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1

Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with  

E-print Network

Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced production rate Microbial electrolysis cell a b s t r a c t Practical applications of microbial electrolysis- ward et al., 2000). A new technology called a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) can achieve sustainable

2

Short communication High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs  

E-print Network

Short communication High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs Anqiang Pan a of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Washington, WA 98195, USA h i g h l i g h t s Porous Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs were prepared by a template-free hydrothermal method. The Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs

Cao, Guozhong

3

Short Communication Non-monophyly of Retortamonadida and high genetic diversity of the genus  

E-print Network

Short Communication Non-monophyly of Retortamonadida and high genetic diversity of the genus in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic b Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals have attracted attention because of their evolutionary history. Their cells lack some typically

Flegr, Jaroslav

4

High repetition rate, short pulse, diode pumped solid-state laser for space communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) established the laser system characteristics for Mars-Earth spatial communications using the Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) technique. Today, diode-pumped solid-state lasers are under intense research and development. Indeed, in comparison with flash-lamp pumped laser, they offer significant advantages in terms of efficiency, compactness, lifetime and high beam quality. We have demonstrated that gain- switch operation

Christian Larat; J. P. Pocholle; M. Schwarz; Gilles Feugnet; M. Papuchon

1994-01-01

5

Instructions for use [Short Communications  

E-print Network

,2,3, and 4]. Porous asphalt in Kyoto Jukan Expressway has been maintenance free for fourteen yearsInstructions for use #12;1 [Short Communications] Evaluation methods for porous asphalt pavement-0842, JAPAN Tel/Fax: +81 11 882 4246 Key Words: Long Life Pavement, Porous asphalt, Evaluation method, Three

Tsunogai, Urumu

6

Short-range communication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

7

High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28 GHz modulation bandwidth for short reach communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from our new generation of high performance 850 nm oxide confined vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). With devices optimized for high-speed operation under direct modulation, we achieve record high 3dB modulation bandwidths of 28 GHz for ~4 ?m oxide aperture diameter VCSELs, and 27 GHz for devices with a ~7 ?m oxide aperture diameter. Combined with a high-speed photoreceiver, the ~7 ?m VCSEL enables error-free transmission at data rates up to 47 Gbit/s at room temperature, and up to 40 Gbit/s at 85°C.

Westbergh, Petter; Safaisini, Rashid; Haglund, Erik; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Joel, Andrew

2013-03-01

8

47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...

2012-10-01

9

47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...

2011-10-01

10

47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...

2013-10-01

11

47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...

2010-10-01

12

Transcriptional activity of neutrophils exposed to high doses of colchicine: short communication.  

PubMed

Colchicine is an antimitotic drug which binds to tubulin and at high doses results in cytoskeleton disruption. Colchicine is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent, though its modulatory effects on the level and transcriptional activity of genes is still a matter of debate. There is growing evidence that alterations in the cytoskeleton exert specific effects on the expression of various genes. This study was undertaken to analyze whether disrupting the microtubule cytoskeleton by colchicine modulates transcriptional levels of MEFV, NF-?B p65, NLRP3, HMGB1, and caspase-3 in neutrophils from patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and healthy subjects. In the present study, colchicine caused increased expression of NLRP3 (p=0.007) and MEFV (p=0.03), but had no effect on caspase-3, NF-?B p65 and HMGB1 genes in healthy neutrophils. FMF neutrophils were less responsive to the drug treatment. This study supports the hypothesis that, being an anti-inflammatory agent, colchicine at relatively high concentrations might lead to the activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways in neutrophils. PMID:25864748

Manukyan, G; Petrek, M; Navratilova, Z; Margaryan, S; Boyajyan, A

2015-01-01

13

A secure short message communication protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication\\u000a protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public\\u000a key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission\\u000a and dynamic key agreement between mobile

Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia

2008-01-01

14

Short communication Diffusion of carbon in austenite  

E-print Network

carbon concentration gradients at the transformation interfacesinvolved in suchreactionsmakesit. In a concentration gradient, a carbon atom attempting random motion therefore 'sees'an exaggerated differenceinShort communication Diffusion of carbon in austenite H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia The concentration

Cambridge, University of

15

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short communication  

E-print Network

885 LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short communication Doppler - free spectroscopy and isotopic shift.2 nm, on the Mg I resonance line [3S2 'So - 3s3p'PO] as well as a new measure- ment of the isotopic magne- sium presents three isotopic species 24Mg, 25mg, 26Mg, with respective proportions 78.6 % , 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Vaccine 20 (2002) 36 Short communication  

E-print Network

Vaccine 20 (2002) 3­6 Short communication Effector cytotoxic T lymphocyte numbers induced by vaccination should exceed levels in chronic infection for protection from HIV Hester Korthals Altesa,, David A with a variety of vaccine formulations and delivery systems. However, the conditions required for a CTL

17

Short Communication Concurrent correction method for modeling  

E-print Network

Short Communication Concurrent correction method for modeling morphological response to dredging the morphological impact of an offshore dredging pit using a process-based model, the hydrodynamic conditions, often with the initial bathymetry profile before dredging. This lack of equilibrium causes a fast profile adjustment

Kirby, James T.

18

Fisheries Research 63 (2003) 275282 Short communication  

E-print Network

study using larger species of fish that are commonly landed using these gear types. © 2003 Elsevier; Gear effects 1. Introduction Landing nets are commonly used by recreational anglers to aidFisheries Research 63 (2003) 275­282 Short communication Effects of landing net mesh type on injury

Cooke, Steven J.

19

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short communication  

E-print Network

cooled down to room temperature in 20 hours. The crystals are extracted from a compact surrounding1815 LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short communication Coexistence of superconductivity (Tc= 55 K coexists with superconductivity. The oxygen content has been determined by a complete neutron diffraction

Boyer, Edmond

20

Short Communication Microscopic analysis of structure stabilities  

E-print Network

2005 Short Communication Microscopic analysis of structure stabilities in the ionic compounds B an analysis of the relative stability of two structural phases in an ionic compound at zero temperature a given ionic compound cristallizes in one structure rather than in another one [1] . But only recently

Boyer, Edmond

21

SHORT COMMUNICATION FIRST REPORTED SETTLEMENT OF ZEBRA  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION FIRST REPORTED SETTLEMENT OF ZEBRA MUSSELS DREISSENA POLYMORPHA IN THE ERNE The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) is a freshwater bivalve which attaches to hard substrates of plankton communities (Leach 1993; Reeders et al. 1993). Following the rapid colonisation by zebra mussels

McCarthy, T.K.

22

VIROLOGY 214, 289293 (1995) SHORT COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

VIROLOGY 214, 289­293 (1995) SHORT COMMUNICATION Dimerization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 to show that human papillomavirus E7 proteins can form oligomeric complexes in vivo. The carboxyl, Inc. Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which infect proteins including the retinoblastoma tumor

Brent, Roger

23

Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after  

E-print Network

Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after an intravenous administration in four gelding horses. Plasma ergovaline concentrations were measured by high performance liquid. According to the toxicological data previously reported in the horse, and in spite of the very low dose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

SHORT COMMUNICATION Tidal activity rhythms and depth distribution of rocky  

E-print Network

are numerous, so the number of potential cues that can affect the behaviour of fish is also high. In this note believe may shed some light on the factors that control the behaviour of rocky shore fish. MaterialsSHORT COMMUNICATION Tidal activity rhythms and depth distribution of rocky shore fish in an altered

25

Short Communication Satellite tracking highlights difficulties in the design  

E-print Network

Short Communication Satellite tracking highlights difficulties in the design of effective protected are concentrated near neritic breeding and nesting grounds. We used satellite telemetry to de- scribe patterns

Exeter, University of

26

Short communication Modulation of hydrophobic interactions in denatured whey  

E-print Network

Short communication Modulation of hydrophobic interactions in denatured whey proteins association in chemically denatured whey protein isolates (WPI) is examined. WPI samples denatured of the hydrophobic moieties. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Whey protein; Rheology

Khan, Saad A.

27

SHORT COMMUNICATION Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds D. W. E. HONE,* G. J. DYKE,à M. HADEN the Cretaceous- Palaeogene boundary. As in all other dinosaurs, counter selection for small size is seen in some

Benton, Michael

28

SHORT COMMUNICATION Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostics of Bed Bug  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostics of Bed Bug (Hemiptera. A molecular diagnostic technique applying multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed, molecular diagnostics, mitochondrial DNA, multiplex polymerase chain reaction Cimex lectularius L

Szalanski, Allen L.

29

SHORT COMMUNICATION Open Access Testing the VEMCO Positioning System: spatial  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Open Access Testing the VEMCO Positioning System: spatial distribution animals over long periods of time with regular fine-scale positions. The VEMCO Positioning System (VPS Positioning System, Probability of location, Positioning error, Spatial distribution Findings Background

30

Materials Science and Engineering B 142 (2007) 139143 Short communication  

E-print Network

Materials Science and Engineering B 142 (2007) 139­143 Short communication Orientation and magnetic. Growth of FePt and CoPt yielded epitaxial films with cube-on-cube orientation of the pseudo-cubic L10

Liu, J. Ping

31

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 427435 Short communication  

E-print Network

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 427­435 Short communication Semi-empirical modeling of charge of discharge during galvanostatic discharge. A pseudo-2D porous electrode model [4­6] was used to simulate

32

SHORT COMMUNICATION Hostparasite coevolution and patterns of adaptation across  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Host­parasite coevolution and patterns of adaptation across time and space S of coevolution between the bacteria Pseudo- monas fluorescens and its phage /2. Specifically, they measured

Day, Troy

33

SHORT COMMUNICATION Geographically variable selection in Ambystoma tigrinum virus  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Geographically variable selection in Ambystoma tigrinum virus (Iridoviridae: Ambystoma tigrinum virus; caspase activation and recruitment domain; coevolution; eIF-2a; Iridoviridae selection in Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) which causes frequent and geographically widespread epizootics

Storfer, Andrew

34

A Novel Solution to the Short Range Bluetooth Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluetooth is developed for short range communication. Bluetooth Devices are normally having low power and low cost. This is a wireless communication technology designed to connect phones, laptops and PDAs. The greater availability of portable devices with Bluetooth connectivity imposes wireless connection between enabled devices. On an average the range of Bluetooth devices is about 10 meters. The basic limitation

Preetha K. G

2011-01-01

35

A Short History of Electrical Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrical communication progressed rapidly after Samuel Morse demonstrated the telegraph in 1838. Western Union completed the first transcontinental telegraph line in 1861. Five years later the first transoceanic cable was laid. In 1875 A.G. Bell transmitted the first complete sentence heard over wire, and the first Bell telephone company was…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

36

A Novel Solution to the Short Range Bluetooth Communication  

E-print Network

Bluetooth is developed for short range communication. Bluetooth Devices are normally having low power and low cost. This is a wireless communication technology designed to connect phones, laptops and PDAs. The greater availability of portable devices with Bluetooth connectivity imposes wireless connection between enabled devices. On an average the range of Bluetooth devices is about 10 meters. The basic limitation of the Bluetooth communication is this range limitation. In this paper I have studied the limitations of Bluetooth communication and consider range constraint as the major limitation. I propose a new expanded Blue tooth network to overcome the range constraint of Bluetooth device. This creates a network of Bluetooth enabled devices that will include laptops, set top devices and also mobile phones. The main purpose of this proposal is to establish a network will enable the users to communicate outside the range without any range constraint.

G, Preetha K

2011-01-01

37

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS The Condor 107:445449  

E-print Network

dive into water to capture fish with highly dis- tensible pouches. During prey capture, the pouch may before water impact (Johnsgard 1993). Their gular pouches are highly distensible, and can hold up to 11 L) contraction of pouch musculature (i.e., genioglossus muscle) pulling the chin caudally (Johns- gard 1993

Meyers, Ron

38

Short communication Hedgehog structure in nematic and magnetic systems  

E-print Network

1097 Short communication Hedgehog structure in nematic and magnetic systems N. Schopohl and T structure of hedgehog point disclinations in magnetic and nematic liquid crystal systems is investigated. In the nematic hedgehog the solution is uniaxial everywhere. Nematic hedgehogs are very much larger than magnetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

SHORT COMMUNICATION Attraction of ants by an invasive Acacia  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Attraction of ants by an invasive Acacia MARKUS P. EICHHORN, LOUISE C. RATLIFFE be deprived of their co-evolved mutualists. In southern Portugal Acacia dealbata has become naturalised induction, extra-floral nectaries, invasive species, Linepithema humile, Portugal. Introduction Acacia trees

Nottingham, University of

40

SHORT COMMUNICATION Pollen foraging: learning a complex motor skill  

E-print Network

in their choice of pollen flowers. Keywords Bumble bee . Floral morphology. Flower handling skills . Learning; Heinrich 1976; Harder 1990). Effective pollen collection requires the bee to remove powdery pollen fromSHORT COMMUNICATION Pollen foraging: learning a complex motor skill by bumblebees (Bombus

Chittka, Lars

41

SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From (2011); DOI: 10.1603/ME10170 ABSTRACT The phlebotomine sand Ã?ies Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar for either species. KEY WORDS phlebotomine, sand Ã?y, leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia shannoni, Lutzomyia vexator

42

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 118 (2003) 137141 Short communication  

E-print Network

in understory PAR for a mixed deciduous forest in New England, USA Matthew M. Fladeland, Mark S. Ashton, Xuhui and Plusnin, 1945). It is classified as a mixed deciduous­coniferous forest with a tree canopy comprisedAgricultural and Forest Meteorology 118 (2003) 137­141 Short communication Landscape variations

Lee, Xuhui

43

Short Communication Using ADV for cohesive sediment settling velocity measurements  

E-print Network

Marine Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea Received 4 October 2006Author's personal copy Short Communication Using ADV for cohesive sediment settling velocity both the current ve- locity and the SSC (with a careful calibration to convert the * Corresponding

Hilton, Eric J.

44

Short communication A simple stochastic weather generator for ecological modeling  

E-print Network

properties identical to the historical data. Weather is an important driver of many ecological models of real weather patterns (step 3) depends upon the context of an ecological study. Although statisticalShort communication A simple stochastic weather generator for ecological modeling A.G. Birt a,*, M

Xi, Weimin

45

Short communication Observations of eruptive activity at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala  

E-print Network

Short communication Observations of eruptive activity at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala Gregg J volcano, Guatemala, from the vantage point of its parent, Santa Mari´a. We have taken 12 h of digital and Geothermal Research 136 (2004) 297­302 #12;even for a single event, much less a series or cycle of eruptions

Rose, William I.

46

Short communication Origin of arrhythmias in a heart model  

E-print Network

Short communication Origin of arrhythmias in a heart model Hiba Sheheitli, Richard Rand * Dept oscillators a b s t r a c t An investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a heart model is presented. The model com- partmentalizes the heart into one part that beats autonomously (the x oscillator), repre

Rand, Richard H.

47

Short communication Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged  

E-print Network

Short communication Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged using Available online 12 December 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Microbial electrolysis cell Capacitor Energy recovery Voltage reversal a b s t r a c t A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was powered by a capacitor

48

SHORT COMMUNICATION Lack of association between polymorphism of the  

E-print Network

regression models adjusted for demographic factors. An analysis was performed twice: in individuals of all Introduction Obesity is a major health problem worldwide1 influenced by both genetic and environmental factorsSHORT COMMUNICATION Lack of association between polymorphism of the human cyclic GMP

Sokolowski, Marla

49

Short communications First record of freshwater fish on the Cape  

E-print Network

Short communications First record of freshwater fish on the Cape Verdean archipelago Kay Lucek1, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland 2 Department of Fish Ecology, EAWAG Center community. Freshwater fish were not previously recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive survey

50

Short communication Use of bleach to eliminate contaminating DNA from  

E-print Network

Short communication Use of bleach to eliminate contaminating DNA from the surface of bones to minimize such contamination. One such technique is the use of bleach (sodium hypochlorite (approximately equal parts of commercial bleach and water) for at least 15 min. Endogenous DNA proved to be quite

Kemp, Brian M.

51

SHORT COMMUNICATION Environmental distribution of coral-associated  

E-print Network

and coral bleaching resulting from numerous stressors (Rosenberg et al., 2007). Among these interactionsSHORT COMMUNICATION Environmental distribution of coral-associated relatives of apicomplexan was recently found in a specific association with coral reefs (apicomplexan-related lineage-V, or ARL-V). Here

Keeling, Patrick

52

Short Communication Cytogenetics of Hispanic and White Children with Acute  

E-print Network

California Childhood Leukemia Study, an approximately population-based study comprised primarily of HispanicsShort Communication Cytogenetics of Hispanic and White Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in California Melinda C. Aldrich,1 Luoping Zhang,1 Joseph L. Wiemels,2 Xiaomei Ma,3 Mignon L. Loh,2 Catherine

California at Berkeley, University of

53

Short Communication Effects of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase  

E-print Network

Short Communication Effects of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Activator and Inhibitor on In Vivo small animal PET; dibutyryl-cAMP; Rp-adenosine-30 ,50 -cyclic mono- phosphorothioate ABSTRACT RolipramAMP-depend- ent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates PDE4 and increases both enzyme activity and affinity

Baker, Chris I.

54

Short Communication Substance abuse as a dynamical disease  

E-print Network

Short Communication Substance abuse as a dynamical disease: Evidence and clinical implications of substance abuse by fitting a nonlinear model to a time series of the amount of alcohol, which an adult male with a diagnosis of substance abuse consumed on a daily basis. The nonlinear model shows a statistically superior

Sprott, Julien Clinton

55

Short communication A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi  

E-print Network

Short communication A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi Kaya Ghosh a,b,1 microscopy. The distribution pattern of this protein thus suggests either a novel vesicular compartment that cause a wide variety of clinical syndromes in humans, espe- cially in the context of immune suppression

Keeling, Patrick

56

Short communication Hydrogen peroxide induce modifications of human extracellular  

E-print Network

Short communication Hydrogen peroxide induce modifications of human extracellular superoxide of superoxide in the extracellular space by catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In addition, the enzyme reacts with hydrogen peroxide in a peroxidase reaction which

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

57

SHORT COMMUNICATION Gas-Phase Separations of Protease Digests  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Gas-Phase Separations of Protease Digests Stephen J. Valentine, Anne E University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA A mixture of peptides from a complete tryptic digest of ubiquitin has and identify peptides from a tryptic digest of ubiquitin. The mixture was electrosprayed into the gas phase

Clemmer, David E.

58

Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts  

E-print Network

Short communication Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy's impacts Jennifer L. Irish a Accepted 6 June 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Hurricanes Storm surge Waves Storm damage Seawalls of Hurricane Sandy revealed clear differences in patterns of the impact between two neighboring boroughs along

Lynett, Patrick

59

Short Communication Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequence and Amino Acid  

E-print Network

at similar levels in all developmental stages and tissues. Keywords: Aedes aegypti; COI; mtDNA; SNP; Insect. For example, compared to vertebrate mtDNA, insect mtDNA is much more A þ T rich (Clary and Wolstenholme, 1985Short Communication Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequence and Amino Acid Analysis of the Cytochrome C

Severson, David

60

Z .Developmental Brain Research 111 1998 301303 Short communication  

E-print Network

Z .Developmental Brain Research 111 1998 301­303 Short communication Oxytocin is elevated in plasma Z .In adult rats, oxytocin OT has been shown to reduce the intake of both food and fluids indicated that the neuro- Z .hormone oxytocin OT plays an important role in inhibit- w xing ingestion

61

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 880886 Short communication  

E-print Network

Journal of Power Sources 165 (2007) 880­886 Short communication Comparison of approximate solution in the literature. The pseudo steady state (PSS) method is a method that has been used recently to develop length method; Polynomial approximation; Pseudo steady state method 1. Introduction Porous electrode

62

SHORT COMMUNICATION Founding population size of an aquatic invasive species  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Founding population size of an aquatic invasive species Steven T. Kalinowski Introduction Invasive species threaten the biodiversity of aquatic eco- systems worldwide (Vitousek et al. 1997 threaten native popu- lations of bull trout. Effective management of lake trout and other exotic species

Kalinowski, Steven T

63

Short Communication Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex)  

E-print Network

Short Communication Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from June 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: Control region Cryptic species Mexican leopard frogs the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico

Markow, Therese

64

Short Communication DNA Sequence Error Rates in Genbank Records Estimated  

E-print Network

Short Communication DNA Sequence Error Rates in Genbank Records Estimated using the Mouse Genome estimate DNA sequence error rates in Genbank records containing protein-coding and non-coding DNA sequences in Genbank accessions. The estimated single nucleotide error rate for intronic DNA sequences (0.22%; SE 0

Keightley, Peter

65

Oryx Vol 37 No 4 October 2003 Short Communication  

E-print Network

Oryx Vol 37 No 4 October 2003 Short Communication Satellite tracking of flamingos in southern important breeding sites in southern Africa for lesser flamingos Phoeniconaias minor and and nomadic among a network of wetlands around the subcontinent. Small wetlands, often unrecognized asgreater flamingos

Richner, Heinz

66

Short communication Glomalin production by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

E-print Network

Short communication Glomalin production by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus: a mechanism of habitat constitutes a large carbon (and nitrogen) cost for the obligately biotrophic AM fungus, and the functional importance of glomalin production to the fungus is so far unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the fungus

Rilli, Matthias C.

67

Short Communication Granta Gravel model of sandpile avalanches: towards critical  

E-print Network

2515 Short Communication Granta Gravel model of sandpile avalanches: towards critical fluctuations inspirant du modèle de "Granta Gravel", nous proposons une approche théo- rique des avalanches de billes ou plastiques et des effets de dilatance. On montre en particulier, que la taille des avalanches est controlée

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Short Communication Mitochondrial DNA variation among host races of Eurosta  

E-print Network

Short Communication Mitochondrial DNA variation among host races of Eurosta solidaginis Fitch. Sequencing analysis was used to characterize two mitochondrial gene fragments: (1) NADH1 dehydrogenase (ND1 (RFLPs), and DNA sequencing (e.g., Brown et al., 1996; Feder et al., 1988, 1990; McPheron, 1990; Mc

Cronin, James T.

69

SHORT COMMUNICATION A decade of amphibian population genetic studies: synthesis  

E-print Network

+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Amphibians are declining globally, and a comprehensive understanding Conservation Introduction In the face of global amphibian declines, it has become increasingly criticalSHORT COMMUNICATION A decade of amphibian population genetic studies: synthesis and recommendations

Storfer, Andrew

70

SHORT COMMUNICATION An audio/video surveillance system for wildlife  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION An audio/video surveillance system for wildlife Roman Gula & Jörn Theuerkauf frequently visited by wildlife. Keywords Methods . Video surveillance . Nest monitoring . Digital video for studying wildlife. Camera systems featuring motion sensors, time lapse and continuous recording have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters. gallopavo intermedia) populations during March 2006 using an R44 helicopter. We used flocks with radio was 94.7% (74.0­99.9%; 95% CI). Our simu- lations suggested helicopter surveys would underestimate

Wallace, Mark C.

72

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters helicopter. We used flocks with radio-tagged birds to estimate flock detectability. We also used simulations that wild turkey flock detectability was 94.7% (74.0­99.9%; 95% CI). Our simu- lations suggested helicopter

Butler, Matthew J.

73

Short Communication Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs  

E-print Network

Short Communication Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs and Farmers in the Largest Farm (12.3%) Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 464 pigs and 16 (30.8%) isolates from 52 farmers as the genetic backgrounds of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

SHORT COMMUNICATION Tamarack and black spruce adventitious root patterns are  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Tamarack and black spruce adventitious root patterns are similar, accepted 15 May 2012. Veverica, T. J., Kane, E. S. and Kasischke, E. S. 2012. Tamarack and black spruce following wildfires in boreal black spruce forests can also be applied to mixed tamarack forests growing

75

SHORT COMMUNICATION The arthropod, but not the vertebrate host or  

E-print Network

communities of ticks were less diverse and more dependent on arthropod traits--especially tick species (Supplementary Figure S2). Similar to other studies on blood-sucking arthropods, we found diverse bacterialSHORT COMMUNICATION The arthropod, but not the vertebrate host or its environment, dictates

Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C.

76

SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic and Weight Loss Effects of Long-  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic and Weight Loss Effects of Long- Term Dietary Intervention in Obese in obese pa- tients: Four-year results. Obes Res. 2000;8:399­402. Objective: To investigate the contribution of meal and snack replacements for long-term weight maintenance and risk factor reduction in obese

Suchard, Marc A.

77

Short communication The cost of postponing biodiversity conservation in Mexico  

E-print Network

Short communication The cost of postponing biodiversity conservation in Mexico Trevon Fullera , Vi´ctor Sa´nchez-Corderob , Patricia Illoldi-Rangelb , Miguel Linajeb , Sahotra Sarkara, * a Biodiversity rich in the world, their biodiversity is threatened by the loss of native vegetation. Land conversion

Sarkar, Sahotra

78

Short Communication Discovery of a regionally important green turtle  

E-print Network

Short Communication Discovery of a regionally important green turtle Chelonia mydas rookery and other Syrian beaches was undertaken to improve and update knowledge of Syria's marine turtle nesting populations. The survey confirmed that loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta nest in Syria (eight nests recorded

Exeter, University of

79

SHORT COMMUNICATION White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, forage on rubbish dumps  

E-print Network

on rubbish dumps or slaughter- house wastes (Tortosa et al. 1995, 2003). Similar foraging behaviour seemsSHORT COMMUNICATION White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, forage on rubbish dumps in Poland--a novel on the foraging of White Storks on rubbish dumps, a novel behaviour in Central European populations, is presented

Boyer, Edmond

80

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-print Network

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R November 7983) A comparative study is made of the relative catalytic effects of potassium and calcium of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

81

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 395 ment composition in the American Goldfinch.  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 395 ment composition in the American Goldfinch. Comparative Biochemistry trait in North American Barn Swallows. Behavioral Ecology, in press. SAINO, N., R. STRADI, P. NINNI, E ornamentation of male Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica). American Naturalist 154:441­448. SIEFFERMAN, L. M., AND G

Grether, Gregory

82

SHORT COMMUNICATION The Histone Database: A Comprehensive Resource for  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION The Histone Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Histones and Histone Fold, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 2 Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome a direct impact on DNA transcription and replication).1 Eukary- otic DNA wraps around a histone octamer

Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

83

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-print Network

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison levels of molybdenum, and sulfur contents are often in excess in ruminant feeds. The minimum level of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Short Communication Application of bare gold nanoparticles  

E-print Network

electrolyte (BGE) composed of 20 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7, modified with ACN at 8:2 v/v ratio capillary wall and improving their resolution. Keywords: CE / Gold nanoparticles / Peptides / Polyaromatic (GC) [12, 13] and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [14]. Moreover, derivatized gold

Miksik, Ivan

85

Brevity is prevalent in bat short-range communication.  

PubMed

Animal communication follows many coding schemes. Less is known about the coding strategy for signal length and rates of use in animal vocal communication. A generalized brevity (negative relation between signal length and frequency of use) is innovatively explored but remains controversial in animal vocal communication. We tested brevity for short-range social and distress sounds from four echolocating bats: adult black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogon, Mexican free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis, adult greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and adult least horseshoe bat Rhinolophus pusillus. There was a negative association between duration and number of social but not distress calls emitted. The most frequently emitted social calls were brief, while most distress calls were long. Brevity or lengthiness was consistently selected in vocal communications for each species. Echolocating bats seem to have convergent coding strategy for communication calls. The results provide the evidence of efficient coding in bat social vocalizations, and lay the basis of future researches on the convergence for neural control on bats' communication calls. PMID:23377576

Luo, Bo; Jiang, Tinglei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Lin, Aiqing; Wei, Xuewen; Feng, Jiang

2013-04-01

86

Short Communication Herbarium specimens as a source of DNA for AFLP fingerprinting  

E-print Network

Short Communication Herbarium specimens as a source of DNA for AFLP fingerprinting of Phragmites are a valuable source of genetic information. Even though the DNA obtained from the specimens is often highly fragmented and present in small quantities, it has been successfully used particularly for DNA sequencing

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

87

Short communication Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of  

E-print Network

waste- water along with treatment [3]. The maximum power output of MFCs has increased by several ordersShort communication Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air t s High humidity or increased water pressure reduced power production. Cathode performance decreased due

88

Short message service in a multicampus communication environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it becomes more and more popular that an enterprise builds up a private mobile network. With this wireless network, the enterprise can increase its communication efficiency and productivity. In this paper, we present a private mobile communication system using DECT as the wireless radio technology. The system consists of radio system, Enterprise Service Control Node (ESCN), and PBX. ESCN is the service center of the whole system. It provides functions such as mobility management, call control, and supplementary services. Besides, ESCN is a wireless adjunct to PBX. It integrates the wireless and wired telephone system into one system. In addition, ESCN can connect multiple RE (Radio Exchange) to provide a large number of handsets. The interfaces between ESCN and PBX are T/R and R2/E1. Thus, both line interface and trunk interface are supported. Instead of voice service, it is also important to provide low rate data service in wireless system. In this paper, we describe how to provide short message service in the ESCN. Three different types of short message are supported. They are (1) point-to-point (2) group notification and (3) broadcast. Besides, we also consider how to deliver short message when the short message targets located in multiple campuses. The whole mobile system has been developed, and currently it is under field trial.

Fan, Kuo-Pao; Yen, Meng-Tzu; Lin, Chin-Yi

2001-10-01

89

When the facts are just not enough: Credibly communicating about risk is riskier when emotions run high and time is short  

SciTech Connect

When discussing risk with people, commonly subject matter experts believe that conveying the facts will be enough to allow people to assess a risk and respond rationally to that risk. Because of this expectation, experts often become exasperated by the seemingly illogical way people assess personal risk and choose to manage that risk. In crisis situations when the risk information is less defined and choices must be made within impossible time constraints, the thought processes may be even more susceptible to faulty heuristics. Understanding the perception of risk is essential to understanding why the public becomes more or less upset by events. This article explores the psychological underpinnings of risk assessment within emotionally laden events and the risk communication practices that may facilitate subject matter experts to provide the facts in a manner so they can be more certain those facts are being heard. Source credibility is foundational to risk communication practices. The public meeting is one example in which these best practices can be exercised. Risks are risky because risk perceptions differ and the psychosocial environment in which risk is discussed complicates making risk decisions. Experts who want to influence the actions of the public related to a threat or risk should understand that decisions often involve emotional as well as logical components. The media and other social entities will also influence the risk context. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's crisis and emergency-risk communication (CERC) principles are intended to increase credibility and recognize emotional components of an event. During a risk event, CERC works to calm emotions and increase trust which can help people apply the expertise being offered by response officials.

Reynolds, Barbara J., E-mail: Bsr0@cdc.gov

2011-07-15

90

AC 2007-1166: BUILDING ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION SKILLS THROUGH SHORT ASSIGNMENTS  

E-print Network

to communicate via memos, abstracts, graphics, brief communications and oral presentations. Communication skills of short assignments that build skills needed to produce a final written oral or graphical communication and oral presentations. It is this type of unfocused communication that we, as educators and graders

Tranquillo, Joseph V.

91

Communications Highly Conductive, Regioregular  

E-print Network

,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which exhibited high stabilities in the oxidized state and conductivities up to 600 S applications. Nevertheless, since the discovery of PEDOT in 1989, dioxythiophene chemistry has developed

McCullough, Richard D.

92

Short communication: HIV+ viremic slow progressors maintain low regulatory T cell numbers in rectal mucosa but exhibit high T cell activation.  

PubMed

Viremic slow progressors (VSP) are a rare subset of HIV-infected persons who exhibit slow immunologic progression despite high viremia. The mechanisms associated with this slow progression remain to be defined. Clinical characteristics of VSP are similar to those of natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), such as sooty mangabeys (SM) and African green monkeys (AGM), who maintain near-normal CD4 counts despite high-level viremia but maintain low immune activation. Immune activation is a powerful predictor of disease progression, and we hypothesized that low immune activation might also explain the VSP phenotype. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we assessed levels of T cell activation and regulatory T cells (Treg) in blood and rectal mucosa of VSP, typical progressors, virologic controllers, and seronegative controls. We also assessed Treg function and CD4 T cell proliferative capacity in VSP. Contrary to expectations, we found that VSP subjects have high levels of T cell activation in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The ratio of Treg to CD3+ T cells in the mucosa of VSP was relatively low, potentially contributing to increased immune activation. Nonetheless, CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from these individuals displayed a comparatively weak proliferative response to anti-CD3 stimulation. These data reveal that the VSP phenotype is associated with elevated markers of mucosal immune activation and low numbers of mucosal Treg, suggesting that factors other than immune activation account for this phenotype. PMID:22998457

Shaw, Julia M; Hunt, Peter W; Critchfield, J William; McConnell, Delandy H; Garcia, Juan Carlos; Pollard, Richard B; Somsouk, Ma; Deeks, Steven G; Shacklett, Barbara L

2013-01-01

93

An algorithm of an adaptive equalizer for short-wave communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for a decision feedback equalizer is proposed. Its feedforward section uses a square root Kalman (SRK) algorithm, while its feedback section uses a gradient algorithm. Comparison of this algorithm with a conventionally used SRK algorithm is given. The implementation of the two algorithms with TMS32020 is discussed. It shows the new algorithm is ideal for high-speed short-wave communication.

