 3.6x10-7 (2.8x106 yr RI). For the purposes of illustration, the facility was assumed to flood every 500 years. The periodically recurring flood waters were predicted to marginally increase peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer by at most by a factor of three for non-sorbing radionuclides, and to have limited impact on peak radionuclide fluxes into the aquifer for contaminants that do sorb.

  19. ALTERNATIVE ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS ON SEVERELY LIMITED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several research and evaluation studies were performed on alternative onsite systems on sites with severe limitations for conventional systems. The major limitations included slow permeability, a seasonally high water table, and limiting soil horizons. Several typical site evalua...

  20. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-02-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  1. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  2. Recommended Method To Account For Daughter Ingrowth For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, Mark A.; Smith, Frank G. III

    2013-06-21

    A 3-D STOMP model has been developed for the Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at Site D as outlined in Appendix K of FBP 2013. This model projects the flow and transport of the following radionuclides to various points of assessments: Tc-99, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Am-241, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Th-228, and Th-230. The model includes the radioactive decay of these parents, but does not include the associated daughter ingrowth because the STOMP model does not have the capability to model daughter ingrowth. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides herein a recommended method to account for daughter ingrowth in association with the Portsmouth OSWDF Performance Assessment (PA) modeling.

  3. Summary of treatment, storage, and disposal facility usage data collected from U.S. Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Oswald, K. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trump, C. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the level and extent of treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) assessment duplication. Commercial TSDFs are used as an integral part of the hazardous waste management process for those DOE sites that generate hazardous waste. Data regarding the DOE sites` usage have been extracted from three sets of data and analyzed in this report. The data are presented both qualitatively and quantitatively, as appropriate. This information provides the basis for further analysis of assessment duplication to be documented in issue papers as appropriate. Once the issues have been identified and adequately defined, corrective measures will be proposed and subsequently implemented.

  4. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  5. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  6. Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence.

  7. COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF LLW DISPOSAL FACILITIES AT THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R; Mark Phifer, M; Frank02 Smith, F

    2009-01-08

    Composite Analyses (CA's) are required per DOE Order 435.1 [1], in order to provide a reasonable expectation that DOE low-level waste (LLW) disposal, high-level waste tank closure, and transuranic (TRU) waste disposal in combination with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) actions, will not result in the need for future remedial actions in order to ensure radiological protection of the public and environment. This Order requires that an accounting of all sources of DOE man-made radionuclides and DOE enhanced natural radionuclides that are projected to remain on the site after all DOE site operations have ceased. This CA updates the previous CA that was developed in 1997. As part of this CA, an inventory of expected radionuclide residuals was conducted, exposure pathways were screened and a model was developed such that a dose to the MOP at the selected points of exposure might be evaluated.

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2015-06-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  9. Rapid movement of wastewater from on-site disposal systems into surface waters in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, John H.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, Joan B.

    2000-01-01

    Viral tracer studies have been used previously to study the potential for wastewater contamination of surface marine waters in the Upper and Middle Florida Keys. Two bacteriophages, the marine bacteriophage ?HSIC and the Salmonella phage PRD1, were used as tracers in injection well and septic tank studies in Saddlebunch Keys of the Lower Florida Keys and in septic tank studies in Boot Key Harbor, Marathon, of the Middle Keys. In Boot Key Harbor, both phages were detected in a canal adjacent to the seeded septic tank within 3 h 15 min of the end of the seed period. The tracer was then detected at all sampling sites in Boot Key Harbor, including one on the opposite side of U. S. Highway 1 in Florida Bay, and at an Atlantic Ocean beach outside Boot Key Harbor. Rates of migration based on first appearance of the phage ranged from 1.7 to 57.5 m h-1. In Saddlebunch Keys, ?HSIC and PRD1 were used to seed a residential septic tank and a commercial injection well. The septic tank tracer was not found in any surface water samples. The injection well tracer was first detected at a site most distant from the seed site, a channel that connected Sugarloaf Sound with the Atlantic Ocean. The rate of tracer migration from the injection well to this channel ranged from 66.8 to 141 m h-1. Both tracer studies showed a rapid movement of wastewater from on-site sewage treatment and disposal systems in a southeasterly direction toward the reef tract and Atlantic Ocean, with preferential movement through tidal channels. These studies indicate that wastewater disposal systems currently in widespread use in the Florida Keys can rapidly contaminate the marine environment.

  10. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Strand

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the

  12. Lights, camera and acoustics: Assessing macrobenthic communities at a dredged material disposal site off the North East coast of the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana N. R. Birchenough; Siân E. Boyd; Roger A. Coggan; David S. Limpenny; William J. Meadows; Hubert L. Rees

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a trial assessment based on a combination of sampling techniques at a dredged material disposal site located off the North East coast of the UK, over 2001 to 2004. The site was surveyed with a high-resolution sidescan sonar system producing a mosaic with 100% coverage of the survey area. Benthic communities and sediments were

  13. Estimating Groundwater Concentrations from Mass Releases to the Aquifer at Integrated Disposal Facility and Tank Farm Locations Within the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel P. Bergeron; Eugene J. Freeman

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes groundwater-related numerical calculations that will support groundwater flow and transport analyses associated with the scheduled 2005 performance assessment of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. The report also provides potential supporting information to other ongoing Hanford Site risk analyses associated with the closure of single-shell tank farms and related actions. The IDF 2005 performance

  14. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    SciTech Connect

    Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Nedenskov, Jonas, E-mail: jne@amfor.dk [AV Miljo, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    AV Miljo is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH{sub 4}) emission from the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH{sub 4} (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH{sub 4} (27%) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) (71%), containing no CO{sub 2}. The results indicated that the gas composition in the shredder waste was governed by chemical reactions as well as microbial reactions. CH{sub 4} mass balances from three individual waste cells showed that a significant part (between 15% and 67%) of the CH{sub 4} generated in cell 1.3 and 2.2.2 was emitted through leachate collection wells, as a result of the relatively impermeable covers in place at these two cells preventing vertical migration of the gas. At cell 1.5.1, which is un-covered, the CH{sub 4} emission through the leachate system was low due to the high gas permeability of the shredder waste. Instead the gas was emitted through the waste resulting in some hotspot observations on the shredder surface with higher emission rates. The remaining gas that was not emitted through surfaces or the leachate collection system could potentially be oxidized as the measured oxidation capacity exceeded the potential emission rate. The whole CH{sub 4} emission from the disposal site was found to be 820 {+-} 202 kg CH{sub 4} d{sup -1}. The total emission rate through the leachate collection system at AV Miljo was found to be 211 kg CH{sub 4} d{sup -1}. This showed that approximately 1/4 of the emitted gas was emitted through the leachate collections system making the leachate collection system an important source controlling the overall gas migration from the site. The emission pathway for the remaining part of the gas was more uncertain, but emission from open cells where waste is being disposed of or being excavated for incineration, or from horizontal leachate drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely.

  15. The public's role in transportation decisions as related to waste disposal facility siting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Robison; P. Seidler; R. Dale; C. Binzer

    1992-01-01

    Transportation issues, as they relate to facility siting, have for many years taken a back seat to other elements considered by those making siting decisions. This was true early in the characterization studies of Yucca Mountain. Transportation was just another matter in the milieu of issues facing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientists and researchers trying to conduct studies while

  16. Development of an integrated strategy for the disposal of solid low level waste at BNFL`s Drigg site

    SciTech Connect

    Higson, S.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1989-11-01

    During the past 12 months, the first phase of a major upgrading of disposal operations at Drigg has been completed. This has involved the introduction of waste containerization and orderly emplacement in open concrete vaults. A further phase over the next few years will involve the introduction of compaction of all suitable waste. While the current upgrade has clearly resulted in a major improvement in the visual impact and management control of the site, the desire to implement such an improvement on a timescale consistent with the short term need for new facilities at Drigg has not allowed sufficient time for a detailed assessment of the full implications of the proposed system. This paper describes the development of the strategy for upgrading the Drigg site, highlights improvements that have been implemented as the project has progressed and outlines major outstanding concerns, particularly in relation to long term site management, that may eventually lead to a requirement for further optimization of the overall strategy. Progress under the Drigg Technical Development Programme is reviewed with specific emphasis on the preliminary results of engineering studies aimed at defining an integrated strategy that will meet the requirements of both acceptable visual impact and long term site stability and safety.

  17. Chemical Disposal Site & Radiation Disposal Site

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    website: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/rds-cds/Pages/defaulthome.aspx. Hydrogeological and Climatological) compared to data collected prior to barrier wall installation. It is unclear whether this increase

  18. The Site Investigation Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste For Sub-Surface Disposal Facility In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    [1.Concept of the sub-surface disposal facility] In Japan, the facilities of Low-Level Radioactive West (LLW) for near-surface disposal have already been in operation. Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has a plan of a new facility of LLW for sub-surface disposal with engineered barrier, for short "the sub-surface disposal facility".This facility can accept the relatively higher low-level waste from unclear power plant operation and in core materials from the decommissioning, estimated about 20 thousands cubic meter in total.In addition, this will accept transuranim (TRU) slightly contaminated waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future. [2.Site investigation] From 2001 to 2006,the site investigation on geology and hydrogeology has been performed in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the sub-surface disposal facility.The candidate area is located at the site of JNFL, where Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture in the northern area of the Mainland of Japan.To confirm geology hydraulic conditions and geo-chemistry, 22 boring survey including 6 holes in swamp and marsh have been performed. The 1km long access tunnel (the entrance level EL 8.0m, incline of 1/10) to the altitude of EL -86m underground, around 100m depth from surface, has excavated. During excavating the tunnel, observation of geology, permeability tests, pore water pressure measurements and so on has been performed in situ.And the large size test cavern of 18m diameters was constructed at the end of the tunnel to demonstrate stability of the tunnel. Prior to the excavation, 3 measuring tunnels were excavated surrounding the test cavern to examine the excavation. [3.Geological features] The sedimentary rock called Takahoko formation at the Neogene period is distributed upper than EL-500m in the candidate area.The quaternary stratum about 10m in thickness is distributed on the plateau and covers Takahoko formation.The stratum which consists of sandstone and tuff can be roughly subdivided into two stratums above EL-100m of the candidate area.The upper stratum is a little sandy, and is called pumice mixed sandstone. The lower stratum is called pumice tuff.Several faults have been observed in it.It is inferred that these faults had moved under unconsolidation condition in the early phase of sedimentation.The faults are considered not to become 'water conducting feature' because the interface of fault adheres completely and there is no fracture according to the observation of the drilling core and tunnel through the fault plane. [4. Groundwater] According to the logarithmic mean of hydraulic conductivity estimated by the injection test method with interval of 5-10m, hydraulic conductivity of pumice mixed sandstone and pumice tuff are 9.9E-8m/s, 1.9E-8m/s respectively.The direction of groundwater flow is to the central swamp or to the marsh which connected to the ocean.It is found that the groundwater flow is enough slow and movement of the nuclides will be limited.Groundwater velocity is around 10cm/y.There is no harmful constituent in the groundwater that affect to engineered barrier significantly.Reduction environment observed around the test cavern. [5. Mechanical stability] Its uniaxial compressive strength is around 4MPa, which is sufficient to excavate tunnels.Displacement of the test cavern of 18m diameters is less than 1cm during tunnel excavation.It is strong enough to excavate large tunnels.

  19. Geophysical methods for fracture characterization in and around potential sites for nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Lee, K.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Morrison, H.F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Historically, geophysical methods have been used extensively to successfully explore the subsurface for petroleum, gas, mineral, and geothermal resources. Their application, however, for site characterization, and monitoring the performance of near surface waste sites or repositories has been somewhat limited. Presented here is an overview of the geophysical methods that could contribute to defining the subsurface heterogeneity and extrapolating point measurements at the surface and in boreholes to volumetric descriptions in a fractured rock. In addition to site characterization a significant application of geophysical methods may be in performance assessment and in monitoring the repository to determine if the performance is as expected.

