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1

Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination  

E-print Network

Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field

Pachucki, Krzysztof

2

First absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes have been performed at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN by determining the cyclotron frequencies of ions confined in a Penning trap. The cyclotron frequencies for77,78,85,86,88Rb and88Sr ions could be determined with a resolving power of 3×105 and an accuracy of better than 10-6, which corresponds to 100 keV for mass A=100. The shortest-lived isotope under investigation was77Rb with a half-life of 3.7 min. The resonances obtained for the isobars88Rb and88Sr were clearly resolved.

Bollen, G.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kern, F.; Schnatz, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Kluge, H.-J.; Temmer, G. M.; Ulm, G.

1987-12-01

3

Selection of short-lived isotopes for activation analysis with respect to sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade the use of short-lived isotopes in activation analysis has exploded, owing to the application of high\\u000a resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Complex spectra can in fact be resolved without the need for chemical separations. The\\u000a application of cyclic activation-counting enables the use of isotopes with half-lives below 10 seconds. These short-lived\\u000a isotopes can be produced by different activation

R. Dams

1981-01-01

4

Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for 118-137Cs. A resolving power of over 106 and an accuracy of 1.4×10-7 have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, St.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Otto, Th.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Audi, G.; Moore, R. B.

1990-12-01

5

MIXING AND TRANSPORT OF SHORT-LIVED AND STABLE ISOTOPES AND REFRACTORY GRAINS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the {approx}6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M{sub Sun }) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M{sub Sun }) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within {approx}10{sup 4} yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level ({approx}1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level ({approx}10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.

Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2013-08-10

6

Analysis of long-lived isotopes in the presence of short-lived isotopes using zero dead time correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems are routinely used in counting laboratories in many types of nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants and fuel production sites. These systems generally consist of a lead-shielded HPGe detector, Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA), and analytical software. These systems are used to analyze a wide variety of sample types for many different isotopes. Analysis

R. M. Keyser; R. Sillanpaa; T. R. Twomey; D. L. Upp

2001-01-01

7

ISOLTRAP: a tandem Penning trap system for accurate on-line mass determination of short-lived isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP has been set up at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclei with T {1}/{2} ? 1 s. The mass measurement is performed via the determination of the cyclotron frequency of an ion in a magnetic field. The design of the spectrometer matches the particular requirements for on-line mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. With the ISOLTRAP spectrometer masses of more than 70 radioactive nuclei have so far been determined with resolving powers exceeding one million and an accuracy of typically 10 -7.

Bollen, G.; Becker, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; König, M.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, T.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Isolde Collaboration

1996-02-01

8

Evolution of the Solar Nebula. VIII. Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Short-Lived Radioisotopes and Stable Oxygen Isotopes  

E-print Network

Isotopic abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al provide the most precise chronometers of events in the early solar system, provided that they were initially homogeneously distributed. On the other hand, the abundances of the three stable isotopes of oxygen in primitive meteorites show a mass-independent fractionation that survived homogenization in the solar nebula. As as result of this and other cosmochemical evidence, the degree of spatial heterogeneity of isotopes in the solar nebula has long been a puzzle. We show here that based on hydrodynamical models of the mixing and transport of isotopic anomalies formed at, or injected onto, the surface of the solar nebula, initially high levels of isotopic spatial heterogeneity are expected to fall to steady state levels (~10%) low enough to validate the use of 26Al for chronometry, but high enough to preserve the evidence for mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes. The solution to this puzzle relies on the mixing being accomplished by the chaotic fluid motions in a marginally gravitationally unstable disk, as seems to be required for the formation of gas giant planets and by the inability of alternative physical processes to drive large-scale mixing and transport in the planet-forming midplane of the solar nebula. Such a disk is also capable of large-scale outward transport of the thermally annealed dust grains found in comets, and of driving the shock fronts that appear to be responsible for much of the thermal processing of the components of primitive meteorites, creating a self-consistent picture of the basic physical processes shaping the early solar nebula.

Alan P. Boss

2007-02-02

9

Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a penning trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient RB and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars 88Sr and 88Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in 122Cs.

Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Audi, G.; Bollen, G.