ZHANG TIE JUN

1994-01-01

94

Short communication: Milk fat depression induced by conjugated linoleic acid and a high-oil and low-fiber diet occurs equally across the day in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Recently, a circadian rhythm of milk and milk component synthesis has been characterized that is partially dependent on the timing of feed intake. Our objective was to determine if inhibition of milk fat synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression occurred to a higher degree during certain phases of the day. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 2 experiments that induced milk fat depression while milking cows 3 times per day at equal intervals. The response at each milking was analyzed using mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures. In experiment 1, nine multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design, and treatments were control, 3-d intravenous infusion of 10g/d of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and a low-forage and high-fat diet for 10 d. In experiment 2, ten multiparous ruminally cannulated cows were arranged in a replicated design and milk samples were collected during a control period or after 5 d of abomasal infusion of 10g/d of CLA. The daily pattern of milk fat concentration and yield did not differ between treatments in either experiment. In experiment 1, an effect was found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and yield. Similarly, in experiment 2, main effects were found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and an effect of treatment, but no effect of milking time on milk fat yield. Milk fat percent was increased from 3.41 to 4.06% and 3.25 to 3.48% from the morning to the afternoon milking in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, milk fatty acid profile, including trans intermediates, was changed over the day in experiment 1, but the magnitude of the changes were small and the pattern did not differ among treatments. A daily rhythm of milk fat concentration and yield was observed in cows milked 3 times a day, but milk fat depression decreases milk fat yield equally over the day. PMID:25529418

Ma, L; Cook, K L; Bauman, D E; Harvatine, K J

2015-03-01

95

Short communication Biosensor based on chemically-designed anchorable cytochrome c  

E-print Network

Short communication Biosensor based on chemically-designed anchorable cytochrome c and the immobilized heme- containing protein that exhibits perodixase (or pseudo-) activity. Therefore, in the case electrical communication resorts to orientation and distance issues between the electrode surface

Dalang, Robert C.

96

Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat content and yield. Milk fat content decreased during the course of the experiment (least squares means = 3.16, 2.81, 2.93, and 2.64 ± 0.09% for periods 1 to 4, respectively), as did milk fat yield (1.20, 1.03, 0.98, and 0.79 ± 0.05 kg/d). Exchanging molasses-based products for corn at 2.9 to 5.8% of dietary DM did not influence productivity and had minute effects on milk FA profile. The limited responses in this study may have been influenced by dietary unsaturated FA content or the advancing stage of lactation of cows in the study. PMID:24746128

Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

2014-06-01

97

Short Paper: An Ultrasonic Communication System for Biotelemetry in Extremely Shallow Waters  

E-print Network

Short Paper: An Ultrasonic Communication System for Biotelemetry in Extremely Shallow Waters_dean@ncsu.edu ABSTRACT This paper introduces an ultrasonic communication system for biotelemetry in extremely shallow. This paper's primary contribution is hardware and soft- ware for an ultrasonic communications system which

Dean, Alexander G.

98

Secure Email Communication: A Short Guide for Patients WHEN TO USE EMAIL  

E-print Network

Secure Email Communication: A Short Guide for Patients WHEN TO USE EMAIL Many UConn Health Center with their patients. Your provider may choose to use secure email to communicate with you. This fact · Email can There are a number of risks that you should consider: providers welcome secure email communication

Oliver, Douglas L.

99

The research of parking guidance and information system based on dedicated short range communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parking guidance and information system (PGIS) is a part of intelligent transportation system (ITS). As a new short-range wireless transmission technology. Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) is a rock-bottom communication technique of ITS, which realizes the communication between roads and vehicles. In this paper, the DSRC system was introduced. The architecture of PGIS based on DSRC was built up. The information

Zhong Hui-ling; Xu Jian-min; Tu Yu; Hu Yu-cong; Sun Ji-feng

2003-01-01

100

Vehicular wireless short-range communication for improving intersection safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle communication has recently garnered considerable attention from both academia and industry because it holds the potential to improve road safety and to reduce road accidents. For this reason, V2X communication has been considered a key technology of the future Intelligent Transportation Systems. Use cases for V2X communication for enhancing intersection safety are appealing because intersections are the

Long Le; Andreas Festag; Roberto Baldessari; Wenhui Zhang

2009-01-01

101

Short message service in a multicampus communication environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it becomes more and more popular that an enterprise builds up a private mobile network. With this wireless network, the enterprise can increase its communication efficiency and productivity. In this paper, we present a private mobile communication system using DECT as the wireless radio technology. The system consists of radio system, Enterprise Service Control Node (ESCN), and PBX. ESCN

Kuo-Pao Fan; Meng-Tzu Yen; Chin-Yi Lin

2001-01-01

102

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Energetic Cost of Insecticide Resistance in Culex pipiens Mosquitoes  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Energetic Cost of Insecticide Resistance in Culex pipiens Mosquitoes A. RIVERO) of larvae and adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens L. resistant to insecticides through two different

Rivero, Ana

103

Z .Advances in Environmental Research 4 2000 357 362 Short communication  

E-print Network

Z .Advances in Environmental Research 4 2000 357 362 Short communication Predicting humidity effect,U , Mark P. Calb a U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL 61826-9005, USA b

Cal, Mark P.

104

SHORT COMMUNICATION Somatic energy of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at the  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Somatic energy of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at the onset of upriver Stuart) of adult Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada) sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), collected. Key words: body energy, climate change, energetics, ocean climate, Oncorhynchus, Pacific salmon

Farrell, Anthony P.

105

Short Communication Reproduction of honeybee workers is regulated by epidermal growth  

E-print Network

Short Communication Reproduction of honeybee workers is regulated by epidermal growth factor Keywords: Reproductive division Epidermal growth factor receptor Fertility Hymenoptera Honeybee Apis, also induces reproduc- tion in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). These data show that worker fertility

Wenseleers, Tom

106

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study  

E-print Network

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study integrating. Boulevard, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading infectious cause infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent

Rosenberg, Noah

107

SHORT COMMUNICATION The effect of pathogens on selection against deleterious mutations  

E-print Network

mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. in Drosophila melanogaster JADENE A.YOUNG, CHRISTOPHER P. YOURTH & ANEIL F. AGRAWAL Department of EcologySHORT COMMUNICATION The effect of pathogens on selection against deleterious mutations

Agrawal, Aneil F.

108

Memorable Messages of Hard Times: Constructing Short and Long-Term Resiliencies Through Family Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a communicative and life course theory approach to understanding how resilience is constructed in families. Drawing upon interviews with 20 fathers, 16 mothers, and 23 children who dealt with financial hardship during the 1980s recession, we analyze the messages families communicated about finances when their children were young and how these messages contributed to the development of short-

Kristen Lucas; Patrice M. Buzzanell

2012-01-01

109

The Impact of Business Communication Education on Students’ Short and Long-Term Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify the short- and long-term impact of business communication education on students’ skill developments and performance outcomes. Nearly 400 students at an AACSC International–accredited business college participated in the study during their sophomore and senior years. The findings indicate that the business communication course helped students develop good skills in writing reports,

Jensen J. Zhao; Melody W. Alexander

2004-01-01

110

A high temperature superconductivity communications flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) millimeter-wave communications flight experiment from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) in geosynchronous orbit is described. The experiment will use a Ka-band HTSC phased array antenna and front-end electronics to receive a downlink communications signal from the ACTS. The discussion covers the system configuration, a description of the ground equipment, the spacecraft receiver, link performance, thermal loading, and the superconducting antenna array.

Ngo, P.; Krishen, K.; Arndt, D.; Raffoul, G.; Karasack, V.; Bhasin, K.; Leonard, R.

1992-01-01

111

High performance computing and communications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is provided in vugraph format. The goals and objectives of this federal program are as follows: extend U.S. leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; disseminate the technologies to speed innovation and to serve national goals; and spur gains in industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing integral to design and production.

Holcomb, Lee

1992-01-01

112

SHORT COMMUNICATION Are European starlings breeding in the Azores archipelago  

E-print Network

in the winter. In 2001, starlings were found to eat eggs of the common tern Sterna hirundo and the endangered) has recently been found to eat eggs of the endangered roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) in the Azores roseate tern Sterna Communicated by W. Lutz V. C. Neves :K. Griffiths :F. R. Savory :R. W. Furness : B. K

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Short Communication Potential Remobilization of Belowground Permafrost Carbon under Future  

E-print Network

). This is a positive feedback within the Earth System, as climate warming results in permafrost thawing that causes. This effect is not yet considered in climate model projections of future global warming. PERMAFROSTShort Communication Potential Remobilization of Belowground Permafrost Carbon under Future Global

Wagner, Diane

114

10-Mbps Short-Range Baseband Wireless Communications via Quasi-Static Electric Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel short-range wireless communications technology that uses quasi-static electric fields; it enables data communication between devices separated by up to 10cm via dielectric media at a speed of 10Mbps. It is considered to be a secure wireless technology since communication area is restricted to below about 10cm. To suppress electromagnetic radiation, we adopted a baseband transmission scheme in which the quasi-static electric field is directly modulated by 10BASE-T data signals. Since the spectra of the data signals are concentrated to below 20MHz, the amplitude of the electric field rapidly decreases outside the communication area. This contributes to enhancing security of the communications system. In this paper, we explain a basic principle of the short-range wireless communications technology. Since baseband data signals are carried by the quasi-static electric field, the quality of the communication is easily degraded by the existence of the earth ground. To isolate the communications system from the earth ground, we introduce a novel electro-optic sensor to receive the quasi-static electric field. With the electro-optic sensor, stable data communication is possible at 10Mbps via dielectric materials, such as a wooden table.

Sasaki, Ai-Ichiro; Furuya, Akinori; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

115

High intensity, high contrast laser solid interactions with short pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes experimental discoveries related to laser-based ion acceleration from thin foils and the production of high brightness x-rays from high order harmonic generation. High power femtosecond lasers are ideally suited for use as tabletop particle accelerators since their short pulse duration enables very high intensities to be generated at high repetition rates from a compact laser. However, if laser pulse energy arrives before the main short pulse, it can interact with the target to cause ablation making high intensity investigations of laser-solid interactions difficult. In the following experiments, the laser pulse-to-pedestal contrast was improved by 15 orders of magnitude out to nanosecond timescales, allowing for excellent control over the interaction of a short pulse with solid density material. A sharply-rising laser pulse with 50 TW of power was focused to a 1.2 micron focal spot, achieving intensities over 1021Wcm-- 2. Protons accelerated due to sheath acceleration were studied in ultrathin targets. By sculpting the plasma density using shaped ultrafast pulses, control over the proton and ion spectra was also demonstrated. Finite spot effects from circular polarized laser pulses produced efficient acceleration for ultrathin foils, which resulted from the efficient conversion of laser light into high energy electrons. Finally, as the laser pulse drives the critical electron density relativistically, harmonics of the driving laser are produced. Harmonics up to order 60th were observed. It was observed that for a plasma scale length beyond a threshold value, parametric instabilities strongly modulated the harmonic spectra. Numerical simulations were performed to support the physical interpretation.

Dollar, Franklin Jon

116

Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry

1989-01-01

117

Short range RF communication for jet engine control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method transmitting a message over at least one of a plurality of radio frequency (RF) channels of an RF communications network is provided. The method comprises the steps of detecting a presence of jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels. The characteristics of the jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels is determined wherein the determined characteristics define at least interstices between the jamming pulses. The message is transmitted over the at least one of the plurality of RF channels wherein the message is transmitted within the interstices of the jamming pulse determined from the step of determining characteristics of the jamming pulses.

Sexton, Daniel White (Inventor); Hershey, John Erik (Inventor)

2007-01-01

118

On Short Forward Error-Correcting Codes for Wireless Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For real-time wireless communications, short forward error-correcting (FEC) codes are indispensable due to the strict delay requirement. In this paper we study the performance of short FEC codes. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and concatenated zigzag (CZ) codes are chosen as representatives of classical algebraic codes and modern simple iterative decodable codes, respectively. Additionally, we use random binary linear codes as a

Sheng Tong; Dengsheng Lin; Aleksandar Kavcic; Baoming Bai; Li Ping

2007-01-01

119

High accuracy deployable antenna for communications satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency multi-beam satellite antennas have been studied to realize increased communication capacity, simplified earth stations, and multiple frequency reuse. The satellite antenna needs a highly accurate and large reflector. To overcome the launching vehicle's constraints in size and weight, a solid deployable antenna is under development. A petal antenna (PETAL), composed of solid shell elements, has been studied as

M. Watanabe; M. Misawa; M. Minomo; T. Yasaka

1982-01-01

120

Short signalling distances make plant communication a soliloquy.  

PubMed

Plants respond to attack by herbivores or pathogens with the release of volatile organic compounds. Neighbouring plants can receive these volatiles and consecutively induce their own defence arsenal. This 'plant communication', however, appears counterintuitive when it benefits independent and genetically unrelated receivers, which may compete with the emitter. As a solution to this problem, a role for volatile compounds in within-plant signalling has been predicted. We used wild-type lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) to quantify under field conditions the distances over which volatile signals move, and thereby determine whether these cues will mainly trigger resistance in other parts of the same plant or in independent plants. Independent receiver plants exhibited airborne resistance to herbivores or pathogens at maximum distances of 50 cm from a resistance-expressing emitter. In undisturbed clusters of lima bean, over 80 per cent of all leaves that were located around a single leaf at this distance were other leaves of the same plant, whereas this percentage dropped below 50 per cent at larger distances. Under natural conditions, resistance-inducing volatiles of lima bean move over distances at which most leaves that can receive the signal still belong to the same plant. PMID:20554558

Heil, Martin; Adame-Álvarez, Rosa M

2010-12-23

121

Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

Farr, William H.

2012-01-01

122

Short communication: Study on veterinarian communication skills preferred and perceived by dairy farmers.  

PubMed

Effective communication in dairy farms improves management and herd health, and it is also pivotal for public health in a "from farm to fork" perspective. This paper reports the results of a descriptive study on dairy farmers' perception of veterinarian and other consultants' communication skills. Perceived communication skills showed to be significantly lower than desired ones for all the professional figures considered. Despite these unsatisfactory results, veterinarian were the most appreciated and skilled consultants. The observed farmers' dissatisfaction increases farmers' difficulties in identifying proper targets and proper consultant. An increase in the skill of veterinarian to deliver effective and tailored messages could help to overcome the problem. PMID:25744431

Cipolla, M; Zecconi, A

2015-04-01

123

SHORT COMMUNICATION TRPV6 channel controls prostate cancer cell proliferation via  

E-print Network

uptake; NFAT; proliferation; LNCaP cells Prostate cancer remains the most common noncutaneous human (Cooperberg et al., 2005). Androgen receptor (AR) and cognate ligands regulate vital aspects of prostate cellSHORT COMMUNICATION TRPV6 channel controls prostate cancer cell proliferation via Ca2 þ /NFAT

Cai, Long

124

Short Communication Functional ear (a)symmetry in brainstem neural activity relevant to encoding  

E-print Network

Short Communication Functional ear (a)symmetry in brainstem neural activity relevant to encoding (FFR) Functional ear asymmetry Experience-dependent plasticity Subcortical a b s t r a c t Pitch areas. This experiment investigates whether ear asymmetries vary in brainstem representation of pitch

Dasgupta, Dipankar

125

SHORT SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION Acoustic recordings in human ear canals to sounds  

E-print Network

SHORT SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION Acoustic recordings in human ear canals to sounds at different for different sound locations in an anechoic chamber. For humans, we embedded microphones in ear molds that were custom fitted to the subject's ear canal. For the ball, the microphones were flush with the surface at 90

Oliver, Douglas L.

126

432 ShortCommunications [Auk,Vol. 108 unmated Northern Mockingbirds, Mimus poly-  

E-print Network

432 ShortCommunications [Auk,Vol. 108 unmated Northern Mockingbirds, Mimus poly- glottos repertoire size in Northern Mockingbirds(Mimuspolyglottos).Auk 104: 198-207. --. 1988. Variationin repertoirepresentationin Northern Mockingbirds.Condor 90:592-606. HEGNER,R. E., & J. C. WING·IELD. 1986. Gonadal

Lougheed, Stephen

127

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation with  

E-print Network

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation microbial diversity and biological activity during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean. Metagenomic analysis revealed 23 LAB related to kimchi fermentation [defined as bacteria with more than a 1

Bae, Jin-Woo

128

Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

2013-01-01

129

Short Communication1 Vitamin E Status and Quality of Life in the Elderly:4  

E-print Network

1 Short Communication1 2 3 Vitamin E Status and Quality of Life in the Elderly:4 Influence of life31 32 Key Words: vitamin E, aging, inflammation, quality of life33 34 inserm-00382151,version1-7May to alterations in37 health status and quality of life. In addition to intrinsic biological factors, recent data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Short Communication Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array  

E-print Network

., 1997, 2000) in response to both psychological and nutritional stress. Combining thyroid and GC hormoneShort Communication Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array Accepted 13 April 2010 Available online 20 April 2010 Keywords: Thyroid hormone Triiodothyronine Thyroxine

131

Short Communication Amphibian-killing fungus loses genetic diversity as it spreads across the New World  

E-print Network

Short Communication Amphibian-killing fungus loses genetic diversity as it spreads across the New December 2011 Available online 29 December 2011 Keywords: Amphibian declines Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to identify factors driving disease out- breaks. Amphibian chytridiomycosis is a recently emerged amphibian

Zamudio, Kelly R.

132

SHORT COMMUNICATION Testing taxonomic boundaries and the limit of DNA barcoding in the  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Testing taxonomic boundaries and the limit of DNA barcoding in the Siberian Canadian Barcode of Life Network, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Ont., Canada, 5 Department; accepted 7 July 2009) Abstract DNA barcoding efforts involving animals have focused on the mitochondrial

DeSalle, Rob

133

Short Communication ``Entombed Pollen": A new condition in honey bee colonies associated  

E-print Network

Short Communication ``Entombed Pollen": A new condition in honey bee colonies associated disorder Bee bread Honey bee Pesticide residues Physical encapsulation Entombed pollen a b s t r a c t Here of micro- bial agents in the pollen, and larvae and adult bees do not have an increased rate of mortality

Tarpy, David R.

134

SHORT COMMUNICATION Discovery of a Gall-Forming Midge, Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer (Diptera  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Discovery of a Gall-Forming Midge, Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer (Diptera established on the West Coast, was the small gall- forming midge. Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer which was very. The first discovery occurred when the gall mite. Aceria genistae (Nalepa) (Acarinai Eriophyidae), one

135

Short communication Effect of vanadium redox species on photoelectrochemical behavior of TiO2  

E-print Network

Short communication Effect of vanadium redox species on photoelectrochemical behavior of TiO2 TiO2/WO3 Photoelectrochemical cell Vanadium redox Photocharge/discharge a b s t r a c by using a vanadium redox (VO2þ ) species. The goal is to explore regenerative solar energy storage using

Liu, Fuqiang

136

Short communication Equatorial influence of QuikSCAT winds in an isopycnal ocean model  

E-print Network

Short communication Equatorial influence of QuikSCAT winds in an isopycnal ocean model compared to NCEP2 winds ChuanLi Jiang a,*, LuAnne Thompson a , Kathryn A. Kelly b a School of Oceanography 2008 a b s t r a c t An ocean model was used to examine whether the scatterometer winds can improve

Jiang, ChuanLi

137

Short communication Measuring pressure in the source region for geysers, Geyser  

E-print Network

Short communication Measuring pressure in the source region for geysers, Geyser Valley, Kamchatka: Received 18 June 2013 Accepted 31 July 2013 Available online 13 August 2013 Keywords: Geyser Overpressure Hydrothermal explosion Geothermal systems Liquid water and steam that erupt at geysers are provided from deeper

Manga, Michael

138

Short Communication A mega-herd of more than 200,000 Mongolian  

E-print Network

Short Communication A mega-herd of more than 200,000 Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa to the observation of a historically large Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa herd (. 200,000). A model developed to predict gazelle occurrence based on satellite imagery of vegetation productivity correctly identi- fied

Schweik, Charles M.

139

Short communication A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) for enhanced  

E-print Network

Short communication A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) for enhanced hydrogen fluidized electrode electrolysis cell was designed for H2 production. The total cumulative charge electrolysis cell (MFEEC) Fluidized anode Granular activated carbon (GAC) Hydrogen production a b s t r a c

140

Short communication Heritability and genome-wide linkage analysis of migraine in the genetic isolate of  

E-print Network

Short communication Heritability and genome-wide linkage analysis of migraine in the genetic Available online xxxx Keywords: Norfolk Island Migraine Genome Wide Linkage Analysis Association Chromosome 13 Chromosome 9 Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder with a complex envirogenomic aetiology

Nyholt, Dale R.

141

Short communication Using lipid analysis and hyphal length to quantify AM and saprotrophic  

E-print Network

Short communication Using lipid analysis and hyphal length to quantify AM and saprotrophic fungal) and saprotrophic fungal (SF) biomass in three Hawaiian soils along a natural soil fertility gradient. Phospholipids16:1u5c and 18:2u6,9c were used as an index of AM and saprotrophic fungal biomass, respectively. Both

Treseder, Kathleen K.

142

SHORT COMMUNICATION Social semantics: toward a genuine pluralism in the study of social  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Social semantics: toward a genuine pluralism in the study of social behaviour D pub- lished in this journal, West et al. (2007) attempt to make sense of the semantic confusion of maximizing the advantages of multiple theoretical frameworks while avoiding the semantic costs. Why pluralism

Gardner, Andy

143

Short communication Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine  

E-print Network

& Raman spectroscopy verifies polydopamine (PDA) on the microsphere surface. Autonomic shutdown of Li and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surfaceShort communication Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated

Sottos, Nancy R.

144

Short Communication Effects of enzyme loading and b-glucosidase supplementation  

E-print Network

Short Communication Effects of enzyme loading and b-glucosidase supplementation on enzymatic treated substrates. For all pretreatments, 72 h glucan/xylan digestibilities increased sharply with enzyme. For a fixed level of enzyme loading, dilute sulfuric acid (DA), SO2, and Lime pretreatments exhibited higher

California at Riverside, University of

145

Short communication On the pressure drop prediction of filter media composed of fibers with  

E-print Network

Short communication On the pressure drop prediction of filter media composed of fibers with bimodal to collection efficiency, pressure drop is the most important characteristic of a filter medium. While there are numerous analytical expressions available for predicting the pressure drop of the filters made up of fibers

Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

146

Short Communication Orang-utan nest surveys: the devil is in the details  

E-print Network

decay rates is unsettling, and is not widely acknowledged by our fellow orang-utan conservationShort Communication Orang-utan nest surveys: the devil is in the details Andrew J. Marshall and Erik Meijaard Abstract Nest surveys are widely employed to assess the population density of orang-utans

147

Short communication A nonlinear model to generate the winner-take-all competition  

E-print Network

­11], optimization based model [12,13], discrete-time different equation model [14], neural network model [15Short communication A nonlinear model to generate the winner-take-all competition Shuai Li a August 2012 Keywords: winner-take-all Positive feedback Negative feedback Nonlinear Competition a b s t r

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

148

Z .Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 88 1999 201207 Short communication  

E-print Network

Z .Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 88 1999 201­207 Short communication Exsolution. Geotherm. Res. 74, 19­38 also found an increase of the exsolution enthalpy with pressure up to 20 bar. Z .PII: S0377-0273 98 00115-2 #12;( )Y. ZhangrJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 88 1999

Zhang, Youxue

149

Journal of Insect Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2002 ( C 2002) Short Communication  

E-print Network

Journal of Insect Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2002 ( C 2002) Short Communication The Influence of Rearing and Monitoring Environment on Temporal Mate Signaling Patterns in the Field Cricket, Gryllus texensis Susan M. Bertram1 Accepted August 1, 2001; revised August 28, 2001 KEY WORDS: cricket

Bertram, Sue

150

Short Communication Phase transformation of single crystal h-tungsten nanorods  

E-print Network

Short Communication Phase transformation of single crystal h-tungsten nanorods at elevated 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Tungsten; h-tungsten; A15; Phase transformation; Oblique angle deposition; Glancing angle deposition; Nanorods; Nanocolumns In recent decades, tungsten

Wang, Gwo-Ching

151

Short Communication Genetic variation in the visfatin (PBEF1/NAMPT) gene and type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

glucose concentration at 0 and 120 min during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the ChineseShort Communication Genetic variation in the visfatin (PBEF1/NAMPT) gene and type 2 diabetes: PBEF1 NAMPT Visfatin Type 2 diabetes Genetic association a b s t r a c t Visfatin (NAMPT formerly known

Paschou, Peristera

152

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-print Network

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type of complex formed with ionic liquid. Precipitation of reduced uranium was retarded in the presence

Ohta, Shigemi

153

SHORT COMMUNICATION Impact of growing conditions on the competitive ability of  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Impact of growing conditions on the competitive ability of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (Camelina) Phillip B. Davis, Bruce Maxwell, and Fabian D. Menalled Montana State University - Land on the competitive ability of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (Camelina). Can. J. Plant Sci. 93: 243Á247. It has been

Maxwell, Bruce D.

154

SHORT COMMUNICATION Effects of parity and age on female attraction to faces of infants  

E-print Network

and six multiparous females were shown digitized images of neonates' and 5- to 6-month-old infants' faces significantly longer gaze durations for images than did multiparous females. There were no signifi- cantSHORT COMMUNICATION Effects of parity and age on female attraction to faces of infants and neonates

Maestripieri, Dario

155

SHORT COMMUNICATION Evaluation of non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents as membrane protein solubilizers  

E-print Network

1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Evaluation of non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents as membrane protein plantes, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1, France Running title: detergents for 2D electrophoresis;2 SUMMARY The solubilizing power of various nonionic and zwitterionic detergents as membrane protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

SHORT COMMUNICATION Confirmation that Xq27 and Xq28 are susceptibility loci  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Confirmation that Xq27 and Xq28 are susceptibility loci for migraine into migraine genetics have sug- gested that susceptibility loci exist on the X chromosome. These reports- cated the Xq24-28 locus in migraine using two independent multigenerational Australian pedigrees

Nyholt, Dale R.

157

Short communication A preliminary study of the role of nickel in enhancing flowering of the  

E-print Network

Short communication A preliminary study of the role of nickel in enhancing flowering of the nickel documented survival, as well as the proportion of individuals that flowered. We also quantified flower treatments), but significantly more Ni-treated plants (63%) flowered compared with Mg-treated (19

Rajakaruna, Nishanta

158

Short communication A facile molten salt route to K2Nb8O21 nanoribbons  

E-print Network

hexatitanate and potassium hollandite nanowires from the reaction of TiO2 and molten salt with the presence of a nonionic surfactant NP-9 [9]. The molten salts serve also as reaction precursor for the synthesis of alkaliShort communication A facile molten salt route to K2Nb8O21 nanoribbons Cheng-Yan Xu a , Liang Zhen

Qin, Lu-Chang

159

The Impact of Business Communication Education on Students' Short- and Long-Term Performances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify the short- and long-term impact of business communication education on students' skill developments and performance outcomes. Nearly 400 students at an AACSC International-accredited business college participated in the study during their sophomore and senior years. The findings indicate that…

Zhao, Jensen J.; Alexander, Melody W.

2004-01-01

160

Short communication Secretion of a collectin-like protein in tunicates is enhanced during  

E-print Network

Short communication Secretion of a collectin-like protein in tunicates is enhanced during the solitary tunicate, Styela plicata, were measured after in vivo challenge with the inflammatory agent, zymosan. Tunicates were injected with zymosan before hemocytes and serum were harvested, subjected

Raftos, David

161

Short Communication fMRI of Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Ventral Posteromedial Thalamus  

E-print Network

Short Communication fMRI of Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Ventral Posteromedial Thalamus Q3 Yen stimulation fMRI Thalamus Rat Isoflurane a b s t r a c t Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of the thalamocortical tract using DBS fMRI at the rat ventral posteromedial thalamus. Methods: Blood oxygenation level

Duong, Timothy Q.

162

Manuscript No. BM-D-05-00477. Revision 2. Short Communication: Calculating the 2D  

E-print Network

of rotation and angle of rotation from lateral flex- ion/extension radiographs of the lumbar spine, or by susceptibility to noise in the case of algorithmic placement. In this paper we focus on the lumbar spineManuscript No. BM-D-05-00477. Revision 2. Short Communication: Calculating the 2D Motion of Lumbar

McCane, Brendan

163

Short Communication Securing ocean benefits for society in the face of climate change  

E-print Network

Short Communication Securing ocean benefits for society in the face of climate change M) food from aquaculture, and (3) protection from coastal hazards such as storms and sea-level rise statement Recent disasters such as the tsunami in Japan, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and Hurricane Sandy

Talley, Lynne D.

164

SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF DAM REMOVAL ON BROOK TROUT IN A WISCONSIN STREAM  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF DAM REMOVAL ON BROOK TROUT IN A WISCONSIN STREAM EMILY H. STANLEY, and the removal of dams is often viewed as a means of increasing habitat availability and restoring migratory the removal of a pair of low-head dams from Boulder Creek, Wisconsin, U.S.A. in 2003 to determine if removal

Stanley, Emily

165

Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments  

E-print Network

Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments. Several studies have shown that hot water treatments by themselves or in combination with other treatments they require are an issue that has hindered the commercial adoption of hot water treatments. While higher water

Crisosto, Carlos H.

166

Short communication Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted  

E-print Network

responses which prepare organisms for food intake (Woods, 1991). Yet, the effects of chronic, unconditionedShort communication Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically) in animals has various physiological benefits, including increased longevity, postponement of age- related

Sokolowski, Marla

167

Short Communication Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array  

E-print Network

Short Communication Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array Accepted 13 April 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Thyroid hormone Triiodothyronine Thyroxine Feces Wildlife Birds Mammals a b s t r a c t We developed and validated a non-invasive thyroid hormone measure

Wasser, Samuel

168

ELSEVIER Wear 181-183 (1995) 810-820 Short Communication  

E-print Network

state erosion rates for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625 and 316L SS) wereELSEVIER Wear 181-183 (1995) 810-820 Short Communication Weld overlay coatings for erosion control a criterion for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds (CFBs

DuPont, John N.