  20. Distribution of gases in the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is a medium that provides pneumatic communication for the movement of gases from wastes buried in landfills to the atmosphere, biota, and groundwater. Gases in unsaturated glacial and eolian deposits near a waste-disposal trench at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois, were identified, and the spatial and temporal distributions of the partial pressures of those gases were determined for the period January 1984 through January 1986. Methods for the collection and analyses of the gases are described, as are geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the unsaturated zone that affect gas transport. The identified gases, which are of natural and of waste origin, include nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, butane, tritiated water vapor, 14carbon dioxide, and 222 radon. Concentrations of methane and 14carbon dioxide originated at the waste, as shown by partial-pressure gradients of the gases; 14carbon dioxide partial pressures exceeded natural background partial pressures by factors greater than 1 million at some locations. Variations in partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were seasonal among piezometers because of increased root and soil-microbe respiration during summer. Variations in methane and 14carbon dioxide partial pressures were apparently related to discrete releases from waste sources at unpredictable intervals of time. No greater than background partial pressures for tritiated water vapor or 222 radon were measured. (USGS)

  1. Modeling of Elza Gate contaminated material for use as fill material at the United Nuclear Corporation Waste Disposal Site, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weston

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater impact modeling to predict the migration of contaminants of concern from the UNC Waste Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This analysis considers contaminants in the current UNC site waste materials (nitrates and Sr-90) and contaminants in soils from the Elza Gate FUSRAP site (U-238, Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, and PCBs) proposed

  2. Laubieriopsis petersenae n. sp. and L. cf. cabiochi (Amoureux, 1982) (Polychaeta: Fauveliopsidae) from dredge disposal sites off Honolulu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H; Rizzo, Alexandra E

    2014-01-01

    Fauveliopsid polychaetes have been collected at dredge disposal sites off Honolulu from 397-507 m depth. We report and describe the first Pacific record of Laubieriopsis cf. cabiochi (Amoureux, 1982), originally described from the North       Atlantic. A new species, Laubieriopsis petersenae, n. sp. is described as being the species in the genus with the lowest number of body segments (15). Other distinctive features are the presence of bidentate aciculars on thoracic chaetigers, and unpaired genital papilla present on the right side of chaetiger 6/7. The new species is most similar to the L. brevis complex from the Atlantic and L. hartmanae and L. brevis japonica from the Pacific Ocean, but differs on the combination of the characters cited above. We provide an emended diagnosis for this genus to include the ultrastructure of the acicular with rows of spines, and a key to all described species. PMID:25544516

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-05-03

    The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  4. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    D. Wieland, V. Yucel, L. Desotell, G. Shott, J. Wrapp

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators.

  6. On-site disposal of commercial radioactive waste: the ONSITE\\/MAXI1 computer program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Jr. Kennedy; R. A. Peloquin; B. A. Napier; S. M. Neuder

    1985-01-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risk from on-site burial of commercial radioactive wastes, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The current policy of NRC is to review requests by operators to bury radioactive waste on

  7. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  8. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site-FY1999

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1999-10-20

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated liquids derived from Hanford Site facilities. The clean water generated by these processes is occasionally enriched in tritium and is discharged to the 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents is required by the state-issued permit at 21 wells surrounding the facility. During FY 1999, average tritium activities in most wells declined from average activities in 1998. The exception was deep well 69948-77C, where tritium results were at an all-time high (77,000 pCi/L) as a result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer. Of the 12 constituents with permit enforcement limits, which are monitored in SALDS proximal wells, all were within limits during FY 1999. Water level measurements in nearby wells indicate that a small hydraulic mound exists around the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. Evaluation of this condition indicates that the network is currently adequate for tracking potential effects of the SALDS on the groundwater. Recommendations include the discontinuation of ammonia, benzene, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone from the regular groundwater constituent list; designating background well 299-W8-1 as a tritium-tracking well only, and the use of quadruplicate averages of field pH, instead of a single laboratory measurement, as a permit compliance parameter.

  9. Wastewater movement near four treatment and disposal sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the effects on nearby streams and lakes of treated wastewater effluents that percolate from sewage lagoons at four sites in Yellowstone National Park. A network of observation wells has been established near the sites, and water level and water quality data were collected from 1974 through 1982. Groundwater mounds occur under the lagoons as percolation of effluents occurs. The percolating effluents mix with groundwater and form plumes of water that contain chemical constituents from the effluents. These plumes move down the hydraulic gradient toward groundwater discharge areas. The directions of movement of percolating effluents have been determined by analyzing water samples from wells near the lagoons for specific conductance, chloride concentration, and nitrite plus nitrate concentration. Other constituents and properties also were determined. The percolating effluents are diluted by groundwater and have no discernible effects on the quality of water in the nearby streams and lakes. (USGS)

  10. Screening Evaluation of the Ecological Risks to Terrestrial Wildlife Associated with a Coal Ash Disposal Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley E. Sample; Glenn W. Suter II

    2002-01-01

    Between 1955 and 1989, coal ash was deposited within an impounded watershed on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, creating the 3.6?ha Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP). The site has subsequently become vegetated wildlife habitat. To evaluate risks that metals in ash may pose to wildlife; ash, surface water, small mammal, and vegetation samples were collected

  11. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  12. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Carr; J. C. Yount

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear

  13. Heavy metal accumulation by Nicotiana glauca Graham in a solid waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Oz; Sathiyamoorthy, Peramachi; Manandhar, Uttam; Vulkan, Raya; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2004-02-01

    Nicotiana glauca Graham, is the only perennial shrub growing in a solid waste contaminated site in the Negev desert of Israel. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in the upper soil layer was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in non-contaminated desert soil. In root and shoot of N. glauca, growing in the site, the concentration of Cu, Zn and Fe was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in plants of a non-contaminated site. In a controlled experiment, the concentrations of Zn and Cu in root of plants grown, in a mixture of contaminated and non-contaminated soil (1:1) was 9.5 and 4.7 higher than that of plants grown in non-contaminated soil, respectively. While Zn was accumulated in shoot of plants grown in contaminated soil (531 mgkg(-1)) in significantly higher concentration than in plants grown in non-contaminated soil (56 mgkg(-1)), no significant differences were found in Cu accumulation. Growth of N. glauca was inhibited on contaminated soil, but no other obvious stress symptoms were apparent. Therefore, long term experiments under controlled conditions are planned to study the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in N. glauca. PMID:14637344

  14. Results of geophysical surveys of glacial deposits near a former waste-disposal site, Nashua, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Dorgan, Tracy H.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical investigations were done near a former waste-disposal site in Nashua, New Hampshire to determine the thickness and infer hydraulic characteristics of the glacial sediments that underlie the area. Approximately 5 miles of ground- penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in the study area by use of dual-80 Megahertz antennas. Three distinct radar-reflection signatures were evident from the data and are interpreted to represent (1) glacial lake-bottom sediments, (2) coarse sand and gravel and (or) sandy glacial till, and (3) bedrock. The GPR signal penetrated as much as 70 feet of sediment in coarse-grained areas, but penetration depth was generally less than 40 feet in extensive areas of fine-grained deposits. Geologic features were evident in many of the profiles. Glacial-lake-bottom sediments were the most common features identified. Other features include deltas deposited in glacial Lake Nashua and lobate fans of sediment deposited subaqueously at the distal end of deltaic sediments. Cross-bedded sands were often identifiable in the deltaic sediments. Seismic-refraction data were also collected at five of the GPR data sites. In most cases, depths to the water table and to the till and (or) bedrock surface indicated by the seismic-refraction data compared favorably with depths calculated from the GPR data. Test holes were drilled at three locations to determine the true depths to radar reflectors and to determine the types of geologic material represented by the various reflectors.

  15. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  16. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J., (Edited By)

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water budget. Although monthly totals for each method differed, estimated annual evapotranspiration averages ranged from 630 to 693 millimeters or about 70 percent of precipitation. Tritium concentrations in leaf water from on-site plants were determined for 125 vegetation samples collected during the summers of 1982 through 1986. Concentrations varied significantly among some locations and plant types. Tritium concentrations ranged from the detection limit of 0 .2 to 1,330 nanocuries per liter, with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) having the highest concentrations, followed by brome grass (Bromus inermis), and then red clover (Trifoleum pratense); these variations in concentration are most likely a result of root depth. Runoff and sediment transport were measured from July 1982 through December 1985 in four basins--three comprising almost two-thirds of the 8.1-hectare site and one comprising a 1.4-hectare undisturbed area. Volumes and equivalent weights of collapses were estimated from records of site surficial conditions from October 1978 through December 1985. Runoff showed a direct relation to degree of land modification; lowest mean yields were measured at the undisturbed area, and highest mean yields were measured from the basin composed wholly of trench and intertrench areas. Sediment yield measured onsite averaged 3.4 megagrams per hectare. A total of 315 collapse cavities, corresponding to a cumulative volume of about 500 cubic meters, were documented. Most collapses were recorded after periods of rainfall or snowmelt when soil moisture was near maximum. Almost two-thirds of the collapses, corresponding to 63 percent of the cumulative cavity volume, occurred during February through April. Data for the study of water movement through a trench cover were collected from July 1982 through June 1934. Pressure-head data were collected at four different clusters at depths ranging from 50 to 1,850 millimeters within a selected trench cover. Soil-moisture content f

  17. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax\\/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Levitt; Thomas M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax\\/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to

  18. Identification of the deep-seated component in paleo fluidscirculated through a potential nuclear waste disposal site: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. V. Dublyansky; S. Z. Smirnov; S. E. Pashenko

    2003-01-01

    Using a combination of mineralogical, fluid inclusion and stable isotope techniques, chemical data have been obtained thathelp characterize the hydrogeochemistry of paleogroundwaters that circulated through the vadose zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA—a prospective site for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The results depict unidirectional evolution of groundwaters from reducing to oxidizing states concomitantly with an overall cooling from

  19. Application of a site-binding, electrical, double-layer model to nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Silva, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model has been applied to adsorption of Cs for both a montmorillonite clay and powdered SiO/sub 2/. Agreement between experimental and predicted results indicates that C/sub s//sup +/ is adsorbed by a simple cation-exchange mechanism. Further application of a combination equilibrium thermodynamic model and site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model has been made to predict the behavior of U(VI) in solutions contacting either the montmorillonite clay or powdered SiO/sub 2/. Experimentally determined U solution concentrations have been used to select what is felt to be the best available thermodynamic data for U under oxidizing conditions. Given the existing information about the probable U solution species, it was possible to determine that UO/sub 2//sup +2/ is most likely adsorbed by cation-exchange at pH 5. At higher values (pH 7 and 9), it was shown that UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2//sup 0/ is probably the most strongly adsorbed U solution species. It was also found that high NaCl solution concentrations at higher pH values lowered U concentrations (either because of enhanced sorption or lowered solubility); however, the mechanism responsible for this behavior has not been determined.

  20. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future. (authors)

  1. Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action.

  2. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document\\/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Krauss

    2011-01-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose

  4. Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and ?-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

  5. Geohydrology of the upper part of the Galena-Platteville aquifer underlying a waste-disposal site near Wempletown, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Steven M.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    1998-01-01

    The uppermost bedrock of the Galena-Platteville aquifer underlying a waste-disposal site near Wempletown, Illinois, is composed of dolomite of the St. James, Beecher, Eagle Point, and Fairplay Members of the Dunleith Formation of the Galena Group. Chert beds in these formations have a higher porosity than the dolomite. Ground-water flow is from a drum-storage area to the west and northwest toward low points west and northwest of the drum-storage area and the topographic low at the intermittent stream south of the landfill area. The direction of ground-water flow at the landfill area is affected by seasonal changes in precipitation. Calculated horizontal ground-water velocities ranged from 3.5 x 10-2 to 8.8 x 10-2 feet per day; the lowest value was in the vicinity of the landfill area. Horizontal hydraulic-conductivity values calculated from single-well aquifer tests ranged from 1.0 x 10-2 to 1.0 x 100 feet per day with an average of 4.0 x 10-1 feet per day.

  6. Uranium mill tailings remedial action program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH03, Shiprock, NM, July-November 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, K F; Justus, A L; Sholeen, C M; Smith, W H; Wynveen, R A

    1984-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of the vicinity property designated as SH03 was conducted on an intermittent basis from July 26 to November 11, 1982. At the time of the survey, three structures were located on the property - a residential trailer, the main structure, and an old gas pump housing. The lands surrounding the structures were either sparsely covered with arid vegetation or paved. The assessment activities included determination of indoor and outdoor surface radiation levels, for both fixed and removable contamination, through direct instrument and smear (indoor only) surveys; measurement of ambient external penetrating radiation levels at 1-meter heights; and analyses of air, soil, and other material samples. No evidence of radioactive contamination was found inside the trailer. However, the results of the radiological assessment did indicate the occurrence of elevated levels of gamma, surface alpha, and radon daughter radioactivity within the main structure. The short-term radon daughter measurements exceeded the limit of 0.02 Working Level for average annual concentration including background. The assessment also indicated elevated levels of radioactivity in the outdoor environs, encompassing about 32,000 ft/sup 2/ of the grounds adjacent to and surrounding the main structure on the east, south, and west sides. The contamination appeared to be due to the presence of unprocessed uranium ore. Analysis of surface soil samples collected from the environs indicated radium concentrations in excess of the limit of 5 pCi/g above background specified in the EPA Standard. Subsurface soil sampling was not conducted, and thus the vertical extent of the radiological contamination is not known. Since the surface soil contamination levels exceeded the limits specified in the EPA Standard, remedial action for this vicinity site should be considered.

  7. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and strategies to reduce uranium concentration in the leachate.