1987-12-01

10

Short-lived Radium Isotopes in the Hawaiian Margin: Evidence for Large Fluid Fluxes Through the Puna Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to sample and measure short-lived radium isotopes have significantly advanced understanding of groundwater-seawater exchange in coastal areas. The established sampling protocol utilizes traditional wire-line samplers from surface vessels to recover large (200 L) seawater samples. These samples are subsequently passed through Mn-fiber columns at a slow rate (100 L per hour) to assure high radium stripping efficiency. But, sampling near-bottom waters in areas of complicated bathymetry represents a technical challenge for traditional wire-line water sampling equipment. For MBARI's 2001 Hawaii expedition, we built a simple sampler to extract Ra from seawater surrounding the ROV Tiburon. The system uses a variable-flow electric pump to provide 1-2 L/min flow through one of 12 Mn-fiber-filled Ra-stripping canisters mounted on the ROV Tiburon. Values allow the flow to be directed to specific canisters. A flow meter allows the operator to control the flow and compute the volume sampled. The fibers are counted shipboard shortly after vehicle recovery. The ROV proved to be an ideal platform for Ra-sampling because it is able to slowly pump considerable volumes of seawater through the Ra-stripping columns while maintaining close contact with the bottom. Because the manifold was mounted on the ROV's side arm, its interference with other research objectives was minimal. Most of our sampling in Hawaii was conducted as a piggyback effort. We were able to collect 167 radium samples on 37 ROV dives with an average of 206 liters of seawater passing through the stripping canisters. Moreover, we are confident that the sampled waters come from 1-3 above the bottom. We measured significant activities of short-lived radium isotopes, 223Ra (half-life = 11 days) and 224Ra (half-life = 3.7 days), around the margins of the Hawaiian Islands to depths of 3100 m. These measurements suggest numerous groundwater or pore fluid inputs to the surrounding ocean. In general 223Ra activities were considerably greater than 224Ra in spite of the expected higher production rate of 224Ra from basalt. 223Ra was not supported by dissolved 227Ac. The highest enrichments of 223Ra were measured over the Puna Ridge (2100 m depth) east of Hawaii. Here 223Ra activities reached 2 dpm/100L, similar to activities measured near sites of active submarine groundwater discharge in the South Atlantic Bight. The high 223Ra values were not associated with significant thermal anomalies. To explain the high activities of 223Ra unaccompanied by 224Ra, we postulate that thermally-driven circulation of sea water through the Puna Ridge deposits 231Pa on basalt surfaces. With time the 231Pa produces 227Ac and 223Ra, which desorbs into circulating fluids. These fluids then transport 223Ra into the overlying ocean. Based on the inventory of 223Ra above the Puna Ridge, we estimate the flow of fluids through the ridge to be on the order of 40cm3cm-2day-1. In less than 100 years the incoming seawater could provide enough 231Pa to basalt surfaces to balance the inventory of 223Ra above the ridge if all of the 223Ra was transported to the overlying water. These observations have significant implications for quantifying fluid fluxes from the flanks of the mid ocean ridge. By mapping 223Ra inventories in the ocean above ridge flanks and the activity of 223Ra in the emerging fluids, the fluid flux can be obtained. These measurements could help resolve the debate of the relative importance of high and low temperature venting from the ridge.

Moore, W. S.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.

2001-12-01

11

Recent Measurements of Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Through Everglades' Peat Sediments Using Short-Lived Radium Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat sediments are present as a nearly continuous surface layer across large areas of the Everglades. These sediments have relatively low hydraulic conductivity, impeding water exchange between surface water and the underlying surficial aquifer. Although vertical water transport does occur across the peat layer, rates are slow enough that they are difficult to quantify. Even modest rates of vertical transport, however, become significant to water budgets and nutrient cycles when they occur over a large area. In the Everglades, common methods for measuring exchange across the peat layer are prone to complications: small hydraulic gradients are difficult to measure; seepage meters tend to be imprecise at slow rates; radon profiles or emanation rates are complicated by methane bubble ebullition; chloride profiles often exhibit a strong gradient only at the surface of the peat. We are employing a method that takes advantage of the different production rates of short-lived radium isotopes (Ra-223 and Ra-224) in the peat sediments and in the underlying sand or carbonate aquifer. Pore water radium concentrations are balanced by radioactive decay and production in the surrounding sediments. As the pore water is carried across the sediment interface a temporary excess or deficit of dissolved radium exists until decay is again balanced by the new production rate. We have derived steady-state, one-dimensional models to determine flow rates on the basis of this disequilibrium. This method has the advantage of being most sensitive at the base of the peat, away from transient perturbations occurring at the surface. In addition, Ra-223 and Ra-224 are collected simultaneously, providing two independent measurements. At present we have tested the method in Water Conservation Area-1 and WCA-2A, quantifying recharge and discharge on opposite sides of Levee 39, and also in more central sites in WCA-2A. Additional work is underway in Taylor Slough and Shark Slough.