169

ELSEVIER J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., Sfi t 19`G.)) 349 360 Short Communication  

E-print Network

of an Oldroyd-B fluid suggest? that the flow is elastically unstable for all eccentricities. It is shown for the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid to first order i.1 the expansion parameter E. The Oldroyd-B rheologicala lItzL ELSEVIER J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., Sfi t 19`G.)) 349 360 Short Communication On purely

Shaqfeh, Eric

170

Short communication Performance of microbial fuel cells with and without Nafion solution as cathode  

E-print Network

Short communication Performance of microbial fuel cells with and without Nafion solution as cathode online 31 March 2010 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) Nafion Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) with and without Nafion solution as binding agent for the cathode catalyst preparation was investigated using

171

Short communication The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry  

E-print Network

Short communication The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was investigated America is the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) a small

172

Short communication Density of fallen ash after the eruption of Tambora in 1815  

E-print Network

Short communication Density of fallen ash after the eruption of Tambora in 1815 Richard B. Stothers of the volcano Tambora, Indonesia, in 1815 is presented by examining contemporary reports. This eruption produced the world's climate is the huge explosion of Tambora, Indonesia, in April 1815 (Francis, 1993). Tambora

173

SHORT COMMUNICATION A proteomic approach to the identification of new tPA  

E-print Network

activator (tPA)re- ceptors present in pancreatic cancer cells by affinity capture with t: September 19, 2005 Keywords: Affinity capture / Electrophoresis / Pancreatic cancer / PMF / Raft membraneSHORT COMMUNICATION A proteomic approach to the identification of new tPA receptors in pancreatic

Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

174

Short communication Self-correlation between assimilation and respiration resulting from flux  

E-print Network

Short communication Self-correlation between assimilation and respiration resulting from flux production (GEP, or assimilation) and ecosystem respiration (ER) is necessary to improve understanding-correlation between estimates of assimilation and respiration of carbon is a consequence of the flux partitioning

Vickers, Dean

175

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical  

E-print Network

Short communication Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical soil respiration variation Tropical montane cloud forest Litter respiration a b s t r a c t Respiration in respiration rate in the litter, which were partly correlated with the soil surface air temperature. Most

Malhi, Yadvinder

176

Short Communication to SMI 2011 Identifying rectangles in laser range data for urban scene reconstruction  

E-print Network

navigation, serious games for training, and urban planning require detailed and accurate models of very largeShort Communication to SMI 2011 Identifying rectangles in laser range data for urban scene Geometric algorithms a b s t r a c t In urban scenes, many of the surfaces are planar and bounded by simple

Veltkamp, Remco

177

Brain Research 660 (\\994) 337-340 Short communication  

E-print Network

or oral ad libitum monosodium glutamate administration on striatal glutamate release, as measured using-11. L'SA Accepted 26 July 1994 Abstract We examined effects of high doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG/kg/h) was ineffective. Keywords: Monosodium glutamate; Glutamate release; Microdialysis; Striatum Glutamate

Wurtman, Richard

178

Short Communication Lens Defects and Age-Related Fiber Cell  

E-print Network

of Increased A PP Gene Dosage in Down Syndrome Peter H. Frederikse and Xiao-Ou Ren From the Department Early-onset cataract and Alzheimer's disease occur with high frequency in Down syndrome (trisomy 21 report on mice carrying a com- plete copy of a wild-type human A PP (hA PP) gene from the Down syndrome

Frederikse, Peter

179

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Contamination of Platinum Resistance Thermometers by Silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric analysis shows that platinum resistance thermometers become contaminated by exposure to Ag and Cu at high temperatures. To study the rate at which such contamination occurs, bundles of Pt wires in quartz tubes were soaked in a silver fixed-point furnace. The results suggest that the sensing element of a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) inserted into an Ag-contaminated thermometer

J. Ancsin; K. D. Hill

1994-01-01

180

SHORT COMMUNICATION Dynamical analysis of winter terrain park jumps  

E-print Network

aggressively marketed by equipment manufac- turers and print media. This has created a high glamour factor this growing market demographic by creating winter terrain parks that contain a sequence of features including suggested design strategies for improving safety. Other related work includes J. A. McNeil (&) Department

181

Short communication Ion-implantation modification of lithiumphosphorus  

E-print Network

with high specific capacity. Lithium metal, however, is very reactive with many solid-state electrolytes solid electrolytes, the lithium­phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) electrolyte synthesized by sputtering; Solid electrolyte; Ionic conductivity 1. Introduction With the development of electronic devices, thin

Park, Byungwoo

182

SHORT COMMUNICATION Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection  

E-print Network

toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites (Poecilia mexicana) show high (Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non

Schlupp, Ingo

183

SHORT COMMUNICATION Microbeam irradiation of C. elegans nematode in microfluidic  

E-print Network

immobiliza- tion and imaging for irradiation of several whole living samples on a single clamp, here we show To perform high-throughput studies on the biological effects of ionizing radiation in vivo, we have Microbeam irradiation with microfluidic devices Á C. elegans microbeam irradiation Á Small animal microbeam

Brenner, David Jonathan

184

Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6–7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

2015-04-01

185

Optical Communications for High-Altitude Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a review of technologies, theoretical studies, and experimental field trials for optical communications from and to high-altitude platforms (HAPs). We discuss the pointing, acquisition, and tracking of laser terminals and describe how laser beams with low divergence can be used to transmit data at multi-Gigabits per second. Investigating the influence of the atmosphere, background light, and flight

Franz Fidler; Markus Knapek; Joachim Horwath; Walter R. Leeb

2010-01-01

186

High Performance Computing and Communications Panel Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report offers advice on the strengths and weaknesses of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative, one of five presidential initiatives launched in 1992 and coordinated by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The HPCC program has the following objectives: (1) to extend U.S.…

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

187

Short Communication Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in children with diarrhoea  

E-print Network

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in children (n=760) with diarrhea aged 1 month to 13 years, living in urban areas (n=234), rural areas (n=394) and refugee camps (n=132). Samples were collected, stained by modified acid fast stain, and examined microscopically for oocysts. The overall prevalence was 11.6 % (88/760). The prevalence was higher in refugee camps at 12.9 % (17/132) and in rural areas at 12.2 % (48/394) as compared to 9.8 % (23/234) in urban areas. According to age, the prevalence in age group I (<5 years) was significantly high (P<0.05) at 14.4 % (67/464) as compared to 7.7 % (15/195) in age group II (5-10 years) and 5.9 % (6/101) in age group III (10-15 years). Our findings indicate that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. is high when compared to that in developed countries.

Sameer M. Abu-alrub; Gabi M. Abusada; Mohammad A. Farraj; Tamer A. Essawi

2007-01-01

188

Short Communication Molecular conservation of the mammalian leptin protein.  

PubMed

In this study, we comparatively assessed multiple sequences of the leptin protein from different animal species to establish new insights into conservation degree of biological sequences and evolutionary biology among mammals using computational biology tools. First, amino acid sequences of the leptin protein from Homo sapiens (human, P41159), Sus scrofa (wild pig, Q29406), Felis catus (domestic cat, Q29406), Rattus norvegicus (rat, P50596), and Mus musculus (mouse, P41160) were randomly searched in the high-quality annotated and non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. A dendogram showing the evolutionary relationships among specimens was constructed from the sequences of interest using the Mega 6.0 software with the neighbor-joining method. The resulting tree presenting the evolutionary relationships among specimens inferred from amino acid sequences of the leptin protein in mammals demonstrated 2 main branches: 1 cluster including the rat and mouse species (0.02) and a second cluster containing both wild pig and domestic cat species grouped in a sub-branch (0.04 and 0.06, respectively), linking them to the human sequence (0.08). These findings were reinforced by comparing estimates of evolutionary divergence among leptin sequences analyzed. Based on comparative analyses of multiple sequence alignments in the present study, there was a stronger conservation degree of the leptin protein in evolutionarily close species and several conservative changes along the sequences of interest, revealing information regarding the evolutionary biology among mammals. PMID:25729957

Gabriel, J E; Lidani, K C F

2015-01-01

189

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY High-End High School Communication  

E-print Network

in high school science classrooms. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods were employedNORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY High-End High School Communication: Tool Use Practices of Students OF THE REQUIREMENTS for the degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Field of Education and Social Policy -- Learning Sciences

Fishman, Barry

190

Study and design on high-data-rate UV communication system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet communication is a new means of free space optical communication links developed since 1990's. In the paper, we first point out the low data rate drawback of the UV communication system using mercury lamp, and find the limitation arises because of the self trapping of the mercury atomic resonance radiation. Then the working principle and the max modulation speed o f the high data rate UV communication system are explained, at last the high date rate UV communication system which based on the low pressure iodine lamp is described in details. The high UV communication system includes an emitter, a receiver and light propagation channel. The light propagation channel is in the low air. Finally, the system has accomplished good voice and high data rate communication in short distance and its maximal communication rate is 48Kbps which decuple the data rate of the UV communication system made by GTE in 2000. Because of shorter wavelength of the iodine UV source, the whole communication system is more suitable for the security communication usage.

Jia, Honghui; Yang, Jiankun; Chang, Shengli; Yin, Hongwei

2005-12-01

191

Communicators for high-noise-level environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of the U.S. Geological Survey, the feasibility of equipping workers with a two-way communications system built into a construction hard hat for use in an extremely high ambient noise level has been investigated. As a result, several systems were tested on an offshore oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The investigation indicates that a simple modification of a commercial low-power, frequency modulated system operating in the 49-MHz public service band could be used to considerable advantage. Penetration through platform structures was excellent, and communication was possible from within an enclosed steel compressor room where noise levels were as high as 97 dBA to all points on the platform.

Shoemaker, R. F.; Harrison, E. H.

1981-04-01

192

Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes  

E-print Network

Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern China Sea in summer using satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs), chlorophyll-a (Chl a that the satellite-derived pCO2 was in general agreement with the in situ observations. The air­sea CO2 flux

193

Efficient High Performance Collective Communication for Distributed Memory Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective communication allows efficient communication and synchronization among a collection of processes, unlike point-to-point communication that only involves a pair of communicating processes. Achieving high performance for both kernels and full-scale applications running on a distributed memory system requires an efficient implementation of…

Ali, Qasim

2009-01-01

194

High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High capacity communications from Martian distances, required for the envisioned human exploration and desirable for data-intensive science missions, is challenging. NASA s Deep Space Network currently requires large antennas to close RF telemetry links operating at kilobit-per-second data rates. To accommodate higher rate communications, NASA is considering means to achieve greater effective aperture at its ground stations. This report, focusing on the return link from Mars to Earth, demonstrates that without excessive research and development expenditure, operational Mars-to-Earth RF communications systems can achieve data rates up to 1 Gbps by 2020 using technology that today is at technology readiness level (TRL) 4-5. Advanced technology to achieve the needed increase in spacecraft power and transmit aperture is feasible at an only moderate increase in spacecraft mass and technology risk. In addition, both power-efficient, near-capacity coding and modulation and greater aperture from the DSN array will be required. In accord with these results and conclusions, investment in the following technologies is recommended:(1) lightweight (1 kg/sq m density) spacecraft antenna systems; (2) a Ka-band receive ground array consisting of relatively small (10-15 m) antennas; (3) coding and modulation technology that reduces spacecraft power by at least 3 dB; and (4) efficient generation of kilowatt-level spacecraft RF power.

Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Hodges, Richard; Orr, Richard S.; Sands, O. Scott; Schuchman, Leonard; Vyas, Hemali

2007-01-01

195

High-performance computing and communications  

SciTech Connect

This presentation has two parts. The first part discusses the US High-Performance Computing and Communications program -- its goals, funding, process, revisions, and research in high-performance computing systems, advanced software technology, and basic research and human resources. The second part of the presentation covers specific work conducted under this program at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne`s efforts focus on computational science research, software tool development, and evaluation of experimental computer architectures. In addition, the author describes collaborative activities at Argonne in high-performance computing, including an Argonne/IBM project to evaluate and test IBM`s newest parallel computers and the Scalable I/O Initiative being spearheaded by the Concurrent Supercomputing Consortium.

Stevens, R.

1993-11-01

196

ISS Update: High Rate Communications System - Duration: 9:26.  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

197

Small Signaling Peptides in Arabidopsis Development: How Cells Communicate Over a Short Distance  

PubMed Central

To sustain plants’ postembryonic growth and development in a structure of cells fixed in cell walls, a tightly controlled short distance cell–cell communication is required. The focus on phytohormones, such as auxin, has historically overshadowed the importance of small peptide signals, but it is becoming clear that secreted peptide signals are important in cell–cell communication to coordinate and integrate cellular functions. However, of the more than 1000 potential secreted peptides, so far only very few have been functionally characterized or matched to a receptor. Here, we will describe our current knowledge on how small peptide signals can be identified, how they are modified and processed, which roles they play in Arabidopsis thaliana development, and through which receptors they act. PMID:22932676

Murphy, Evan; Smith, Stephanie; De Smet, Ive

2012-01-01

198

Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

2007-06-21

199

SHORT COMMUNICATION First description of sarcoptic mange in wild European rabbit  

E-print Network

). Communicated by W. Lutz J. Millán Sanitat i Control de Fauna (Wildlife Health and Control), Conselleria de Medi decline of its populations. Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious parasitic infection caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. The first cases of sarcoptic mange in a wild rabbit population are recorded from a hunting area

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

SHORT REPORT Open Access Immunological response to highly active  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy following-month immunological response to HAART in HIV-1 infected women in Côte d'Ivoire. The women were the immunological failure criteria at least once during follow up. The overall probability of immunological failure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Visible light communication in dynamic environment using image/high-speed communication hybrid sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a wireless communication method using LEDs. LEDs can respond in high-speed and VLC uses this characteristics. In VLC researches, there are two types of receivers mainly, one is photodiode receiver and the other is high-speed camera. A photodiode receiver can communicate in high-speed and has high transmission rate because of its high-speed response. A high-speed camera can detect and track the transmitter easily because it is not necessary to move the camera. In this paper, we use a hybrid sensor designed for VLC which has advantages of both photodiode and high-speed camera, that is, high transmission rate and easy detecting of the transmitter. The light receiving section of the hybrid sensor consists of communication pixels and video pixels, which realizes the advantages. This hybrid sensor can communicate in static environment in previous research. However in dynamic environment, high-speed tracking of the transmitter is essential for communication. So, we realize the high-speed tracking of the transmitter by using the information of the communication pixels. Experimental results show the possibility of communication in dynamic environment.

Maeno, Keita; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Fujii, Toshiaki; Okada, Hiraku; Yamazato, Takaya; Tanimoto, Masayuki; Yendo, Tomohiro

2012-01-01

202

Session Three: High-Risk Kids and Communication  

E-print Network

65 Session Three: High-Risk Kids and Communication #12;66 SESSION THREE TOTAL TIME: 2 HOURS HIGH-RISK KIDS and COMMUNICATION MATERIALS NEEDED: Parent Handbooks Learner Outcomes: 1. Raise awareness about is similar. Next we will talk about why children develop as they do. #12;67 SESSION THREE HIGH-RISK KIDS

203

Nonverbal communication sets the conditions for the relationship between parental bonding and the short-term treatment response in depression.  

PubMed

The role of parental bonding and nonverbal communication in the short-term treatment response was investigated in 104 depressed outpatients. At baseline patients completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. We registered the nonverbal involvement behaviour of patients and interviewers from video recordings of baseline clinical interviews and calculated the convergence between patient-interviewer behaviour over the interview. The course of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. As hypothesized, low maternal care and high paternal overprotection predicted a poor response to an 8-week treatment. Maternal care was positively correlated with nonverbal convergence. Moreover, convergence moderated the relationship between maternal care and the response to treatment: Lack of convergence between patients and interviewers turned out to annul the positive effects of maternal care on the treatment response. The findings link theories on early parenting to interpersonal theories of depression. PMID:19042029

Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Gerlsma, Coby

2009-01-30

204

Short Communication Differential Gene Expression in a Marine Sponge in Relation  

E-print Network

in a dark cave at a short distance from the illuminated speci- mens. Out of the various differentially organisms, probably both because of the high complexity of microbial consortia in sponges and because to microbial and fungal infections, resulting in sponge death (Lauckner 1980; Vacelet et al. 1994; Perovic

Ilan, Micha

205

Applications of High Technology to Communication Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses classroom design and uses of interactive media. Covers the design of public speaking/interpersonal/small group communication classrooms, the simulation laboratory, the communication effectiveness trainer (ComET system), audience response systems, speech evaluation using computers, and system design considerations. (PD)

Behnke, Ralph R.; O'Hair, H. Dan

1984-01-01

206

Minimization of acquisition time in short-range free-space optical communication.  

PubMed

We consider short-range (1-3-km) free-space optical communication between moving parties when covertness is the overriding system performance requirement. To maximize covertness, it is critical to minimize the time required for the acquisition phase, during which the party initiating contact must conduct a broad-field scan and so risks revealing his position. Assuming an elliptical Gaussian beam profile, we show how to optimize the beam divergence angles, scan speed, and design of the raster scan pattern so as to minimize acquisition time. In this optimization, several constraints are considered, including signal-to-noise ratio, required for accurate bearing detection and reliable decoding; limited receiver bandwidth; limited scanner speed; and beam divergence as limited by the scanner mirror dimensions. The effects of atmospheric turbulence are also discussed. PMID:12510925

Wang, Jin; Kahn, Joseph M; Lau, Kam Y

2002-12-20

207

Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several beneficial points provided by the Iridium platform include pure global accessibility (as well as polar), cost effectiveness because it is available as a COTS (Commercially Off The Shelf) technology, reliability in that the equipment must operate in extreme conditions (near space), integration and development time into current systems must be minimized. As a bonus Motorola and NAL Research Corporation are developing SBD (Short Burst Data) into the Iridium network. This may lead the way to a global IP (Internet Protocol) node based ballooning platform. The Iridium satellite data modems employ the Iridium Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite network. The scope of this paper is to introduce an OTH communications alternative, albeit not necessarily a primary one, to existing ballooning platforms using COTS based emerging technologies. Design aspects, characteristics, actual flight testing statistics, principles of the Iridium modems and communication paths are described including payload and support instrumentation interfacing. Not limited to high altitude ballooning, the Iridium communications platform opens a new era in remote commanding and data retrieval.

Denney, A.

208

TDX: A high-bandwidth crossbar-switched communication paradigm  

SciTech Connect

Digital signal processing systems under development today require scalable and reconfigurable high bandwidth communication resources between processing elements. Shared memory architectures require the ability to transfer data from one processor node to another, as well as maintaining data coherency such as provided by the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI). Signal processing systems that must move large amounts of data between processor nodes, are best served by a communication system that allows reconfigurable streams of data to flow at deterministic rates with minimal overhead. A Time Domain Crossbar (TDX) communication system providing scalable, programmable, high-bandwidth, streaming communication has been developed and is described in this paper.

Pierce, P.E.; Eilers, D.L.; Schreiber, A.L.

1994-08-01

209

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of Babesia bigemina isolates of India - short communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short communication describes the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of B. bigemina from two geographically distant locations of the Indian subcontinent viz, Wayanad (Kerala state, Southern India) and Izatnagar (Uttar Pradesh State, Northern India). A total of four isolates, two each from Wayanad (Kerala, South India) and Izatnagar (North India) were used in the present study. RAPD-PCRs were carried

Reghu Ravindran; Ashok Kumar Mishra; Jammi Raghavendra Rao

2008-01-01

210

Interference of Short Optical Pulses from Independent Gain-Switched Laser Diodes for Quantum Secure Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of the decoy-state technique, phase-randomized weak coherent light pulses have been the key to increase the practicality of quantum-based communications. Their ultrafast generation was accomplished via compact gain-switched (GS) lasers, leading to high key rates in quantum key distribution (QKD). Recently, the question arose whether the same laser could be employed to achieve high-speed measurement-device-independent QKD, a scheme that promises long-haul quantum communications immune to all detector attacks. For that, a challenging high-visibility interference between independent picosecond optical pulses is required. Here, we answer the above question in the affirmative by demonstrating high-visibility interference from two independent GS lasers triggered at 1 GHz. The result is obtained through a careful characterization of the laser frequency chirp and time jitter. By relating these quantities to the interference visibility, we obtain a parameter-free verification of the experimental data and a numerical simulation of the achievable key rates. These findings are beneficial to other applications making use of GS lasers, including random number generation and standard QKD.

Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.

2014-12-01

211

Parallel arithmetic encryption for high-bandwidth communications on  

E-print Network

Parallel arithmetic encryption for high-bandwidth communications on multicore/GPGPU platforms performance CPUs are not sufficient by themselves to reach our performance objectives, and that encryption. In this context, security is more and more often a requirement and communications between sites must be encrypted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Reliable Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Amy L. Murphy  

E-print Network

Reliable Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Amy L. Murphy Washington University in St. Louis The provision of a reliable communication infras­ tructure for mobile agents is still an open research is­ sue and agent mi­ gration may cause situations where messages forever chase a mobile agent that moves frequently

Picco, Gian Pietro

213

Reliable Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Amy L. Murphy  

E-print Network

Reliable Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Amy L. Murphy Washington University in St. Louis Abstract. The provision of a reliable communication infrastructure for mobile agents is still an open passing and agent migration may cause situations where messages forever chase a mobile agent that moves

Picco, Gian Pietro

214

Recent advances in high-speed underwater acoustic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, underwater acoustic (UWA) communications have received much attention as their applications have begun to shift from military toward commercial. Digital communications through UWA channels differ substantially from those in other media, such as radio channels, due to severe signal degradations caused by multipath propagation and high temporal and spatial variability of the channel conditions. The design of

Milica Stojanovic

1996-01-01

215

Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

Ogawa, Osamu

216

Dipolar emission in trench metal–insulator–metal waveguides for short-scale plasmonic communications: numerical optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we consider the numerical optimization of active surface plasmon polariton (SPP) trench waveguides suited for integration with luminescent polymers for use as highly localized SPP source devices in short-scale communication integrated circuits. The numerical analysis of the SPP modes within trench waveguide systems provides detailed information on the mode field components, effective indices, propagation lengths and mode areas. Such trench waveguide systems offer extremely high confinement with propagation on length scales appropriate to local interconnects, along with high efficiency coupling of dipolar emitters to waveguided plasmonic modes which can be close to 80%. The large Purcell factor exhibited in these structures will further lead to faster modulation capabilities along with an increased quantum yield beneficial for the proposed plasmon-emitting diode, a plasmonic analog of the light-emitting diode. The confinement of studied guided modes is on the order of 50 nm and the delay over the shorter 5 ?m length scales will be on the order of 0.1 ps for the slowest propagating modes of the system, and significantly less for the faster modes.

McCarron, Ryan; Dickson, Wayne; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

2014-11-01

217

Analysis of High Power IGBT Short Circuit Failures  

SciTech Connect

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a highly efficient and reliable, low cost, pulsed-power modulator to drive the klystrons. A solid-state induction modulator has been developed at SLAC to power the klystrons; this modulator uses commercial high voltage and high current Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules. Testing of these IGBT modules under pulsed conditions was very successful; however, the IGBTs failed when tests were performed into a low inductance short circuit. The internal electrical connections of a commercial IGBT module have been analyzed to extract self and mutual partial inductances for the main current paths as well as for the gate structure. The IGBT module, together with the partial inductances, has been modeled using PSpice. Predictions for electrical paths that carry the highest current correlate with the sites of failed die under short circuit tests. A similar analysis has been carried out for a SLAC proposal for an IGBT module layout. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the IGBT module geometry and presents simulation results.

Pappas, G.

2005-02-11

218

Reliable Communication for Highly Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of a reliable communication infrastructure for mobile agents is still an open research issue. The challenge to reliability we address in this work does not come from the possibility of faults, but rather from the mere presence of mobility, which complicates the problem of ensuring the delivery of information even in a fault-free network. For instance, the asynchronous

Amy L. Murphy; Gian Pietro Picco

1999-01-01

219

Editorial for Advanced Theory and Practice for High Performance Computing and Communications Geoffrey Fox  

E-print Network

Editorial for Advanced Theory and Practice for High Performance Computing and Communications Theory and Practice for High Performance Computing and Communications. I would like to thank Omer Rana International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC-09) http

220

Bandwidth Efficient Turbo Coding For High Speed Mobile Satellite Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper describes an application of turbo codes in conjunction with 16QAM in high speed mobile satellite communications The channel characteristics, the architecture of the modem and the performance curves for the selected turbo codes are presented

Mark Rice; Paul Gray; S. Adrian Barbulescu; Wade Farrell

1997-01-01

221

NHSE - National High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Software Exchange  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Software Exchange for the High Performance Computing and Communications community has been established to facilitate the development and distribution of software enabling technologies for high performance computing a wide availability of high-quality, public-domain software for high performance computers. The exchange promotes software reuse and collaboration and information sharing between universities, research laboratories, and industry.

1997-01-01

222

Advanced short haul systems in high density markets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design requirements, performance, economics, and noise aspects of STOL and VTOL conceptual aircraft developed for short haul air transportation are reviewed, along with the characteristics of areas of high-density annual passenger flow in which the aircraft are intended to operate. It is shown that aircraft of 100 to 200 passenger capacity provide the best return on investment in high density markets. The various STOL propulsive lift concepts have the same general trends with field length; their wing loadings are 20 to 30 pounds per square foot higher than the nonpropulsive lift concepts. A comparison of the aircraft under consideration shows that no one aircraft concept will be optimum for all future operational environments.

Galloway, T. L.

1975-01-01

223

NASA High Performance Computing and Communications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 1(X)-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientists' abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project, exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects, as well as summaries of early accomplishments and the significance, status, and plans for individual research and development programs within each project. Areas of emphasis include benchmarking, testbeds, software and simulation methods.

Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul

1994-01-01

224

NASA high performance computing and communications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's HPCC program is part of a new Presidential initiative aimed at producing a 1000-fold increase in supercomputing speed and a 100-fold improvement in available communications capability by 1997. As more advanced technologies are developed under the HPCC program, they will be used to solve NASA's 'Grand Challenge' problems, which include improving the design and simulation of advanced aerospace vehicles, allowing people at remote locations to communicate more effectively and share information, increasing scientist's abilities to model the Earth's climate and forecast global environmental trends, and improving the development of advanced spacecraft. NASA's HPCC program is organized into three projects which are unique to the agency's mission: the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) project, the Earth and Space Sciences (ESS) project, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) project. An additional project, the Basic Research and Human Resources (BRHR) project exists to promote long term research in computer science and engineering and to increase the pool of trained personnel in a variety of scientific disciplines. This document presents an overview of the objectives and organization of these projects as well as summaries of individual research and development programs within each project.

Holcomb, Lee; Smith, Paul; Hunter, Paul

1993-01-01

225

High capacity satellite communication system and key technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-capacity satellite communication system for Japan, with multiple beams and key technologies for onboard equipment, is described. The system will provide trunk transmission, digital business communication, and mobile communication. Advantages of the multibeam system include increased transmission capacity, reduction in earth-station antenna diameter, and frequency reuse. Onboard technologies discussed include cluster-feed horn design, reflector deployment, antenna pointing control (accurate to 0.015 degree with 0.3-degree spot width for the 12 beams), satellite switch, and onboard receiver and transmitter.

Nagai, Y.; Okasaka, S.; Nakagawa, K.

226

Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers  

SciTech Connect

Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1..mu..m) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm/sup 3/ and a pressure of 10/sup 10/ atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se/sup +24/ ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y/sup +29/ was also demonstrated.

Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.

1985-03-05

227

Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 ?) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50? or 100? pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (?, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

Audebert, Patrick

2003-10-01

228

Quantum data locking for high-rate direct communication  

E-print Network

We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

Cosmo Lupo; Seth Lloyd

2015-01-28

229

Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

2015-03-01

230

A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

Ho, Ching-Hung.

1992-01-01

231

A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

Ho, Ching-Hung

1992-12-31

232

Short-Range Structural Transformations in Water at High Pressures  

E-print Network

We report results of molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water at the temperature T=277 K for a range of high pressure. One aim of the study was to test the model Amoeba potential for description of equilibrium structural properties and dynamical processes in liquid water. The comparison our numerical results with the Amoeba and TIP5P potentials, our results of \\emph{ab initio} molecular dynamics simulations and the experimental data reveals that the Amoeba potential reproduces correctly structural properties of the liquid water. Other aim of our work was related with investigation of the pressure induced structural transformations and their influence on the microscopic collective dynamics. We have found that the structural anomaly at the pressure $p_c\\approx 2000$ Atm is related with the changes of the local, short-range order in liquid water within first two coordination shells. This anomaly specifies mainly by deformation of the hydrogen-bond network. We also discuss in detail the anomalous behavior of sound propagation in liquid water at high pressures and compare numerical results with the experimental data.

Ramil M. Khusnutdinoff; Anatolii V. Mokshin

2011-03-01

233

Promoting High-Performance Computing and Communications. A CBO Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991 the Federal Government initiated the multiagency High Performance Computing and Communications program (HPCC) to further the development of U.S. supercomputer technology and high-speed computer network technology. This overview by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) concentrates on obstacles that might prevent the growth of the…

Webre, Philip

234

Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.  

PubMed

High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. PMID:25545143

Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

2015-01-01

235

Review of high speed communications photomultiplier detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four types of newly developed high speed photomultipliers are discussed: all electrostatic; static crossed field; dynamic crossed field; and hybrid (EBS). Design, construction, and performance parameters of each class are presented along with limitations of each class of device and prognosis for its future in high speed light detection. The particular advantage of these devices lies in high speed applications using low photon flux, large cathode areas, and broadband optical detection.

Enck, R. S.; Abraham, W. G.

1978-01-01

236

Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. PMID:25108866

Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H

2014-10-01

237

High-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication  

E-print Network

-capacity backbone for global brain communication. connectome | graph | tractography Integrative brain functionHigh-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication Martijn P. van den Heuvela,1 of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 Edited by Terrence J. Sejnowski

Pillow, Jonathan

238

New concepts and technologies for achieving highly reliable and high-capacity multimedia wireless communications systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of multimedia wireless communications services forces the development of advanced digital wireless systems with high reliability and high speed as well as flexibility for varying traffic conditions. To achieve such advanced wireless systems. New system design concepts different from the conventional ones aiming at increasing system capacity for voice transmission would be required. Since multimedia wireless communications

N. Morinaga; M. Nakagawa; R. Kohno

1997-01-01

239

SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac applications; for instance, it could be employed to both accelerate the beam and to stabilize the superbunch mode of operation in circular track machines.

Arntz, Floyd; /Diversified Tech., Bedford; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

2008-12-16

240

Short-Range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz Millimeter-Wave WPAN, And ZigBee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents standardization, regulation, and development issues associated with short-range wireless technologies for next-generation personal area networks (PAN). Ultra-wideband (UWB) and 60 GHz millimeter-wave communication technologies promise unprecedented short-range broadband wireless communication and are the harbingers of multigigabit wireless networks. Despite the huge potential for PAN, standardization and global spectrum regulations challenge the success of UWB. On the other

Theordore Rappaport

2007-01-01

241

The Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Item bank calibration and development of a disorder-generic short form  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to calibrate the items for the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) using Item Response Theory (IRT). One overriding objective was to examine if the IRT item parameters would be consistent across different diagnostic groups, thereby allowing creation of a disorder-generic instrument. The intended outcomes were the final item bank and a short form ready for clinical and research applications. Methods Self-report data were collected from 701 individuals representing four diagnoses: multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and head and neck cancer. Participants completed the CPIB and additional self-report questionnaires. CPIB data were analyzed using the IRT Graded Response Model (GRM). Results The initial set of 94 candidate CPIB items were reduced to an item bank of 46 items demonstrating unidimensionality, local independence, good item fit, and good measurement precision. Differential item function (DIF) analyses detected no meaningful differences across diagnostic groups. A 10-item, disorder-generic short form was generated. Conclusions The CPIB provides speech-language pathologists with a unidimensional, self-report outcomes measurement instrument dedicated to the construct of communicative participation. This instrument may be useful to clinicians and researchers wanting to implement measures of communicative participation in their work. PMID:23816661

Baylor, Carolyn; Yorkston, Kathryn; Eadie, Tanya; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Amtmann, Dagmar

2015-01-01

242

Multipoint free-space optics system for short-range communications between flight platforms.  

PubMed

The problems associated with using typical free-space optics (FSO) transceivers for multipoint communications on flight platforms, such as satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles, in a cluster are discussed and the transceivers are found to be unsuitable for concurrent multipoint communications in those platforms. To overcome the problems, a multipoint FSO system design is proposed. The design of the multipoint system is described and the performance of the multipoint receiver is evaluated in terms of receive gain under different conditions. The proposed multipoint system design offers a promising way to implement concurrent multipoint communications on flight platforms with power, weight, and size advantages compared to the use of multiple transceivers. PMID:20062513

Heng, Kiang Huat; Zhong, Wen-De; Cheng, Tee Hiang

2010-01-10

243

1776 Brief Communication Short 5 -phosphorylated double-stranded RNAs induce RNA  

E-print Network

interference and se-is called "posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS)" in plants [5­7]. Both classes of gene] For this class of short RNAs, they coined the term "short interfering RNAs (siRNAs)". We intended to testRNA.which are incorporated in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) [16] that directs target- As the first target, we

Delidakis, Christos

244

High Bandwidth Communications: 2000-2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes optical and high-frequency microwave systems to enhance data transmission rates. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

2004-01-01

245

Ultra-Wideband Technology for Short or Medium-Range Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology is loosely defined as any wireless transmission scheme that occupies a bandwidth of more than 25% of a center frequency, or more than 1.5GHz. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is currently working on setting emissions limits that would allow UWB communication systems to be deployed on an unlicensed basis following the Part 15.209 rules for radiated emissions

Jeff Foerster; Evan Green; Srinivasa Somayazulu; David Leeper

2001-01-01

246

Short communication: effect of homogenization on heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be present in cow milk and low numbers may survive high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization. Although HTST treatment leads to inactivation of at least 5 log10 cycles, it might become necessary to enhance the efficacy of HTST by additional treatments such as homogenization if the debate about the role of MAP in Crohn's disease of humans concludes that MAP is a zoonotic agent. This study aimed to determine whether disrupting the clumps of MAP in milk by homogenization during the heat treatment process would enhance the inactivation of MAP. We used HTST pasteurization in a continuous-flow pilot-plant pasteurizer and evaluated the effect of upstream, downstream, and in-hold homogenization on inactivation of MAP. Reduction of MAP at 72°C with a holding time of 28s was between 3.7 and 6.9 log10 cycles, with an overall mean of 5.5 log10 cycles. None of the 3 homogenization modes applied showed a statistically significant additional effect on the inactivation of MAP during HTST treatment. PMID:24485679

Hammer, P; Kiesner, C; Walte, H-G C

2014-04-01

247

High-Q micromechanical oscillators and filters for communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With Q's in the tens to hundreds of thousands, micromachined vibrating resonators are proposed as IC-compatible tanks for use in the low phase noise oscillators and highly selective filters of communications systems. To date, LF oscillators have been fully integrated using merged CMOS+microstructure technologies, and bandpass filters consisting of coupled resonators have been demonstrated in the HF range. The performance

Clark T.-C. Nguyen

1997-01-01

248

Navigating the Map: Communication Arts. High School. Spring 1998 Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to give high school teachers some of the tools necessary to prepare their students to do well on the performance based Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), this booklet provides released items from the 1997-1998 MAP Communication Arts test. MAP consists of three reading passages followed by constructed-response items, a formal writing…

Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Instruction.