  8. Estimation of ground-water recharge from precipitation, runoff into drywells, and on-site waste-disposal systems in the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Morgan, D.S.; McGrath, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    The average recharge rate in the Portland Basin, in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington, is estimated to be about 22.0 inches per year. Of that amount, precipitation accounts for about 20.8 inches per year, runoff into drywells 0.9 inches per year, and on-site waste disposal about 0.4 inches per year. Recharge is highest, about 49 inches per year, in the Cascade Range. Recharge is lowest, near zero, along and between the Columbia and Willamette Rivers. Recharge is higher locally in discrete areas owing to recharge from runoff into drywells and on-site, waste-disposal systems in urbanized parts of the study area. In these urbanized areas, recharge ranges from 0 to 49 inches per year.

  9. H-Coal Pilot Plant: surface- and ground-water monitoring program for H-Coal solid-waste storage and disposal site, E and H-11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray

    1982-01-01

    Operation of the H-Coal Pilot Plant causes solid wastes and process by-products to be produced. This report discusses the impact of two materials, filter cake and flaked residuum, on a disposal site. The filter cake is the dewatered biological solids from the wastewater treatment plant and the flaked residuum is a process by-product from the vacuum tower bottoms. The H-Coal

  10. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in children working at a waste-disposal site and in young females with high fish consumption in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Steven N; Linderholm, Linda; Athanasiadou, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess persistent organochlorine pollutant (POP) levels in serum collected from children (11-15 years old) working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste-disposal site in Managua, located at the shore of Lake Managua, and in nonworking children living both nearby and also far away from the waste-disposal site. The influence of fish consumption was further evaluated by assessing POPs levels in serum from young women (15-24 years old) with markedly different patterns of fish consumption from Lake Managua. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloro-ethane (4,4'-DDT) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethene (4,4'-DDE), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorobiphenylols were quantified in all samples. In general, the levels observed were higher than those reported in children from developed countries, such as Germany and United States. Toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, and beta-HCH could not be identified in any sample. The children working at the waste-disposal site had higher levels of POPs compared with the nonworking reference groups. In children not working, there were also gradients for several POPs, according to vicinity to the waste-disposal site. Moreover, in children, as well as in young women, there were gradients according to fish consumption. The most abundant component was 4,4'-DDE, but at levels still lower than those reported in children from malarious areas with a history of recent or current application of 4,4'-DDT for vector control. PMID:16846198

  11. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 7, October--December 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Colombo; A. J. Weiss; A. J. Francis

    1978-01-01

    Trench water samples from the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, were collected, and the bacterial populations were enumerated. The range of bacterial populations in six trench water samples were 400 to 24,000 aerobic and 90 to 15,000 anaerobic bacteria\\/ml. Most of the bacteria isolated from the anaerobic culture plates were

  12. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-09-26

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated liquids derived from Hanford Site facilities. The clean water generated by these processes is occasionally enriched in tritium, and is discharged to the 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents is required by the state-issued permit at 22 wells surrounding the facility. Water level measurements in nearby wells indicate that a small hydraulic mound exists around the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. Evaluation of this condition indicates that the networks currently adequate for tracking potential effects of the SALDS on the groundwater. During FY 2000, average tritium activities inmost wells declined from average activities in 1999. The exceptions are deep well 699-48-77C, where tritium results reached a maximum value of 710,000 pCi/L as a result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer, and in well 299-W7-3, along the northern boundary of the 200 West Area, which has apparently been affected for the first time by the SALDS tritium plume, with a tritium activity of 1,400 pCi/L measured in August 2000. Of the 12 constituents with permit enforcement limits, which are monitored in SALDS proximal wells, all were within groundwater limitations during FY 2000. The arrival of tritium at well 299-W7-3 demonstrates excellent agreement with the current numerical groundwater model, by virtue of both arrival time and predicted tritium concentration. Analyses for conductivity, total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, sulfate, dissolved calcium, and dissolved sodium indicate that well 699-48-77A and, to a lesser extent, well 699-48-77D show the effects of dilute effluent entering groundwater, resulting in a depression of concentrations of these constituents below natural background levels. Recommendations for future monitoring include temporarily increasing the frequency of tritium sampling at wells 299-W7-3, 299-W7-5, 299-W7-6, and 299-W7-7 to quarterly. This measure will assist in a more accurate determination of the southern bounds of the SALDS-generated tritium plume, provide estimates of travel time for model comparisons, and help preserve the distinction between this plume and the older 200 West tritium plume further east. Because of the accurate numerical model predictions thus far, reapplication of the model will occur only after a recognizable departure from model predictions is observed through the increased frequency in well monitoring.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process knowledge. Recirculation processes within the mud pits enhance volatilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thereby reducing the potential concentrations of any VOCs that may be present. A secondary source of contaminants from random truck dumping activities and leaking vehicle discharge may have released fuels, grease, motor oil, and hydraulic fluids into the mud pit effluent stream. Radionuclide contamination is not expected at these CASs based on historical information. The primary radioisotopes that could be expected, if present, are cesium-137, tritium, and strontium-90. The SAFER process ends with closure of the site based on the laboratory analytical results of the environmental samples. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 356 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval.

  14. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...dust to control surface air emissions may be used instead...Procedures to be used to control emissions during the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...may require changes in the emission control procedures to...

  15. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dust to control surface air emissions may be used instead...Procedures to be used to control emissions during the excavation, storage, transport, and ultimate disposal...may require changes in the emission control procedures to...

  16. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence that site conditions, while not known exactly, fall within an acceptable range.

  17. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the closure cover provide soil water content data, whereas sensors installed in the lysimeters provide soil water content, soil water potential, soil temperature, and drainage data for a detailed evaluation of the cover performance. Revegetation establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration and reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  18. Geologic, hydrologic, and cultural factors in the selection of sites for the land disposal of wastes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Alvord, R.C.; Olson, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a program to deal with the problems of waste disposal in Washington, the Department of Ecology (WDOE), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, completed a study designed to provide the geologic, hydrologic, and cultural data needed to evaluate the suitability of State land areas for the disposal of wastes. Data portraying the distribution of factors that could affect the suitability of areas in Washington for waste disposal were presented in a series of 18 maps (overlays). The factors selected include major geologic units; natural hazards from earthquakes, faulting, and volcanoes; climate; locations of major surface-water and groundwater bodies; population density; and land and water uses. Within each factor (map) the data were grouped into class intervals and the intervals for most factors ranked according to their relative suitability/unsuitability for land disposal of wastes following criteria supplied by WDOE. Areas of the State considered completely unsuitable (as determined by WDOE personnel) for waste disposal because of current or proposed land uses were excluded from ranking. (USGS)

  19. Geophysical and chemical investigations of ground water at five industrial or waste-disposal sites in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1983-87

    SciTech Connect

    Kzonski, J.; Lacombe, P.J.; Hochreiter, J.J.; Lewis, J.C. (Geological Survey, West Trenton, NJ (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Five former or active industrial or waste disposal sites in Logan Township were identified by the Federal government and by the State of New Jersey as potential threats to the quality of groundwater there. The sites are: (1) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. waste disposal site; (2) Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc.; (3) Chemical Leaman Tank Lines, Inc.; (4) Monsanto Company; and (5) Rollins Environmental Services, Inc. Quality of groundwater was determined by chemical analysis of samples from wells at four of the five sites and elsewhere in the township. Groundwater in the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-magothy aquifer system in Logan Township and surrounding areas is dominated by sodium and chloride ions and is slightly saline. Calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the upper and middle aquifers; the concentration of dissolved solids is low. Concentrations of iron and manganese in the groundwater range from 6 to 73,000 microgm/L, and from 33 to 1,100 microgm/L. Concentrations of organic carbon range from 0.60 to 4.2 mg/L. Areas of high apparent conductivity were detected east of the waste oil lagoon at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc. site. Inorganic groundwater contamination at the site is characterized by concentrations of cadmium and lead that exceed Federal and State primary drinking water regulations. Groundwater at the Chemical Leaman site also is characterized by elevated concentrations of organic nitrogen, and concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Hg that exceed Federal primary drinking water regulations. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 339 to 3,530 mg/L at the Monsanto Site and typically are much higher than background levels, but the cause is unclear. 86 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  1. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Colombo; M. W. Kendig

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office

  3. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...water quality is expected to be temporary turbidity caused by the physical movement of sediment...column less rapidly. No increase in turbidity is expected to be measurable at the...disposal of dredged material will affect turbidity and sedimentation levels and...

  4. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 60 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP. Soil moisture will be monitored within the cover for a period of at least two years prior to establishing performance criteria for NDEP regulatory purposes.

  5. Effect of On-Site Wastewater Disposal on Quality of Ground Water and Base Flow - A Pilot Study in Chester County, Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    On-site wastewater disposal has the potential to introduce contaminants into ground water and subsequently, by ground-water discharge, to streams. A pilot study was conducted during 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department and the Chester County Water Resources Authority to determine if wastewater components, including inorganic constituents and selected organic wastewater compounds, such as detergents, considered to be emerging contaminants, were present in ground water and stream base flow in areas with on-site wastewater disposal. The study area was a small watershed (about 7.1 square miles) of mixed land use drained by Broad Run in central Chester County, Pa. The area is underlain by fractured metamorphic rocks that form aquifers recharged by precipitation. Surface- and ground-water sampling was done in areas with and without on-site wastewater disposal for comparison, including a relatively densely populated village with cesspools and septic systems, a residential area with septic systems, a residential area served by sewers, and agricultural land. Samples were collected in May-June and September 2005 from eight headwater stream sites under base-flow conditions and in June 2005 from eight wells and two springs. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, boron, bacteria, and a suite of organic wastewater compounds. Several emerging contaminant wastewater compounds, including detergent components, insect repellents, and flame retardants, were detected in base-flow and ground-water samples. Stream base-flow samples generally contained more compounds and higher concentrations of those compounds than did ground-water samples, and of the ground-water samples, samples from springs contained more compounds and higher concentrations than samples from wells. Concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and boron (inorganic constituents associated with wastewater) generally were all elevated in base-flow and ground-water samples in areas with relatively high densities of on-site wastewater disposal (septic systems or cesspools) compared to other areas sampled. Results of this pilot study should be considered preliminary because of limited data.

  6. A method for the processing and analysis of digital terrain elevation data. [Shiprock and Gallup Quadrangles, Arizona and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkin, B. G. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for the processing and analysis of digital topography data that can subsequently be entered in an interactive data base in the form of slope, slope length, elevation, and aspect angle. A discussion of the data source and specific descriptions of the data processing software programs are included. In addition, the mathematical considerations involved in the registration of raw digitized coordinate points to the UTM coordinate system are presented. Scale factor considerations are also included. Results of the processing and analysis are illustrated using the Shiprock and Gallup Quadrangle test data.

  7. Regulatory Requirements and Technical Analysis for Department of Energy Regulated Performance Assessments of Shallow-Trench Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Yucel, V.; Rawlinson, S.; Colarusso, A.; DiSanza, F.

    2001-12-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) operates and maintains two active facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that dispose Department of Energy (DOE) defense-generated low-level radioactive (LLW), mixed radioactive, and classified waste in shallow trenches, pits and large-diameter boreholes. The operation and maintenance of the LLW disposal sites are self-regulated under DOE Order 435.1, which requires review of a Performance Assessment for four performance objectives: 1) all pathways 25 mrem/yr limit; 2) atmospheric pathways 10 mrem/yr limit; 3) radon flux density of 20 pCi/m2/s; and 4) groundwater resource protection (Safe Drinking Water Act; 4 mrem/yr limit). The inadvertent human intruder is protected under a dual 500- and 100-mrem limit (acute and chronic exposure). In response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 92 2, a composite analysis is required that must examine all interacting sources for compliance against both 30 and 100 mrem/yr limits. A small component of classified transuranic waste is buried at intermediate depths in 3-meter diameter boreholes at the Area 5 LLW disposal facility and is assessed through DOE-agreement against the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 40 CFR 191. The hazardous components of mixed LLW are assessed against RCRA requirements. The NTS LLW sites fall directly under three sets of federal regulations and the regulatory differences result not only in organizational challenges, but also in different decision objectives and technical paths to completion. The DOE regulations require deterministic analysis for a 1,000-year compliance assessment supplemented by probabilistic analysis under a long-term maintenance program. The EPA regulations for TRU waste are probabilistically based for a compliance interval of 10,000 years. Multiple steps in the assessments are strongly dependent on assumptions for long-term land use policies. Integrating the different requirements into coherent and consistent sets of conceptual models of the disposal setting, alternative scenarios, and system models of fate, transport and dose-based assessments is technically challenging. Environmental assessments for these sites must be broad-based and flexible to accommodate the multiple objectives.

  8. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  9. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  10. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ?4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. PMID:23792820

  11. Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

    2001-09-01

    Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

  12. Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on- site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rain water or snowmelt changed to an ionic canposition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The methods of constructing, installing, and sampling with lysimeters were evaluated to ensure data reliability. These evaluations indicate that, with respect to most constituents, the samples retrieved from the lysimeters accurately represented pore-water chemistry.