Krest, J. M.; Harvey, J. W.

2002-05-01

12

Determination of water ages and flushing rates using short-lived radium isotopes in large estuarine system, the Yangtze River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally-occurring short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra, t1/2 = 3.6 d and 223Ra, t1/2 = 11 d) to examine coastal water mixing dynamics of the third world largest estuary, Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) during two field trips in April 2010 and May 2011. Distributions of the 224Ra/223Ra activity ratios within the YRE area were used to calculate apparent estuarine water ages. Field-derived results were then compared to hydrodynamic assessments obtained by a Lagrangian particle tracking simulation experiment performed using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). Water ages obtained via both geotracers and particle tracking agree very well. During both field trips an anomalously "younger" water mass (low salinity and higher radium activities) was observed at about 90-170 km offshore distance from the mouth of the river, suggesting an additional terrestrial water source influenced this area. The temporal distribution of the radium isotopes indicated a semi-diurnal tidal pattern in the YRE with relatively constant isotopic composition of less than a 20% variation during our observations. An integrated water flushing rate based on our observations (excluding the additional anomalous source area) was 8.4 km day-1.

Xu, Bo-Chao; Dimova, Natasha T.; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Xue-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2013-04-01

13

Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes usingcrown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric acid media was studied using the crown ethers dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (DC24C8) as extractants. The goal was to find an extraction system that exhibits a high selectivity between the members of group 4 of the periodic table and is suitable for the study of rutherfordium. It was found that Zr and Hf are both extracted using DB18C6, DC18C6 and DC24C8. The extraction yield increases with increasing acid concentration and increasing concentration of crown ether. The extracted species most likely consists of an ion-association complex formed between a Zr or Hf chloro complex and a hydronium crown ether complex. Conditions can be found for each extractant that provide for the separation of Zr from Hf. This selective separation between Zr and Hf makes the extraction with crown ethers from HCl well suited to study the extraction behavior of Rf and compare it to the behavior of Zr and Hf. These extraction systems can be used to determine whether the extraction behavior of Rf is similar to Zr, similar to Hf or follows the trend established by the lighter homologs. The extraction kinetics are fast enough for the study of the 78-s isotope {sup 261}Rf.

Sudowe, Ralf; Calvert, Michael G.; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Farina, Lindsy M.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Gallaher, Sarah E.H.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Phillips, Diana C.; Schwantes,Jon M.; Wilson, Richard E.; Zielinski Peter M.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche Heino

2005-07-06

14

Short-Lived Climate Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

Pierrehumbert, R. T.

2014-05-01

15

Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was focused within the upper 750 m of intracaldera tuff. Mass balance calculations indicate fluid fluxes of = 6 ?? 10-6 mol cm-2 s-1. We believe that the closest historical analogue to this Chegem hydrothermal event is the situation observed in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (Alaska, USA), where hundreds of steam fumaroles with measured temperatures as high as 645??C persisted for 10 to 15 years in the much smaller welded ash-flow tuff sheet (??? 200 m thick) produced by the 1912 Katmai eruption.

Gazis, C.; Taylor, Jr. , H. P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

1996-01-01

16

Skylab short-lived event alert program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

Citron, R. A.

1974-01-01

17

STUDIES OF SHORT-LIVED FISSION PRODUCTS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE TO REACTOR TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of the decay schemes of some of the important alkali ; metal isotopes was made. Information is available on 17.8-minute Rb⁸⁸, ; 14.9-minute Rb⁸⁹, and 2.6-minute Rb⁹°. The decay characteristics of ; these nuclides show the general features exhibited by all of the short-lived ; fission products studied so far, namely, the short half-lives are related to

G. D. OKelley; E. Eichler; N. R. Johnson

1958-01-01

18

Measurement and Deduction of Emissions of Short-lived Atmospheric  

E-print Network

organics have centered on long lived halocarbons due to their effect on stratospheric ozone. Now, and speculation about the safety of many short-lived chlorinated organic molecules has been raised, there has beenMeasurement and Deduction of Emissions of Short-lived Atmospheric Organo-chlorine Compounds Gary

19

Precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides for nuclear structure studies at TITAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) at TRIUMF's rare isotope beam facility ISAC is an advanced Penning trap based mass spectrometer dedicated to precise and accurate mass determinations. An overview of TITAN, the measurement technique and a highlight of recent mass measurements of the short-lived nuclides important to the nuclear structure program at TITAN are presented.