249

Scientific Recognition and Communication Behavior in High Energy Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study is concerned with scientific (i.e., professional) recognition and communication behavior in theoretical high energy physics. The sample consists of 977 respondents working in thirty-eight countries. The conferral of two components of professional recognition, research leadership and advisorship, as they are affected by geopolitical and…

Zeltman, Gerald

250

Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architectural approach that meets high bandwidth requirements by introducing a communication architecture based on lightpaths, optical transmission paths in the network, is introduced. Since lightpaths form the building block of the proposed architecture, its performance hinges on their efficient establishment and management. It is shown that although the problem of optimally establishing lightpaths is NP-complete, simple heuristics provide near

Imrich Chlamtac; Aura Ganz; Gadi Karmi

1992-01-01

251

Overlapped Discrete Multitone Modulation for High Speed Copper Wire Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicarrier modulation possesses several properties which make it an attractive approach for high speed copper wire communications networks. Among these properties are the ability to efficiently access and distribute multiplexed data streams, and a reduced susceptibility to impulsive, as well as to narrowband channel disturbances. In digital implementations of multicarrier modulation, subcarrier generation and data modulation are accomplished digitally using

Stuart D. Sandberg; Michael A. Tzannes

1995-01-01

252

Overlapped discrete multitone modulation for high speed copper wire communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicarrier modulation possesses several properties which make it an attractive approach for high speed copper wire communication networks. Among these properties are the ability to efficiently access and distribute multiplexed data streams, and a reduced susceptibility to impulsive, as well as to narrowband channel disturbances. In digital implementations of multicarrier modulation, subcarrier generation and data modulation are accomplished digitally using

Stuart D. Sandberg; Michael A. Tzannes

1995-01-01

253

High Performance Computing and Communications: Toward a National Information Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. This program is supportive of and coordinated with the National Information Infrastructure Initiative. Now halfway through its 5-year effort, the HPCC program counts among its…

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, Washington, DC.

254

Investigations of High Intensity, High Contrast Laser Solid with Short Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental discoveries related to laser-based ion acceleration from thin foils and the production of high brightness x-rays from high order harmonic generation from short pulses are presented. High power femtosecond lasers are ideally suited for use as tabletop particle accelerators since their short pulse duration enables very high intensities to be generated at high repetition rates from a compact laser. However, if laser pulse energy arrives before the main short pulse, it can interact with the target to cause ablation making high intensity investigations of laser-solid interactions difficult. In the following experiments, the laser pulse-to-pedestal contrast was improved to 15 orders of magnitude out to nanosecond timescales, allowing for excellent control over the interaction of a short pulse with solid density material. A sharply-rising laser pulse with 50 TW of power was focused to a 1.2 micron focal spot, achieving intensities over 10^21 Wcm-2. Protons accelerated due to sheath acceleration were studied in ultrathin targets. By sculpting the plasma density using shaped ultrafast pulses, control over the proton and ion spectra was also demonstrated. Finite spot effects from circular polarized laser pulses produced efficient acceleration for ultrathin foils, which resulted from the efficient conversion of laser light into high energy electrons. Finally, as the laser pulse drives the critical electron density relativistically, harmonics of the driving laser are produced. Harmonics up to order 60th were observed. It was observed that for a plasma scale length beyond a threshold value, parametric instabilities strongly modulated the harmonic spectra. Numeric simulations were performed to support the physical interpretation.

Dollar, Franklin

2012-10-01

255

Short communication: Feed sorting of dairy heifers is influenced by method of dietary transition.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of exposing heifers to individual feed components on the extent and pattern of feed sorting upon transition to a novel ration. Holstein heifers (394±62d old, weighing 409.8±37.3kg; mean ± SD), consuming a familiar mixed silage-based ration [55% corn silage and 45% haylage, dry matter (DM) basis], were transitioned to a novel total mixed ration [TMR; 41.6% haylage, 36.5% corn silage, 14.6% high-moisture corn, and 7.3% protein supplement, DM basis] by 1 of 2 treatments: direct transition to novel TMR (DIR; n=5) or exposure to novel TMR components individually before receiving novel TMR (COM; n=6). During the baseline period (d 1 to 4), all heifers were offered the familiar silage-based ration. During transition (d 5 to 12), DIR heifers received the novel TMR, whereas COM heifers received the novel TMR components offered separately, in amounts according to TMR composition (target 15% orts). After transition (d 13 to 20), all heifers received the novel TMR. Feed intake and feeding time were determined daily and fresh feed and individual orts were sampled every 2d for particle size analysis and neutral detergent fiber content. The particle size separator consisted of 3 screens (18, 9, and 1.18mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting activity for each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. We detected no effect of treatment on dry matter intake or feeding time. After transition to the novel TMR, COM heifers sorted to a greater extent than did DIR heifers, sorting against long particles (95.4 vs. 98.9%) and for short particles (101.7 vs. 100.6%). Differences in sorting patterns resulted in COM heifers tending to have lower neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of predicted intake (98.9 vs. 100.5%). The results of this study suggest that the degree of feed sorting may be influenced by method of transition to a novel ration. PMID:25622873

Miller-Cushon, E K; Vogel, J P; DeVries, T J

2015-04-01

256

Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

1991-01-01

257

Affective Speech for Social Communication: Implementation Challenges in Text-to-Speech for Short Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexibility to choose from different modal content presentation will be an important feature in future ubiquitous application. Currently, short messages (e.g. SMS\\/MMS) are only available in visual form. However, in certain situations, users may like to have these messages presented in audio form. We explored the alternative of presenting short messages in affective synthetic text-to-speech form special for social

A. K. Amin; J. Wang

2006-01-01

258

Photonics and other approaches to high speed communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research group of 4 faculty and about 10-15 graduate students was actively involved (as a group) in the development of computer communication networks for the last five years. Many of its individuals have been involved in related research for a much longer period. The overall research goal is to extend network performance to higher data rates, to improve protocol performance at most ISO layers and to improve network operational performance. We briefly state our research goals, then discuss the research accomplishments and direct your attention to attached and/or published papers which cover the following topics: scalable parallel communications; high performance interconnection between high data rate networks; and a simple, effective media access protocol system for integrated, high data rate networks.

Maly, Kurt

1992-01-01

259

Stagings: Short Scripts for Middle and High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing students to the magic of theater and helping them develop dramatic skills, this book presents nine reproducible scripts for short plays (15 to 25 minutes) with characters and story lines that will appeal to young people. The scripts in the book encompass a variety of story types, from adaptations of well-known fairy tales to original…

Garner, Joan

260

Short Term Effects of Highly and Mildly Aggressive Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of playing different types of video games on players' short-term affective states. In the first experiment, college student subjects played 11 different video games and rated them on a number of characteristics. From these ratings, two games were selectedfor use in Experiment 2. These games differed only in the level of aggression

Craig A. Anderson; Catherine M. Ford

261

Selective interaction between nonribosomal peptide synthetases is facilitated by short communication-mediating domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) catalyze the formation of structurally diverse and biologically important peptides. Given their modular organization, NRPSs provide an enormous potential for biocombinatorial approaches to generate novel bioactive compounds. Crucial for the exploitation of this potential is a profound knowledge of the intermolecular communication between partner NRPSs. The overall goal of this study was to understand the basis

Martin Hahn; Torsten Stachelhaus

2004-01-01

262

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Arguments for making use of a differential gas thermometer in cryogenic microcalorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication invites attention to a simple differential gas thermometer at liquid helium temperatures for detecting the heat power released at either end of some heat resistor. In conjunction with the most sensitive models of commercially available differential pressure sensors, this type of cryogenic calorimeter promises sub-nanowatt sensitivity with a time constant of heat relaxation of the order of 60 s.

Frantsuz, E. T.; Gutmann, P.

2003-08-01

263

An International Short Course for Training Professionals as Effective Science Communicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars have recognized a need for educational programs that prepare scientists, Extension practitioners, and other stakeholders to communicate science effectively. Such programs have the potential to increase public awareness and aid policy development. Having recognized this need, faculty at Michigan State University (MSU) developed an…

Sarathchandra, Dilshani; Maredia, Karim M.

2014-01-01

264

Iridium Short Burst Data: Two-Way, Robust, Reliable, Low Power Communications for Oceanographic Data Transmission Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two hundred years, water level observations in coastal areas have been used to help mariners navigate oceans and estuaries, cartographers develop nautical charts, government agencies regulate boundaries, and scientists gain a better understanding of various physical processes in the ocean. As technology has progressed the latency in providing these data to the user has been reduced. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) provides near real-time oceanographic and meteorological data to support navigation, coastal managers, and storm surge and tsunami warning programs. CO-OPS maintains the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), a system of over 200 stations for the coastal United States, Great Lakes, Caribbean islands, and Pacific island territories. CO-OPS also supports the NOAA Physical Oceanographic Real Time Systems° (PORTS), which are currently operating in 21 US ports. With an expanding role in Arctic and Alaska support, CO-OPS has identified a need for a robust and reliable data communications pathway to supplement the existing Geostationary Operational Environmental Systems (GOES) network, which has limitations at high latitudes. Iridium satellite Short Burst Data (SBD) services offer a global coverage, including remote Arctic regions outside of GOES coverage. Previous testing conducted by CO-OPS has shown a great potential for the SBD service including continuous near-real-time 6 minute data transmissions from two CO-OPS test water level stations located in Guam, with >99.9% data return. Also, successful transmissions of hourly wave statistics were demonstrated with a with a test system that employed a Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current (AWAC) instrument in Chesapeake Bay were accomplished. Data transmissions involved a buoy-mounted SIM-less SBD modem. Independent of location, data can be transmitted from a remote instrument platform to Iridium satellites with a latency of just 15 seconds. Successful test demonstrations have led to discussions regarding prospective work to integrate these small modems into CO-OPS current meters that are mounted on United States Coast Guard (USCG) Aid to Navigation (ATON) buoys, improving the reliability of the real-time transmission pathway between data collection and data reporting via PORTS °. Overall, this work has shown that with careful evaluation of data needs, commercial Iridium service can be economically used to accomplish telemetry requirements. It also shows potential for event-driven high frequency data transmission options, for applications such as marine warning systems. CO-OPS efforts to test and evaluate Iridium communications oceanographic observatories reported on here has been a collaborative endeavor with the United States Army Corp Engineers (USACE) Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC, the USACE Cold Regions Research Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH, NAL Research Inc, Sutron Corporation,and Nortek USA.

Roggenstein, E. B.; Hensley, W.

2011-12-01

265

High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable operation in harsh 500C environments. This has included world record operation of SiC-based transistor technology (including packaging) that has demonstrated continuous electrical operation at 500C for over 2000 hours. Based on SiC electronics, development of high temperature wireless communication has been on-going. This work has concentrated on maturing the SiC electronic devices for communication purposes as well as the passive components such as resistors and capacitors needed to enable a high temperature wireless system. The objective is to eliminate wires associated with high temperature sensors which add weight to a vehicle and can be a cause of sensor unreliability. This paper discusses the development of SiC based electronics and wireless communications technology for harsh environment applications such as propulsion health management systems and in Venus missions. A brief overview of the future directions in sensor technology is given including maturing of near-room temperature "Lick and Stick" leak sensor technology for possible implementation in the Crew Launch Vehicle program. Then an overview of high temperature electronics and the development of high temperature communication systems is presented. The maturity of related technologies such as sensor and packaging will also be discussed. It is concluded that a significant component of efforts to improve the intelligence of harsh environment operating systems is the development and implementation of high temperature wireless technology

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

2007-01-01

266

LETTER Communicated by Kwabena Boahen Modeling Short-Term Synaptic Depression in Silicon  

E-print Network

to threshold when the membrane potential is close to the resting potential. 1 Introduction Short-term synaptic potential of the neuron was close to the resting potential. We also mapped a proposed cortical model possible role of depression is to bring the neuron's response up to threshold quickly if the membrane

Liu, Shih-Chii

267

High-repetition-rate solid state laser for space communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, French space agency) established the laser system characteristics for Mars-Earth spatial communications using the Pulse Position Modulation technique. Today, diode-pumped solid-state lasers are under intense research and development. Indeed, in comparison with flash-lamp pumped laser, they offer significant advantages in terms of efficiency, compactness, lifetime and high beam quality. We have demonstrated that gain-switch

Christian Larat; Muriel Schwarz; Jean-Paul Pocholle; Gilles Feugnet; Michel R. Papuchon

1995-01-01

268

High-speed satellite mobile communications: technologies and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central features of future 4G mobile communication systems are high-speed data transmission (up to 1 Gb\\/s) and interactive multimedia services. For effective delivery of these services, the network must satisfy some stringent QoS metrics, defined typically in terms of maximum delay and\\/or minimum throughput. Mobile satellite systems will be fully integrated with the terrestrial cellular systems to provide ubiquitous global

MOHAMED IBNKAHLA; QUAZI MEHBUBAR RAHMAN; AHMED IYANDA SULYMAN; HISHAM ABDULHUSSEIN AL-ASADY; Jun Yuan; AHMED SAFWAT

2004-01-01

269

Non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review  

PubMed Central

Cell-to-cell communication is the basis of coordinated cellular activity and thus fundamental for the functioning of biological systems. In a recently published research article by Chaban et al. (Am. J. Transl. Res., 5(1), 69-79), the authors report on interesting new experimental findings supporting a neuro-hormonal independent, non-diffusible cell-to-cell signaling. Our paper aims to (i) discuss some critical notions used by the authors to describe their findings, and (ii) briefly review related experimental work performed so far but not discussed in the original work of Chaban et al. In our opinion, the research on principles of non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication has the potential to offer new fundamental insights into biological processes. With this paper, we want to encourage future research on this topic by discussing critical issues and giving an overview of the current state of research. PMID:24093056

Scholkmann, Felix; Fels, Daniel; Cifra, Michal

2013-01-01

270

Short communication Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative transfer models developed at AER are being used extensively for a wide range of applications in the atmospheric sciences. This communication is intended to provide a coherent summary of the various radiative transfer models and associated databases publicly available from AER (http:\\/\\/ www.rtweb.aer.com). Among the communities using the models are the remote sensing community (e.g. TES, IASI), the

S. A. Clough; M. W. Shephard; E. J. Mlawer; J. S. Delamere; M. J. Iacono; K. Cady-Pereira; S. Boukabara; P. D. Brown

271

Earth Science Mission Benefits of High Data Rate Satellite Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite to ground communication bandwidth limitations place constraints on current earth remote sensing instruments which limit the spatial and spectral resolution of data transmitted to the ground for processing. Instruments such as VIIRS, CrIS and OMPS on the Soumi-NPP spacecraft must aggregate data both spatially and spectrally in order to fit inside current data rate constraints limiting the optimal use of the as-built sensors. Future planned missions such as PACE, TEMPO and DESDynI Radar will have to trade spatial and spectral resolution if increased communication band width is not made available. A number of high-impact, environmental remote sensing disciplines such as hurricane observation, mega-city air quality, wild fire detection and monitoring, and monitoring of coastal oceans would benefit dramatically from enabling the downlinking of sensor data at higher spatial and spectral resolutions. The enabling technologies of multi-Gbps Ka-Band communication and multi-Terabit SSRs are currently available with high technological maturity enabling high data volume mission requirements to be met with minimal mission constraints while utilizing only a very few ground sites from NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN). These enabling technologies will be described in detail with emphasis on benefits to future remote sensing missions currently under consideration by government agencies.

Jackson, J. M.; Munger, J.; Emch, P. G.; Sen, B.; Gu, D.

2013-12-01

272

Highly survivable communications: Complementary media packet switched networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for highly survivable communications (HSC) for essential command functions in military operations does not need any justification. The ability to communicate under extreme jamming levels and adverse propagation conditions, including high altitude nuclear events, is a very important requirement. There are also many natural disaster related requirements that also need such highly survivable communications. The prevalent and in a sense classical, approach to provide highly assured connectivity can be summarized as follows: Take a particular propagation medium and try to obtain the ultimate performance from it. There are many examples of this philosophy some successful, most not. Our approach, on the other hand, is to use complementary multi-media or mixed-media where communication links utilizing essentially commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment are integrated using packet radio (PR) techniques. There is also, in our view, an even more fundamental, recently discovered consideration why the expectation of continuous incremental refinement of a system using a given single media may be be achievable. This is derived from the theory of 'deterministic uncertainty' or more popularly known as 'theory of CHAOS', systems whose state space behavior has fractal characteristics. We will elaborate on this novel argument. Complementary multi-media approach has been the focus for all HSC communications activities at STC since 1982. The original STC studies and prototypes were in response to requirements of broadcasting (i.e., one-way transmission) information. A high frequency (HF)/meteorburst (MB) system was developed/prototyped/tested demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the approach. These results are reviewed. More recently, in 1992 STC has completed the development/test of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) HF packet radio protocol as no such open or non-proprietary protocol exists. This protocol has been fully tested, documented and made available to all NATO nations/industries. These extensive results show that significant improvements in throughput of up to many times are obtained. A similar development for an OSI MB protocol has also been completed and combined with the HF protocol to obtain an OSI HF/MB link layer protocol with unique properties for HSC networks. Description of these protocols and the relevant results are presented. highly survivable connectivity, by providing the most important ingredient of survivability, media diversity.

Yavuz, D.; Eken, F.; Karavassilis, N.

1994-07-01

273

Design of communication systems using short-constraint-length convolutional codes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for calculating the effect of carrier-phase reference error in a receiver phase-locked loop on bit error rates in convolutionally coded data, for the practical design of systems using short-constraint-length convolutional codes. A set of design curves shows the relation between design bit error rate, uplink carrier tracking loop SNR, downlink total SNR, and downlink modulation index. These curves make possible rapid and simple system optimization.

Merrill, H. M.; Thompson, G. D., Jr.

1972-01-01

274

High performance computing and communications: FY 1997 implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage, with bipartisan support, of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. The original Program, in which eight Federal agencies participated, has now grown to twelve agencies. This Plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` FY 1996 HPCC accomplishments and FY 1997 HPCC plans. Section 3 of this Plan provides an overview of the HPCC Program. Section 4 contains more detailed definitions of the Program Component Areas, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each PCA. Appendix A provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.

NONE

1996-12-01

275

Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks  

SciTech Connect

Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.

Pierson, L.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Witzke, E.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-05-01

276

When are high-tech communicators effective in Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software program for word prediction and voice output was tested, and was prescribed after a training period. One year later, the patient was still using the customized device to communicate and for leisure time, showing a high degree of satisfaction with the aid (assessed by QUEST 2.0), which had a positive impact on her well-being and quality of life (assessed by Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scales). In conclusion, in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, high-tech augmentative and alternative communication devices may be considered, tested, and prescribed after a positive training period. Follow-ups are necessary to monitor the effectiveness of the assistive device and respond to specific patient needs that may arise with using the device. PMID:22186614

Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

2012-03-01

277

Java-based communication in a High Performance Computing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Java is one of the most widely used computer programming languages, however its use in High Performance Computing (HPC) is relatively low. A typical HPC environment consists of a number of multi-core computing nodes, while a typical application running in such an environment will normally contain CPU intensive code that can be executed in parallel. Such an application may require inter-node as well as intra-node communication. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a language independent specification of an API to allow such communication. MPJExpress (Baker et al. 2006) and F-MPJ (Taboada et al. 2009) are Java-based implementations of MPI, designed with the efficient performance of data transfers as a main objective. In this paper we discuss the scalability of one approach of distributing data to compute nodes in HPC and we propose the design of an alternative data transfer system, building upon MPI.

Fries, A.; de Mora, J. Portell I.; Sirvent, R.

2011-02-01

278

High temperature superconductor analog electronics for millimeter-wavelength communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of high temperature superconductor (HTS) passive microwave circuits up to X-band was encouraging when compared to their metallic counterparts. The extremely low surface resistance of HTS films up to about 10 GHz enables a reduction in loss by as much as 100 times compared to copper when both materials are kept at about 77 K. However, a superconductor's surface resistance varies in proportion to the frequency squared. Consequently, the potential benefit of HTS materials to millimeter-wave communications requires careful analysis. A simple ring resonator was used to evaluate microstrip losses at Ka-band. Additional promising components were investigated such as antennas and phase shifters. Prospects for HTS to favorable impact millimeter-wave communications systems are discussed.

Romanofsky, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

1991-01-01

279

Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

1990-09-01

280

Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

1990-01-01

281

High frequency sound attenuation in short flow ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrical acoustics approach is proposed as a practical design tool for absorbent liners in such short flow ducts as may be found in turbofan engine nacelles. As an example, a detailed methodology is presented for three different types of sources in a parallel plate duct containing uniform ambient flow. A plane wave whose wavefronts are not normal to the duct walls, an arbitrarily located point source, and a spatially harmonic line source are each considered. Optimal wall admittance distributions are found, and it is shown how to estimate the insertion loss for any admittance distribution. The extension of the methodology to realistic source distributions in variable area cylindrical or annular ducts containing arbitrary flow is shown to be conceptually straightforward and computationally practical on a vector-hardware digital computer.

Posey, J. W.

1978-01-01

282

Demonstration of high-rate laser communications from fast airborne platform: flight campaign and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some current and future airborne payloads like high resolution cameras and radar systems need high channel capacity to transmit their data from air to ground in near real-time. Especially in reconnaissance and surveillance missions, it is important to downlink huge amount of data in very short contact times to a ground station during a flyby. Aeronautical laser communications can supply the necessary high data-rates for this purpose. Within the project DODfast (Demonstration of Optical Data link fast) a laser link from a fast flying platform was demonstrated. The flight platform was a Panavia Tornado with the laser communication terminal installed in an attached avionic demonstrator pod. The air interface was a small glass dome protecting the beam steering assembly. All other elements were integrated in a small box inside the Pod's fuselage. The receiver station was DLR's Transportable Optical Ground Station equipped with a free-space receiver front-end. Downlink wavelength for communication and uplink wavelength for beacon laser were chosen from the optical C-band DWDM grid. The test flights were carried out at the end of November 2013 near the Airbus Defence and Space location in Manching, Germany. The campaign successfully demonstrated the maturity and readiness of laser communication with a data-rate of 1.25 Gbit/s for aircraft downlinks. Pointing, acquisition and tracking performance of the airborne terminal and the ground station could be measured at aircraft speed up to 0.7 Mach and video data from an onboard camera has been transmitted. Link distances with stable tracking were up to 79 km and distance with data transmission over 50 km. In this paper, we describe the system architecture, the flight campaign and the results.

Moll, Florian; Mitzkus, Wolfgang; Horwath, Joachim; Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin; Martin, Luis; Lozano, Alberto; Diaz Gonzalez, Dionisio

2014-10-01

283

Why Segregating Short Jobs from Long Jobs under High Variability is Not Always a Win  

E-print Network

Why Segregating Short Jobs from Long Jobs under High Variability is Not Always a Win Mor Harchol assignment policies for server farms as the variability of job sizes (service demands) approaches infinity. The Size-Interval- Task-Assignment policy (SITA), which separates short jobs from long jobs, has long been

Harchol-Balter, Mor

284

A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

1990-01-01

285

High power microwave components for space communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyzed, developed, and tested were high power microwave components for communications satellites systems. Included were waveguide and flange configurations with venting, a harmonic filter, forward and reverse power monitors, electrical fault sensors, and a diplexer for two channel simultaneous transmission. The assembly of 8.36 GHz components was bench tested, and then operated for 60 hours at 3.5 kW CW in a high vacuum. The diplexer was omitted from this test pending a modification of its end irises. An RF leakage test showed only that care is required at flange junctions; all other components were RF tight. Designs were extrapolated for 12 GHz and 2.64 GHz high power satellite systems.

Jankowski, H.; Geia, A.

1972-01-01

286

Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards  

PubMed Central

Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/) were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing. PMID:25685703

Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex

2014-01-01

287

SIMULATION OF ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDING OF A HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, SHORT GLASS FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDING OF A HIGHLY CONCENTRATED, SHORT GLASS FIBER approximation for predicting the flow-induced orientation of injection molded composite parts within of the fiber orientation. Introduction Fiber reinforced thermoplastic made by injection molding

Wapperom, Peter

288

High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time  

DOEpatents

A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

289

Short-term stability of high-silica glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The devitrification characteristics of high-silica (70-90%) glasses for use in potential higher temperature coatings on advanced insulation systems for space vehicles were determined at 1260 C after 24 h. These data indicate that additives can be used to maintain the stability of these coatings relative to cristobalite formation.

Leiser, D. B.

1981-01-01

290

A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling the propagation of electromagnetic waves is important to a broad range of applications. Recent advances in controlling wave propagation in random scattering media have enabled optical focusing and imaging inside random scattering media. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a new method to deliver optical power more efficiently through scattering media. Drastically different from the random matrix characterization approach, our method can rapidly establish high efficiency communication channels using just a few measurements, regardless of the number of optical modes, and provides a practical and robust solution to boost the signal levels in optical or short wave communications. We experimentally demonstrated analog and digital signal transmission through highly scattering media with greatly improved performance. Besides scattering, our method can also reduce the loss of signal due to absorption. Experimentally, we observed that our method forced light to go around absorbers, leading to even higher signal improvement than in the case of purely scattering media. Interestingly, the resulting signal improvement is highly directional, which provides a new means against eavesdropping.

Hao, Xiang; Martin-Rouault, Laure; Cui, Meng

2014-07-01

291

Short Communication Caustic Ulcers Caused by Cement Aqua: Report of a Case  

E-print Network

Abstract: Chromium is widely used in various industries including construction sector. Skin contact with cement has been associated with allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is one of the most frequently reported health problems among construction workers. Irritant contact dermatitis from cement ranges from cement burns to cumulative irritant contact dermatitis. Cement burns are rarely reported and are considered a severe form of acute irritant contact dermatitis. They are associated with amateur user working in a short ready-mix timeframe with poor protective measures. They usually result in significant morbidity and initially are associated with minimal discomfort. We report a typical case. Key words: Caustic ulcers, Cement aqua, Occupational injury Cement is the leading cause of occupational skin disease in the construction industry 1) , mostly due to contact allergy. Cement burns were previously reported, mostly 20 yr ago 2–8). We report another case. A 48-yr-old man presented to our department with necrotic lesions on feet, ankles and shanks. Five days

Alena Machovcova

2008-01-01

292

High performance computing and communications: FY 1995 implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally established following passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 signed on December 9, 1991. Ten federal agencies in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and laboratories have developed the HPCC Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1994 and FY 1995. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency. Although the Department of Education is an official HPCC agency, its current funding and reporting of crosscut activities goes through the Committee on Education and Health Resources, not the HPCC Program. For this reason the Implementation Plan covers nine HPCC agencies.

NONE

1994-04-01

293

Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.  

PubMed

The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU. PMID:24945742

Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

2014-10-01

294

Short communication: Factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Cortisol has long been used as a marker of the stress response in animals. Cortisol can be analyzed from different media, most notably from the blood, saliva, and feces; however, the collection of cortisol from some of these media requires invasive procedures or excessive handling of the animals. Furthermore, it is not possible to capture long-term increases in circulating concentrations of cortisol from the blood, saliva, or feces. Hair cortisol has been found to be a reliable alternative for measuring chronic stress. With this emerging measure, appropriate sampling methodology must be developed and validated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hair color, sampling location, and processing method on cortisol concentrations in hair from lactating black and white Holstein cows (n=18). Furthermore, we aimed to measure the hair growth rates at different body locations (n=12) and test hair cortisol levels when resampled over short intervals (n=37). Both black- and white-colored hair was collected from the shoulder, top line, hip, and tail switch of Holsteins; due to breed characteristics only white hair was harvested from the tail switch. All samples were cleaned with water and isopropanol, and then ground in a ball mill or finely cut with scissors once dry. Cortisol was extracted with methanol before being measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Concentrations of cortisol were greater in white than in black hair (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1 pg/mg). When only white samples were analyzed, hair from the tail switch had more cortisol than hair from the shoulder (11.0 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 pg/mg), whereas no difference was found when compared with the hip and top line. Samples ground with a ball mill had greater concentrations of cortisol extracted than those minced with scissors (10.4 ± 1.2 vs. 4.7 ± 1.2 pg/mg). The growth rate of hair was significantly greater at the tail switch compared with the hip and shoulder (0.51 ± 0.05 vs. 0.04 ± 0.05 vs. 0.03 ± 0.05 mm/d). When hair was collected every 3 wk after calving, a tendency was detected for multiparous cows to have greater concentrations of hair cortisol and significantly greater concentrations of cortisol on d 0 and 21 after calving compared with d 42, 84, and 126. In Holsteins, the hair on the tail switch is always white, grows more rapidly than other sites, and is sensitive enough to capture changes in cortisol over intervals as short as 3 wk, making it the ideal location for measuring hair cortisol. PMID:25282411

Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Nadalin, Audrey; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

2014-12-01

295

High performance broadband photodetector and its array for optical communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Device-level reduction of dark current is critical for improving the Signal to Noise ratio and dynamic range of system using III-V based optical components. We report on low-noise, back-illuminated p-i-n photodetector and its arrays with high spectral response for optical communication and also optical interconnects applications at 1.3 ?m and 1.55 ?m wavelengths. The photodetector is based on planar structure fabricated from InP having a latticematched InGaAs-absorber layer, and it is designed specifically for high sensitivity and low dark current (nA) at room temperature by minimizing leakage current. Electrical and optical performance of both individual diodes and small-pixel array test structures will be presented in this paper.

Bregman, Jeremy; Nagi, Ritchie; Olah, Robert; Oduor, Patrick; Dutta, Achyut K.

2015-01-01

296

SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this paper are: (1) The gradient of the SLIM-based technology is believed to be achievable in the same range as it is for the gradient of a modern rf-linac technology ({approx}100 MeV per meter). (2) The SLIM concept is based on the nsec TEM pulse mode operation with no laser or rf systems. (3) Main components of SLIM are not stressed while the energy is pumped into the induction system. Components can accept the hard environment conditions such as a radiation dose, mismatch, hard electromagnetic nose level, etc. Only for several nanoseconds the switch is OFF and produces a stress in the induction system. At that time, the delivery of energy to the beam takes place. (4) The energy in the induction system initially is storied in the magnetic field when the switch is ON. That fact makes another benefit: a low voltage power supplies can be used. The reliability of a lower voltage power supply is higher and they are cheaper. (5) The coreless SLIM concept offers to work in the MHz range of repetition rate. The induction system has the high electric efficiency (much higher than the DWA). (6) The array of lined up and activated SLIM cells is believed to be a solid state structure of novel accelerating technology. The electron-hole plasma in the high power solid state structure is precisely controlled by the electromagnetic process of a pulsed power supply.

Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.; Arntz, F.; /Diversified Tech., Bedford

2009-12-09

297

Application of polyelectrolytes to fractionation of alfalfa juice protein (short communication).  

PubMed

The quantities of protein which can be extracted from green plants depend on a number of factors such as the botanical composition of the plant, its growth stage, topdressing and system of extraction. Leaf protein concentrates have been incorporated into food for human consumption, but their green color has limited its application. Thermal precipitation of chloroplastic material is not specific, causes denaturation and requires high energy input. A selective recovery of the green fraction is possible by centrifugation at high centrifugal forces or by the combination of this method with an addition of calcium salt to a green juice. Application of high molecular polyelectrolytes in green juice precipitation allows the separation of pigmented material at room temperature. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of cationic and anionic flocculants on fractionation of alfalfa green juice into two fractions: chloroplastic (green LPC) and cytoplasmatic (white LPC). PMID:3614339

Baraniak, B; Baraniak, A

1987-01-01

298

Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal communication protocol software user's guide, version 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communication Protocol Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Communication Protocol Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Communication Protocol Software allows users to control and configure the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix (IFSM) on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload. Besides IFSM control, the C&PM Software System is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during signal fade events, and data display. The Communication Protocol Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189162) outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Communication Protocol Software. Configuration files used to control the IFSM, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed. The Communication Protocol Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189163, to be published) is a programmer's guide to the Communication Protocol Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Communication Protocol Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Communication Protocol Software Test Plan (NASA CR-189164, to be published) provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software. Included in the Test Plan is command transmission, telemetry reception, error detection, and error recovery procedures.

Reinhart, Richard C.

1993-01-01

299

High Bandwidth Short Stroke Rotary Fast Tool Servo  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design and performance of a new rotary fast tool servo (FTS) capable of developing the 40 g's tool tip acceleration required to follow a 5 micron PV sinusoidal surface at 2 kHz with a planned accuracy of 50 nm, and having a full stroke of 50 micron PV at lower frequencies. Tests with de-rated power supplies have demonstrated a closed-loop unity-gain bandwidth of 2 kHz with 20 g's tool acceleration, and we expect to achieve 40 g's with supplies providing {+-} 16 Amp to the Lorentz force actuator. The use of a fast tool servo with a diamond turning machine for producing non-axisymmetric or textured surfaces on a workpiece is well known. Our new rotary FTS was designed to specifically accommodate fabricating prescription textured surfaces on 5 mm diameter spherical target components for High Energy Density Physics experiments on the National Ignition Facility Laser (NIF).

Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

2003-08-22

300

Short-pulse high-power microwave breakdown at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluid model is proposed to investigate the gas breakdown driven by a short-pulse (such as a Gaussian pulse) high-power microwave at high pressures. However, the fluid model requires specification of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF); the common assumption of a Maxwellian EEDF can result in the inaccurate breakdown prediction when the electrons are not in equilibrium. We confirm that the influence of the incident pulse shape on the EEDF is tiny at high pressures by using the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model. As a result, the EEDF for a rectangular microwave pulse directly derived from the Boltzmann equation solver Bolsig+ is introduced into the fluid model for predicting the breakdown threshold of the non-rectangular pulse over a wide range of pressures, and the obtained results are very well matched with those of the PIC-MCC simulations. The time evolution of a non-rectangular pulse breakdown in gas, obtained by the fluid model with the EEDF from Bolsig+, is presented and analyzed at different pressures. In addition, the effect of the incident pulse shape on the gas breakdown is discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328904), the NSAF of China (Grant No. U1330109), and 2012 Doctoral Innovation Funds of Southwest Jiaotong University.