  13. Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Ill. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal, naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on-site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rainwater or snowmelt changed to an ionic composition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The methods of constructing, installing, and sampling with lysimeters were evaluated to ensure data reliability. These evaluations indicate that, with respect to most constituents, the samples retrieved from the lysimeters accurately represented pore-water chemistry.

  14. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Kupferman; D. R. Anderson; L. H. Brush; L. S. Gomez; J. C. Laul; L. E. Shephard

    1982-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual

  16. Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J Q; Ward, J A; Woodruff, D L

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Installation and sampling of observation wells and analyses of water from the shallow aquifer at selected waste-disposal sites in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Graham, D.D.; Lowery, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Observation wells were installed and sampled at six abandoned waste-disposal sites in the Memphis area that have been identified as having received unknown quantities and types of industrial waste. Ten wells were installed adjacent to and downgradient from these sites in the shallow water-table aquifer. Water samples were collected from these 10 wells and from two other wells in the shallow water-table aquifer. Most wells were sampled twice -- initially in the early summer when water levels were high and again in the fall when water levels were low. Other wells were sampled only once in either the summer or fall. The water was analyzed for common constituents, selected trace constituents, and selected organic compounds. (USGS)

  18. Disposal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A number of disposal options for space nuclear reactors and the associated risks, mostly in the long term, based on probabilities of Earth reentry are discussed. The results are based on a five year study that was conducted between 1978 and 1983 on the space disposal of high level nuclear waste. The study provided assessment of disposal options, stability of disposal or storage orbits, and assessment of the long term risks of Earth reentry of the nuclear waste.

  19. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide practical guidelines for its precise construction and safe operation. This work was supported by the Radioactive Waste Management Program funded by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea.

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of compliance with all performance objectives. Tier II results indicate that the long-term performance of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is protective of human health and the environment. The Area 5 RWMS is located in one of the least populated and most arid regions of the U.S. Site characterization data indicate that infiltration of precipitation below the plant root zone at 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) ceased 10,000 to 15,000 y ago. The site is not expected to have a groundwater pathway as long as the current arid climate persists. The national security mission of the NNSS and the location of the Area 5 RWMS within the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit require that access controls and land use restrictions be maintained indefinitely. PA modeling results for 10,000 to 60,000 y also indicate that the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is acceptable for near-surface disposal. The mean resident air pathway annual total effective dose (TED), the resident all-pathways annual TED, and the acute drilling TED are less than their performance objectives for 10,000 y after closure. The mean radon-222 (222Rn) flux density exceeds the performance objective at 4,200 y, but this is due to waste already disposed at the Area 5 RWMS and is only slightly affected by disposal of the CEUSP 233U. The peak resident all-pathways annual TED from CEUSP key radionuclides occurs at 48,000 y and is less than the 0.25 millisievert performance objective. Disposal of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream in a typical SLB trench slightly increases PA results. Increasing the depth was found to eliminate any impacts of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream. Containers could not be shown to have any significant impact on performance due to the long half-life of the waste stream and a lack of data for pitting corrosion rates of stainless steel in soil. The results of the SA indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream in the SLB units at the Area 5 RWMS. The long-term performance of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream disposed in the near surface is protective of human health

  1. Structural constraints for proposed Fort Hancock low-level radioactive waste disposal site (NTP-S34), southern Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lemone, D.V.

    1989-03-01

    Structural complexities reduce the homogeneity necessary for a site characterization model to an unacceptable level for performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal sites. The proposed site lies between the northern, stable Diablo platform and the southern, mobile Mesozoic Chihuahua tectonic belt. Structural movement along this interface has been active for the past 14,000 years. In addition, the area lies along the northern margin of the Permian Marfa basin and the northeastern margin of the deeply faulted Hueco bolson segment of the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift system. Recent seismic activity with extensive surface rupture in Quitman Canyon (30 mi southeast of the site) is also documented from the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake (6.4 Richter scale). The site is underlain by either a thrust fault or the complex terminus of a Mesozoic thrust fault. This fault is a segment of the continuous thrust sheet extending from exposures in the Sierra Blanc area, 30 mi east (Devil Ridge fault), to the El Paso area west (Rio Grande fault). This segment of the Devil Ridge-Rio Grande thrust is documented by the Haymond Krupp No. 1 Thaxton wildcat drilled at Campogrande Mountain immediately south of the site. The recent rift fault scarp (Campo Grande) immediately south of the Thaxton well has a 17-mi surface trace and is, no doubt, related to the subsurface Clint fault to the west in the El Paso area. An additional complexity is the presence of a monoclinal flexure with a minimum of 900 ft of surface relief (2 mi northeast of NTP-S34). A 4.5-mi, east-west, down-to-the-south normal fault occurs near the top of the monocline with a small associated graben. These complexities seriously compromise the proposed Fort Hancock site.

  2. UV-VIS luminescence for detection monitoring at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste disposal sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Eastwood; R. L. Lidberg; G. Gibson; W. H. Engelmann

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), is screening hazardous waste sites for contaminants in water and soil. Portable or field-deployable spectroscopic instruments are needed for rapid screening of RCRA sites. The authors are carrying out spectroscopic research on the fluorescence and phosphorescence of PAHs, PCBs and uranium.

  3. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...across the Yaquina Bay bar during high swell conditions and asked whether any special...from causing or contributing to adverse swell conditions. A primary goal of site management...that could create or contribute to adverse swell conditions across the sites....

  4. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-19-01, Waste Dump • 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area • 03-19-02, Debris Pile • 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile • 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump • 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site • 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches • 25-08-02, Waste Dump • 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump • 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Perform exploratory excavations. • Perform field screening. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine the nature and extent of any contamination released by each CAS. • Collect samples of source material to determine the potential for a release. • Collect samples of potential remediation wastes. • Collect quality control samples.

  6. Modeling of radionuclide and heavy metal sorption around low and high pH waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Classification review package

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept of Geology; Toran, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Modeling of mineral precipitation and metal sorption reactions using MINTEQA2 and the iron oxyhydroxide diffuse-layer model has provided insights into geochemical processes governing contaminant migration from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Both acidic and basic nuclear-fuel reprocessing wastes, locally mixed with decontamination solvents, were disposed of in unlined trenches and lagoons. Model results show that as wastes move toward neutral pH due to reactions with surrounding soils and saprolite, mineral precipitation and sorption can limit the solubility of heavy metals and radionuclides. However, observed contaminant levels in monitoring wells indicate that at least locally, wastes are moving in faults and fractures and are not retarded by sorption reactions along such flow paths. Model results also support previous studies that have indicated organic complexing agents used in decontamination procedures can enhance radionuclide and heavy metal solubility when mixed with nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. However, complex interactions between metal-organic complexes and mineral surfaces and natural organic matter, biodegradation, and fracture flow complicate the interpretation of contaminant mobility.

  7. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  8. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound Site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report of predisposal studies. Chapter 4. Appendix 7

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, Jr, Roy W.; Randall, Robert E. [eds.] [eds.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes nekton communities off Freeport, Texas prior to brine disposal based on trawl studies in the period October 1977 to February 1980. Trawling was conducted aboard chartered commercial shrimp trawlers along a transect in depths of 3 to 25 fathoms to describe the general background of nekton communities off Freeport. An array of stations were occupied at the diffuser site in 12 fathoms of water to describe in detail nekton communities near the diffuser. Collections at each station, in general, were made once a month during the day and once a month at night, cruises being about two weeks apart in time. Projected diffuser locations, stations occupied, etc., changed during the course of the project, and the Materials and Methods (Section 4.2) should be consulted for details.

  9. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Czyscinski, K S; Pietrzak, R F; Weiss, A J

    1981-11-01

    Results are reported for radionuclide sorption experiments performed under anaerobic conditions and as a function of solution/solid ratio for trench shale and waters collected at the Maxey Flats disposal site in Kentucky. The observed degree of sorption (equilibrium K/sub d/) varied unpredictably as a function of solution to solid ratio. Measurements of pH and Eh were performed before and after the determinations to determine if redox conditions were altered significantly during the experiments. The experimental procedure appears capable of maintaining anaerobic conditions during most of the determinations. Changes in solution/solid ratio appear to affect the observed equilibrium sorption more than any variations in redox state during the determinations. However, our final evaluation of the proposed test procedure for measuring sorption of radionuclides from anoxic groundwater is that the test is not completely reliable. Since further improvements in the experimental procedure are not planned, this type of batch sorption test for anoxic waters will be terminated. Organo-radionuclide complex stability experiments in controlled environment chambers were completed. The results indicate that the temporal stability of chelated radionuclides in low redox geochemical environments are not easily predicted from comparisons of appropriate association constants and solubility products. Empirical information is required to reliably predict the behavior of chelated radionuclides under field conditions. Controlled oxidation experiments using disposal site trench waters were initiated. Preliminary results suggest that high contents of dissolved ferrous iron in trench waters can act as redox buffers to preserve low redox conditions during subsurface migration. Data on coprecipitation of radionuclides on ferric oxyhydroxide will be reported when analyses are completed.

  10. A hybrid modeling approach to evaluate the groundwater flow system at the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal site in Gyeong-Ju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Lim, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Chunsoo; Kim, Kyung Su; Dershowitz, William

    2012-11-01

    The development and implementation of a hybrid discrete fracture network/equivalent porous medium (DFN/EPM) approach to groundwater flow at the Gyeong-Ju low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal site in the Republic of Korea is reported. The geometrical and hydrogeological properties of fractured zones, background fractures and rock matrix were derived from site characterization data and implemented as a DFN. Several DFN realizations, including the deterministic fractured zones and the stochastic background fractures, whose statistical properties were verified by comparison with in-situ fracture and hydraulic test data, were suggested, and they were then upscaled to continuums using a fracture tensor approach for site-scale flow simulations. The upscaled models were evaluated by comparison to in-situ pressure monitoring data, and then used to simulate post-closure hydrogeology for the LILW facility. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of careful characterization and implementation of fractured zones. The study highlighted the importance of reducing uncertainty regarding the properties and variability of natural background fractures, particularly in the immediate vicinity of repository emplacement.

  11. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  12. 40 CFR 230.80 - Advanced identification of disposal areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Advanced identification of disposal areas. 230.80 Section 230.80...1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL ...230.80 Advanced identification of disposal areas. (a) Consistent...

  13. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. DeRouen; R. W. Hann; D. M. Casserly; C. Giammona; V. J. Lascara

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are

  14. Geology of the Syncline Ridge area related to nuclear waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hoover; J. N. Morrison

    1980-01-01

    The Syncline Ridge area is in the western part of Yucca Flat, Nye Co., Nev. Drill holes, geophysical surveys, mapping, and laboratory studies during 1976 through 1978 were used to investigate argillite in unit J (Mississippian) of the Eleana Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) as a possible nuclear waste repository site. Argillite in unit J has a minimum stratigraphic thickness of

  15. Assessment report on the effects of waste dumping in 106-mile ocean waste disposal site: dumpsite evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Individual investigations carried out under NOAA funding by various Federal and university scientists are summarized. Field and laboratory studies of the heavy and transition metals in the major wastes dumped at 106-Mile Site are emphasized. Field and laboratory studies of the effects of the wastes on bacteria, plankton, fish eggs, and fish are considered.

  16. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  17. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  18. A criticism of applications with multi-criteria decision analysis that are used for the site selection for the disposal of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Korucu, M., E-mail: kemal.korucu@kocaeli.edu.tr [University of Kocaeli, Department of Environmental Engineering, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Erdagi, Bora [University of Kocaeli, Department of Philosophy, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existing structure of the multi-criteria decision analysis for site selection is criticized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental problematic points based on the critics are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some modifications are suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new structure for the decision making mechanism is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The feasibility of the new method is subjected to an evaluation process. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to criticize the process of selecting the most appropriate site for the disposal of municipal solid wastes which is one of the problematic issues of waste management operations. These kinds of problems are pathological symptoms of existing problematical human-nature relationship which is related to the syndrome called ecological crisis. In this regard, solving the site selection problem, which is just a small part of a larger entity, for the good of ecological rationality and social justice is only possible by founding a new and extensive type of human-nature relationship. In this study, as a problematic point regarding the discussions on ecological problems, the existing structure of the applications using multi-criteria decision analysis in the process of site selection with three main criteria is criticized. Based on this critique, fundamental problematic points (to which applications are insufficient to find solutions) will be defined. Later, some modifications will be suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Finally, the criticism addressed to the structure of the method with three main criteria and the feasibility of the new method with four main criteria is subjected to an evaluation process. As a result, it is emphasized that the new structure with four main criteria may be effective in solution of the fundamental problematic points.

  19. Off-site source recovery project case study: disposal of high activity cobalt 60 sources at the Nevada test site 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cocina, Frank G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hageman, John P [SWRI

    2009-01-01

    The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.