Chaudhuri, A.; Andreoiu, C.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Klawitter, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Lunney, D.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

2014-03-01

20

Phrase Structure Priming: A Short-Lived Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effect of phrase structure priming on sentence production latencies. Demonstrated the priming effects to be short lived. This finding contrasts with more persistent effects recently demonstrated in off-line picture description tasks. (Author/VWL)

Wheeldon, Linda R.; Smith, Mark C.

2003-01-01

21

Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey Bay, CA from two cold seeps (Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs) and from sediments ˜5 m outside of the Clam Flats seep. Clam Flats has steep ?13CDIC gradients (to <-45‰), but DIC at Extrovert Cliffs is less enriched in 12C (to approximately -22‰). Oxygen isotope values of fossil foraminifera at Clam Flats are ˜1.5‰ enriched in 18O over the living foraminifera, as well as those of both live and fossil foraminifera at Extrovert Cliffs, suggesting they may have lived during the last glacial maximum. Statistical comparisons (Student's t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) of ?13C and ?18O values indicate that live and fossil foraminifera come from different populations at both Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs. At Clam Flats, the difference appears to result from alteration enriching some fossil foraminifera in 12C over live foraminifera. At Extrovert Cliffs, the fossil foraminifera are enriched in 13C over the live foraminifera, suggesting they lived prior to the onset of venting and thus that venting began recently. The short time of venting at Extrovert Cliffs may be responsible for the less alteration there compared with Clam Flats. These results indicate that preservation of foraminifera is likely to be poor within long-lived cold seeps, but that foraminifera living in the surrounding sediment may incorporate and preserve broad basin-wide changes in isotopic compositions of the ambient water.

Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris

2004-04-01

22

Processes regulating short-lived species in the tropical tropopause layer  

E-print Network

Processes regulating short-lived species in the tropical tropopause layer A. Gettelman,1 P. H sink to simulate the profiles of very short lived substances in the TTL. The model simulates evanescent profiles of short-lived hydrocarbon species observed by satellite and is also used to simulate short-lived

Gettelman, Andrew

23

Prospects for baryon instability search with long-lived isotopes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider the possibility of observation of baryon instability processes occurring inside nuclei by searching for the remnants of such processes that could have been accumulated in nature as mm long-lived isotopes. As an example, we discuss here the possible detection of traces of {sup 97}Tc, {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 99}Tc in deep-mined nonradioactive tin ores.

Efremenko, Yu. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)][Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Bugg, W.; Cohn, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Kamyshkov, Yu. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)][Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Parker, G.; Plasil, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

24

Carbon IsotopesCarbon Isotopes A Short Course VU March, 2009  

E-print Network

2/25/2009 1 Carbon IsotopesCarbon Isotopes The Basics A Short Course VU March, 2009 Peter Swart;2/25/2009 6 Oxidation CH2O + O2 = CO2 + H2O -20 Sulfate reduction CH2O + SO4 2- = HS- + HCO3 - -20 Diagenesis oxidation of organic material · Anoxic Basins ­ Enhanced preservation of organic material · High Rates

Miami, University of

25

Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

1982-01-01

26

Study of Short-Lived Nuclear Decays by Digital Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of pulse processing electronics based on digital signal processing technology has been successfully tested on-line and applied for the first time in particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. Systems based on commercially available Digital Gamma Finder (DGF) modules [1] were used to study the decays of short-lived states in exotic nuclei. Since the DGFs incorporate a RTPU, they

C. R. Bingham; E. Badura; J. C. Batchelder; C. J. Gross; R. Grzywacz; Z. Janas; M. Karny; W. Krolas; C. Mazzocchi; J. W. McConnell; M. Momayezi; M. Pfützner; K. Rykaczewski; K. Schmidt

2001-01-01

27

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb  

E-print Network

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb , Mark E. Vineya a School-living adults of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. We find that the phenomenology of aging in S. ratti free-living females, resembles that of the short- lived free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Gems, David

28

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers  

PubMed Central

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04–0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-01-01

29

Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers  

SciTech Connect

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

2013-08-12

30

``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products  

SciTech Connect

At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-09-01

31

nature geoscience | ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 1 Short-lived uncertainty?  