Zhao, Peng-Cheng; Liao, Cheng; Feng, Ju

2015-02-01

301

Short Communication Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber  

E-print Network

(treatment and disposal or re- use) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can be more than 50 Mohan and Chandrasekhar, 2011), manure (Scott and Murano, 2007), or sewage sludges (Jiang et al., 2009 due to high internal resistances, for example 0.3 mW/ m2 from sewage sludge using a baffle

302

Short Communication Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial  

E-print Network

2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Buffer Sodium chloride Ion exchange membrane a b s t r a c t HighlyH conditions and increase the solution conduc- tivity, including phosphate, bicarbonate, and zwitterionic (Fan into the environment. Bicarbonate buffers are more useful, but they can enhance the growth of methanogens (Fan et al

303

DOI 10.1007/s10071-010-0347-4 SHORT COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

August 2010 © Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract The trap-tube task has become a benchmark test high cognitive abilities. We therefore tested macaws, a cockatoo, and keas on the trap-tube para- digm of the tube, and the test performances showed a strong dependency on the set-up of the task (reviewed in Emery

Indiana University

304

Short Communication Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy  

E-print Network

: energy requirements for such a process were estimated to be one-fourth of the available heat 107 J/kg of dry biomass for hydrodynamic cavitation up to 5:3 Â 108 J/kg for high-pressure homogenizers (HPH) (Lee et al., 2012). Unfortunately, the heat of combustion of algal biomass is only 2:7 Â 107

Freund, Jonathan B.

305

Short Communication RAPID DETECTION OF SWINE TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS BY NESTED POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a nested PCR for the rapid detection of TGEv. The primers were designed from the highly conserved regions of several sequences of this virus included in the analysis. With the purpose of achieving a good technical specificity, sequences of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDv) were included in the design. This virus belongs

Edisleidy Rodríguez; A. Betancourt; Maritza Barrera; Changee Lee; Dongwan Yoo

306

Short communication Dynamics of early wolf and cougar eradication efforts in  

E-print Network

) and cougars (Puma concolor) to an eradication program. Number of payments for wolves declined from a high; Puma concolor; Wolves 1. Introduction Once two of the most widely distributed large carni- vores in the world, wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor), were nearly eradicated in the western US

Riley, Shawn J.

307

SHORT COMMUNICATION OCCURRENCE OF RESIDUAL BISPHENOL A AND ITS MIGRATION LEVELS IN POLYCARBONATE BABY MILK BOTTLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycarbonate (PC) is a lightweight, tough, heat resistant and high performance plastic. It is widely used in food-contact applications such as food storage containers, kitchen appliances and baby milk bottles. PC is produced by the polymerisation of bisphenol A (BPA) and phosgene monomers. It is possible that free BPA monomers could migrate from the PC material during contact with food.

Leo L W; Wong K O; Seah H L

308

Surprisingly short-ranged interactions in highly charged colloidal suspensions.  

PubMed

The interaction potential between colloidal particles in a suspension has been the topic of much research recently. Digital video microscopy techniques have come into wide use, as this method yields direct information about the structure of such systems. However, two main problems have plagued researchers working with this technique. First, what one sees through a microscope is actually a projection of a three-dimensional sample onto a two-dimensional image plane. Second, in order to achieve long-range interactions between particles, the ionicity of the surrounding medium must be as low as possible. In order to address the first problem, researchers have created quasi-two-dimensional samples by confining the system between two glass plates. However, this geometry makes it difficult to control the ionicity, and it also makes the analysis more difficult since one is dealing with an anisotropic system for which established theories of colloidal interactions formulated for the bulk do not apply. We have developed techniques to effectively address each of these two problems. Our sample cell is large enough to allow direct contact of the suspension with ion exchange resin, and allows one to make bulk measurements of the structure. In addition, we have developed techniques to handle the projection effects. We have used these methods to measure the radial distribution function of dilute suspensions of highly charged unconfined polystyrene microspheres in a density matched mixture of H2O and D2O. We found that the interaction potential between the colloidal particles was much shorter ranged than would be expected based on the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloidal interactions. PMID:11088385

Durand, R V; Franck, C

2000-06-01

309

Short communication: cheminformatics analysis to identify predictors of antiviral drug penetration into the female genital tract.  

PubMed

The exposure of oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the female genital tract (FGT) is variable and almost unpredictable. Identifying an efficient method to find compounds with high tissue penetration would streamline the development of regimens for both HIV preexposure prophylaxis and viral reservoir targeting. Here we describe the cheminformatics investigation of diverse drugs with known FGT penetration using cluster analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) modeling. A literature search over the 1950-2012 period identified 58 compounds (including 21 ARVs and representing 13 drug classes) associated with their actual concentration data for cervical or vaginal tissue, or cervicovaginal fluid. Cluster analysis revealed significant trends in the penetrative ability for certain chemotypes. QSAR models to predict genital tract concentrations normalized to blood plasma concentrations were developed with two machine learning techniques utilizing drugs' molecular descriptors and pharmacokinetic parameters as inputs. The QSAR model with the highest predictive accuracy had R(2)test=0.47. High volume of distribution, high MRP1 substrate probability, and low MRP4 substrate probability were associated with FGT concentrations ?1.5-fold plasma concentrations. However, due to the limited FGT data available, prediction performances of all models were low. Despite this limitation, we were able to support our findings by correctly predicting the penetration class of rilpivirine and dolutegravir. With more data to enrich the models, we believe these methods could potentially enhance the current approach of clinical testing. PMID:24512359

Thompson, Corbin G; Sedykh, Alexander; Nicol, Melanie R; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Kashuba, Angela D M

2014-11-01

310

Multirate signal processing techniques for high-speed communication over power lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread use of Internet and multimedia applications, there is renewed interest in utilizing the electric power lines for transmission of high data rate communication signals. Power lines offer a convenient and pervasive communication medium that does not require new cable installation. However, power lines are classified as a noisy and unpredictable communication channel. Advanced signal processing techniques, such

S. Baig; M. J. Mughal

2009-01-01

311

Short communication: Interactions of milk, fat, and protein yield genotypes with herd feeding characteristics.  

PubMed

Data from 879 Holstein cows from 11 tie-stall herds in Pennsylvania were analyzed to determine the effects of nutritional management practices on the level of genetic expression for milk, fat, and protein yields. Environments were defined according to the amount of dry matter refusals at the end of 24h for the average cow (DMR), diet crude protein percentage (CP), and diet NE(L) concentration. Sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) was available for all cows, whereas 775 cows were genotyped and received a molecular breeding value (MBV) for milk, fat, and protein yields. Milk, fat, and protein yields were regressed on sire PTA and cow MBV independently in addition to combined breeding values (CBV) of sire PTA and cow MBV. Four-trait animal models with fat-corrected milk yield in high and low environments plus either body weight or body condition score in high and low environments treated as separate traits were also evaluated. Regressions on sire PTA (0.31 for fat yield to 0.54 for milk yield) were significantly lower in the 5 herds that had the lowest average DMR than in the 6 herds with highest average DMR (0.82 for fat yield to 1.11 for protein yield). The regressions of milk and protein yield on CBV were also significantly lower in the 5 herds with low NE(L) concentration in the ration than in herds that had high NE(L) concentration. Genetic correlations from animal models showed that large cows were more affected by low DMR, CP, and NE(L) concentration than smaller cows. Efforts to minimize feed wastage must ensure that cows receive adequate nutrient intake to avoid suppression of genetic potential for yield, particularly for larger cows. PMID:22365236

Dekleva, M W; Dechow, C D; Daubert, J M; Liu, W S; Varga, G A; Bauck, S; Woodward, B W

2012-03-01

312

Short communication: evaluation of an automated in-house hematology analyzer for bovine blood.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the V-Sight hematology analyzer (A. Menarini Pharma GmbH, Vienna, Austria) for bovine blood by a comparison with a reference device (Advia 2120i, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). In total, 97 blood samples were obtained from 75 dairy cows. Analyzed parameters included counts of white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), and platelets (PLT), as well as hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume (MPV), and plateletcrit (PCT). Based on Passing-Bablok regression, the V-Sight provided accurate and precise results for MCH and MCHC only. The PCT results were comparable to the reference method, but precision was inconclusive. Significant proportional differences were detected for monocytes, granulocytes, HCT, and PLT. For all other analytes, significant proportional and systemic differences were observed. The WBC and lymphocyte results from the V-Sight were characterized by poor accuracy, poor precision, and a high number of false positive outliers. Bland-Altman analysis indicated negative biases for all WBC parameters, the erythrocyte indices, and PLT. Positive biases were observed for RBC, HGB, HCT, MPV, and PCT. Correlation coefficients of >0.9 between the V-Sight and the reference method were found only for RBC, HGB, HCT, and MPV. Intraassay precision of the V-Sight analyzer was acceptable (coefficient of variation <5%) for granulocytes, the erythrocyte indices, and MPV. It was unacceptable (coefficient of variation ?5%) for WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, as well as RBC, and inconclusive for HGB, HCT, PLT, and PCT. Sensitivity was high for all RBC counts and indices as well as PLT, but low for monocytes, granulocytes, and MPV. Specificity was high for monocytes and granulocytes, but low for RBC, HCT, MCH, and MCHC. With accurate and precise results for only 2 out of 13 parameters, the V-Sight cannot be recommended for analysis of bovine blood. PMID:24997670

Roland, L; Drillich, M; Fidlschuster, B; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

2014-09-01

313

Short Communication: Evidence That Microbial Translocation Occurs in HIV-Infected Children in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Abstract Microbial translocation (MT) from the gut is implicated in driving immune activation, increasing morbidity and mortality in HIV. We used bacterial 16S rDNA PCR, Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing to identify microbial DNA in the bloodstream of HIV-infected children in London, United Kingdom. Blood samples were collected from sequential children attending the HIV clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. DNA extraction, broad range 16S rDNA PCR, and standard Sanger sequencing were carried out. A subset of positive samples was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (Roche 454 platform). Of 105 samples collected from sequential children, nine were positive using broad range 16S rDNA PCR (8.6%; 95% CI 4.4–16%). From three amplicons, 16S rDNA sequences were identified as Streptococcus, Propionibacterium acnes, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Four positive samples were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. In the three samples in which organisms were identified by Sanger sequencing, the same species were identified. Further species, in differing proportions, were identified in all four samples. The identified organisms included known gut orders Bifidobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In immunocompetent children of equivalent age, no bacterial DNA was detected in blood using this approach. This is the first study to our knowledge using molecular techniques to identify MT in children in the developed world. Our data indicate that 16S rDNA is detectable in 8.6% of HIV-infected children. Levels of DNA were low and from multiple bacterial species. Further studies are needed to ascertain the importance of MT in HIV-infected children. PMID:23972017

Fitzgerald, Felicity; Harris, Kathryn; Doyle, Ronan; Alber, Dagmar

2013-01-01

314

Short communication: Molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-?B unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-?B (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-?B promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function. PMID:25770673

Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

2015-04-01

315

Short communication: Importance of introgression for milk traits in the German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle.  

PubMed

The subject of the present study was to analyze the influence of genetic introgression on milk yield performance of the German local Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle breeds. Deviations of milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield of cows as well as pedigree information were analyzed. A sire model was used to estimate genetic trend and effects of the migrant breeds. Migrant contributions to Vorderwald cattle were high and have been rising even in the recent past. The effects of these breeds on milk yield performance were positive. Montbéliarde cattle not only had the largest effect on milk production of Vorderwald cattle but also the highest genetic contribution to this breed. Genetic introgression with Montbéliarde continued until recently. This suggests that introgression of high-yielding breeds is still a preferred method for genetic improvement of local breeds, even though it diminishes their value for conservation. Hence, the current population management has too little focus on the preservation of genetic uniqueness. In comparison, migrant breed contributions to the Hinterwald cattle, a breed with a unique phenotype and an own niche, were moderate and almost constant over the time. For the Hinterwald cattle, no significant effect of migrant breeds could be detected, which suggests that population management has different priorities in different endangered breeds. We conclude that not only the registration of animals from local breeds but also the breeding programs themselves should be supported and need to be controlled. PMID:25529416

Hartwig, S; Wellmann, R; Emmerling, R; Hamann, H; Bennewitz, J

2015-03-01

316

Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis.  

PubMed

Antibacterial effect of Citrus sinensis peel extracts was evaluated against several pathogenic bacteria associated with human and fish infections viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcesnces, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Serratia odorifera. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether solvents were used for extraction. In vitro antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well and agar disc diffusion methods. It was found that ethanol extract showed highly significant inhibition of E. coli and K. pneumonia (12.6±0.94 mm and 11.6±1.2 mm) whereas methanol extract of C. sinensis also showed high zone of inhibition of S. odorifera (10.0±2.16 mm). The potential activity of active extracts was assessed and also compared with standard antibiotics through activity index formulation. The order of antioxidant activity through ABTS·+ and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was ethanol>methanol>chloroform>diethyl ether. Phytochemical screening of all solvents had determined the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. It was also found that Chloroform/Methanol (5:5) and Butanol/Ethanol/Water (4:1:2.2) solvent systems showed significant separation of active phytochemical constituents. These findings reveal the potential use of C. sinensis peel to treat infectious diseases, which are being caused by microorganisms. PMID:25553700

Mehmood, Basharat; Dar, Kamran Khurshid; Ali, Shaukat; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Nayyer, Abdul Qayyum; Ghous, Tahseen; Andleeb, Saiqa

2015-01-01

317

SPAD electronics for high-speed quantum communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss high-speed electronics that support the use of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in gigahertz singlephoton communications systems. For InGaAs/InP SPADs, recent work has demonstrated reduced afterpulsing and count rates approaching 500 MHz can be achieved with gigahertz periodic-gating techniques designed to minimize the total avalanche charge to less than 100 fC. We investigate afterpulsing in this regime and establish a connection to observations using more conventional techniques. For Si SPADs, we report the benefits of improved timing electronics that enhance the temporal resolution of Si SPADs used in a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system operating in the GHz regime. We establish that the effects of count-rate fluctuations induced by daytime turbulent scintillation are significantly reduced, benefitting the performance of the QKD system.

Bienfang, Joshua C.; Restelli, Alessandro; Migdall, Alan

2011-01-01

318

Short Communication: New Recognition Of Enterovirus Infections In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)  

PubMed Central

An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic. PMID:19581059

Nollens, Hendrik H.; Rivera, Rebecca; Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F. X.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon L.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jensen, Eric D.; Hui, Jeffrey; Lipkin, W. Ian; Yochem, Pamela K.; Wells, Randall S.; St. Leger, Judy; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

319

Short communication Correspondence between Interactive Voice Response (IVR) and Timeline Followback (TLFB) reports of drinking behavior  

PubMed Central

This study compared reports of alcohol consumption using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system and the Timeline Followback (TLFB). One hundred eighty-two daily smokers who were not alcohol dependent provided once daily reports of alcohol consumption using an IVR system and participated in a weekly TLFB interview. The reporting time period was 7 days after participants attempted to quit smoking as part of participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The results revealed moderate to high correlations between reports of drinking behavior as assessed by IVR and TLFB. Reporting biases for both IVR and TLFB were approximately equal, with a slight trend toward underreporting drinking on the TLFB. Compliance with the IVR system was poor. This study provides preliminary evidence that it is possible to use an IVR system for the assessment of alcohol use in smokers participating in a clinical trial, and IVR seems to adequately assess drinking behavior in those that use the system. However, future studies should focus on improving compliance with IVR in this population. PMID:15975732

Toll, Benjamin A.; Cooney, Ned L.; McKee, Sherry A.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

2008-01-01

320

Short communication: prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Varamin, Tehran Province, Iran. All of the isolated Staph. aureus were identified by morphology and culture and confirmed using the API Staph identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR with oligonucleotide primers specific for each gene. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 43 of 207 (20.1%) bovine clinical milk samples. Using disk diffusion, methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus was detected in 5 of 43 (11.6%) samples. The pathogen showed high resistance against penicillin G (86%) and tetracycline (76.7%). The blaZ (penicillin) (86%), tetM (tetracycline), and ermC (erythromycin) genes (39.5% each) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes. The findings of this study are useful for designing specific control programs for bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staph. aureus in this region of Iran. PMID:24534509

Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

2014-04-01

321

Short communication: effect of pomegranate-residue supplement on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst shedding in neonatal calves.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum is considered one of the most common enteropathogens, responsible for the high incidence of diarrhea and deleterious implications on immunity and health in neonatal calves. The pomegranate is well known for its health-promoting properties. Two experiments were designed to test the antiparasitical and antidiarrheal effects of concentrated pomegranate extract (CPE) supplement in milk in neonatal Holstein calves. Forty-one calves were randomly divided into control (n=20) and treatment (n=21) groups. For the first experiment, the treatment group was supplemented with 3.75% CPE in the daily milk ration, between 3 and 14 d of age, whereas the control group received only milk. Fecal samples were collected between d 5 and 13 to quantify Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the duration and intensity of diarrhea were evaluated. Reduced fecal oocyst count and diarrhea intensity and duration were revealed in the 3.75% CPE calves. No difference was noted in average daily gain between groups. In a second experiment, which was designed to test the effect of a lower CPE concentration (0.6% of daily milk allocation), no effects on fecal oocyst count and average daily gain were observed. However, compared with control, the lower CPE group was characterized by a shorter duration of diarrhea and higher weight gain among males at 14 d of age. These results suggest that the CPE supplement-to-calf milk ratio may potentially alleviate intestinal morbidity caused by Cryptosporidium. PMID:24952772

Weyl-Feinstein, S; Markovics, A; Eitam, H; Orlov, A; Yishay, M; Agmon, R; Miron, J; Izhaki, I; Shabtay, A

2014-09-01

322

Overweight and obesity in 7 to 10-year-old Hungarian boys. Short communication.  

PubMed

Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a serious social and health problem both in the economically developed and developing countries. Despite this fact the nation-wide growth studies completed in Hungary during the past 30 years had not categorised the children either by body fat content or nutritional status. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obese boys in the country at the beginning of the new millennium. Height, body mass and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in 7173 volunteer boys aged between 7 and 10 and living in various urban and rural settlements of Hungary between 2003 and 2005. Nutritional status was qualified by the BMI and relative body fat content. The significantly increasing prevalence with age of overweight and obesity ranged between 10.3 and 23.4%. The results showed the joint effects of a secular trend of growth and of a remarkably changed lifestyle. Of these the consequences of the lifestyle are the more important ones. The high and possibly further increasing prevalence of child-age overweight and obesity reminds one of the observations of Kopp and associates (5), namely that of the increased prevalence of chronic childhood diseases during the past 15 years. More intense habitual physical activity and dramatic changes in dietary habits still promise some solution. No one should reckon, however, with the efficiency of physical education at the schools with its very few classes. PMID:17853778

Prókai, A; Mészáros, J; Mészáros, Z; Photiou, A; Vajda, I; Sziva, A

2007-09-01

323

Short communication: assessment of environmental disturbances to the static magnetic field in magnetic resonance installations.  

PubMed

The static magnetic field of MRI scanners can be affected by environmental factors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional imaging with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) are particularly vulnerable to the movement of lifts, vehicles, trains and other large metallic masses in the vicinity. This work investigates the sensitivity of two different imaging techniques to assess disturbances of the static magnetic field: (i) phase changes in gradient-echo images of a uniform test object; and (ii) image displacement along the phase encoding direction in single-shot EPI images. For the latter a hexane sample was used, and the separation between CH2 and CH3 signals was taken as a reference. Both techniques were evaluated in a site known to be free of any significant environmental disturbances and validated by inducing a magnetic field disturbance. Both techniques provide valuable information in acceptance tests, allowing MRI users to evaluate and manage the environmental conditions surrounding a scanner. The single-shot EPI technique was found to be highly sensitive, being expected to detect magnetic field fluctuations down to 0.005 parts per million (ppm). The phase images method was found to be less sensitive (0.02 ppm) but is more easily available. The single-shot EPI technique was used in acceptance tests and environmental disturbances to the magnetic field of the order of 0.04 ppm were measured at the isocentre on two separate occasions. PMID:16632625

Schmidt, M A

2006-05-01

324

Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

2013-04-01

325

Applications of High-Field and Short-Wavelength Sources INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

biology. This special issue of JOSA B is devoted to the latest de- velopments in this field. The symbiosisApplications of High-Field and Short-Wavelength Sources INTRODUCTION High-field interactions breakthroughs is well represented by the breadth of papers showcased in this issue. In a series of contributions

Ditmire, Todd

326

Laser-induced resonance states as dynamic suppressors of ionization in high-frequency short pulses  

E-print Network

-dependent wave-packet computations 25 . The shape of the pulse envelope is known to have an effect on the dynamic the adiabatic equations involve only the pulse envelope where transitions are purely ramp effects. For a short electron with high-frequency continuous- wave CW laser fields. Gavrila and co-workers developed a high

Baer, Roi

327

Short sequence-paper Effect of high pressure and reversed micelles on the fluorescent proteins  

E-print Network

Short sequence-paper Effect of high pressure and reversed micelles on the fluorescent proteins-chemical perturbations were applied to ECFP, EGFP, EYFP and DsRed fluorescent proteins: high hydrostatic pressure and quantified by thermodynamic formalism. ECFP, EYFP and DsRed exhibited similar reaction volumes under pressure

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

328

High-throughput measurement of gap junctional intercellular communication.  

PubMed

Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a critical part of cellular activities and is necessary for electrical propagation among contacting cells. Disorders of gap junctions are a major cause for cardiac arrhythmias. Dye transfer through microinjection is a conventional technique for measuring GJIC. To overcome the limitations of manual microinjection and perform high-throughput GJIC measurement, here we present a new robotic microinjection system that is capable of injecting a large number of cells at a high speed. The highly automated system enables large-scale cell injection (thousands of cells vs. a few cells) without major operator training. GJIC of three cell lines of differing gap junction density, i.e., HeLa, HEK293, and HL-1, was evaluated. The effect of a GJIC inhibitor (18-?-glycyrrhetinic acid) was also quantified in the three cell lines. System operation speed, success rate, and cell viability rate were quantitatively evaluated based on robotic microinjection of over 4,000 cells. Injection speed was 22.7 cells per min, with 95% success for cell injection and >90% survival. Dye transfer cell counts and dye transfer distance correlated with the expected connexin expression of each cell type, and inhibition of dye transfer correlated with the concentration of GJIC inhibitor. Additionally, real-time monitoring of dye transfer enables the calculation of coefficients of molecular diffusion through gap junctions. This robotic microinjection dye transfer technique permits rapid assessment of gap junction function in confluent cell cultures. PMID:24778169

Liu, Jun; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Chen, Jun; Fridman, Michael D; Hamilton, Robert M; Sun, Yu

2014-06-15

329

High performance computing and communications: Investment in American competitiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the results of a study performed by Gartner Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through a contract with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the study is to estimate the economic impact of the Federal High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program which was proposed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President, on September 8, 1989. That Program is an implementation of the Research and Development Strategy for High Performance Computing, which was transmitted to Congress by OSTP on November 20, 1988. The objective of this Gartner Group study to provide an assessment of the likely economic impact and benefits of the Federal HPCC Program and the risks of non-support of this program. The goals of the HPCC Program are to: support computational advances through R and D effort; Reduce uncertainties to industry through increased cooperation and continued use of government as a market for High Performance Computing (HPC) prototypes; Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures; and support the U.S. human resource base.

1991-03-01

330

Short communication: limit feeding affects behavior patterns and feeding motivation of dairy heifers.  

PubMed

The study objective was to assess the effects of limit feeding dairy heifers on behavior patterns and feeding motivation. Ten Holstein heifers (291.6±39.2d of age, weighing 324.2±61.2kg; mean ± SD) were exposed to each of 2 dietary treatments, in a random order, over 2 successive 26-d treatment periods (14-d adaptation period and a 12-d data collection period) using a crossover design: (1) a high-forage total mixed ration (TMR), provided ad libitum (CON) and (2) a low-forage TMR, limit-fed at 2.05% body weight (LF). Heifers were fed daily at 1100h and motivation to access a low-nutritive feedstuff (straw) was assessed using a push-door apparatus at 2 time points: 3h after feed delivery (1400h) and 21h after feed delivery (0800h). The amount of weight pushed, weight pushed as percentage of body weight, and latency to access the push door were recorded on 3 different days for each heifer at each time point on each treatment. When fed CON, heifers had greater dry matter intake (12.9 vs. 7.2kg/d), greater feeding time (209.3 vs. 82.4min/d), greater ruminating time (452.2 vs. 318.3min/d), and slower rates of intake (0.06 vs. 0.09kg of dry matter/min) than when fed LF. Heifers fed LF pushed more weight as a percentage of body weight at 3h (4.5 vs. 1.9%) and 21h (9.3 vs. 2.8%) after feed delivery. At both 3 and 21h after feed delivery, latency to access the door was shorter for the LF heifers compared with the CON heifers (65 vs. 145 s). These results indicate that, in addition to decreasing feeding time, limit feeding increases motivation of heifers to access a low-nutritive feedstuff, possibly due to lack of satiety resulting from lack of physical fill or insufficient time spent foraging. PMID:25497811

Greter, A M; Miller-Cushon, E K; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

2015-02-01

331

Short communication: The effect of water temperature on the viability of silage inoculants.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to high temperatures in water affects the viability of various silage inoculants. Inoculants were enumerated on De Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar to standardize a final count (colony-forming units) in water such that about 500 mL added to 1 tonne of wet forage would achieve a recommended application rate of about 100,000 cfu of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) per gram of wet forage. Testing was done in 4 sequences (SEQ). For each SEQ, inoculants were mixed in deionized water for 45 min at 30 degrees C followed by incubation for 6 h at 30 degrees C (SEQ 1), 35 degrees C (SEQ 2), 40 degrees C (SEQ 3), or 45 degrees C (SEQ 4) in duplicate 125-mL flasks rotating at 125 rpm. After 6 h, rotation was stopped and the temperature was lowered to 30 degrees C for the next 18 h for all SEQ. Numbers of LAB were enumerated at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Each sequence was repeated twice. Incubation at a moderate temperature (SEQ 1) did not affect the viability of the microbial inoculants. The viability of the inoculants declined with increasing temperature (SEQ 2 to 4) but the effect varied by inoculant. For some inoculants exposure to 35 degrees C resulted in substantial decreases in viable cells (loss of 0.5 to 1 log cfu/mL). Incubation at higher temperatures resulted in even greater losses in viability for some inoculants. Losses of more than 0.5 log cfu/mL would most likely make the application of these inoculants ineffective in the field. Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 was the most thermotolerant organism tested, because it was unaffected by all temperatures (30 to 45 degrees C) after 3 h of incubation. Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 and Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 also appeared to have better thermotolerance as their numbers substantially increased between 6 and 24 h in SEQ 4. These data show that some silage inoculants are more thermotolerant than others and that precautions should be taken to ensure that microbial inoculants that are applied to forage do not reach elevated temperatures during use. PMID:18096945

Mulrooney, C N; Kung, L

2008-01-01

332

PM: An Operating System Coordinated High Performance Communication Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We have developed a new communication library, called PM,for the Myrinet gigabit LAN card, that has a dedicated processor andon-board memory to handle a communication protocol. In order to obtainhigh performance communication and support a multi-user environment,we have co-desgined PM, an operating system realized by adaemon process, and the run-time routine for a programming language.Several unique features, e.g., network

Hiroshi Tezuka; Atsushi Hori; Yutaka Ishikawa; Mitsuhisa Sato

1997-01-01

333

Simple Short-Pulse CO2 Laser Excited by Longitudinal Discharge without High-Voltage Switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser without a high-voltage switch. The laser produces a short laser pulse similar to those from TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. This system, which is the simplest short-pulse CO2 laser yet constructed, includes a pulsed power supply, a high-speed step-up transformer, a storage capacitor, and a laser tube. At high pressure (4.2 kPa and above), a rapid discharge produces a short laser pulse with a sharp spike pulse. In mixed gas (CO2: N2: He = 1: 1: 2) at a pressure of 9.0 kPa, the laser pulse contains a spike pulse of 218 ns and has a pulse tail length of 16.7 ?s.

Uno, Kazuyuki; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Akitsu, Tetsuya

2012-05-01

334

Short Distance Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the publication of the first biomedical swallowable telemetry device in 1957, an immense evolution has taken place in\\u000a biomedical monitoring, stimulation and instrumentation, that would have been impossible without the use of wireless information\\u000a transmission. The first section gives an overview of wireless methods for transmitting information to and from biomedical\\u000a implants, followed by a practical introduction on analog

Robert Puers; Jef Thoné

335

A decoder architecture for high-speed free-space laser communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decoding architecture for high-speed free-space laser communications. This system will be used by NASA's Mars Laser Communication Demonstration (MLCD) project, the first use of high-speed laser communication from deep space. The Error Correction Code (ECC) and modulation techniques for this project have been motivated by an analysis of capacity, and existing designs have been shown to operate

Michael Cheng; Michael Nakashima; Jon Hamkins; Bruce Moision; Maged Barsoum

2005-01-01

336

Healthy, Beneficial Communication in Parents of High-Risk Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental communication, particularly in the areas of cognitive clarity and affect, has been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders in children. This paper reports a method for studying Healthy Features in parental communication, aspects of verbal style that counteract a child's exposure to genetic and social environmental risk…

Schuldberg, David

337

Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication impairment is a core deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, it should not be surprising\\u000a that this topic has become a major thrust of assessment and treatment in applied behavior analysis (ABA). The types of communication\\u000a skills to target for intervention and the behavioral assessment methods that can be used to identify these target behaviors\\u000a are reviewed

Jeff Sigafoos; Mark F. O’Reilly; Giulio E. Lancioni

338

A MULTILEVEL MODULATION SCHEME FOR HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS INFRARED COMMUNICATIONS  

E-print Network

. A newmultilevel modulation scheme,Adaptively Biased QAM (AB-QAM), is proposedwhich has an asymptotic 3 dB SNR size, and are prone to wear and breakage. RF alternatives for this short distance are also ex- pensive and near-field effects become prevalent at present carrier frequencies. Free-space optical communications

Hranilovic, Steve

339

Single and repetitive short-pulse high-power microwave window breakdown  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms of high-power microwave breakdown for single and repetitive short pulses are analyzed. By calculation, multipactor saturation with electron density much higher than the critical plasma density is found not to result in microwave cutoff. It is local high pressure about Torr class that rapid plasma avalanche and final breakdown are realized in a 10-20 ns short pulse. It is found by calculation that the power deposited by saturated multipactor and the rf loss of protrusions are sufficient to induce vaporizing surface material and enhancing the ambient pressure in a single short pulse. For repetitive pulses, the accumulation of heat and plasma may respectively carbonize the surface material and lower the repetitive breakdown threshold.

Chang, C.; Tang, C. X. [Department of Engineering Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao, H.; Chen, C. H.; Huang, W. H. [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shannxi 710024 (China)

2010-05-15

340

Chemical Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

0000-00-00

341

Enhanced performance of 400 Gb/s DML-based CAP systems using optical filtering technique for short reach communication.  

PubMed

A parallel transmission approach is more likely to realize 400 Gb/s and above short reach transmission as it helps to reduce the cost of both electrical and optical device largely. Directly modulated lasers (DML) are more attractive in 400 Gb/s approach, because it requires relatively small amount of driving power and has low insertion loss, thus lowering its cost. However, the intrinsic chirp will degrade the transmission performance. In this paper, an optical filtering technique is introduced for 400 Gb/s high-speed DML-based carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation short reach systems for the first time. Owing to the additional optical filter, 1 dB and 3.6 dB sensitivity improvement at BER of 3.8x10-3 is obtained for the back-to-back and 15 km fiber link transmission for single lane at the bitrate of 28 Gb/s. Then a 16-lane CAP16 system with a total bit rate of 413 Gb/s is demonstrated experimentally using low-cost 10 GHz-class DML using optical filtering technique. PMID:25606867

Tao, Li; Wang, Yiguang; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chi, Nan

2014-12-01

342

Investigation of the Effect of Sport on Submissive Behavior and Communication Skills of High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was carried out to detect the differences in submissive behaviors and communication skills of high school students in terms of sports activities and relationship between communication skills and properties of submissive behavior of high school students who are actively involved in sports activities. In this respect at the study, 728…

Abakay, Ugur

2013-01-01

343

Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

1990-01-01

344

Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks  

PubMed Central

Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway. PMID:25544838

Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

2014-01-01

345

Forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks.  

PubMed

Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway. PMID:25544838

Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

2014-01-01

346

Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source  

SciTech Connect

We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10{sup 20} photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations.