  20. Implementation of the MARSSIM philosophy to evaluate the remedial status of a radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual.

    PubMed

    Schilk, A; Kirkpatrick, J; Dunker, R; Gesell, T

    2000-06-01

    Implementation of the MARSSIM remedial-verification protocol at a radioactive waste disposal site is described in some detail to provide a record of the utility of this process. The selected site was the Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 burial ground at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Evaluation was restricted to 137Cs in the uppermost 10 cm of potentially contaminated soils. According to the MARSSIM, this site warranted a "Class 1" designation based on previous remedial activities within the burial ground, its status as a radioactive disposal facility, and the anticipated presence of discrete radioactive particles. Nine survey units within the confines of the burial ground were selected, based primarily on the presence of physical boundaries and disparate histories. Surface scans with 100% coverage were performed using a hand-held plastic scintillator and rate meter with audible output. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry was not used for the individual stationary measurements due to the limited area and proximity of engineered barriers. Instead, individual soil samples were obtained using a standard hand-held coring device. The number of soil samples taken from the background reference area and each survey unit were determined with the MARSSIM protocol, which resulted in a total of 160 (including quality-control samples). Two of the nine regions exhibited elevated radiation levels and the null hypothesis could not be rejected in one survey unit, thereby indicating the need for additional remediation. The MARSSIM process proved to be flexible, scientifically rigorous, and cost effective in this field application. Several modifications to the procedure are discussed and offered as recommendations for enhancement of the MARSSIM. PMID:10832934

  1. Unraveling 1.5 Ga of brittle deformation history in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, southeast Sweden: A contribution to the Swedish site investigation study for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Viola; G. Venvik Ganerød; C.-H. Wahlgren

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site investigation at two locations in Sweden, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, with the aim of identifying a suitable area for the construction of a deep repository for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Fault slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleostress states and

  2. Safe Medicine Disposal Locations

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Safe Medicine Disposal Locations Central Drug Store 4494 Mission St. SF, CA 94112 Charlie drop-off sites accept these non-controlled substances: prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, liquid medicines, empty inhaler cartridges, pet medicines and medicated ointments. #12

  3. Water and tritium movement through the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1981-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Healy, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The movement of water and tritium through the unsaturated zone was studied at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois, from 1981 to 1985. Water and tritium movement occurred in an annual, seasonally timed cycle; recharge to the saturated zone generally occurred in the spring and early summer. Mean annual precipitation (1982-85) was 871 millimeters; mean annual recharge to the disposal trenches (July 1982 through June 1984) was estimated to be 107 millimeters. Average annual tritium flux below the study trenches was estimated to be 3.4 millicuries per year. Site geology, climate, and waste-disposal practices influenced the spatial and temporal variability of water and tritium movement. Of the components of the water budget, evapotranspiration contributed most to the temporal variability of water and tritium movement. Disposal trenches are constructed in complexly layered glacial and postglacial deposits that average 17 meters in thickness and overlie a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian shale. The horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity of the clayey-silt to sand-sized glacial and postglacial deposits ranges from 4.8x10^-1 to 3.4x10^4 millimeters per day. A 120-meter-long horizontal tunnel provided access for hydrologic measurements and collection of sediment and water samples from the unsaturated and saturated geologic deposits below four disposal trenches. Trench-cover and subtrench deposits were monitored with soil-moisture tensiometers, vacuum and gravity lysimeters, piezometers, and a nuclear soil-moisture gage. A cross-sectional, numerical ground-water-flow model was used to simulate water movement in the variably saturated geologic deposits in the tunnel area. Concurrent studies at the site provided water-budget data for estimating recharge to the disposal trenches. Vertical water movement directly above the trenches was impeded by a zone of compaction within the clayey-silt trench covers. Water entered the trenches primarily at the trench edges where the compacted zone was absent and the cover was relatively thin. Collapse holes in the trench covers that resulted from inadequate compaction of wastes within the trenches provided additional preferential pathways for surface-water drainage into the trenches; drainage into one collapse hole during a rainstorm was estimated to be 1,700 liters. Till deposits near trench bases induced lateral water and tritium movement. Limited temporal variation in water movement and small flow gradients (relative to the till deposits) were detected in the unsaturated subtrench sand deposit; maximum gradients during the spring recharge period averaged 1.62 millimeters per millimeter. Time-of-travel of water moving from the trench covers to below the trenches was estimated to be as rapid as 41 days (assuming individual water molecules move this distance in one recharge cycle). Tritium concentrations in water from the unsaturated zone ranged from 200 (background) to 10,000,000 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). Tritium concentrations generally were higher below trench bases (averaging 91,000 pCi/L) than below intertrench sediments (averaging 3,300 pCi/L), and in the subtrench Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation (sand) (averaging 110,000 pCi/L) than in the Hulick Till Member of the Glasford Formation (clayey silt) (averaging 59,000 pCi/L). Average subtrench tritium concentration increased from 28,000 to 100,000 pCi/L during the study period. Within the trench covers, there was a strong seasonal trend in tritium concentrations; the highest concentrations occurred in late summer when soil-moisture contents were at a minimum. Subtrench tritium movement occurred in association with the annual cycle of water movement, as well as independently of the cycle, in apparent response to continuous water movement through the subtrench sand deposits and to the deterioration of trench-waste containers. The increase in concentrations of tritium with incre

  4. Water and tritium movement through the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1981-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Healy, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The movement of water and tritium through the unsaturated zone was studied at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois, from 1981 to 1985. Water and tritium movement occurred in an annual, seasonally timed cycle; recharge to the saturated zone generally occurred in the spring and early summer. Mean annual precipitation (1982-85) was 871 mm (millimeters); mean annual recharge to the disposal trenches (July 1982 through June 1984) was estimated to be 107 mm. Average annual tritium flux below the study trenches was estimated to be 3.4 mCi/yr (millicuries per year). Site geology, climate, and waste-disposal practices influenced the spatial and temporal variability of water and tritium movement. Of the components of the water budget, evapotranspiration contributed most to the temporal variability of water and tritium movement. Disposal trenches are constructed in complexly layered glacial and postglacial deposits that average 17 m (meters) in thickness and overlie a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian shale. The horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity of the clayey-silt to sand-sized glacial and postglacial deposits ranges from 4.8x10 -1 to 3.4x10 4 mm/d (millimeters per day). A 120-m-long horizontal tunnel provided access for hydrologic measurements and collection of sediment and water samples from the unsaturated and saturated geologic deposits below four disposal trenches. Trench-cover and subtrench deposits were monitored with soil-moisture tensiometers, vacuum and gravity lysimeters, piezometers, and a nuclear soil-moisture gage. A cross-sectional, numerical ground-water-flow model was used to simulate water movement in the variably saturated geologic deposits in the tunnel area. Concurrent studies at the site provided water-budget data for estimating recharge to the disposal trenches. Vertical water movement directly above the trenches was impeded by a zone of compaction within the clayey-silt trench covers. Water entered the trenches primarily at the trench edges where the compacted zone was absent and the cover was relatively thin. Collapse holes in the trench covers that resulted from inadequate compaction of wastes within the trenches provided additional preferential pathways for surface-water drainage into the trenches; drainage into one collapse hole during a rainstorm was estimated to be 1,700 L (liters). Till deposits near trench bases induced lateral water and tritium movement. Limited temporal variation in water movement and small flow gradients (relative to the till deposits) were detected in the unsaturated subtrench sand deposit; maximum gradients during the spring recharge period averaged 1.62 mm/mm (millimeter per millimeter). Time-of-travel of water moving from the trench covers to below the trenches was estimated to be as rapid as 41 days (assuming individual water molecules move this distance in one recharge cycle). Tritium concentrations in water from the unsaturated zone ranged from 200 (background) to 10,000,000 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). Tritium concentrations generally were higher below trench bases (averaging 91,000 pCi/L) than below intertrench sediments (averaging 3,300 pCi/L), and in the subtrench Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation (sand) (averaging 110,000 pCi/L) than in the Hulick Till Member of the Glasford Formation (clayey silt) (averaging 59,000 pCi/L). Average subtrench tritium concentration increased from 28,000 to 100,000 pCi/L during the study period. Within the trench covers, there was a strong seasonal trend in tritium concentrations; the highest concentrations occurred in late summer when soil-moisture contents were at a minimum. Subtrench tritium movement occurred in association with the annual cycle of water movement, as well as independently of the cycle, in apparent response to continuous water movement through the subtrench sand deposits and to the deterioration of trench-waste containers. The increase in concen

  5. Savannah River Site's macro encapsulation processing of Less Than 3700 BQ\\/GM1 tru isotopic mixed waste for disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Siry; L. T. Reid

    2007-01-01

    During the Fiscal Year of 2006 (FY2006) the Savannah River Site (SRS) made a commitment with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to remove 1000 cubic meters of Transuranic (TRU) waste from its TRU inventory. As SRS has been generating TRU waste for many years, there was a multi-thousand drum inventory of waste designated as TRU

  6. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Operable Unit: ARWWP Project Address: Fluor Fernald, Inc. ,Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald,Fluor Fernald email andersot@ctc.com dle@inel.gov Carol.eddy-dilek@srs.gov TCHazen@lbl.gov crichmond@enviroissues.com msiegel@sandia.gov cwend@pnl.gov wolery@llnl.gov William.hertel@fernald.gov Rob.kniep@fernald.gov Kathi.Nickel@fernald.gov Marty.prochaska@fernald.gov Phone Technical Assistance Team Site Project

  7. Geology, hydrology, and results of tracer testing in the Galena-Platteville aquifer at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Prinos, Scott T.; Morrow, William S.; Vendl, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of the geohydrology of the dolomite bedrock at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois. The study was designed to identify and characterize the flow pathways through the bedrock aquifer beneath the site. The geologic units of concern at the site are the Glenwood Formation of the Ancell Group, and the Platteville and Galena Groups. These deposits compose the Galena-Platteville aquifer and the underlying Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit. The Galena-Platteville aquifer is an unconfined aquifer. Geophysical logging, water levels, and aquifer-test data indicate the presence of interconnected, hydraulically active fractures in the middle of the Galena-Platteville aquifer (the upper flow pathway), and a second set of hydraulically active fractures (the lower flow pathway). The lower flow pathway may be present through much of the site. Few hydraulically active fractures are present in the upper part of the aquifer near the center of the site, but appear to be more numerous in the upper part of the aquifer in the western and northeastern parts of the site. Water-level data obtained during the tracer test indicate that pumping effects were present near the pumped wells. Pumping effects may have been present at several wells located along directions of identified fracture orientation from the pumped well. The upper part of the aquifer did not appear to be hydraulically well connected to the flow pathways supplying water to the pumped well. Large background changes in water levels obscured the effects of pumping and prevented calculation of aquifer properties. The velocity of the bromide tracer through the lower flow pathway under the hydraulic gradient resulting from the pumping was about 152 feet per day. Solution of the Darcy velocity equation results in a calculated effective porosity for this interval of 3.5 percent, indicating hydraulic interconnection between the fractures and the aquifer matrix. Ground-water velocity through the lower flow pathway was calculated to be 15.4 feet per day under hydrostatic conditions.

  8. ESTIMATED DURATION OF THE SUBSURFACE REDUCTION ENVIRONMENT PRODUCED BY THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D; Thong Hang, T

    2007-01-22

    The formula for Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone includes {approx}25 wt% slag to create a reducing environment for mitigating the subsurface transport of several radionuclides, including Tc-99. Based on laboratory measurements and two-dimensional reactive transport calculations, it was estimated that the SRS saltstone waste form will maintain a reducing environment, and therefore its ability to sequester Tc-99, for well over 10,000 years. For example, it was calculated that {approx}16% of the saltstone reduction capacity would be consumed after 213,000 years. For purposes of comparison, a second calculation was presented that was based on entirely different assumptions (direct spectroscopic measurements and diffusion calculations). The results from this latter calculation were near identical to those from this study. Obtaining similar conclusions by two extremely different calculations and sets of assumptions provides additional credence to the conclusion that the saltstone will likely maintain a reducing environment in excess of 10,000 years.

  9. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  10. Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under EPA's rule, equipment that is typically dismantled on site before disposal (e.g., retail food the refrigerant recovered in accordance with EPA's requirements for servicing. However, equipment that typically

  11. IMPACT OF COAL REFUSE DISPOSAL ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent of groundwater quality deterioration when coal mine refuse and power plant ashes were disposed of in open pits. In addition, disposal methods were developed and procedures for planning and designing disposal sites were formu...