E-print Network

with a large cooling effect from short-lived aerosol pollutants, but it could equally be attributed to a lownature geoscience | ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 1 commentary Short-lived and David S. Stevenson Short-lived greenhouse gases and black-carbon aerosols have contributed to past

32

Characterizing Background Concentrations of Short-Lived Halocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some short lived halocarbons (CH3I, CH2Br2, CHBr3) are emitted to the atmosphere in large quantities from natural processes. Because these chemicals have short lifetimes (weeks to months) they supply reactive halogen to the troposphere and influence the tropospheric chemistry of ozone and mercury, for example. Additionally, the lifetimes of CH2Br2 and CHBr3 are long enough so that these chemicals contribute significant amounts of bromine to the stratosphere, which influences stratospheric ozone chemistry. The magnitudes of these contributions and their sensitivity to changes in climate are poorly quantified at present. Some of these uncertainties stem from the difficulties associated with interpreting observations of short-lived compounds at any point in space and time in terms of broader-scale mixing ratios and atmospheric impacts. We have measured these chemicals at a global network of surface stations and aircraft profiling sites for multiple years (up to 14). The results provide a unique picture of global distributions, inter-annual and seasonal variability, and vertical mixing ratio gradients at continental, marine and coastal locations. When these data are contrasted with results from the recent HIPPO campaign over the mid-Pacific Ocean basin, consistent patterns emerge over land and sea for CH2Br and CHBr3 that suggest we can quantify mean mixing ratios and their variability over large spatial scales, particularly in the free troposphere. These results provide constraints on the influence these chemicals have on atmospheric chemistry in both the troposphere and stratosphere, and they provide an important baseline for more reliably quantifying long-term concentration changes, should they occur.

Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Butler, J. H.; Atlas, E. L.; Wofsy, S. C.

2012-12-01

33

Collateral consequences of the inhomogeneous distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the solar nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of several short-lived (now extinct) radionuclides in the early solar system demands that they were synthesized and added to preexisting solar system materials shortly (on a time scale of the order of the relevant radionuclide lifetime) before formation of solar system solids. For diverse reasons it is often suggested that the solar system distributions of these radionuclides were radically heterogeneous, perhaps because of the late addition. Much attention has been given to the astrophysical circumstances that might govern the synthesis and distribution of these short-lived radionuclides, but comparatively little attention has been devoted to the distribution of co-synthesized isotopes. The focus of this paper is a systematic, quantitative evaluation of the collateral consequences in stable and long-lived isotopes which might be expected if short-lived radionuclides, in particular 26Al or 53Mn, were injected at their canonical levels and inhomogeneously distributed in the early solar system. We mix model massive star yields of Meyer et al. (1995) and Woosley and Weaver (1995) into a reservoir of cosmic composition, as tabulated by Anders and Grevesse (1989). To mitigate the effects of systematic deviations that may be present in these mixtures due to uncertainties in model stellar yields, we follow Timmes and Clayton (1996) and also mix into a "renormalized" proxy solar system composition computed from a galactic chemical evolution model based primarily on the stellar yields of Woosley and Weaver (1995). The results are very unfavorable to the likelihood of heterogeneously distributed 26Al derived from supernova ejecta. If a massive star is invoked to account for 26Al, its ejecta must have been rather uniformly distributed, as inferred from the lack of measured collateral anomalies in several elements, notably Ca, Cr and Ni. Conversely, if 26Al were indeed radically heterogeneously distributed, some other nucleosynthetic source, more efficient at producing 26Al, is required. In principle, a similar statement applies to 53Mn, but the situation is more complicated. The inferred anomalies at 53Cr will depend not only on how much 53Mn is added by a heterogeneous component, but also more sensitively on the contributions to the associated stable nuclides, 53Cr, 52Cr and 50Cr. Consideration of predicted collateral anomalies provides no direct support for heterogeneously-distributed supernova-derived 53Mn, but the required quantity of supernova contribution, and thus also the collateral anomalies, are much less for 53Mn than for 26Al. With allowance for model calculation uncertainties, it could be argued that anomalies collateral to heterogeneous 53Mn might be small enough to have evaded detection.