Anderson, S G; Barty, C P J; Betts, S M; Brown, W J; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Kuba, J; LaSage, G P; Rosenzweig, J B; Slaughter, D R; Springer, P T; Tremaine, A M

2003-07-01

347

Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

2011-01-01

348

Some Observations on the High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization of Chocolate Milk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization of whole milk has resulted in a desire by industry to employ this process for other milk products. In plants having a HTST unit it usually would be very desirable from the standpoint of operational efficiency to pasteurize chocolate milk also by this method. Before adopting a process commercially, however, it should

Marvin L. Speck; H. L. Lucas

1951-01-01

349

On-chip generation of high-intensity short optical pulses using dynamic microcavities  

E-print Network

lifetime before tuning, which is expressed by ip=Q/ 0. Note that the effects of cavity dumping in free of the coupling from a coupled-ring cavity to an external waveguide on time scales shorter than cavity photon in the cavity can be released as a high-intensity short opti- cal pulse. We assume that a waveguide and a micro

Lipson, Michal

350

The Use of Short-Story in Teaching English to the Students of Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the studies on the use of literature in teaching English have been increasing abroad, in our country, particularly in public high schools, only English grammar is being taught. The students who are expected to memorise these rules cannot use English. The aim of this study is to exhibit why and how short-story can be used in order to teach…

Eren, Zerrin

2004-01-01

351

Effect of a short period of high day temperatures during flowering on the seed number  

E-print Network

Agronomy Effect of a short period of high day temperatures during flowering on the seed number per temperatures did not influence growth and development of the leaves, flowers, or the number of pods per plant. However, they reduced the number of seeds per pod. By categorizing the different stages of flower and pod

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

The National Ignition Facility National Ignition Campaign Short Pulse Lasers High-Average-Power Laser  

E-print Network

#12;The National Ignition Facility National Ignition Campaign Short Pulse Lasers High · Future energy source · Transition to hydrogen economy #12;Major elements of the National Ignition integration and executing a credible ignition campaign NIC is a major transition in U.S. program planning

353

Short-course Astronomical Research Seminars for High School and College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2008, I have helped lead several short-course astronomical research seminars with Russell M. Genet. These seminars have ranged from semester-long courses at Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California to long weekends at the University of Oregon's Pine Mountain Observatory. Each seminar is led by an experienced observer or group of observers who guide high school and college students

Jolyon Johnson

2011-01-01

354

Automated Control and Monitoring of Thermal Processing Using High Temperature, Short Time Pasteurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature, short time pasteurization was used to evaluate a computer-based system for con- trolling the pasteurization process, acquiring data, and monitoring records. Software was used for the control of hot water temperature, flow rate through the centrifugal timing pump, and diversion of under- processed product. Three types of control strategies were conducted: single loop, cascade, and multivaria- ble. The

J. E. Schlesser; D. J. Armstrong; A. Cinar; P. Ramanauskas; A. Negiz

1997-01-01

355

ORIGINAL PAPER High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit  

E-print Network

-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Abstract The diving capacity of marine mammals is typically defined by the aerobic ability, with the most efficient foraging thought to be done aerobically. This aerobic diving capacityORIGINAL PAPER High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit for Steller sea lions

356

Multiplexed communication over a high-speed quantum channel  

SciTech Connect

In quantum information systems it is of particular interest to consider the best way in which to use the nonclassical resources consumed by that system. Quantum communication protocols are integral to quantum information systems and are among the most promising near-term applications of quantum information science. Here we show that a multiplexed, digital quantum communications system supported by a comb of vacuum squeezing has a greater channel capacity per photon than a source of broadband squeezing with the same analog band width. We report on the time-resolved, simultaneous observation of the first dozen teeth in a 2.4-GHz comb of vacuum squeezing produced by a subthreshold optical parametric oscillator, as required for such a quantum communications channel. We also demonstrate multiplexed communication on that channel.

Heurs, M.; Webb, J. G.; Dunlop, A. E.; Harb, C. C.; Huntington, E. H. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University College, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australian Capitol Territory 2600 (Australia); Ralph, T. C. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2010-03-15

357

Transport System Architectures for High-Performance Communications Subsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing end-to-end gigabit communication support for bandwidth-intensive distributed applications requires h igh- performance transport systems. This paper describes and classifies transport system mechanisms that integrate oper - ating system resources (such as CPU(s), virtual memory, and network adapters) together with communication pro- tocols (such as TCP\\/IP and XTP) to support applications running on local and wide area networks. A taxonomy

Douglas C. Schmidt; Tatsuya Suda

1993-01-01

358

SHORT REPORT Open Access High viral load of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access High viral load of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA sequences in Langerhans-PCR) and immunohistochemistry with anti MCPyV large-T (LT) antigen antibody. High viral loads of MCPyV DNA sequences (viral load, the higher viral load of LCS (median, 0.453 copies/cell) than low load of LCH (0.003, median of 12 cases) (P

Boyer, Edmond

359

Anomalous high photoconductivity in short channel indium-zinc-oxide photo-transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon light exposure, an indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) presents higher photoconductivity by several orders of magnitude at the negative gate bias region. Among various device geometrical factors, scaling down the channel length of the photo-transistor results in an anomalous increase in photoconductivity. To probe the origin of this high photoconductivity in short-channel device, we measured transient current, current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage characteristics of IZO-TFTs with various channel lengths and widths before and after illumination. Under the illumination, the equilibrium potential region which lies far from front interface exists only in short-channel devices, forming the un-depleted conducting back channel. This region plays an important role in carrier transport under the illumination, leading to high photoconductivity in short-channel devices. Photon exposure coupled with gate-modulated band bending for short-channel devices leads to the accumulation of Vo++ at the front channel and screening negative gate bias, thereby generating high current flow in the un-depleted back-channel region.

Choi, Hyun-Sik; Jeon, Sanghun

2015-01-01

360

NASA satellite communications application research, phase 2 addendum. Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EHF communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an addendum to the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 Final Report, 'Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications.' This report describes the work performed from 1 August 1993 to 11 March 1994, under contract number NASW-4513. During this reporting period an array of transistor amplifiers was repaired by replacing all MMIC amplifier chips. The amplifier array was then tested using three different feedhorn configurations. Descriptions, procedures, and results of this testing are presented in this report, and conclusions are drawn based on the test results obtained.

Benet, James

1994-01-01

361

Communications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

2013-01-01

362

Short and Long-Term Impacts of Biotechnology Education on Professionals Who Communicate Science to the Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consumer acceptance or rejection of biotechnology is often shaped by information prepared by communicators with varying levels of scientific knowledge, awareness, and acceptance. This study compared the prior, post-workshop, and sustained (1 year) biotechnology awareness, acceptance, and attitudes of professionals who communicate biotechnology to…

Fritz, Susan M.; Ward, Sarah M.; Byrne, Pat F.; Namuth, Deana M.; Egger, Valerie A.

2004-01-01

363

Title: Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high intensity  

E-print Network

is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude, and is required for ultrasound cavitation#=1) driven by a high power (up to 300 W) electric burst of one to two cycles. Detection was performed. The high rarefaction pressure necessary to induce bubbles using a short ultrasonic excitation [5] tends

Boyer, Edmond

364

Short-time dynamics at a conical intersection in high-harmonic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

High-harmonic spectroscopy probes molecular dynamics using electrons liberated from the same molecule earlier in the laser cycle. It affords sub-Ångstrom spatial and subfemtosecond temporal resolution. Nuclear dynamics in the intermediate cation influence the spectrum of the emitted high-harmonic photons through an autocorrelation function. Here, we develop an analytical approach for computing short-time nuclear autocorrelation functions in the vicinity of conical intersections, including laser-induced and nonadiabatic coupling between the surfaces. We apply the technique to two molecules of current experimental interest, C6H6 and C6H5F. In both molecules, high-harmonics generated within the same electronic channel are not sensitive to nonadiabatic dynamics, even in the presence of substantial population transfer. Calculated autocorrelation functions exhibit significant deviations from the expected Gaussian decay and may undergo revivals at short (?1.5 fs) times. The associated phase of the nuclear wavepacket provides a possible experimental signature. PMID:25314638

Patchkovskii, Serguei; Schuurman, Michael S

2014-12-26

365

Transformation of short-periodic high-inclination orbits of circumsolar submillimeter dust  

SciTech Connect

Disintegration of short-periodic comets is one of the sources of cosmic dust in the Solar System. Initially dust particles move approximately in the orbits of parent comets, in particular, in high-inclination orbits. In a few million years, some of these particles (the smallest ones) go over to the short-periodic, high-inclination orbits due to the Poynting-Robertson effect. The numerical integration of the equations of motion at this stage of evolution gives rise to somewhat surprising results. For example, when integrating the equations of motion as far back as 6000 years from the time of meteor observation, the real meteor particle gains the perihelion distance smaller than the solar radius (!). Our calculations show that the time of falling onto the Sun is shorter for a article moving in a high-inclination orbit. This is due to the superposition of gravitational perturbation and radiation effects.

Bazei, A.A.; Kramer, E.N. [Mechnikov Univ., Odessa (Ukraine)

1995-11-01

366

Short communication: Bacterial ecology of high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk processed in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the microbial ecology of pasteurized milk within the United States, 2% fat pasteurized fluid milk samples were obtained from 18 dairy plants from 5 geographical areas representing the Northeast, Southeast, South, Midwest, and West. Of the 589 bacterial isolates identified using DNA sequence-based subtyping methods, 346 belonged to genera character- ized as gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria (i.e., Bacillus and

M. L. Ranieri; K. J. Boor

2009-01-01

367

Photosynthetic and Biochemical Changes in Response to Short Interval High ``g'' Exposure in Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of short interval post imbibition high “g” exposure on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum var.Lok-1) by evaluating the photosynthetic performance, chlorophyll “a” fluorescence biochemical indices and antioxidant response. Imbibed wheat seeds were exposed to high “g” ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for 10 min, allowed to germinate and grown for 5 days under normal gravity i.e. 1 g. Chlorophyll “a” fluorescence transient was examined in wheat seedling raised from hyper gravity treated seeds. Fv/Fm, PI, Fv/Fo decreased in high “g” treated seeds compared to control. Photosynthetic performance indices such as Transpiration rate, Stomatal conductance, Net photosynthetic rate, Intracellular CO2 concentration, Intrinsic water use efficiency also declined in wheat seedlings raised from High “g” treated seeds suggesting that high g reduces efficiency of photosynthesis in wheat seedlings. Results of Biochemical analysis showed reduced alpha- amylase activity in wheat seeds subjected to high “g” ranging from 500 g to 2500 g in a magnitude dependent manner. Decline in enzyme activity was positively correlated with higher starch content and lower reducing sugars in high “g” exposed wheat seeds. This possibly explains the reduced percent germination and growth in response to high “g”. Antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT and POX) significantly increased as a result of hypergravity exposure In conclusion, short interval high “g” exposure results in reduced growth and photosynthetic activity in wheat seedlings.

Dixit, Jyotsana; Vidyasagar, Pandit; Jagtap, Sagar; Kamble, Shailendra

368

Model of Atmospheric Links on Optical Communications from High Altitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical communication links have the potential to solve many of the problems of current radio and microwave links to satellites and high-altitude aircraft. The higher frequency involved in optical systems allows for significantly greater signal bandwidth, and thus information transfer rate, in excess of 10 Gbps, and the highly directional nature of laser-based signals eliminates the need for frequency-division multiplexing seen in radio and microwave links today. The atmosphere, however, distorts an optical signal differently than a microwave signal. While the ionosphere is one of the most significant sources of noise and distortion in a microwave or radio signal, the lower atmosphere affects an optical signal more significantly. Refractive index fluctuations, primarily caused by changes in atmospheric temperature and density, distort the incoming signal in both deterministic and nondeterministic ways. Additionally, suspended particles, such as those in haze or rain, further corrupt the transmitted signal. To model many of the atmospheric effects on the propagating beam, we use simulations based on the beam-propagation method. This method, developed both for simulation of signals in waveguides and propagation in atmospheric turbulence, separates the propagation into a diffraction and refraction problem. The diffraction step is an exact solution, within the limits of numerical precision, to the problem of propagation in free space, and the refraction step models the refractive index variances over a segment of the propagation path. By applying refraction for a segment of the propagation path, then diffracting over that same segment, this method forms a good approximation to true propagation through the atmospheric medium. Iterating over small segments of the total propagation path gives a good approximation to the problem of propagation over the entire path. Parameters in this model, such as initial beam profile and atmospheric constants, are easily modified in a simulation such as this, which allows for the rapid analysis of different propagation scenarios. Therefore, this method allows the development of a near-optimal system design for a wide range of situations, typical of what would be seen in different atmospheric conditions over a receiving ground station. A simulation framework based upon this model was developed in FORTRAN, and for moderate grid sizes and propagation distances these simulations are computable in reasonable time on a standard workstation. This presentation will discuss results thus far.

Subich, Christopher

2004-01-01

369

Space Link Extension (SLE) Emulation for High-Throughput Network Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the data rate requirements for space communications increases, significant stress is placed not only on the wireless satellite communication links, but also on the ground networks which forward data from end-users to remote ground stations. These wide area network (WAN) connections add delay and jitter to the end-to-end satellite communication link, effects which can have significant impacts on the wireless communication link. It is imperative that any ground communication protocol can react to these effects such that the ground network does not become a bottleneck in the communication path to the satellite. In this paper, we present our SCENIC Emulation Lab testbed which was developed to test the CCSDS SLE protocol implementations proposed for use on future NASA communication networks. Our results show that in the presence of realistic levels of network delay, high-throughput SLE communication links can experience significant data rate throttling. Based on our observations, we present some insight into why this data throttling happens, and trace the probable issue back to non-optimal blocking communication which is sup-ported by the CCSDS SLE API recommended practices. These issues were presented as well to the SLE implementation developers which, based on our reports, developed a new release for SLE which we show fixes the SLE blocking issue and greatly improves the protocol throughput. In this paper, we also discuss future developments for our end-to-end emulation lab and how these improvements can be used to develop and test future space communication technologies.

Murawski, Robert W.; Tchorowski, Nicole; Golden, Bert

2014-01-01

370

Distributed Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Mohammad Samarah and Philip Chan  

E-print Network

Distributed Communication for Highly Mobile Agents Mohammad Samarah and Philip Chan The division architectures to address communication issues in mobile agent environments. We study the implication of mobility monitoring, agent tracing, and agent debugging for mobile agent environments. The architecture allows

Chan, Philip K.

371

New Prospects for High Performance SONAR, Chemical Sensor, and Communication Device Materials  

E-print Network

New Prospects for High Performance SONAR, Chemical Sensor, and Communication Device Materials in Naval SONAR, chemical sensor and communications devices. We elucidate the influence of the constituent of applications, such as sensing, data storage, and energy conversion. In current military SONAR devices

Rappe, Andrew M.

372

Java Objects Communication on a High Performance Network Luc Courtrai, Yves Maheo, Frederic Raimbault  

E-print Network

Java Objects Communication on a High Performance Network Luc Courtrai, Yves Mah´eo, Fr. Recent works show the interest in Java for cluster programming. One of the main issues is to handle an alternative to the standard serialization process through the proposal of a Java object communication library

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Using mobile communication technology in high school education: Motivation, pressure, and learning performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation and pressure are considered two factors impacting vocational senior high school student learning. New communication technology, especially mobile communication technology, is supposed to be effective in encouraging inter- action between the student and the instructor and improving learning efficiency. Social presence and information richness theory was applied to analyze the media and their impacts on the instruction process firstly.

Pei-luen Patrick Rau; Qin Gao; Li-mei Wu

2008-01-01

374

Using Mobile Communication Technology in High School Education: Motivation, Pressure, and Learning Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivation and pressure are considered two factors impacting vocational senior high school student learning. New communication technology, especially mobile communication technology, is supposed to be effective in encouraging interaction between the student and the instructor and improving learning efficiency. Social presence and information…

Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Gao, Qin; Wu, Li-Mei

2008-01-01

375

Ultra high frequency follow-on communications satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing constellation of UHF communications satellites (LEASAT and FLTSAT) provide key command and control links for mobile forces of the DoD and other government agencies. The UHF Follow-On satellite program will provide for a new generation of communications satellites to replace the existing ones as they reach the end of their life cycle beginning in 1992. Continued coverage is required for both peacetime and crisis environments, and must be maintained indefinitely. An eight-satellite UFO constellation (two per coverage area) will replenish the existing FLTSATCOM constellation.

Hassien, Michael J.

1992-03-01

376

Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1964, Marshall McLuhan, sociologist and contemporary thinker wrote in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man that the dominant communication media of our time will shape the way humans think, act and ultimately perceive the world\\u000a around them. “The media are extensions of our senses; as they change, they utterly transform our environment and affect everything\\u000a we do, they “massage”

William F. Bria; Nancy B. Finn

377

Highly Efficient Amplifier for Ka-Band Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An amplifier developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract will have applications for both satellite and terrestrial communications. This power amplifier uses an innovative series bias arrangement of active devices to achieve over 40-percent efficiency at Ka-band frequencies with an output power of 0.66 W. The amplifier is fabricated on a 2.0- by 3.8-square millimeter chip through the use of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology, and it uses state-of-the-art, Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (PHEMT) devices. Although the performance of the MMIC chip depends on these high-performance devices, the real innovations here are a unique series bias scheme, which results in a high-voltage chip supply, and careful design of the on-chip planar output stage combiner. This design concept has ramifications beyond the chip itself because it opens up the possibility of operation directly from a satellite power bus (usually 28 V) without a dc-dc converter. This will dramatically increase the overall system efficiency. Conventional microwave power amplifier designs utilize many devices all connected in parallel from the bias supply. This results in a low-bias voltage, typically 5 V, and a high bias current. With this configuration, substantial I(sup 2) R losses (current squared times resistance) may arise in the system bias-distribution network. By placing the devices in a series bias configuration, the total current is reduced, leading to reduced distribution losses. Careful design of the on-chip planar output stage power combiner is also important in minimizing losses. Using these concepts, a two-stage amplifier was designed for operation at 33 GHz and fabricated in a standard MMIC foundry process with 0.20-m PHEMT devices. Using a 20-V bias supply, the amplifier achieved efficiencies of over 40 percent with an output power of 0.66 W and a 16-dB gain over a 2-GHz bandwidth centered at 33 GHz. With a 28-V bias, a power level of 1.1 W was achieved with a 12-dB gain and a 36-percent efficiency. This represents the best reported combination of power and efficiency at this frequency. In addition to delivering excellent power and gain, this Ka-band MMIC power amplifier has an efficiency that is 10 percent greater than existing designs. The unique design offers an excellent match for spacecraft applications since the amplifier supply voltage is closely matched to the typical value of spacecraft bus voltage. These amplifiers may be used alone in applications of 1 W or less, or several may be combined or used in an array to produce moderate power, Ka-band transmitters with minimal power combining and less thermal stress owing to the combination of excellent efficiency and power output. The higher voltage operation of this design may also save mass and power because the dc-dc power converter is replaced with a simpler voltage regulator.

1996-01-01

378

Graphic Communications. Industrial Arts. Performance Objectives. Junior High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for a graphic communications course for seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students. The seventh grade section includes eight terminal objectives for a 9-week course and covers the basic fundamentals of photography, bookbinding, and silk screening. The eighth…

Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

379

Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work…

Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.

2010-01-01

380

High-Tech PR: Five Case Studies in Computerized Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of computer technology for specialized communication networks at University of California (Oakland), Lafayette College (Pennsylvania), Carnegie Mellon University (Pennsylvania), the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, and the State University of New York at Stony Brook is described. The systems feature different forms of internal and…

Malaspina, Rick; And Others

1993-01-01

381

When Are High-Tech Communicators Effective in Parkinson's Disease?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…

Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

2012-01-01

382

Influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performance and recovery following short time high intensity exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr) participated in this study. The subjects

Umid Karli; Alpay Guvenc; Alper Aslan; Tahir Hazir

383

Short-Term effects of high dose estrogen on tibiae of growing male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effects of estrogen at a single high dose (4 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day for 14 days) were determined on tibiae in\\u000a the normal (noncastrate) growing male rat. In cortical periosteal bone, at a middiaphyseal site devoid of resorbing activity,\\u000a estrogen suppressed periosteal bone formation and apposition rates, resulting in a smaller cross-sectional area. In middiaphyseal\\u000a endocortical bone, estrogen had

G. K. Wakley; G. L. Evans; R. T. Turner

1997-01-01

384

Subpicosecond pulse amplification in a short length, highly doped erbium\\/ytterbium phosphate fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate sub-picosecond pulse amplification in a single mode, high gain, and short length (8cm) erbium-ytterbium phosphate fiber amplifier. The amplifier operates in saturation producing 100 mW of average power and 2 nJ per pulse. ©2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2320) Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators; 060.7140 Ultrafast processes in fibers; (060.2410) Fiber, erbium

Arturo Chavez-Pirson; Wenyan Tian; Shibin Jiang; Gregory Katona; Jane Lee; Axel Schülzgen; Nasser Peyghambarian

385

Short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: the potential effects of noise on acoustic communication.  

PubMed

The impact of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals has been an area of increasing concern over the past two decades. Most low-frequency anthropogenic noise in the ocean comes from commercial shipping which has contributed to an increase in ocean background noise over the past 150 years. The long-term impacts of these changes on marine mammals are not well understood. This paper describes both short- and long-term behavioral changes in calls produced by the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and South Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena australis) in the presence of increased low-frequency noise. Right whales produce calls with a higher average fundamental frequency and they call at a lower rate in high noise conditions, possibly in response to masking from low-frequency noise. The long-term changes have occurred within the known lifespan of individual whales, indicating that a behavioral change, rather than selective pressure, has resulted in the observed differences. This study provides evidence of a behavioral change in sound production of right whales that is correlated with increased noise levels and indicates that right whales may shift call frequency to compensate for increased band-limited background noise. PMID:18247780

Parks, Susan E; Clark, C W; Tyack, P L

2007-12-01

386

Angular multiplexing as a technique for short-pulse amplification in a high-gain xenon amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the technique of angular multiplexing could provide an efficient scheme for extracting short pulses from a high-gain laser with a high degree of spatial and temporal control of the extracted laser beam. The scheme of angular multiplexing proposes to amplify short laser pulses (?1 nsec) by sequentially passing these pulses through the amplifier at slightly

Robert P. Sandoval

1978-01-01

387

Toward high-quality image communications: inverse problems in image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, image communications are becoming increasingly popular, and there is a growing need for consumers to be provided with high-quality services. Although the image communication services already exist over third-generation wireless networks, there are still obstacles that prevent high-quality image communications because of limited bandwidth. Thus, more research is required to overcome the limited bandwidth of current communications systems and achieve high-quality image reconstruction in real applications. From the point of view of image processing, core technologies for high-quality image reconstruction are face hallucination and compression artifact reduction. The main interests of consumers are facial regions and several compression artifacts inevitably occur by compression; these two technologies are closely related to inverse problems in image processing. We review recent studies on face hallucination and compression artifact reduction, and provide an outline of current research. Furthermore, we discuss practical considerations and possible solutions to implement these two technologies in real mobile applications.

Jung, Cheolkon; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Bing; Qi, Hongtao; Sun, Tian

2012-10-01

388

Optimizing the Dynamic Distribution of Data-stream for High Speed Communications  

E-print Network

The performances of high-speed network communications frequently rest with the distribution of data-stream. In this paper, a dynamic data-stream balancing architecture based on link information is introduced and discussed ...

Zhao, Z.W.

389

High-precision microcutting of ceramics with short-pulsed solid state lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution will present results for high-precision cutting of technical ceramics with short-pulsed solid-state lasers in fundamental and frequency-doubled wavelength. On the basis of ample experiments, a surprising absorption behavior of some ceramics in the case of irradiation with high intensity will be discussed. Furthermore, the influence of wavelength and process gas on cutting speed and quality is demonstrated. The investigations resulted in a process strategy with multiple passing over of the kerf suited for remarkably improving process velocity and quality. Finally, structures applicable for nozzles and spinnerets are shown.

Radtke, Joachim; Abeln, Tobias; Weikert, Michael; Dausinger, Friedrich

2000-11-01

390

Communications and entertainment onboard a high-speed public transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses architectural design at the conceptual\\/functional level of communication and entertainment services onboard a high-speed public transport system, such as a high-speed train, a transoceanic cruise ship, or even a mid- to long-range airplane. Existing commercial mobile communication services, such as AMPS and GSM, are inaccessible to passengers onboard these public transport systems. A hierarchical architecture is laid

Kun-De Lin; Jin-Fu Chang

2002-01-01

391

Simplified processing for high spectral efficiency wireless communication employing multi-element arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate robust wireless communication in high-scattering propagation environments using multi-element antenna arrays (MEAs) at both transmit and receive sites. A simplified, but highly spectrally efficient space-time communication processing method is presented. The user's bit stream is mapped to a vector of independently modulated equal bit-rate signal components that are simultaneously transmitted in the same band. A detection algorithm similar

Gerard J. Foschini; Glen D. Golden; Reinaldo A. Valenzuela; Peter W. Wolniansky

1999-01-01

392

Establishing wireless communications services via high-altitude aeronautical platforms: a concept whose time has come?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is high altitude aeronautical platforms (HAAPs) such as airships, planes, helicopters, or some hybrid salutions which could operate at stratospheric altitudes for significant periods of time, be low-cost, and be capable of carrying sizable, multipurpose communications payloads. Of particular interest are ways to implement cellular\\/PCS or high-speed data networks in airborne platforms. From a communications

Goran M. Djuknic; John Freidenfelds; Y. Okunev

1997-01-01

393

Building a high-performance collective communication library  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a project to develop a unified approach for building a library of collective communication operations that performs well on a cross-section of problems encountered in real applications. The target architecture is a two-dimensional mesh with worm-hole routing, but the techniques are more general. The approach differs from traditional library implementations in that we address

Michael Barnett; Lance Shuler; David G. Payne; Robert A. van de Geijn; Jerrell Watts

1994-01-01

394

Building a high-performance collective communication library  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a project to develop a unified approach for building a library of collective communication operations that performs well on a cross-section of problems encountered in real applications. The target architecture is a two-dimensional mesh with worm-hole routing, but the techniques are more general. The approach differs from traditional library implementations in that we address the need for

Mike Barnett; S. Gupta; D. G. Payne; L. Shuler; Robert van de Geijn; Jerrell Watts

1994-01-01

395

High-dose short-term chlorambucil for intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and Behçet's disease.  

PubMed Central

We treated five patients with intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and six patients with severe Behçet's disease by high-dose, short-term chlorambucil therapy. We used a total dose ranging from 306 mg to 4.2 g and a duration of therapy no longer than 36 weeks and in most cases less than 24 weeks. After termination of therapy all 11 patients had a sustained remission of their eye disease. Unless subretinal neovascularisation was present, all had a final visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Malignancy has not developed in any of our cases, with a follow-up ranging from 6 months to 12 years (mean, 4.5 years). Although 30- and 40-year follow-ups and larger numbers of patients may be necessary fully to realise the risks of chlorambucil, we believe that our high-dose, short-term regimen (Behçet's disease: average duration, 23 weeks; average total dose 2.2 g; sympathetic ophthalmia: average duration, 11 weeks; total average dose, 0.9 g) may be safer than previously reported chlorambucil regimens of one to two years or longer. In addition we fulfilled our aim of discontinuing all concomitant systemic corticosteroids within a relatively short time (usually six to eight weeks). PMID:2378842

Tessler, H H; Jennings, T

1990-01-01

396

Analysis of the Interaction of Short-Pulse High-Fluence Radiation with Targets  

SciTech Connect

We generally use large-scale hydrocodes to study the dynamic response of targets to influence pulsed radiation loads. However, for many applications where the desired solution does not require a detailed specification of pressure- or velocity-time histories, there are simple analytic approaches that can yield surprisingly accurate results. Examples include determining either the final velocity of a radiation-driven flying plate or the impulse delivered to a structural element. These methods are all based on relatively straightforward use of conservation of mass and momentum, but they typically need one scaling-law parameter. In this context, short pulse means short compared to the characteristic time of the desired response, which allows for the phenomena to be essentially uncoupled. High fluence means that the input energy is great enough to yield vaporization or blowoff of one or more portions of the configuration. We discuss some of these methods, give examples, and suggest limitations and criteria for their use.

Lawrence, R.Jeffery

1999-07-23

397

High frequency optical communications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 23, 24, 1986  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed in this volume include systems and applications, detectors, sources, and coherent communications. Papers are presented on RF fiber optic links for avionics applications, fiber optics and optoelectronics for radar and electronic warfare applications, symmetric coplanar electrodes for high-speed Ti:LiNbO3 devices, and surface wave electrooptic modulator. Attention is given to X-band RF fiber-optic links, fiber-optic links for microwave signal transmission, GaAs monolithic receiver and laser driver for GHz transmission rates, and monolithically integrable high-speed photodetectors. Additional papers are on irregular and chaotic behavior of semiconductor lasers under modulation, high-frequency laser package for microwave optical communications, receiver modeling for coherent light wave communications, and polarization sensors and controllers for coherent optical communication systems.

Ramer, O. Glenn; Sierak, Paul

398

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY 2002 31 Iterative Interference Cancellation for High Spectral Efficiency Satellite  

E-print Network

Cancellation for High Spectral Efficiency Satellite Communications Bassel F. Beidas, Hesham El Gamal, and Stan feedback, multiuser de- tection, satellite communications. I. INTRODUCTION THE increasingly rapid growth cancellation tech- niques for high spectral efficiency satellite communication sys- tems. We consider two

El-Gamal, Hesham

399

High Capacity Communications From Martian Distances. Part 1; Spacecraft Link Design Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High capacity space communications has been a desire for Human Exploration and Science missions. Current Mars missions operate at data rates of 120 kbps for telemetry downlink and it is desirable to study high rate communication links in the range of 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps data rates from Martian distances. This paper will present some assumed scenarios along with link design assumptions and link analysis for high capacity communications from Mars. The paper will focus on RF subsystems namely antenna and power for the downlink communication from a relay orbiter at Mars. The relay orbiter will communicate with the low orbit spacecrafts at Mars or any Martian surface elements such as robots, and relay the data back to the ground networks on Earth. The study will dive into the spacecraft downlink system design and communication link analysis between the relay orbiter and ground network on Earth for data rates ranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps based on the assumed scenarios and link assumptions. With high rate links at larger distances, there will be a significant impact on the antenna and power requirements and the link design will make an attempt to minimize the mass of the RF subsystem on the spacecraft. The results of this study will be presented for three data rates 1 Gbps, 500 Mbps and 100 Mbps at maximum Mars to Earth distance of 2.67AU. The design will use a Ka-band downlink with 90% link availability, along with various ground network G/T assumptions and possible bandwidth efficient modulations. The paper will conclude with what types of high rate communication links are feasible from Martian distances and also identify a range of requirements for antenna and power technologies for these high capacity communications from Mars.

Vyas, Hemali N.; Schuchman, Leonard; Orr, Richard; Williams, Wallace Dan; Collins, Michael; Noreen, Gary

2006-01-01

400

A Short Communication Course for Physicians Improves the Quality of Patient Information in a Clinical Trial | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article addresses the question of how to improve the informed consent process. The investigators tested a one-day communications course for physicians and research nurses that included lecture and role-play approaches for its ability to improve the quality of informed consent and the satisfaction of patients who enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

401

Holographically corrected telescope for high-bandwidth optical communications.  

PubMed

We present a design for an optical data communications receiver-transmitter pair based on the holographic correction of a large diameter, poor-quality, reflecting primary mirror. The telescope has a narrow bandwidth (<0.1 nm) with good signal frequency isolation (>60 dB) and is scalable to meter-class apertures. We demonstrate the correction of a reflector telescope with over 2000 waves of aberration to diffraction-limited operation, capable of handling data transmission rates up to 100 GHz. PMID:18324223

Andersen, G; Knize, R J

1999-11-20

402

Space Link Extension (SLE) Emulation for High-Throughput Network Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the data rate requirements for space communications increases, signicant stressis placed not only on the wireless satellite communication links, but also on the groundnetworks which forward data from end-users to remote ground stations. These wide areanetwork (WAN) connections add delay and jitter to the end-to-end satellite communicationlink, eects which can have signicant impacts on the wireless communication link. It isimperative that any ground communication protocol can react to these eects such that theground network does not become a bottleneck in the communication path to the satellite.In this paper, we present our SCENIC Emulation Lab testbed which was developed to testthe CCSDS SLE protocol implementations proposed for use on future NASA communica-tion networks. Our results show that in the presence of realistic levels of network delay,high-throughput SLE communication links can experience signicant data rate throttling.Based on our observations, we present some insight into why this data throttling happens,and trace the probable issue back to non-optimal blocking communication which is sup-ported by the CCSDS SLE API recommended practices. These issues were presented aswell to the SLE implementation developers which, based on our reports, developed a newrelease for SLE which we show xes the SLE blocking issue and greatly improves the pro-tocol throughput. In this paper, we also discuss future developments for our end-to-endemulation lab and how these improvements can be used to develop and test future spacecommunication technologies.