  12. Concepts and data-collection techniques used in a study of the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water and radionuclide movement through the unsaturated zone is being conducted at the low level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Included in the study are detailed investigations of evapotranspiration, movement of water through waste trench covers, and movement of water and radionuclides (dissolved and gaseous) from the trenches. An energy balance/Bowen ratio approach is used to determine evapotranspiration. Precipitation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, air temperature and water vapor content gradients, wind speed, and wind direction are measured. Soil water tension is measured with tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers are monitored with automatic data loggers. Soil moisture contents are measured through small-diameter access tubes with neutron and gamma-ray attenuation gages. Data beneath the trenches are obtained through a 130-meter-long tunnel which extends under four of the trenches. Water samples are obtained with suction lysimeters, and samples of the geologic material are obtained with core tubes. These samples are analyzed for radiometric and inorganic chemistry. Gas samples are obtained from gas piezometers and analyzed for partial pressures of major constituents, Radon-222, tritiated water vapor, and carbon-14 dioxide. (USGS)

  13. Lung cancer in relation to residence in census tracts with toxic-waste disposal sites: a case-control study in Niagara County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1989-02-01

    Nine selected census tracts containing 12 toxic-waste disposal sites with known or suspected lung carcinogens were identified in Niagara County, New York. Analysis of death certificates of 339 lung cancer cases (decedents) and 676 controls who died of other causes excluding respiratory diseases in 1978-1981 showed no association between death from lung cancer and residence in the selected census tracts (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.38). Analysis of mail questionnaires from surrogate respondents for 209 lung cancer decedents and 417 controls showed no significant association between lung cancer and a history of ever having resided in the selected census tracts (age-adjusted odds ratio = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.78-1.76) and no significant interaction between such residence and cigarette smoking. Duration of residence in the selected census tracts did not differ between cases and controls. The limitations of this low-cost study design, in terms of response rates and potential misclassification of exposure, were discussed along with its value in interim studies of potentially hazardous dumpsites (prior to more intensive case-control or other studies using better exposure data).

  14. Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

  15. Uptake of strontium by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing over a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety and Health Div.

    1996-06-01

    A major concern of managers at low-level waste burial site facilities is that plant roots may translocate contaminants up to the soil surface. This study investigates the uptake of strontium ({sup 90}Sr), a biologically mobile element, by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), a deep-rooted shrub plant, growing in a former liquid waste disposal site (Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003[c]) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant--one plant, in particular, contained 3.35 x 10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup {minus}1} ash (9.05 x 10{sup 4} pCi g{sup {minus}1} ash) in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels (> 218 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} dry [5.90 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry]); this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace areas. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the LANL boundary was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  16. Diversity and Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Groundwater at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Juan; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.; Stephen, John R.; McKinley, James P.; Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Hussain, A. K. M. Anwar; Saxton, Arnold M.; White, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex., was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from ?-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least 52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0. Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within ?-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (?302 ppb) samples. One Desulfotomaculum-like sequence cluster overwhelmingly dominated high-U (>1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P = 0.0001). This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research. PMID:11425735

  17. Removal site evaluation report L-area rubble pile (131-3L) gas cylinder disposal facility (131-2L)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    This Removal Site Evaluation Report (RSER) is prepared in accordance with Sections 300.410 and 300.415 of the National Contingency Plan and Section XIV of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at the L-Area Rubble Pile (LRP) (131-3L) and the L-Area Gas Cylinder Disposal Facility (LGCDF) (131- 2L) sufficient to assess the threat posed to human health and the environment. This investigation also assesses the need for additional Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) actions. The scope of this investigation included a review of files, limited sampling efforts, and visits to the area. An investigation of the LRP (1131-3L) indicates the presence of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals, and asbestos. Potential contaminants in the waste piles could migrate into the secondary media (soils and groundwater), and the presence of some of the contaminants in the piles poses an exposure threat to site works. The Department of Energy (DOE), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) discussed the need for a removal action at the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) work plan scoping meetings on the waste unit, and agreed that the presence of the waste piles limits the access to secondary media for sampling, and the removal of the piles would support future characterization of the waste unit. In addition, the DOE, EPA, and SCDHEC agreed that the proposed removal action for the LRP (131-3L) would be documented in the RFI/RI work plan. The LGCDF (131-2L) consists of a backfilled pit containing approximately 28 gas cylinders. The gas cylinders were supposed to have been vented prior to burial; however, there is a potential that a number of the cylinders are still pressurized. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  19. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  20. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O`Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study`s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management.

  1. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...but not limited to, food items. (b) Minimum...disposed of in a non- marine environment, the current...D7081 if disposed of in a marine environment, or other...information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying...can be found on EPA's Web site...

  2. Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DAMOS is a program begun in 1977 by the New England District of the US Army Corps of Engineers to manage and monitor offshore dredged material disposal sites from Long Island Sound to Maine. DAMOS is a multi-disciplinary environmental monitoring program managed by the Marine Analysis Section of the Regulatory Branch. Program information is shared with the scientific community and the public through media such as technical reports, papers, and brochures. This site provides detailed information about how dredged material is managed, related journal articles, disposal site maps, and links for more resources.

  3. Assessment of soil and water contamination around an ash-disposal site: a case study from the Seyitömer coal-fired power plant in western Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Güleç; A. Erler

    2001-01-01

    Seyitömer power plant comprises 4.8% of Turkey's total energy production. The fly ash produced has been deposited in the\\u000a area, since the 1960s, by a dry disposal technique. In 1997, wet disposal was improperly exercised in the area causing ash\\u000a flow over agricultural fields. This study is concerned with the chemical analysis of ash, soil and water samples collected\\u000a in

  4. Estimated average annual radon-222 concentrations around the former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico. Final technical note

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Jr. Hans; T. R. Horton; D. Prochaska

    1978-01-01

    Uranium mills, as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, produce large volumes of wastes which contain both the long and short-lived radionuclides from the naturally-occurring uranium decay chain. A relatively short-lived member of the chain, radon-222, is a noble gas and can diffuse from the wastes and be transported from its point of origin by prevailing winds. The airborne

  5. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use deep geologic disposal, and are evaluating sites in granites, argillaceous rocks, and salt formations.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and counterweights were also removed, and the soil below these items does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. (4) The concrete-like material at CAS 25-08-02 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 mg/kg. This concrete-like material was removed, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead-acid batteries were also removed, and the soil below the batteries does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. (5) The surface soils within the main waste dump at the posted southern radioactive material area (RMA) at CAS 25-23-21 contain cesium (Cs)-137 and PCBs above the FALs of 72.9 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from the RMA, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. (6) The surface and subsurface soils at CAS 25-25-19 do not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. In addition, lead bricks were removed, and the soil below these items does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. The following best management practices were implemented: (1) Housekeeping debris at CASs 02-08-02, 23-21-04, 25-08-02, 25-23-21, and 25-25-19 was removed and disposed of; (2) The open trenches at CAS 23-21-04 were backfilled; (3) The waste piles at CAS 25-08-02 were removed and the area leveled to ground surface; and (4) The remaining waste piles at the main waste dump at CAS 25-23-21 were leveled to ground surface. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further action for CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06; (2) Closure in place with an FFACO use restriction (UR) at CAS 02-08-02 for the remaining PAH-, arsenic-, and lead-contaminated soil, and the melted lead PSM. The UR form and map have been filed in the NNSA/NSO Facility Information Management System, the FFACO database, and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files; (3) No further corrective action at CAS 23-21-04, as the lead bricks and counterweights (PSM) have been removed, and the COCs of arsenic and PCBs in soil have be

  7. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7. PMID:738247

  8. 78 FR 57668 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site...Regulatory Commission Plan for Monitoring Disposal Actions Taken by the U.S. Department...at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility in Accordance With the...

  9. Construction quality assurance report Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility Non-Drag-Off-2, Project No. W-025, Second Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roscha

    1995-01-01

    Quality assurance observation and testing were performed for the construction of the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Reservation. This report provides a summary of the results, including results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing; installation of the soil liners, HDPE geomembrane liner systems, leachate collection and removal systems,

  10. The effects of fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization wastes on groundwater quality in a reclaimed lignite strip mine disposal site: Volume I: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Beaver; G. H. Groenewold; O. E. Manz; D. J. Hassett

    1987-01-01

    Coal conversion wastes were generated at a lignite-fired, steam-electric power station near Center, North Dakota, and were buried in unsaturated and saturated settings within the nearby strip mine, typical of settings used by the industry. The field study of the effects of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wasts on groundwater quality in a reclaimed lignite strip mine disposal

  11. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean disposal site: (1) Movement of materials into estuaries or marine sanctuaries, or onto oceanfront beaches, or shorelines; (2) Movement of materials toward productive...

  12. 40 CFR 228.10 - Evaluating disposal impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...marine environment has been impacted by materials disposed of at an ocean disposal site: (1) Movement of materials into estuaries or marine sanctuaries, or onto oceanfront beaches, or shorelines; (2) Movement of materials toward productive...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept...

  14. CONTROL OF WATER INFILTRATION THROUGH COVERS AT RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES, URANIUM MILL TAILINGS SITES, AND DECOMMISSIONING SITES -- RESULTS OF 13 YEARS OF COVER PERFORMANCE IN LYSIMETERS AT A HUMID REGION SITE, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward O'Donnell; Peter Godwin

    2000-01-01

    This project addresses a need for confirming methods of keeping water from waste. The concepts under investigation are applicable to near surface facilities as well as mined caverns. The project is significant in that it presents results of 13 years of actual cover performance at a humid region site. Long-term field projects on this scale are rare because of cost.

  15. Cleaning up hazardous waste disposal sites in the coastal zone: A review of the federal and state legal requirements for remediation at Allen Harbor, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.K.

    1992-04-01

    In many coastal areas past hazardous waste disposal practices have created current pollution problems. Cleanup and restoration of these sites poses significant technical, social, political, and legal questions. The wide diversity of coastal areas and the complexity of various federal, state, and local laws and regulations makes it necessary to focus this review on the specific requirements pertaining to a hazardous waste site investigation being conducted by the Navy at the Naval Construction Battalion Center Davisville, located adjacent to Allen Harbor in Narragansett Bay, RI. The cleanup requirements specified by the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (NCP) are reviewed in the context of other federal and state laws and regulations including the Glean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), natural resource protection (fisheries, endangered species, migratory birds, etc.), federal facility agreements (FFA) and Rhode Island statutes which define applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation. The cleanup requirements common to all coastal disposal sites, the relationship between cleanup and other coastal zone management issues, and the need for development of an effective policy strategy for coastal cleanup projects are presented and discussed.

  16. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS - DISPOSAL CELLS EXPECTED CASE PERFORMANCE, WORKER EXPOSURES, AND HUMAN INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  17. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  18. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  19. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  20. Shallow Land Disposal Area Public Meeting

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ;Brief HistoryBrief History 1961-1970 -NUMEC used site di f i l fto dispose of material from Apollo County Office of Public Safety · Armstrong County Emergency Manager ­ Randy Brozenick · Armstrong County

  1. Radioactive characterization of leachates and efflorescences in the neighbouring areas of a phosphogypsum disposal site as a preliminary step before its restoration.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, M J; Mantero, J; Mosqueda, F; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R

    2014-11-01

    After the recent closure of certain phosphoric acid plants located in the South-West of Spain, it has been decided to restore a big extension (more than six hundred hectares) of salt-marshes, where some million tonnes of phosphogypsum (PG), the main by-product generated by these plants, had been disposed of. This PG is characterized by its content of high activity concentrations of several radionuclides from the uranium series, mainly (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po and, to a lesser extent, U-isotopes. The PG disposal area can be considered as a potential source of radionuclides into their nearby environment, through the waters which percolate from them and through the efflorescences formed in their surroundings. For this reason, a detailed radioactive characterization of the mentioned waters and efflorescences has been considered essential for a proper planning of the restoration tasks to be applied in the near future in the zone. To this end, U-isotopes, (234)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations have been determined by applying both alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometric techniques to selected water and efflorescence aliquots collected in the area. The analysis of the obtained results has enabled to obtain information about the geochemical behaviour in the area of the different radionuclides analyzed; and the conclusion to be drawn that, in the restoration plan under preparation, both the prohibition of outflowing waters from the disposal area to the neighbouring salt-marshes, and the removal of all the efflorescences now disseminated in their surroundings are essential. PMID:25014882

  2. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ridky, R.W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; O`Donnell, E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This study`s objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care.

  3. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  4. Disposable Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    BBC Online presents this six-part special on sustainable development. Created in anticipation of the now concluded Johannesburg Summit, this Web site provides a valuable resource for viewers wishing to learn more about sustainable development and related issues. The Web site consists of an overview and six sections: Population, Food, Cities, Waste, Tourism, and Energy. The sections offer an in-depth look at each topic and include audio clips of related interviews and news stories. The discussion forums are now closed, but visitors may read the occasionally insightful and often times heated comments that have already been posted. View the slide show to get a quick, visceral sense of human impact on the planet -- past, present, and future. Visitors may also take a quiz to calculate their ecological footprint, or how much of the earth's resources they individually consume each year.