Murawski, Robert; Tchorowski, Nicole; Golden, Bert

2014-01-01

403

Short-course Astronomical Research Seminars for High School and College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2008, I have helped lead several short-course astronomical research seminars with Russell M. Genet. These seminars have ranged from semester-long courses at Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California to long weekends at the University of Oregon's Pine Mountain Observatory. Each seminar is led by an experienced observer or group of observers who guide high school and college students through the scientific process from observations to publication. The students (anywhere from half a dozen to twenty in number) participate in and contribute to every step. Being a coauthor on one or more research papers offers students an advantage on college and scholarship applications. Similarly, graduate schools often prefer students with research experience. Many topics of research are appropriate for these short-courses including variable star, exoplanet, and asteroid photometry. However, the most successful topic has been visual double stars because the observations required are straitforward and the equipment is relatively inexpensive. The Journal of Double Star Observations is also welcoming of student research and provides swift publication. A detailed description of the short-course seminars can be found in the recent Collins Foundation Press volume titled Small Telescopes and Astronomical Research.

Johnson, Jolyon

2011-05-01

404

Lifetime measurements of high-lying short lived states in {sup 69}As  

SciTech Connect

Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 69}As have been measured using Doppler shift attenuation technique with the GASP and RFD setup. The determined transition probabilities indicate large deformation associated with some rotational bands in this nucleus.

Matejska-Minda, M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Fornal, B.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Krzysiek, M.; Maj, A.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Angelis, G. de; Huyuk, T.; Michelagnoli, C.; Sahin, E.; Aydin, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Recchia, F.; Ur, C. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN Milano (Italy); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw (Poland); University of York (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-20

405

A new high intensity and short-pulse molecular beam valve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the design and performance of a new home-built pulsed gas valve, which we refer to as the Nijmegen Pulsed Valve (NPV). The main output characteristics include a short pulse width (as short as 20 ?s) combined with operating rates up to 30 Hz. The operation principle of the NPV is based on the Lorentz force created by a pulsed current passing through an aluminum strip located within a magnetic field, which opens the nozzle periodically. The amplitude of displacement of the opening mechanism is sufficient to allow the use of nozzles with up to 1.0 mm diameter. To investigate the performance of the valve, several characterizations were performed with different experimental methods. First, a fast ionization gauge was used to measure the beam intensity of the free jet emanating from the NPV. We compare free jets from the NPV with those from several other pulsed valves in current use in our laboratory. Results showed that a high intensity and short pulse-length beam could be generated by the new valve. Second, the NPV was tested in combination with a skimmer, where resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization combined with velocity map imaging was used to show that the NPV was able to produce a pulsed molecular beam with short pulse duration (˜20 ?s using 0.1% NO/He at 6 bars) and low rotational temperature (˜1 K using 0.5% NO/Ar at 6 bars). Third, a novel two-point pump-probe method was employed which we label double delay scan. This method allows a full kinematic characterization of the molecular beam, including accurate speed ratios at different temporal positions. It was found that the speed ratio was maximum (S = 50 using 0.1% NO/He at 3 bars) at the peak position of the molecular beam and decreased when it was on the leading or falling edge.

Yan, B.; Claus, P. F. H.; van Oorschot, B. G. M.; Gerritsen, L.; Eppink, A. T. J. B.; van de Meerakker, S. Y. T.; Parker, D. H.

2013-02-01

406

A new high intensity and short-pulse molecular beam valve.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on the design and performance of a new home-built pulsed gas valve, which we refer to as the Nijmegen Pulsed Valve (NPV). The main output characteristics include a short pulse width (as short as 20 ?s) combined with operating rates up to 30 Hz. The operation principle of the NPV is based on the Lorentz force created by a pulsed current passing through an aluminum strip located within a magnetic field, which opens the nozzle periodically. The amplitude of displacement of the opening mechanism is sufficient to allow the use of nozzles with up to 1.0 mm diameter. To investigate the performance of the valve, several characterizations were performed with different experimental methods. First, a fast ionization gauge was used to measure the beam intensity of the free jet emanating from the NPV. We compare free jets from the NPV with those from several other pulsed valves in current use in our laboratory. Results showed that a high intensity and short pulse-length beam could be generated by the new valve. Second, the NPV was tested in combination with a skimmer, where resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization combined with velocity map imaging was used to show that the NPV was able to produce a pulsed molecular beam with short pulse duration (~20 ?s using 0.1% NO/He at 6 bars) and low rotational temperature (~1 K using 0.5% NO/Ar at 6 bars). Third, a novel two-point pump-probe method was employed which we label double delay scan. This method allows a full kinematic characterization of the molecular beam, including accurate speed ratios at different temporal positions. It was found that the speed ratio was maximum (S = 50 using 0.1% NO/He at 3 bars) at the peak position of the molecular beam and decreased when it was on the leading or falling edge. PMID:23464190

Yan, B; Claus, P F H; van Oorschot, B G M; Gerritsen, L; Eppink, A T J B; van de Meerakker, S Y T; Parker, D H

2013-02-01

407

How to use MPI communication in highly parallel climate simulations more easily and more efficiently.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we present a way to facilitate efficient use of MPI communication for developers of climate models. Exploitation of the performance potential of today's highly parallel supercomputers with real world simulations is a complex task. This is partly caused by the low level nature of the MPI communication library which is the dominant communication tool at least for inter-node communication. In order to manage the complexity of the task, climate simulations with non-trivial communication patterns often use an internal abstraction layer above MPI without exploiting the benefits of communication aggregation or MPI-datatypes. The solution for the complexity and performance problem we propose is the communication library YAXT. This library is built on top of MPI and takes high level descriptions of arbitrary domain decompositions and automatically derives an efficient collective data exchange. Several exchanges can be aggregated in order to reduce latency costs. Examples are given which demonstrate the simplicity and the performance gains for selected climate applications.

Behrens, Jörg; Hanke, Moritz; Jahns, Thomas

2014-05-01

408

Improving Switching Performance of Power MOSFETs Used in High Rep-Rate, Short Pulse, High-Power Pulsers  

SciTech Connect

As their switching and power handling characteristics improve, solid-state devices are finding new applications in pulsed power. This is particularly true of applications that require fast trains of short duration pulses. High voltage (600-1200V) MOSFETs are especially well suited for use in these systems, as they can switch at significant peak power levels and are easily gated on and off very quickly. MOSFET operation at the shortest pulse durations is not constrained by the intrinsic capabilities of the MOSFET, but rather by the capabilities of the gate drive circuit and the system physical layout. This project sought to improve MOSFET operation in a pulsed power context by addressing these issues. The primary goal of this project is to improve the switching performance of power MOSFETs for use in high rep-rate, short pulse, high-power applications by improving the design of the gate drive circuits and the circuit layouts used in these systems. This requires evaluation of new commercial gate drive circuits and upgrading the designs of LLNL-developed circuits. In addition, these circuits must be tested with the fastest available high-voltage power MOSFETs.

Cook, E G

2006-09-19

409

Circular polarization effects in ion acceleration from high intensity, short pulse laser interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed to investigate ion acceleration effects from circular polarization from thin targets, using a high contrast, ultra-short laser pulse from the HERCULES laser facility at the Univ. of Michigan. Experiments were performed with 50 TW, 35 fs pulses at an intensity of >10^21 ; Wcm-2 on Si3N4 and Mylar targets of 30 nm to 1 ?m thickness with contrast <10-13. Protons with maximum energy 18 MeV and Carbon ions with energies of up to 10 MeV per nucleon were measured. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the acceleration mechanism will be presented as well.

Dollar, F.; Zulick, C.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Petrov, G.; Davis, J.

2011-11-01

410

Interplay of mulitphoton and tunneling ionization in short-wavelength-driven high-order harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.

Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Falcao-Filho, Edilson L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Kaertner, Franz X. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); DESY-Center for Free-Electron Laser Science and Hamburg University, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-07-15

411

High nitrogen removal rate using ANAMMOX process at short hydraulic retention time.  

PubMed

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a chemolithoautotrophic process, which converts NH(4)(+) to N(2) using nitrite (NO(2)(-)) as the electron acceptor. This process has very high nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) and is an alternative to classical nitrification/denitrification wastewater treatment. In the present work, a strategy for nitrogen removal using ANAMMOX process was tested evaluating their performance when submitted to high loading rates and very short hydraulic retention times (HRTs). An up-flow ANAMMOX column reactor was inoculated with 30% biomass (v v(-1)) fed from 100 to 200 mg L(-1) of total N (NO(2)(-)-N + NH(4)(+)-N) at 35 °C. After start-up and process stability the maximum NRR in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was 18.3 g-N L(-1) d(-1) operated at 0.2 h of HRT. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis and process stoichiometry confirmed that ANAMMOX was the prevalent process for nitrogen removal during the experiments. The results point out that high NRRs can be obtained at very short HRTs using up-flow ANAMMOX column reactor configuration. PMID:23416586

Casagrande, C G; Kunz, A; De Prá, M C; Bressan, C R; Soares, H M

2013-01-01

412

Implementing molecular dynamics on hybrid high performance computers - short range forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - (1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, (2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, (3) utilizing the available processing power from both multi-core CPUs and accelerators, and (4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS, however, the methods can be applied in many molecular dynamics codes. Specifically, we describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high-performance machines. We describe an approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPUs and 180 CPU cores.

Brown, W. Michael; Wang, Peng; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.

2011-04-01

413

Short-pulse Calorimetric Load for High Power Millimeter-wave Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spherical compact matched load, for high vacuum operation suited for short pulses (2 MW, 0.1 s) precise measurement has been designed to test high power gyrotrons Bruschi, Gandini, Muzzini, Spinicchia, Cirant, Gittini, Granucci, Mellera, Nardone, Simonetto, and Sozzi (Fusion Eng. Des. 56 57:649 654, 2001); Bruschi, Cirant, Gandini, Granucci, Mellera, Muzzini, Nardone, Simonetto, Sozzi, and Spinicchia (Nucl. Fusion 43:1513 1519, 2003); Bruschi, Cirant, Gandini, Gittini, Granucci, Mellera, Muzzini, Nardone, Simonetto, Sozzi, Spinicchia, Angella, and Signorelli (Development of CW and short-pulse calorimetric loads for high power millimeter-wave Beams, 23rd Symposium on Fusion Technology, September 20 24, 2004, Venice, Italy). In order to enhance the power handling capability of the load and to reduce the operation problems that may arise from an excessive reflection from the load, a ray tracing code has been written to model the power distribution on the inner surface and the pattern of the reflected radiation. The outcome of this code has been used to select a more convenient profile for the spreading mirror of the load and to optimize a pre-load specially conceived to minimize the power reflected fraction.

Gandini, F.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gittini, G.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.

2007-02-01

414

Short Communication Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum annuum to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-wildlife conflict has negative impli- cations for wildlife conservation, and current crop protection methods are not sufficient to address the problem. Alternative livelihood strategies may provide the ultimate solution to this conflict but they are not always feasible in the short-term. We test the viability of

Guy E. Parker; Ferrel V. Osborn

415

http://journals.cambridge.org Downloaded: 17 Apr 2013 IP address: 150.131.78.145 Short Communication  

E-print Network

http://journals.cambridge.org Downloaded: 17 Apr 2013 IP address: 150.131.78.145 Short Himalayan region, Bhutan has been identified as a conservation priority area by all these different, in Royal Manas National Park, from November 2010 to February 2011. We recorded six species of wild felids

Hebblewhite, Mark

416

Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link  

DOEpatents

A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

Ruggiero, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-29

417

On-line Admission Control and Circuit Routing for High Performance Computing and Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problems of admission control and virtual circuit routing in high performance com- puting and communication systems. Admission con- trol and virtual circuit routing problems arise in nu- merous applications, including video-servers, real-time database servers, and the provision of permanent vir- tual channels in large-scale communications networks. The paper describes both upper and lower bounds on the

Baruch Awerbuch; Rainer Gawlick; Frank Thomson Leighton; Yuval Rabani

1994-01-01

418

Short Range Solar Forecasting Using Geostationary Satellite and High Resolution Model Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blended technique utilizing observations and retrievals of cloud properties from geostationary satellite platforms combined with high-resolution mesoscale model data is applied to short-term (0-6hr) forecasts of surface insolation for solar power generation. GOES observations of the continental United States (CONUS), combined with cloud property retrievals including cloud type and cloud top height are used to create a database of cloud cover by cloud steering height. Combined with forecast model wind guidance, satellite-observed clouds can be advected forward in time by model winds to give a short-term forecast of cloud location. This information, when combined with a radiative transfer model, and accounting for variables such as solar geometry, can be used to provide an improved surface insolation forecast over current empirical methods. Additionally, model output from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model is being evaluated for potential use as an insolation forecast model. Mesoscale models utilizing real-time platforms such as the WSR-88D network for initialization show promise in forecasting cloud position and therefore insolation. Blending these model forecasts with satellite-derived cloud advection forecasts promises to greatly improve the accuracy and timeliness of insolation forecasts for the growing solar power industry.

Rogers, M. A.; Miller, S. D.

2011-12-01

419

Ultrafast terawatt laser sources for high-field particle acceleration and short wavelength generation  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely.

Downer, M.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Siders, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

420

Automated control and monitoring of thermal processing using high temperature, short time pasteurization.  

PubMed

High temperature, short time pasteurization was used to evaluate a computer-based system for controlling the pasteurization process, acquiring data, and monitoring records. Software was used for the control of hot water temperature, flow rate through the centrifugal timing pump, and diversion of under-processed product. Three types of control strategies were conducted: single loop, cascade, and multivariable. The single loop control strategy showed the most rapid responses to temperature changes, but the temperature response curve was slowest to return to its set point. The cascade control strategy showed slower recoveries to temperature changes, but the temperature response curve was smoother. The multivariable control strategy responded slightly faster than the cascade control strategy, and the temperature response curve was slightly smoother than the cascade control strategy. The multivariable control strategy was able to control the flow diversion valve by the use of a lethality controller. The data acquisition system, used to monitor the data obtained from the high temperature, short-time pasteurization system, was within +/- 0.1 degree C of the temperature recorded by the safety thermal limit recorder. Reliability was determined by examining the changes in the position of the flow diversion valve to identify process deviations and by comparing the changes to the event marker on circular charts. The data acquisition system was an effective alternative for monitoring the completeness of data. PMID:9361200

Schlesser, J E; Armstrong, D J; Cinar, A; Ramanauskas, P; Negiz, A

1997-10-01

421

Virtual machine aware communication libraries for high performance computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the size and complexity of modern computing systems keep increasing to meet the demanding requirements of High Performance Computing (HPC) applications, manageability is becoming a critical concern to achieve both high perfor- mance and high productivity computing. Meanwhile, virtual machine (VM) technologies have become popular in both in- dustry and academia due to various features designed to ease system

Wei Huang; Matthew J. Koop; Qi Gao; Dhabaleswar K. Panda

2007-01-01

422

Role of effective teamwork and communication in delivering safe, high-quality care.  

PubMed

Healthcare is delivered in an extraordinary complex environment. Despite highly skilled, dedicated clinicians, there are currently unacceptably high levels of communication failures and adverse events. Effective teamwork, in conjunction with reliable processes of care, is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care. Practical concepts and tools are provided that address the team behaviors of structured communication, effective assertion/critical language, psychological safety, situational awareness, and effective leadership. Examples of the mounting clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes and reduced harm resulting from effective teamwork training are cited. PMID:22069205

Leonard, Michael W; Frankel, Allan S

2011-01-01

423

Inner speech is used to mediate short-term memory, but not planning, among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Evidence regarding the use of inner speech by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is equivocal. To clarify this issue, the current study employed multiple techniques and tasks used across several previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants with and without ASD showed highly similar patterns and levels of serial recall for visually presented stimuli. Both groups were significantly affected by the phonological similarity of items to be recalled, indicating that visual material was spontaneously recoded into a verbal form. Confirming that short-term memory is typically verbally mediated among the majority of people with ASD, recall performance among both groups declined substantially when inner speech use was prevented by the imposition of articulatory suppression during the presentation of stimuli. In Experiment 2, planning performance on a tower of London task was substantially detrimentally affected by articulatory suppression among comparison participants, but not among participants with ASD. This suggests that planning is not verbally mediated in ASD. It is important that the extent to which articulatory suppression affected planning among participants with ASD was uniquely associated with the degree of their observed and self-reported communication impairments. This confirms a link between interpersonal communication with others and intrapersonal communication with self as a means of higher order problem solving. PMID:22293006

Williams, David M; Bowler, Dermot M; Jarrold, Christopher

2012-02-01

424

Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

1977-01-01

425

Time-series modeling and analysis of high frequency (HF) vertical and short-path oblique incidence ionospheric soundings  

Microsoft Academic Search

One example of a non-stationary physical process that influences communications systems can be derived from a millimeter wave link operating over a stable line-of-sight path. Such a system would encounter a rapid change in its propagation path if a heavy rainstorm suddenly disturbed the link. Another example is derived from the adverse effects on high frequency radio communications caused by

R. J. Daccardi

1978-01-01

426

High repetition-rate and short pulse-width 1064nm laser in a composite crystal device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with lamp pumped solid state laser, laser-diode pumped all-solid-state laser (DPSL) has the characteristic of high efficiency, long life and reliable under the condition of high repetition rate. Therefore, A high repetition rate DPSL has a broad application prospect in the laser detection, laser communication and optoelectronic countermeasure and other fields. Laser-diode (LD) pumped acousto-optic(AO) Q-switch all-solid-state has attractive features, such as compact structure, reliable operation, high repetition rate and short pulse width. Laser crystal is the core component of the laser. Usually composite crystal thermal lens focal length is three times more than traditional crystal, so it can avoid the serious heating effect of the operation material bumping by the traditional method. In this paper, we present a high repetition rate acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser pumped by 880nm laser diode. By using the 0.25% doping concentration Nd:YVO4 single end composite crystal size of 3*3*(4+16) mm3 , with the 50 W LD pumped power, in order to calculate the laser crystal absorption efficiency of pump light, so that more accurate calculation of light conversion efficiency, first we measured 880 nm pump light absorption, crystal is calculated on the pump light absorption efficiency of 75%; When we put in the cavity mirror to form a flat resonant cavity, we obtained the 1064 nm continuous laser output power of 26 W and 27.1 W, with the output mirror transmittance of 20% and 48%, respectively. 50.7% and 48.7% optical to optical conversion efficiency has been achieved experimentally. When we put in AO Q-switch, with the repetition rate of 50 kHz, 100 kHz and 200 kHz, the 1064 nm laser output power is 21 W, 21.28 W and 20.58 W, and the peak power is 32.9 kW, 17.3 kW, 8.5 kW, respectively. Under the high repetition rate circumstance, the pulse width is limited to 12 ns.

Wang, Zijian; Jin, Guangyong; Yu, Yongji; Zhai, Ruizhi

2014-12-01

427

Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

428

Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems. PMID:15375033

Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

2004-09-01

429

Surface Structuring with Ultra-short Laser Pulses: Basics, Limitations and Needs for High Throughput  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest using ultra-short pulsed laser systems for industrial applications increased remarkably as reliable high power systems with average power exceeding several 10W became available, facilitating the development of high throughput processes. Exhausting the potential of these systems demands an optimized process and an adapted process strategy as well. For surface structuring it can be shown that in case of metals and many other materials, the ablation process itself shows a maximum efficiency at an optimum fluence. The corresponding removal rate directly scales with the average power and depends on the threshold fluence and the energy penetration depth into the material. These parameters are material depending but they change with the pulse duration and are also subject to incubation effects. Working at the optimum point with highest efficiency and keeping the high machining quality sets conditions for the process strategy which can only be fulfilled by either very high marking speeds, not available with common beam guiding systems, or high spot areas as they can e.g. achieved with multi-spots by a diffractive optical element or a spatial light modulator.

Neuenschwander, B.; Jaeggi, B.; Schmid, M.; Hennig, G.

430

Written communication (objective 1, number 1) will be assessed by student performance on short papers assigned in our smaller (enrollment under 30) majors only courses at the 3000 and 4000 level. We developed a rubric to assess these on a 6 point scale sy  

E-print Network

. The chairperson will keep records of performance beginning with fall 2010. Oral communication (objective 1, number variables and policy relates to business. Communication Skills · Oral Communication Students will be ableWritten communication (objective 1, number 1) will be assessed by student performance on short

Asaithambi, Asai

431

Linkage disequilibrium over short physical distances measured in sheep using a high-density SNP chip.  

PubMed

The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic loci has implications for both association studies and the accuracy of genomic prediction. To characterise the persistence of LD in diverse sheep breeds, two SNP genotyping platforms were used. First, existing SNP genotypes from 63 breeds obtained using the ovine SNP50 BeadChip (49,034 loci) were used to estimate LD decay in populations with contrasting levels of genetic diversity. Given the paucity of marker pairs separated by short physical distances on the SNP50 BeadChip, genotyping was subsequently performed for four breeds using the recently developed ovine HD BeadChip that assays approximately 600,000 SNPs with an average genomic spacing of 5 kb. This facilitated a highly accurate estimate of LD over short genomic distances (<30 kb) and revealed LD varies considerably between sheep breeds. Further, sheep appear to contain generally lower levels of LD than do other domestic species, likely a reflection of aspects of their past population history. PMID:25040320

Kijas, James W; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Dominik, Sonja; Reverter, Antonio; Bunch, Rowan; McCulloch, Russell; Hayes, Ben J; Brauning, Rudiger; McEwan, John

2014-10-01

432

Indoor Propagation Simulation using FEM for Short-Range Wireless Communication Systems Operating at 2.4 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the wave propagation effects of a short-range wireless device, like the Bluetooth, in an indoor office environment. Specifically, we investigate line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios and verify the theoretical statistics of the fading using real measurements and finite element method (FEM) simulations of the environment. The simulations are also used for assessing the impact on propagation when doors are opened or closed. In addition, we also investigate the improvement in performance resulting from receive diversity gain of a system employing multiple receive antennas with various combining techniques.

Hult, Tommy; Mohammed, Abbas

2006-05-01

433

COMMUNICATION TO THE EDITOR High Cell Density Culture of  

E-print Network

for biodegradable plastics and elastomers (Holmes, 1985; Lee, 1996a). One of the major problems in the use of PHB as a bulk plastic material is its high price. With an aim to lower the production cost of PHB, fermen

434

A high power TWT power processing system. [for communication satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power processing system (PPS) is designed for a space-type high power (200W RF) multi-collector traveling-wave tube (TWT). The basic power circuit is presented along with the simplified block diagram and the input, output, and general requirements for the PPS design are tabulated. The paper covers the PPS design as to critical TWT/PPS interface requirements, high voltage cathode/collector supply, high voltage components material, packaging, grounding and isolation, and electrical performance. The use of a single two loop control system for the regulation of cathode and collector voltages is shown to give high efficiency, excellent steady-state and transient performance characteristics, and complete protection for TWT and PPS components under transient conditions.

Farber, B. F.; Goldin, D. S.; Siegert, C.; Gourash, F.

1974-01-01

435

Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

2010-04-22

436

Interplay of mulitphoton and tunneling ionization in short-wavelength-driven high-order harmonic generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.64.013409 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.

Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Falcão-Filho, Edilson L.; Kärtner, Franz X.

2011-07-01

437

Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative advantages of STOL aircraft concepts were examined by simulating the operations of a short haul high-density intercity STOL system set in two arenas, the California corridor and the Chicago-Detroit-Cleveland triangle, during the 1980 time period. The study was constrained to the use of three aircraft concepts designated as the deflected slipstream turboprop, externally blown flap, and augmentor wing turbofan configurations. The projected demographic, economic, travel demand, and travel characteristics of the representative arenas were identified. The STOL airline operating scenarios were then formulated and through the use of the aerospace modal split simulation program, the traveler modal choices involving alternative STOL concepts were estimated in the context of the total transportation environment for 1980. System combinations that presented the best potential for economic return and traveler acceptance were then identified for each STOL concept.

Solomon, H. L.

1972-01-01

438

Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

439

Phosphide based Molecular Beam Epitaxy for High Power Short-Wavelength Diode Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents our recent results obtained in developing highpower GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well laser diodes for the short red-wavelength range. State-of-the-art performances have been obtained at 650nm (bright red) with high-power, in excess of 2W under continuous wave operation, emitted at 15°C. The emission wavelength was also brought down to 618nm, close to the shortest achievable wavelength with the AlGaInP material system. Our calculations and preliminary tests indicate that a significant increase of the emitted power and substantial reduction of the emission wavelength down to the amber 600nm range can be obtained by using advanced layer structures and more complex doping profiles.

Toikkanen, L.; Tukiainen, A.; Dumitrescu, M.; Viitala, S.; Rimpiläinen, V.; Hirvonen, I.; Pessa, M.

2004-01-01

440

Radiation Hardened, Modulator ASIC for High Data Rate Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-based telecommunication services are challenged by the need to generate down-link power levels adequate to support high quality (BER approx. equals 10(exp 12)) links required for modem broadband data services. Bandwidth-efficient Nyquist signaling, using low values of excess bandwidth (alpha), can exhibit large peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) values. High PAPR values necessitate high-power amplifier (HPA) backoff greater than the PAPR, resulting in unacceptably low HPA efficiency. Given the high cost of on-board prime power, this inefficiency represents both an economical burden, and a constraint on the rates and quality of data services supportable from satellite platforms. Constant-envelope signals offer improved power-efficiency, but only by imposing a severe bandwidth-efficiency penalty. This paper describes a radiation- hardened modulator which can improve satellite-based broadband data services by combining the bandwidth-efficiency of low-alpha Nyquist signals with high power-efficiency (negligible HPA backoff).

McCallister, Ron; Putnam, Robert; Andro, Monty; Fujikawa, Gene

2000-01-01

441

Effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation for highly trained athletes.  

PubMed

Effectiveness of short-term acclimation has generally been undertaken using untrained and moderately-trained participants. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of short-term (5-day) heat acclimation on highly trained athletes. Eight males (mean ± SD age 21.8 ± 2.1 years, mass 75.2 ± 4.6 kg, VO(2peak) 4.9 ± 0.2 L min(-1) and power output 400 ± 27 W) were heat acclimated under controlled hyperthermia (rectal temperature 38.5 °C), for 90-min on five consecutive days (T(a) = 39.5 °C, 60% relative humidity). Acclimation was undertaken with dehydration (no fluid-intake) during daily bouts. Participants completed a rowing-specific, heat stress test (HST) 1 day before and after acclimation (T(a) = 35 °C, 60% relative humidity). HST consisted 10-min rowing at 30% peak power output (PPO), 10 min at 60% PPO and 5-min rest before a 2-km performance test, without feedback cues. Participants received 250 mL fluid (4% carbohydrate; osmolality 240-270 mmol kg(-1)) before the HST. Body mass loss during acclimation bouts was 1.6 ± 0.3 kg (2.1%) on day 1 and 2.3 ± 0.4 kg (3.0%) on day 5. In contrast, resting plasma volume increased by 4.5 ± 4.5% from day 1 to 5 (estimated from [Hb] & Hct). Plasma aldosterone increased at rest (52.6 pg mL(-1); p = 0.03) and end-exercise (162.4 pg mL(-1); p = 0.00) from day 1 to 5 acclimation. During the HST T(re) and f(c) were lowered 0.3 °C (p = 0.00) and 14 b min(-1) (p = 0.00) after 20-min exercise. The 2-km performance time (6.52.7 min) improved by 4 s (p = 0.00). Meaningful physiological and performance improvements occurred for highly trained athletes using a short-term (5-day) heat acclimation under hyperthermia control, with dehydration. PMID:21915701

Garrett, Andrew T; Creasy, Rob; Rehrer, Nancy J; Patterson, Mark J; Cotter, James D

2012-05-01

442

Influence of Ramadan Fasting on Anaerobic Performance and Recovery Following Short time High Intensity Exercise  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr) participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF), the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF) and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF)]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes. Key pointsNo significant changes were assessed on body composition, daily sleeping time and caloric intake, and body fluid balance in regularly trained power athletes during Ramadan fasting.Ramadan fasting has no adverse effect on power outputs of short time high intensity exercise.No influence of Ramadan fasting on LA metabolism during high intensity exercise and passive recovery in regularly trained power athletes. PMID:24149483

Karli, Umid; Guvenc, Alpay; Aslan, Alper; Hazir, Tahir; Acikada, Caner

2007-01-01

443

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS This section is reserved for short submissions which contain important new results and are intended for accelerated publication.  

E-print Network

of high-mobility semiconductor devices. Recently Fujita et al. investigated a new high-resolution negative of nanometer scale and large scale structures caused by prox- imity effects. II. EXPERIMENTS A. Exposure scale structures. The requ

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

444

Development of microlens arrays for high-speed optical communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, polymeric microlens arrays, well suited for high-volume and low-cost production, were developed for efficiently coupling the light from vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to multi-mode fiber ribbon. They were fabricated by microinjection molding with Ni-electroplated mold insert. Modified LIGA processes and the Ni-electroplating are used to make the master and the metallic mold insert, respectively. In this study, microinjection molding with metallocene based cyclic olefin copolymer (mCOC) was chosen to replicate microlenses. Good surface profile and high dimensional accuracy are achieved. Coupling efficiency of 55 +/- 3 % with a working distance of 400 +/- 60 micrometer is obtained. To verify its applications on high-speed interconnections, we also designed the evaluated board and set up an opto-electronic measurement platform. The high-speed measurement shows that the electrical-to-optical conversion 3dB-bandwidth is above 1.8 GHz, and the eye diagram at 2.488 Gbps is acceptable for the SONET OC-48 eye mask.

Ko, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Tsai, Bor-Chen; Shih, His-Hsin; Wu, Chien-Tsung; Chao, Yu-Lin; Chou, Yu-Kon; Chu, Chun-Hsun; Chiou, Yii-Tay; Chen, Rax

2004-09-01

445

Highly Efficient Digital Mobile Communications with a Linear Modulation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although linear modulation methods can achieve high spectrum efficiency, very little attention has been directed to their use in mobile radio systems. This is mainly due to the fact that the nonlinearity of the transmitter power amplifier tends to spread the spectrum and thus eliminate any spectrum efficiency advantage gained through the use of linear modulation methods. In this paper,

YOSHIHIKO AKAIWA; Y. Nagata

1987-01-01

446

Parent Involvement in Junior High Schools: A Failure to Communicate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the nature of parent involvement changes as children get older and varies from family to family, junior high school teachers and the families they serve recognize the value of parent involvement in young adolescents' education. Teachers, parents, and students, however, are often uncertain about how to initiate parent involvement in their…

Halsey, Pamela A.

2005-01-01

447

A Secure Communications Infrastructure for High-Performance Distributed Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software infrastructure designed to support the development of applicationsthat use high-speed networks to connect geographically distributed supercomputers,databases, and scientific instruments. Such applications may need to operate over opennetworks and access valuable resources, and hence can require mechanisms for ensuringintegrity and confidentialityofcommunications and for authenticating both users andresources. Yet security solutions developed for traditional...

Ian Foster; Nicholas T. Karonis; Carl Kesselman Greg Koenig; Steven Tuecke

1996-01-01

448

Iterative interference cancellation for high spectral efficiency satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of efficient utilization of the frequency spectrum for satellite systems is investigated; one which results as a consequence of highly crowding adjacent channels. An analytical characterization of the resulting interference channel is introduced and then exploited for interference cancellation. Two classes of cancelers are investigated. The first approach does not benefit from the forward error control (FEC) coding

Bassel F. Beidas; Hesham El Gamal; Stan Kay

2002-01-01

449

Photography (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a photography course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Poehls, Eddie; And Others

450

Design/Drafting (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a design/drafting course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Poehls, Eddie; And Others

451

Graphic Arts (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a graphic arts course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Poehls, Eddie; And Others

452

Glucose Homeostasis During Short-term and Prolonged Exposure to High Altitudes.  

PubMed

Most of the literature related to high altitude medicine is devoted to the short-term effects of high-altitude exposure on human physiology. However, long-term effects of living at high altitudes may be more important in relation to human disease because more than 400 million people worldwide reside above 1500 m. Interestingly, individuals living at higher altitudes have a lower fasting glycemia and better glucose tolerance compared with those who live near sea level. There is also emerging evidence of the lower prevalence of both obesity and diabetes at higher altitudes. The mechanisms underlying improved glucose control at higher altitudes remain unclear. In this review, we present the most current evidence about glucose homeostasis in residents living above 1500 m and discuss possible mechanisms that could explain the lower fasting glycemia and lower prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this population. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate and maintain the lower fasting glycemia in individuals who live at higher altitudes could lead to new therapeutics for impaired glucose homeostasis. PMID:25675133

Woolcott, Orison O; Ader, Marilyn; Bergman, Richard N

2015-04-01

453

Specification of minimum short circuit capacity for three-phase unbalance evaluation of high-speed railway power system  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, firstly, the authors present an efficient computational algorithm to evaluate the short circuit capacity distribution at a substation bus, and on basis of this distribution to specify the minimum short circuit capacity for the year under evaluation. Secondly, the authors estimate the maximum traction load at seven 161kv substations of Taiwan high-speed railway system which is now under planning. Thirdly, using the maximum traction load and the minimum short circuit capacity derived, the authors estimate the maximum unbalance of the 3{phi} voltage at these seven 161kv substations, and compare their results with that by Taipower to demonstrate the effectiveness of their proposed algorithm.

Chen, S.L.; Kao, F.C.; Lee, T.M. [National Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Electrical Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

454

Designing and implementing Multibeam Smart Antennas for high bandwidth UAV communications using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for high bandwidth UAV communications are often necessary in order to move large amounts of mission information to/from Users in real-time. The focus of this paper is antenna beamforming for point-to-point, high bandwidth UAV communications in order to optimize transmit and receive power and support high data throughput communications. Specifically, this paper looks at the design and implementation of Multibeam Smart Antennas to implement antenna beamforming in an aerospace communications environment. The Smart Antenna is contrasted against Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based beamforming in order to quantify the increase in both computational load and FPGA resources required for multibeam adaptive signal processing in the Smart Antenna. The paper begins with an overall discussion of Smart Antenna design and general beamforming issues in high bandwidth communications. Important design considerations such as processing complexity in a constrained Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) environment are discussed. The focus of the paper is with respect to design and implementation of digital beamforming wideband communications waveforms using FPGAs. A Multibeam Time Delay element is introduced based on Lagrange Interpolation. Design data for Multibeam Smart Antennas in FPGAs is provided in the paper as well as reference circuits for implementation. Finally, an example Multibeam Smart Antenna design is provided based on a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA. The Multibeam Smart Antenna example design illustrates the concepts discussed in the paper and provides design insight into Multibeam Smart Antenna implementation from the point of view of implementation complexity, required hardware, and overall system performance gain.

Porcello, J. C.

455

Replacing cellular with WiFi direct communication for a highly interactive, high bandwidth multiplayer game  

E-print Network

The objective of this work is to explore the benefits of replacing cellular with Wi-Fi Direct communication in mobile applications. Cellular connections consume significant power on mobile devices and are too slow for many ...

Ortiz, Pablo (Pablo Jose)

2013-01-01

456

ATOMIC: A High-Speed Local Communication Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATOMIC2 is an inexpensive high-speed LAN built by USC\\/ISI. It is based upon Mosaic technology developed for fine-grain, message-passing, massively parallel computation. Each Mosaic processor is capable of routing variable length packets, while providing added value through simultaneous computing and buffering. ATOMIC adds a general routing capability to the native Mosaic wormhole routing through store-and-forward and path concatenation. ATOMIC aggregate

Robert Felderman; Annette DeSchon; Danny Cohen; Gregory Finn

1994-01-01

457

Short-Radius Horizontal Drilling System Optimization in Yates Field Unit Provides Excellent Directional Control and Highly Economical Completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yates field unit in Pecos County, Texas, has recently drilled its 100th short-radius horizontal drainhole. The program has been a technical and economic success for the field, providing efficient completions in this highly fractured reservoir. In the early stages of the program (1986--1990), short-radius drilling in Yates field unit was performed using strictly rotary drilling systems. In 1992, Odorisio and

W. J. Tank

1997-01-01

458

Effect of Short-Term Acclimatization to High Altitude on Sleep and Nocturnal Breathing  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Objective physiologic data on sleep and nocturnal breathing at initial exposure and during acclimatization to high altitude are scant. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to high altitude induces quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep and that these changes are partially reversed with acclimatization. Design: Prospective observation. Setting: One night in a sleep laboratory at 490 meters, the first and the third night in a mountain hut at 4559 meters. Participants: Sixteen healthy mountaineers. Intervention: Altitude exposure. Measurements: Polysomnography, questionnaire evaluation of sleep and acute mountain sickness. Results: Compared to 490 m, median nocturnal oxygen saturation decreased during the 1st night at 4559 m from 96% to 67%, minute ventilation increased from 4.4 to 6.3 L/min, and the apnea-hypopnea index increased from 0.1 to 60.9/h; correspondingly, sleep efficiency decreased from 93% to 69%, and slow wave sleep from 18% to 6% (P < 0.05, all instances). During the 3rd night at 4559 m, oxygen saturation was 71%, slow wave sleep 11% (P < 0.05 vs. 1st night, both instances) and the apnea/hypopnea index was 86.5/h (P = NS vs. 1st night). Symptoms of AMS and of disturbed sleep were significantly reduced in the morning after the 3rd vs. the 1st night at 4559 m. Conclusions: In healthy mountaineers ascending rapidly to high altitude, sleep quality is initially impaired but improves with acclimatization in association with improved oxygen saturation, while periodic breathing persists. Therefore, high altitude sleep disturbances seem to be related predominantly to hypoxemia rather than to periodic breathing. Citation: Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y; Ursprung J; Siebenmann C; Maggiorini M; Bloch KE. Effect of short-term acclimatization to high altitude on sleep and nocturnal breathing. SLEEP 2012;35(3):419-423. PMID:22379248

Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Ursprung, Justyna; Siebenmann, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco; Bloch, Konrad E.

2012-01-01

459

Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

Spromberg, Sarah

2011-01-01

460

Optical versus electrical tradeoffs for communications in highly parallel, distributed-memory multiprocessors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued scaling of silicon CMOS technologies to smaller feature sizes will provide impressive opportunities for integration of very compex processing systems on single ICs and single wafers. This suggests a considerable scaling of "large-scale" systems such as distributed computing environments to much smaller, more highly monolithic real-izations. Such "scaled systems" will require a corresponding scaling of communications networks, perhaps reduced to single wafer sized networks and switching circuits. Presently, electronic interconnections characterize monolithic circuit interconnections while optical communications is making significant inroads for efficient realization of system communications. In the future "scaled" world of ULSI systems, it remains unclear whether optical interconnection techniques increasingly favored for large-scale system communications will remain favored. However, the system organizations and operating protocols are likely to change significantly as present large-scale systems are scaled. It is suggested here that a principle objective will be to develop networks with disposable bandwidth, well in excess of the actual bandwidth required. Under such conditions several of the control issues limiting efficient use of distributed systems are greatly relaxed. Optical interconnects, integrated for example on silicon wafer substrates, provide the high bandwidth sought. However, resynchronization delays and queues will be very difficult in the optical domain. It is suggested here that the overall network function can be divided into relatively slow electronic control of the network paths and high bandwidth (optical or electrical) links and switches, providing a high performance, hybrid network realization.

Tewksbury, Stuart K.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

1990-01-01

461

A High-Efficiency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Designed for Interplanetary Laser Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design, performance, and environmental screening of flight prototype Ytterbium amplifiers designed for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration are described. The high-reliability design delivered >8-W average power with low-duty-cycle PPM waveforms and >21% electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

Neal W. Spellmeyer; David O. Caplan; Bryan S. Robinson; David Sandberg; Mark L. Stevens; Matt M. Willis; Denis V. Gapontsev; Nikolai S. Platonov; Alexander Yusim

2007-01-01

462

A High Capacity Hybrid Fiberoptic/Wireless Communication System: An Overview W. D. Jemison1  

E-print Network

-optic technology can provide tremendous bandwidth, it does not support user mobility or flexible system reconfiguration. Alternatively, while wireless communication systems using traditional RF or microwave frequencies provide user mobility, they do not support high data rates and security (low probability of intercept

Herczfeld, Peter

463

The design of a linear L-band high power amplifier for mobile communication satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear L-band solid state high power amplifier designed for the space segment of the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) mobile communication system is described. The amplifier is capable of producing 35 watts of RF power with multitone signal at an efficiency of 25 percent and with intermodulation products better than 16 dB below carrier.

Whittaker, N.; Brassard, G.; Li, E.; Goux, P.

1990-01-01

464

Linux/SimOS -A Simulation Environment for Evaluating High-speed Communication Systems1  

E-print Network

Linux/SimOS - A Simulation Environment for Evaluating High-speed Communication Systems1 Chulho Won presents Linux/SimOS, a Linux operating system port to SimOS, which is a complete machine simulator from, etc., and models them in sufficient detail to run an operating system. Therefore, a real program

Yu, Chansu

465

COMMUNICATIONS Photonic crystal-based resonant antenna with a very high directivity  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATIONS Photonic crystal-based resonant antenna with a very high directivity B. Temelkuran of growing interest for photonic crystal-based antennas.8,9 The reported experimental and theoretical stud- ies on the antenna applications mostly made use of the total reflection property of photonic crystals

Ozbay, Ekmel

466

DESIGN AND SIMULATIONS OF FRACTAL HIGH-IMPEDANCE SURFACES FOR MODERN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the conventional conductive surfaces, high-impedance surfaces (HIS) exhibit reflection coefficient ? ? +1, i.e. they do not change the phase of the reflected wave. Such structures are used in modern wireless communication systems, especially in the antenna design. HIS comprises of a great number of unit cells with sub- wavelength dimensions. Due to this fact, the concept of artificial

Vesna Crnojevi?-Bengin; D. Obradovi?a

467

Evolutionary High-dimensional QoS Optimization for Safety-Critical Utility Communication Networks  

E-print Network

Evolutionary High-dimensional QoS Optimization for Safety-Critical Utility Communication Networks multiobjective optimization algorithm, called EVOLT, which heuristically optimizes QoS (quality of service a set of QoS parameters, and evolves the individuals via genetic operators such as crossover, mutation

Suzuki, Jun

468

On the high-speed communication over hybrid free-space optical (FSO) - wireless fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enable high-speed communication over atmospheric turbulence channels, we propose to transmit LDPC-coded sequence over FSO and wireless channels, feedback channel state information of both channels by RF-feedback, and adapt powers and rates so that total channel capacity is maximized.

Ivan B. Djordjevic; Goran T. Djordjevic

2009-01-01

469

Open Metadata Formats: Efficient XML-Based Communication for High Performance Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance computing faces considerable change as the Internet and the Grid mature. Applications that once were tightly-coupled and monolithic are now decentralized, with collaborating components spread across diverse com- putational elements. Such distributed systems most com- monly communicate through the exchange of structured data. Definition and translation of metadata is incorporated in all systems that exchange structured data. We observe

Patrick Widener; Greg Eisenhauer; Karsten Schwan; Fabián E. Bustamante

2002-01-01

470

Open Metadata Formats: Efficient XML-Based Communication for High Performance Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performancecomputingfaces considerable change as the Internet and the Grid mature. Applications that once were tightly-coupled and monolithic are now decentralized, with collaborating components spread across diverse com- putational elements. Such distributed systems most com- monly communicate through the exchange of structured data. Definition and translation of metadatais incorporated in all systems that exchange structured data. We observe that the manipulation

Patrick Widener; Greg Eisenhauer; Karsten Schwan

2001-01-01

471

EMERGING AIR QUALITY MODELING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

To demonstrate applications of the HPCC technologies in air quality models, we organized the Specialty Evening Session 1, "Emerging Air Quality Modeling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environment" as a part of the Twenty First NATO/CCMS Internationa...

472

InfoMall: An Innovative Strategy for High-Performance Computing and Communications Applications Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the InfoMall, a program led by the Northeast Parallel Architectures Center (NPAC) at Syracuse University (New York). The InfoMall features a partnership of approximately 24 organizations offering linked programs in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) technology integration, software development, marketing, education and…

Mills, Kim; Fox, Geoffrey

1994-01-01

473

The DOE Program in HPCC: High-Performance Computing and Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports to Congress on the progress that the Department of Energy has made in 1992 toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program. Its second purpose is to provide a picture of the many programs administered by the Office of Scientific Computing under the auspices of the HPCC program.…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Research.

474

Federal High Performance Computing and Communications Program. The Department of Energy Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, profusely illustrated with color photographs and other graphics, elaborates on the Department of Energy (DOE) research program in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC). The DOE is one of seven agency programs within the Federal Research and Development Program working on HPCC. The DOE HPCC program emphasizes research in…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Research.

475

Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

2012-01-01

476

High Density Lipoproteins for the Systemic Delivery of short interfering RNA  

PubMed Central

Introduction RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful mechanism for gene silencing with the potential to greatly impact the development of new therapies for many human diseases. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may be the ideal molecules for therapeutic RNAi. However, therapeutic siRNAs face significant challenges that must be overcome prior to widespread clinical use. Many efforts have been made to overcome the hurdles associated with systemic administration of siRNA; however, current approaches are still limited. As such, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies for siRNA delivery that have the potential to impact a broad spectrum of systemic diseases. Areas covered This review focuses on the promise of siRNA therapies and highlights current siRNA delivery methods. With an eye toward new strategies, this review first introduces high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their natural functions, and then transitions into how HDLs may provide significant opportunities as next generation siRNA delivery vehicles. Importantly, this review describes how synthetic HDLs leverage the natural ability of HDL to stabilize and deliver siRNAs. Expert Opinion HDLs are natural nanoparticles that are critical to understanding the systemic delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, like siRNA. Methods to synthesize biomimetic HDLs are being explored and data demonstrate that this type of delivery vehicle may be highly beneficial for targeted and efficacious systemic delivery of siRNAs. PMID:24313310

McMahon, Kaylin M.; Thaxton, C. Shad

2014-01-01

477

Use of shorted coaxial transmission line for high-power microwave measurement.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the effective area of the receiving antenna to receive microwave power in the high electric field regions, a 1.76 GHz shorted coaxial transmission line (SCTL) is investigated numerically and experimentally in this paper. When the frequency is 1.76 GHz, the simulation results show that the general gain and the effective area of the SCTL are -10.21 dBi and 2.19 cm(2), respectively, and the power capacity of the SCTL is about 41 kW. So the maximum power flow density, which can be measured by the SCTL, is 18.7 kW/cm(2). With the frequency varying from 1.70 to 1.80 GHz, the general gain increases from -11.19 to -9.42 dBi linearly. The general gain of the SCTL is calibrated with the Agilent E8363B network analyzer in an anechoic chamber, and the calibrated results agree with the simulation. The high-power tests are performed on an improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator. Compared to the cutoff free-field probe, the maximum power flow density, which can be measured by the SCTL, is higher. PMID:19256667

Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Shu, Ting; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Heng; Zhou, Wei-Hong; Luo, Ling

2009-02-01

478

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa-10-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Furukawa, T.; Iimura, H.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Nakamura, S.; Noto, T.; Schury, P.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.

2013-01-01

479

Fundamental mechanisms of optical damage in short-wavelength high-power lasers  

SciTech Connect

Evidence has been accumulating for many years that the physical mechanisms responsible for damage to optical materials in and from high-power, short-wave-length lasers (SWLs) differ in fundamental ways from the thermal processes identified in infrared and visible-wavelength laser damage problems. We propose that this difference stems primarily from the electronic nature of the absorption and excitation processes which occur when SWL photons strike an optical surface, and that electrons, ions and uv photons generated in the laser excitation cycle also contribute to optical damage. In this paper, we present recent experimental results which have pinpointed specific electronic excitation mechanisms which can operate in the high-power laser environment. In many optical materials of interest for SWLs, the deposition of electronic energy creates self-trapped excitons which decay through the energetic expulsion of atoms and molecules from the surface of the material. This erosion process is accompanied by the creation of permanent electronic defects which become nucleation sites for further damage. The relationship between these microscopic mechanisms and observed macroscopic damage phenomenology is discussed, along with evidence for the existence of a surface overlayer which may point the way to radically new techniques for protecting SWL optical elements from laser damage.

Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Tolk, N.H.; York, G.W.

1985-10-01

480

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

E-print Network

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by ...

Sonoda, T; Tomita, H; Sakamoto, C; Takatsuka, T; Furukawa, T; Iimura, H; Ito, Y; Kubo, T; Matsuo, Y; Mita, H; Naimi, S; Nakamura, S; Noto, T; Schury, P; Shinozuka, T; Wakui, T; Miyatake, H; Jeong, S; Ishiyama, H; Watanabe, Y X; Hirayama, Y; Okada, K; Takamine, A

2012-01-01

481

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

E-print Network

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

T. Sonoda; M. Wada; H. Tomita; C. Sakamoto; T. Takatsuka; T. Furukawa; H. Iimura; Y. Ito; T. Kubo; Y. Matsuo; H. Mita; S. Naimi; S. Nakamura; T. Noto; P. Schury; T. Shinozuka; T. Wakui; H. Miyatake; S. Jeong; H. Ishiyama; Y. X. Watanabe; Y. Hirayama; K. Okada; A. Takamine

2012-10-24

482

Communication in macrochips using silicon photonics for high-performance and low-energy computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper microchip technology was explored. In order to scale chip-to-chip I\\/O to the required communication performance and energy, optical interconnects between chips based on CMOS-compatible silicon photonics was proposed. One key component is an inter-chip optical coupler supporting wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) functionality that enables face-to-face optical proximity communication (OPxC).The high-fidelity 10 Gb\\/s OPxC with reflecting mirrors micro-machined into

J. E. Cunningham; A. V. Krishnamoorthy; Xuezhe Zheng; Guoliang Li; Ron Ho; J. Lexau; I. Shubin; K. Raj

2009-01-01

483

[Psychological processes predicting the English communication behavior of Japanese high school students].  

PubMed

This study presents a new model of psychological processes to predict English communication behaviors of Japanese high school students. Various models have been proposed in Japan, based mainly on Canadian models, to predict second-language communication behaviors. This study shows problems with the previous models in Japan and introduces a new model from the perspective of "Expectancy-Value Theory". Questionnaire Survey 1 compared the previous model and the modified models which suggested that a new psychological variable, "Value in English Communication", was necessary to construct the new model. In Survey 2, the new model was further modified by incorporating into it various English learning values which the Japanese have. This study makes a significant contribution to studies and practices of teaching English as a foreign language in Japan. PMID:24505975

Ito, Takehiko

2013-12-01

484

K-band high power latching switch. [communication satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 19 GHz waveguide latching switch with a bandwidth of 1400 MHz and an exceptionally low insertion loss of 0.25 dB was demonstrated. The RF and driver ferrites are separate structures and can be optimized individually. This analysis for each structure is separately detailed. Basically, the RF section features a dual turnstile junction. The circulator consists of a dielectric tube which contains two ferrite rods, and a dielectric spacer separating the ferrite parts along the center of symmetry of the waveguide to form two turnstiles. This subassembly is indexed and locked in the center of symmetry of a uniform junction of three waveguides by the metallic transformers installed in the top and bottom walls of the housing. The switching junction and its actuating circuitry met all RF performance objectives and all shock and vibration requirements with no physical damage or performance degradation. It exceeds thermal requirements by operating over a 100 C temperature range (-44 C to +56 C) and has a high power handling capability allowing up to 100 W of CW input power.

Mlinar, M. J.; Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

1980-01-01

485

Lottery games and risky technologies: communications about low-probability\\/high-consequence events  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are strong structural similarities between risks from technological hazards and big-purse state lottery games. Risks from technological hazards are often described as low-probability, high-consequence negative events. State lotteries could be equally well characterized as low-probability, high-consequence positive events. Typical communications about state lotteries provide a virtual strategic textbook for opponents of risky technologies. The same techniques can be used

Jeryl L. Mumpower

1988-01-01

486

Improving communication and social support for caregivers of high-risk infants through mobile technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon leaving the hospital, parents of high-risk infants experience a variety of challenges in providing care at home. In this work, we present results from a qualitative study to understand the role of social interaction and information-sharing surrounding high-risk infants among both home caregivers and health professionals. These results demonstrate challenges in communication and social support for caregivers of these

Leslie S. Liu; Sen H. Hirano; Monica Tentori; Karen G. Cheng; Sheba George; Sun Young Park; Gillian R. Hayes

2011-01-01

487

High Bandwidth Synaptic Communication and Frequency Tracking in Human Neocortex  

PubMed Central

Neuronal firing, synaptic transmission, and its plasticity form the building blocks for processing and storage of information in the brain. It is unknown whether adult human synapses are more efficient in transferring information between neurons than rodent synapses. To test this, we recorded from connected pairs of pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices of adult human and mouse temporal cortex and probed the dynamical properties of use-dependent plasticity. We found that human synaptic connections were purely depressing and that they recovered three to four times more swiftly from depression than synapses in rodent neocortex. Thereby, during realistic spike trains, the temporal resolution of synaptic information exchange in human synapses substantially surpasses that in mice. Using information theory, we calculate that information transfer between human pyramidal neurons exceeds that of mouse pyramidal neurons by four to nine times, well into the beta and gamma frequency range. In addition, we found that human principal cells tracked fine temporal features, conveyed in received synaptic inputs, at a wider bandwidth than for rodents. Action potential firing probability was reliably phase-locked to input transients up to 1,000 cycles/s because of a steep onset of action potentials in human pyramidal neurons during spike trains, unlike in rodent neurons. Our data show that, in contrast to the widely held views of limited information transfer in rodent depressing synapses, fast recovering synapses of human neurons can actually transfer substantial amounts of information during spike trains. In addition, human pyramidal neurons are equipped to encode high synaptic information content. Thus, adult human cortical microcircuits relay information at a wider bandwidth than rodent microcircuits. PMID:25422947

Testa-Silva, Guilherme; Verhoog, Matthijs B.; Linaro, Daniele; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Baayen, Johannes C.; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Giugliano, Michele; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

2014-01-01

488

High performance drive circuits for integrated microLED/CMOS arrays for visible light communication (VLC)   

E-print Network

Wireless communication is a form of communication that has been around for over hundreds of years and is the fastest growing segment of the communication industry. Today, wireless communication has become an essential ...

Mahmood Zuhdi, Ahmad Wafi; Zuhdi, Ahmad

2015-06-29

489

SHORT COMMUNICATION MAXIMUM LOAD-LIFTING AND INDUCED POWER OUTPUT OF HARRIS' HAWKS ARE GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF FLIGHT MUSCLE MASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the rate of gain of potential energy (which is presumably equal to maximum induced power output in level flight) is highly advantageous, since it uses empirical observations of the rate of work and involves considerably fewer assumptions than do previous estimates of maximum induced power output. However, Pennycuick et al. (1989) neglected to relate their results to previous measurements

JAMES H. MARDEN

1990-01-01

490

The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration: NASA's First Step Toward Very High Data Rate Support of Science and Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future NASA missions for both Science and Exploration will have needs for much higher data rates than are presently available, even with NASA's highly-capable Space- and Deep-Space Networks. As a first step towards this end, for one month in late 2013, NASA's Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) successfully demonstrated for the first time high-rate duplex laser communications between a satellite in lunar orbit, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and multiple ground stations on the Earth. It constituted the longest-range laser communication link ever built and demonstrated the highest communication data rates ever achieved to or from the Moon.

Boroson, Don M.; Robinson, Bryan S.

2014-12-01

491

Effect of high density on the short term Calomys musculinus spacing behaviour: A fencing experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the short term spacing behavioural responses of corn mice ( Calomys musculinus) with regard to population density in four 0.25 ha enclosures (two control and two experimental) in the 2007 breeding season. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that spacing behaviour only operates among C. musculinus adult females. We estimated 207 home ranges to study: 1) the home range size and the overlap degree of adult males and females in relation to population density; 2) the settlement distances of juveniles to the centre of activity of their mothers and the home range overlap proportion between them and their mothers in relation to population density. We found that home range size and overlap degree in C. musculinus adults were determined by sex and density. At high population density males had significant smaller and more exclusive home ranges, and this might reflect induced territoriality derived from social restrictions. Female home range sizes remained similar irrespective of population density, and they kept exclusive home ranges in both control and experimental enclosures. Thus, females maintained their territories independent of the population density values. The settlement distances of juveniles from their mothers and the overlap proportion between them and their mothers were independent of population density. We conclude that spacing behaviour only operates among C. musculinus adult females and it could have a role in regulating population abundances limiting the number of females that acquire breeding spaces.

Sommaro, Lucía V.; Steinmann, Andrea R.; Chiappero, Marina B.; Priotto, José W.

2010-05-01

492

Wave Characteristics of Large-Diameter, High-Density Helicon Plasma with Short Axial Length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a large-diameter (73.8 cm) helicon device with an axial length of 486 cm that utilizes a flat spiral antenna at ISAS/JAXA [1]. It has been realized that a shorter axial length is desirable in certain applications. Therefore, the axial length has been shortened in a range of 12 to 123 cm by installing a movable termination plate. Even with very short axial length, the plasma density can exceed 10^12 cm-3 (pAr = 0.75 mTorr) with the input rf power of less than 4 kW, showing a rather high plasma production efficiency. When the axial length is relatively longer, the excitation of the higher order radial eigenmodes is found to be correlated with the magnetic field configuration and the radial density profile. When the axial length is further shortened, the axial wave structure tends to become standing wave like, where its wavelength depends on the plasma density and axial length as is expected. The details of the experimental results will be discussed in the presentation. [1] S. Shinohara and T. Tanikawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1941 (2004) & Phys. Plasmas 12, 044502 (2005).

Motomura, Taisei; Tanaka, Kenji; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao; Konstantin, Shamrai

2008-11-01

493

High speed ultra short pulse fiber ring laser using photonic crystal fiber nonlinear optical loop mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to generate high speed optical pulse train with ultra short pulse width is proposed and experimentally studied. Two-step compression is used in the scheme: 20 GHz and 40 GHz pulse trains generated from a rational harmonic actively mode-locked fiber ring laser is compressed to a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ~ 1.5 ps using adiabatic soliton compression with dispersion shifted fibers (DSF). The pulse trains then undergo a pedestal removal process by transmission through a cascaded two photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLM) realized using a double-ring structure. The shortest output pulse width obtained was ~ 610 fs for 20 GHz pulse train and ~ 570 fs for 40 GHz pulse train. The signal to noise ratio of the RF spectrum of the output pulse train is larger than 30 dB. Theoretical simulation of the NOLM transmission is conducted using split-step Fourier method. The results show that two cascaded NOLMs can improve the compression result compared to that for a single NOLM transmission.

Ma, Shaozhen; Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

2012-06-01

494

Mutagenic activity of high-energy 532 nm ultra-short laser pulses.  

PubMed

The mutagenic activity of green (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) ultra-short laser light pulses was tested in cultured Syrian hamster fibroblasts by a hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) mutagenesis assay. In 18 irradiation trials, cells were exposed to eight consecutive 100-ps pulses of either 532 nm or 1064 nm light from a Nd:YAG laser at average irradiances of 3.0 GW/cm2. The 532 nm irradiations produced Hprt mutations at an average observed frequency of 5.3-5.6 x 10(-6), 10-fold higher than control trials (P < 0.01), while 1064 nm irradiations produced only background (spontaneous mutation) frequencies. A HAT (hypoxanthine, aminopterin, thymidine) sensitivity test allowed us to infer that Hprt- clones, selected as 6-thioguanine-resistant clones, possessed mutations at the Hprt locus after 532 nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The mutagenic effects of 532 nm high-energy laser pulses and not 1064 nm wavelengths are discussed in light of a two-photon absorption hypothesis. These preliminary findings suggest that 460-590 nm visible-light lasers may be mutagenic to mammalian cells either as a result of two-photon absorption or through some other photochemical process that damages DNA. PMID:9092930

Leavitt, J; Fatone, M; Hestdalen, C; Obringer, J W; Tillinghast, H S

1997-04-01

495

High-fidelity rotor gap measurements in a short-duration turbine rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distance between the tip of rotating airfoils and the stationary casing, i.e., the tip clearance, is a vital parameter to characterize turbomachinery performance. The larger the tip clearance, the lower the turbine efficiency due to the increased loss associated with the hot jet flowing through the gap without generating work. Following the increasing demands in efficiency, these small clearances must be surveyed to avoid mechanical rubbing. The appropriate design of control systems to adjust these small clearances requires a constant monitoring during the whole engine envelope. This paper describes the complete implementation of a high-frequency capacitive sensor on the shroud of a large transonic turbine stage. The presented system and data analysis procedure allow the accurate measurement of the tip clearance of each rotating airfoil. The measurement system performances are first assessed in a simplified test bench and uncertainty analysis is provided. The technique is demonstrated in an aero-propulsion turbine, tested in a short duration rig. The turbine facility has running times of less than 0.5 s, characterized by temperature and rotor speed transients, which requires particular in-situ sensor calibrations. Extensive running tip clearance measurements of the large aero-engine turbine stage validate the system concept and design.

Lavagnoli, Sergio; Paniagua, Guillermo; Tulkens, Maxime; Steiner, Alexander

2012-02-01

496

Impact of Mascarene High variability on the East African `short rains'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variability of East African `short rains' (EASR) and its link with the Mascarene High (MH) variation are explored, using observations and reanalysis data. Correlation and composite analyses for flood and drought events reveal that the EASR variability is strongly linked to the MH zonal displacement, in particular, the zonal movement of the MH eastern ridge. When the MH eastern ridge is anomalously displaced to the west (east) of its normal position, the south east (SE) trade winds over the South Indian Ocean (SIO) anomalously strengthen (weaken). This enhances (reduces) the relatively cool and dry SE trade winds and induces cold (warm) sea surface temperature anomaly in the SIO. As a result, convection over the western equatorial SIO is suppressed (enhanced) and leads to rainfall deficits (excess) over East Africa. Droughts in East Africa are associated with a westward migration of the MH eastern ridge, while the relationship is less clear for flood events and their link to an eastward migration of the MH. Therefore, the zonal migration of the MH eastern ridge provides a novel indicator for the EASR extremes especially droughts. This revelation has immense social application for rainfall forecast over East Africa where rainfall deficits have become more prevalent against the background of deteriorating conventional forecasts for EASR droughts.

Manatsa, Desmond; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.; Matarira, Caxston H.; Yamagata, Toshio

2014-03-01

497

First spectral measurements of a cryogenic high-field short-period undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further development of synchrotron light sources and new concepts for free electron lasers require undulators with short periods and high magnetic fields. A promising approach is the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator concept based on an advanced magnet material. This new rare earth alloy (Pr,Nd)2Fe14B, shows an increasing remanent field of up to 1.7 T without the limits of spin reorientation transition. This work presents first spectral measurements of a prototype cryogenic permanent magnet undulator, consisting of 20 periods of 9 mm in length, cooled by a closed cycle cryo-cooler to temperatures below 30 K. The K parameter of 0.837 at RT is increased by more than 15% to 0.966, and an increase of the third harmonics photon flux of up to 66% was achieved. A possible degradation of the on-axis field quality due to thermally induced magnetic field errors, deduced from the measured bandwidth of the spectrum, is below the limits of the detector resolution of 2%.

Holy, F.; Maier, A. R.; Zeitler, B.; Weingartner, R.; Raith, S.; Kajumba, N.; Ghazaly, M. El; Lauth, W.; Krambrich, D.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.; Bahrdt, J.; Grüner, F.

2014-05-01

498

Efficient Service Delivery for High-speed Railway Communications Using MIMO and Access Control Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize the notion of "anytime, anywhere" communication for high-speed train passengers, the Long Term Evolution for Railway is designed to provide broadband accesses and reliable communications for high-speed train passengers. However, with the increase of train speed, the system is subject to high bit error rate, Doppler frequency shift, and call drops. This paper is trying to solve these problems by employing the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output technique and access control schemes. The goal is to provide higher quality of services such as data rate, reliability, and delay for train passengers. Physical layer performance analysis and access control schemes are proposed in a two-hop model. Handovers and service types are also considered. Simulation results show that proposed models and schemes perform better in improving the quality of services.

Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

2014-07-01

499

Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication.  

PubMed

Visible light communication (VLC) using LEDs has attracted significant attention recently for the future secure, license-free and electromagnetic-interference (EMI)-free optical wireless communication. Dimming technique in LED lamp is advantageous for energy efficiency. Color control can be performed in the red-green-blue (RGB) LEDs by using dimming technique. It is highly desirable to employ dimming technique to provide simultaneous color and dimming control and high speed VLC. Here, we proposed and demonstrated a LED dimming control using dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) modulation. High speed DMT-based VLC with simultaneous color and dimming control is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Demonstration and analyses for several modulation conditions and transmission distances are performed, for instance, demonstrating the data rate of 103.5 Mb/s (using RGB LED) with fast Fourier transform (FFT) size of 512. PMID:24718127

Sung, Jiun-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

2014-04-01

500

Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk.  

PubMed

Chondritic meteorites are made of primitive components that record the first steps of formation of solids in our Solar System. Chondrules are the major component of chondrites, yet little is known about their formation mechanisms and history within the solar protoplanetary disk (SPD). We use the reconstructed concentrations of short-lived (26)Al in chondrules to constrain the timing of formation of their precursors in the SPD. High-precision bulk magnesium isotopic measurements of 14 chondrules from the Allende chondrite define a (26)Al isochron with (26)Al/(27)Al = 1.2(±0.2) × 10(-5) for this subset of Allende chondrules. This can be considered to be the minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron because all chondrules analyzed so far with high precision (?50 chondrules from CV and ordinary chondrites) have an inferred minimum bulk initial ((26)Al/(27)Al) ? 1.2 × 10(-5). In addition, mineral (26)Al isochrons determined on the same chondrules show that their formation (i.e., fusion of their precursors by energetic events) took place from 0 Myr to ?2 Myr after the formation of their precursors, thus showing in some cases a clear decoupling in time between the two events. The finding of a minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron is used to constrain the astrophysical settings for chondrule formation. Either the temperature of the condensation zone dropped below the condensation temperature of chondrule precursors at ?1.5 My after the start of the Solar System or the transport of precursors from the condensation zone to potential storage sites stopped after 1.5 My, possibly due to a drop in the disk accretion rate. PMID:25605942

Luu, Tu-Han; Young, Edward D; Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc

2015-02-01