  5. The Storage, Transportation, and Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Younker

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Congress established a comprehensive federal policy to dispose of wastes from nuclear reactors and defense facilities, centered on deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Site screening led to selection of three potential sites and in 1987, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to characterize only one site: Yucca Mountain in Nevada. For more than 20 years, teams

  6. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008...Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118...and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118...and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008...Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604 Section 13.1604...Clark National Park and Preserve § 13.1604 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912 Section 13.1912...Elias National Park and Preserve § 13.1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008...Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912 Section 13.1912...Elias National Park and Preserve § 13.1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604 Section 13.1604...Clark National Park and Preserve § 13.1604 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118...and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118...and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  17. Multiscale Heterogeneity and Solute Transport Model Parameter Uncertainty Study for a Fractured Low-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in the Eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Gwo; P. M. Jardine

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine multiscale fluid and solute transport parameters in support of a site characterization effort at the Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in eastern Tennessee, USA. The study site is located within the top 10 m of the subsurface, in which groundwater flow dynamics is influenced by

  18. Contrasts between subsurface microbial communities and their metabolic adaptation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a forested and an urban coal-tar disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene L. Madsen; Anne Winding; Kenneth Malachowsky; Constance T. Thomas; William C. Ghiorse

    1992-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microorganisms and their potential for mineralizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in subsurface sediment samples at two geographically separate buried coal-tar sites. At a relatively undisturbed forested site in the northeastern United States, metabolic adaptation to the PAHs was evident: Radiolabeled naphthalene and phenanthrene were converted to 14CO2 in core material from inside but

  19. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  20. Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth Bates; Tony Smith

    \\u000a SharePoint Foundation 2010 provides the core document management, list management, workflow, collaboration, and application\\u000a platform services for a SharePoint environment. SharePoint sites are the foundation on which business solutions based on the\\u000a Office system store and manage information. Sites provide locations where groups of people can work together and share information.\\u000a They can also be used to collect team and

  1. Sample storage/disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-09-29

    Radioactive waste from defense operations has accumulated at the Hanford Site`s underground waste tanks since the late 1940`s. Each tank must be analyzed to determine whether it presents any harm to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public or the environment. Analyses of the waste aids in the decision making process in preparation of future tank waste stabilization procedures. Characterization of the 177 waste tanks on the Hanford Site will produce a large amount of archived material. This also brings up concerns as to how the excess waste tank sample material from 325 and 222-S Analytical Laboratories will be handled. Methods to archive and/or dispose of the waste have been implemented into the 222-S and 325 Laboratory procedures. As the amount of waste characterized from laboratory analysis grows, an examination of whether the waste disposal system will be able to compensate for this increase in the amount of waste needs to be examined. Therefore, the need to find the safest, most economically sound method of waste storage/disposal is important.

  2. Future intrusion of oxygenated glacial meltwaters into the Fennoscandian shield: a possibility to consider in performance assessments for nuclear-waste disposal sites?: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Provost et al. (1998) and Glynn and Voss (1999; also published in Glynn et al., 1999) considered the possibility that during future glaciations, oxygenated glacial meltwaters from two- to three-kilometer thick ice sheets could potentially intrude to the 500 m depth of planned nuclear-waste repositories. This possibility has been of concern because of potential negative effects on the stability of the repository engineered environment, and because of the potential mobilization of radionuclides should the oxygenated waters come into contact with the radioactive waste. The above reports argued that given the current state of knowledge, it was hard to discount the possibility that oxygenated waters could penetrate to repository level depth. The reports also suggested that oxidizing conditions might be present in the fractured rock environment for significant amounts of time, on the order of thousands to tens of thousands of years. In some earlier reports, Swedish and Finnish governmental agencies in charge of nuclear-waste disposal had considered the possibility that oxygenated meltwaters might intrude to the repository depth (SKI: 1992; Martinerie et al, 1992; Ahonen and Vieno, 1994). Subsequent to the publication of Provost et al. (1998), Glynn et al. (1999) and Glynn and Voss (1999), the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Handling Company (SKB) commissioned efforts to examine more thoroughly the possibilities that oxygenated meltwaters might occur under ice-sheet conditions and intrude to the repository depth.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant Evenson

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below:;\\u000a;\\u000a 01-19-01, Waste Dump;\\u000a 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area;\\u000a 03-19-02, Debris

  4. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains the comment and response document for the Draft Long-Term Surveillance Plan of the Bodo Canyon Site in Durango, California. This is a part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Questions and comments regarding specific sections or statements in the report are described and then a response to each review comment or question is provided.

  5. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  6. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  8. Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Chemical Plant is located just north of the drainage divide separating the Mississippi River and the Missouri River in St. Charles County, Missouri. From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycled scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of dissolved solids and a different chemical composition compared to the native groundwater and surface water. This difference is indicated by the concentrations of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, uranium, radium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium, all of which are greater than natural or background concentrations. Water from Burgermeister Spring, located about 1.5 miles north of the chemical plant area, contains uranium and nitrate concentrations greater than background concentrations. Groundwater in the shallow bedrock aquifer moves northward from the vicinity of the chemical plant toward Dardenne Creek. An abandoned limestone quarry several miles southwest of the chemical plant also has been used for the disposal of radioactive waste and rubble. Groundwater flow from the quarry area is southward through the alluvium, away from the quarry and toward the Missouri River. The St. Charles County well field is located in the Missouri River flood plain near the quarry and the large yield wells are open to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Water from a well 4,000 ft southeast of the quarry was analyzed; there was no indication of contamination from the quarry. Additional water quality and water level data are needed to determine if water from the quarry moves toward the well field. Observation wells need to be installed in the area between the chemical plant, pits, and Dardenne Creek. The wells would be used to provide access for measurements of depth to ground water and for the collection of water samples from the shallow bedrock aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Two White Flint North, MS T7J8, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed: commercial LLW disposal facilities; uranium mill tailings disposal facilities; and reprocessing waste storage and disposal facilities. The observations developed from the monitoring and maintenance of waste disposal and storage facilities provide valuable lessons learned for the design and modeling of future waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites.

  10. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  11. Macrobenthic community colonization and community development in dredged material disposal habitats off coastal Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Flemer; B. F. Ruth; C. M. Bundrick; G. R. Gaston

    1997-01-01

    We examined marine benthic macroinvertebrate colonization and community structure at multiple spatial scales (study areas, reference and disposal sites, and depth zones within sites) within a 3-day period at three relatively widely separated (ca 60 km) dredged material disposal areas (Mermentau and Atchafalaya Rivers and Freshwater Bayou) in coastal Louisiana. Study areas had different histories of dredged material disposal, but

  12. Scenario for the safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal in Serpong, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purnomo

    2007-01-01

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the

  13. On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for conventional on-site systems. Introduction Inadequate disposal of residential sewage creates prob- lems,000 Virginia households rely on on-site methods for sewage disposal. About 700,000 of these homes use. Inadequate sewage disposal, due to failing or nonexistent on-site treatment, is a problem in many Vir- ginia

  14. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE.

  15. Optimizing N reactor fuel spacer disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.M.; Day, R.S. [Bechtel Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Trumble, H.R. [Dept. of Energy, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Deactivation of the Hanford Site`s N Reactor included the disposal of a large number of radioactive reactor fuel spacers buried in silos outside the reactor building. Optimizing the disposal effort involved simultaneously solving objectives of low cost, schedule, dose minimization, and contamination control while satisfying a variety of regulatory requirements. The selected approach included removing the radioactive fuel spacers by crane-mounted electromagnet, spray painting for airborne control, using grouted large-diameter pipe sections for the burial container, and shipping by truck. Cost and schedule goals were achieved, doses were higher than predicted mainly due to delays in operations, surface contamination was minimized. and airborne contamination was precluded.

  16. 40 CFR 228.8 - Limitations on times and rates of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    This will be accomplished by the denial of permits for the disposal of some materials, by the imposition of appropriate conditions on other permits and, if necessary, the designation of new disposal sites under the procedures of §...

  17. Site Environmental Report for 2010, Volumes 1 & 2

    E-print Network

    Baskin, David

    2012-01-01

    Disposal of medical waste is managed in accordance with themedical, and radioactive waste generated at LBNL off-site for disposal.Medical Waste Management Act 28 contains requirements designed to ensure the proper storage, treatment, and disposal

  18. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  19. Development of leachate disposal processes

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, K. [Rust Environment & Infrastructure, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Through the active, closure, and post-closure periods of landfill operation, the disposal of leachate can have substantial cost implications for the owner/operator of a site. Selection and utilization of a leachate handling methodology should depend on consideration of the problem in several areas: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) nature of leachate, (3) operational considerations, (4) available disposal options. Failure to solve this problem without consideration of all of the constraints can lead to management solutions that are excessively expensive to construct and operate, are difficult to operate, or provide potential compliance problems. Areas 1, 2, 3 involve non-technology issues that are often given cursory consideration in the design of post generation leachate management systems but can have substantial impact on leachate management costs. Current implementation of post generation leachate management systems tends to focus principally on technology-related issues. This paper discusses considerations of developing and implementing processes for leachate disposal, and highlights processes for post-generation management of leachate. Particular emphasis is placed on leachate recirculation.

  20. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  1. Disposal: Science and Theory UNIVERSIDAD

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory UNIVERSIDAD DE DELAWARE Proyecto agrícolacoordinadode la influenza aviar #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Envenenamiento con gas: una opción preferida y disponible individual Técnicas actuales de despoblación #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Envenenamiento con dióxido de

  2. A disposable choice for hospital waste.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J

    1993-02-01

    "On-site incineration is becoming an increasingly important alternative for the treatment and disposal of institutional waste. Incineration reduces the weight and volume of most institutional solid waste by 90 to 95 percent, sterilizes pathogenic waste, detoxifies chemical waste, converts obnoxious waste (such as animal carcasses) into innocuous ash, and provides a substantial reduction in off-site disposal costs, making on-site incineration highly cost effective. Many systems have payback periods of less than one year. In addition, on-site incineration reduces the need to depend on off-site disposal contractors, which, in turn, minimizes potential exposures and liabilities associated with illegal or improper waste disposal activities." At this time, the hospital has found its best method for the treatment of infectious and noninfectious medical waste. It is not a perfect method, but all current technologies have limitations. There are several promisingly innovative approaches being pursued; however, they are only in developmental stages. "Winston-Salem, Forsyth Memorial Hospital is reducing infectious wastes ... with an innovative microwave system being used for the first time in the United States. Once the waste is run through the microwave system, the infectious content is destroyed. As a result, ninety percent of the hospital's infectious waste can be sent to the local landfill, which saves more than $200,000 a year in transport and disposal costs. The hospital hopes the $650,000 German system will pay for itself in three years." It is hoped that these new technologies will progress into reliable treatment options for medical waste during the 1990s. In the meantime, our hospital will continue to pursue refinements in its on-site operation, which is already providing cost savings, improved safety, and environmental benefits. PMID:10123400

  3. Laboratory to demolish excavation enclosures at Material Disposal Area B

    E-print Network

    as a waste disposal site for Manhattan Project and Cold War-era research and production. The Laboratory this week and the work should be completed by the end of March 2013. The project brings the Laboratory of a highly successful environmental cleanup project at Material Disposal Area B," said Ed Worth, federal

  4. IRRIGATION WASTEWATER DISPOSAL WELL STUDIES--SNAKE PLAIN AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of irrigation disposal well practices on the water quality of the Snake Plain aquifer. A study site was selected where the geology was determined to be characteristic of areas in the Snake River Plain where irrigation disposal...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid...

  8. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44031, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  9. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44031, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  10. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44030, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  11. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44031, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  12. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44031, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  13. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44030, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  14. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44030, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  15. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...designated portion of the permit area. Placement and storage shall ensure that leachate and surface runoff...waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage area. [48 FR 44030, Sept. 26, 1983, as...

  16. Engineering geology criteria for dredged material disposal in upper Laguna Madre, Texas

    E-print Network

    Stinson, James Edmellaire

    1977-01-01

    Committee: Dr, C. C. Mathewson Channels in Murdock Basin, Upper Laguna Madre, fill with sediment dispersed from adjacent subaqueous dredged materia I disposal sites. Original dredging placed the material in a series of disposal mounds close... to and parallel to the channel. Three disposal sites in different water depths, revealed varying conditions of sediment dispersion and island erosion. Water depth at the different sites varies from 0 to 1. 5 feet in the wind tidal flats, I to 3 feet...

  17. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  18. Ocean Disposal and Potential for Enhancement in Managing Seafood Processing Wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Soule; M. Oguri; J. Soule

    1983-01-01

    Use of the oceans for disposal of wastes was to be phased out, according to regulations adopted by EPA to implement environmental laws passed by Congress in the 1970s, without regard to selection of the best available option for disposal of specific waste substances. Disposal of seafood wastes in the ocean has created site-specific problems in the past, but ocean

  19. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  20. Alternatives for disposal of depleted-uranium waste. Final technical report, October 1984August 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Mallory; J. G. Funk; W. S. Sanner

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of depleted uranium wastes are generated at Eglin AFB each year due to testing of armor-penetrating munitions. The majority of this waste consists of sand contaminated with small amounts of depleted uranium. In this study various alternative for disposal were examined in detail including: disposal at DOE facilities, disposal at commercial facilities, on-site disposal, recycling to industry, inerting\\/stabilization,

  1. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  2. Statement of position of the United States Department of Energy in the matter of proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste (waste confidence rulemaking)

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-04-15

    Purpose of this proceeding is to assess generically the degree of assurance that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, to determine when such disposal or off-site storage will be available, and to determine whether wastes can be safely stored on-site past license expiration until off-site disposal/storage is available. (DLC)

  3. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  4. DNAPL SITE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including: (a) th...

  5. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  6. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  7. Disposable cleansing wipes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona; Scott, Paul; Kingsley, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    With hospital cleanliness becoming a major issue over recent months, a great many campaigns are under way to improve cleaning levels in our hospitals. This article looks at the role of disposable wipes, both for patient skin hygiene and for hard-surface cleaning and disinfection, in keeping clinical areas clean and safe for patients. PMID:15754723

  8. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  9. Regional Examples of Geological Settings for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Boreholes

    E-print Network

    Sapiie, B.

    This report develops and exercises broad-area site selection criteria for deep boreholes suitable for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or its separated constituents. Three candidates are examined: a regional site in the ...

  10. Pesticide Disposal Pick Up Program

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Pesticide Disposal Pick Up Program Amnesty for disposal of unwanted and outdated pesticides This program is for the disposal of un- wanted and outdated pesticides currently stored by agricultural producers, home- owners and golf courses Acceptable Agriculture Pesticides Commercial Pesticides Homeowner

  11. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis. PMID:21325842

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Jr. Hunsaker; G. P. Zimmerman; E. L. Hillsman; R. L. Miller; G. M. Schoepfle; R. O. Johnson; V. R. Tolbert; R. L. Kroodsma; L. W. Rickert; G. O. Rogers; W. P. Staub

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal

  13. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  14. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  15. An Unsteady Dual Porosity Representation Of Concrete Rubble Disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flach

    2006-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning at the Savannah River Site have produced on-site disposals of low-level solid radioactive waste in the form of concrete rubble. In the case of a former tritium extraction facility, building demolition produced a significant volume of rubble embedded with tritium. The contaminated debris comprises a heterogeneous mixture of sizes, shapes, and internal tritium distributions. The rubble was

  16. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  17. Well drilling cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Drilled cuttings are disposed of by solidification by drilling with a drilling fluid containing blast furnace slag, thereby producing drilled cuttings and other solid wastes, concentrating the wastes and then solidifying the concentrated wastes. Drilling wastes solidified by blast furnace slag are hard and unleachable and the blast furnace slag is compatible with both oil and water based drilling muds and drilled cuttings. Drilling fluids therefore do not have to be removed from the drilled cuttings prior to solidification in a mud pit.

  18. Treatment and disposal options for NORM oil field waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, G.H.; Khatib, Z.I.

    1996-12-31

    Treatment and disposal options by Shell Offshore Inc. were shown to reduce effectively NORM waste volumes. Options included scale prediction and inhibition programs, chemical dissolver treatments, minimization through dewatering, waste stream segregation, and on-line vessel cleaning operations. Offshore subsurface injection of NORM waste by the producing operator has been demonstrated for the past four years to be a cost-effective alternative to commercial-site disposal.

  19. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  20. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors. PMID:25233531

  1. Low level tank waste disposal study

    SciTech Connect

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  2. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Terry; T. J. Blasing; J. T. Ensminger; R. O. Johnson; S. M. Schexnayder; J. T. Shor; W. P. Staub; V. R. Tolbert; G. P. Zimmerman

    1995-01-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process

  4. Source term evaluation for performance assessment of LLW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages.

  5. Source term evaluation for performance assessment of LLW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-04-01

    Information compiled on the low-level radioactive waste disposed at the three currently operating commercial disposal sites during the period 1987--1989 have been reviewed and processed in order to determine the total activity distribution in terms of waste stream, waste classification and waste form. The data from waste disposed during 1989 at one of the sites (Richland, WA) were more detailed than the data available during other years and at other sites, and thus were amenable to a more in-depth treatment. This included determination of the distribution of activity for each radionuclide by waste form, and thus enabled these data to be evaluated in terms of the specific needs for improved modeling of releases from waste packages.

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  8. Public perception of low-level radioactive waste disposal issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kozak

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to: (1) gather information on how people perceive low-level radioactive-waste-disposal issues; (2) compare the perceptions between organized citizen interest group members and non-group members within the same community; (3) compare the perceptions between interest group members living near open sites, closed sites and proposed sites; (4) compare the perceptions between non-group members living near

  9. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States)] [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Elliott, Robert 'Dan' [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States)] [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill material. This paper describes the ex situ soil segregation methods, the considerations of each method, and the estimated cost savings from minimizing the volume of soil requiring transportation and off-site disposal. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call into question certain aspects of the analyses. For example, if the volumes and activities of waste disposed of during the remainder of the disposal facility's lifetime differ significantly from those projected, the doses projected by the analyses may no longer apply. DOE field sites are required to implement a performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. The purpose of this program is to ensure the continued applicability of the analyses through incremental improvement of the level of understanding of the disposal site and facility. Site personnel are required to conduct field and experimental work to reduce the uncertainty in the data and models used in the assessments. Furthermore, they are required to conduct periodic reviews of waste receipts, comparing them to projected waste disposal rates. The radiological inventory for Area G was updated in conjunction with Revision 4 of the performance assessment and composite analysis (Shuman, 2008). That effort used disposal records and other sources of information to estimate the quantities of radioactive waste that have been disposed of at Area G from 1959, the year the facility started receiving waste on a routine basis, through 2007. It also estimated the quantities of LLW that will require disposal from 2008 through 2044, the year in which it is assumed that disposal operations at Area G will cease. This report documents the fourth review of Area G disposal receipts since the inventory was updated and examines information for waste placed in the ground during fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2011. The primary objective of the disposal receipt review is to ensure that the future waste inventory projections developed for the performance assessment and composite analysis are consistent with the actual types and quantities of waste being disposed of at Area G. Toward this end, the disposal data that are the subject of this review are used to update the future waste inventory projections for the disposal facility. These projections are compared to the future inventory projections that were develope

  11. Disposal options and case-study pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C J; Quinby, J B; Duggan, W P; Yuan, Y

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of alternatives that currently are employed for the disposal of wastes containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The application of pathway assessment methodology to the derivation of acceptable cleanup criteria for residual NORM is described. A specific example is provided drawing on experience with a site containing above-background levels of natural uranium-series and thorium-series nuclides. The options for safe, permanent disposal of U and Th bearing NORM waste are discussed and the application of pathway analysis to performance assessment of a typical engineered disposal cell is illustrated. Typical methods for disposal of other NORM waste forms also are described. This includes radium-contaminated wastes from petroleum sludges, uranium milling, and geothermal power plant operation as well as thorium wastes from production of thorium-magnesium alloys. PMID:9451778

  12. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are also presented.

  13. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt and Capital Asset Accounting, 6054 S Drexel Ave. Suite 300 or skgill@uchicago.edu Asset Information Equipment Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

  14. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  15. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  16. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  17. Scoping analysis of toxic metal performance in DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D; Bougai, D.A.; Pohl, P.I.

    1996-03-01

    This study provides a scoping safety assessment for disposal of toxic metals contained in Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at six DOE sites that currently have low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities--Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Nevada Test Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The study has focused on the groundwater contaminant pathway, which is considered to be the dominant human exposure pathway from shallow land MLLW disposal. A simple and conservative transport analysis has been performed using site hydrological data to calculate site-specific ``permissible`` concentrations of toxic metals in grout-immobilized waste. These concentrations are calculated such that, when toxic metals are leached from the disposal facility by infiltrating water and attenuated in local ground-water system the toxic metal concentrations in groundwater below the disposal facility do not exceed the Maximum Contaminant Levels as stated in the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The analysis shows that and sites allow about I00 times higher toxic metal concentrations in stabilized waste leachate than humid sites. From the limited available data on toxic metal concentrations in DOE MLLW, a margin of protection appears to exist in most cases when stabilized wastes containing toxic metals are disposed of at the DOE sites under analysis. Possible exceptions to this conclusion are arsenic, chromium selenium, and mercury when disposed of at some humid sites such as the Oak Ridge Reservation. This analysis also demonstrates that the US Environmental Protection Agency`s prescriptive regulatory approach that defines rigid waste treatment standards does not inherently account for the variety of disposal environments encountered nationwide and may result in either underprotection of groundwater resources (at humid sites) or an excessive margin of protection (at and sites).

  18. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

  19. DNAPL SITE EVALUATION - Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...

  20. Ethidium Bromide: Disposal, Decontamination, and Destruction

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Ethidium Bromide: Disposal, Decontamination, and Destruction Procedure: 8.03 Created: 2 #12;Ethidium Bromide: Disposal, Decontamination, and Destruction Procedure: 8.03 Created: 2 appropriate disposal of potentially hazardous chemicals wastes. 2. EH&S a. Develop, comply with

  1. 7 CFR 2902.29 - Disposable cutlery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Disposable cutlery. 2902.29 Section 2902.29 Agriculture...Designated Items § 2902.29 Disposable cutlery. (a) Definition. Hand-held...preference for qualifying biobased disposable cutlery. By that date, Federal agencies...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.29 - Disposable cutlery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Disposable cutlery. 2902.29 Section 2902.29 Agriculture...Designated Items § 2902.29 Disposable cutlery. (a) Definition. Hand-held...preference for qualifying biobased disposable cutlery. By that date, Federal agencies...

  3. 40 CFR 721.85 - Disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (b) Disposal...Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (c) Disposal of...Incineration. (2) Landfill. (3) Deep well injection. (d) Disposal...

  4. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  5. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  6. AN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR EXAMINING THE IMPACTS OF OCEANIC DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ocean dumping of anthropogenic wastes at offshore sites represents one option for the disposal of such wastes. urrent U.S. regulatory and permitting practices with respect to ocean disposal are concentration based, that is, Water Quality Criteria and acute bioassays of the waste ...

  7. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites have been selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's site using waste from Midwest Grain's FBC unit in central Illinois. A fourth site is under consideration at the Dakota Gasification Company in North Dakota. The first two tasks of this project involved the development of test plans and obtaining site access.

  8. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

  9. Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  10. Alternatives for disposal of depleted-uranium waste. Final technical report, October 1984-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Funk, J.G.; Sanner, W.S.

    1985-11-01

    Large quantities of depleted uranium wastes are generated at Eglin AFB each year due to testing of armor-penetrating munitions. The majority of this waste consists of sand contaminated with small amounts of depleted uranium. In this study various alternative for disposal were examined in detail including: disposal at DOE facilities, disposal at commercial facilities, on-site disposal, recycling to industry, inerting/stabilization, and volume reduction. Each alternative was evaluated according to technological status/risk, economic considerations, environmental impact, and commitment of resources.

  11. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation.

  12. Low cost disposal of MMH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.; French, T.

    1980-01-01

    Concentration of gaseous toxic monomethylhydrazine (MMH) can be removed at 99.9% efficiency using scrubbers containing acetylacetone solutions as scrubbing liquors. Resulting product is easily disposable and expensive liners for protecting scrubber from strong oxidizing agents are not needed.

  13. MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

  14. Environmental effects of reactor waste disposal alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unruh

    1980-01-01

    This present document, Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, describes ten alternative methods for disposal of nuclear wastes and evaluates their anticipated environmental impacts. The ten alternatives are: (1) geologic disposal using conventional mining techniques; (2) chemical resynthesis; (3) very deep hole concept; (4) rock melting concept; (5) island disposal; (6) sub-seabed geologic disposal; (7) ice

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama: Final Phase 1 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, status reports are presented on maturity of the disposal technology (and how it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD) and on the tracking of changes in technology to ensure that the overall risk identified in the FPEIS is not exceeded. 6 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  17. Qualitative performance assessment of a borehole disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, R. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A program for disposing disused sealed radiation sources (DSRS) in a deep borehole demands, besides engineering for construction, operation and closure, great effort to characterize the site and conduct a safety assessment of the disposal system. The cost of running a safety assessment may be much greater than the costs to build and operate the facility, and expenditures with the necessary expertise and analytical infrastructure may threaten the technical and economic feasibility of such enterprise in developing countries. In this paper we propose that the safety of repositories be evaluated in terms of compliance with a set of requirements. Besides, we present an example of a preliminary list of rules, based on IAEA and ICRP guidance documents, with which disposal systems for DSRS should comply to get approval. (authors)

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project`s long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03.

  19. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  20. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.