Nichols, Robert H., Jr.; Podosek, Frank A.; Meyer, Brad S.; Jennings, Cristine L.

1999-11-01

34

Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

Meyer, B. S.

2004-01-01

35

AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

2005-11-01

36

Senescence Is More Important in the Natural Lives of Long- Than Short-Lived Mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Senescence has been widely detected among mammals, but its importance to fitness in wild populations remains controversial. According to evolutionary theories, senescence occurs at an age when selection is relatively weak, which in mammals can be predicted by adult survival rates. However, a recent analysis of senescence rates found more age-dependent mortalities in natural populations of longer lived mammal species. This has important implications to ageing research and for understanding the ecological relevance of senescence, yet so far these have not been widely appreciated. We re-address this question by comparing the mean and maximum life span of 125 mammal species. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that senescence occurs at a younger age relative to the mean natural life span in longer lived species. Methodology/Principal Findings We show, using phylogenetically-informed generalised least squares models, a significant log-log relationship between mean life span, as calculated from estimates of adult survival for natural populations, and maximum recorded life span among mammals (R2?=?0.57, p<0.0001). This provides further support for a key prediction of evolutionary theories of ageing. The slope of this relationship (0.353±0.052 s.e.m.), however, indicated that mammals with higher survival rates have a mean life span representing a greater fraction of their potential maximum life span: the ratio of maximum to mean life span decreased significantly from >10 in short-lived to ?1.5 in long-lived mammal species. Conclusions/Significance We interpret the ratio of maximum to mean life span to be an index of the likelihood an individual will experience senescence, which largely determines maximum life span. Our results suggest that senescence occurs at an earlier age relative to the mean life span, and therefore is experienced by more individuals and remains under selection pressure, in long- compared to short-lived mammals. A minimum rate of somatic degradation may ultimately limit the natural life span of mammals. Our results also indicate that senescence and modulating factors like oxidative stress are increasingly important to the fitness of longer lived mammals (and vice versa). PMID:20700508

Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas

2010-01-01

37

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

38

Stable Isotopes as a Tool for Nutrient Assimilation Studies in Larval Fish Feeding on Live Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fish and crustacean larvae require live food at the onset of exogenous feeding. It is generally difficult to include chemical or isotopic markers in live food for nutrient studies. The soil nematode Panagrellus redivivus, a potential live food for fish and crustacean larvae, can be mass cultured on a wide range of media, which offers the opportunity to produce

Christian Schlechtriem; Ulfert Focken; Klaus Becker

2004-01-01

39

Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

2013-03-01

40

Short-term dietary compensation in free-living adults.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that compensatory behaviors operate in infants and pre-school children, such that the high variance characteristic of single eating occasions is much reduced over the day. However, the concept has not been fully explored in adults. The present within-subject, observational study investigated short-term dietary compensation patterns in fifty, weight-stable, normal weight (n=27), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=9) free-living adults (11 M, 39 F; age 30+/-11 y; BMI 26.3+/-5.9). Twenty four-hour diet recalls were obtained for 7 consecutive days, by the multi-pass technique. Each 24-h period was divided into 7 eating occasions. The coefficient of variation for energy intake was calculated for each adult, for each eating occasion, and over each 24-h period. Sub-group variability was assessed by BMI and frequency of consumption of sweetened energy-yielding beverages. The mean coefficient of variation for energy intake for the 7 eating occasions was 110.5%, compared to 28.9% for the day as a whole. Correlations between energy intakes at successive eating events were uniformly negative. No significant differences were noted in the sub-group analyses. Significantly greater variation in energy intake was noted for snacks compared to meals (P<0.0001). These data suggest that adults regulate energy intake over a 24-h period more closely than they do at individual eating occasions, similar to the pattern previously observed in children. Further studies of compensatory responses by larger sub-groups of individuals at risk for weight gain are warranted. PMID:18261752

McKiernan, F; Hollis, J H; Mattes, R D

2008-03-18

41

Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method  

E-print Network

Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method G. Boutoux1 Abstract. The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron

Boyer, Edmond

42

Short-Lived Radioactivities and Recent Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We follow the time evolution of isotopes in a multi-dimensional molecular cloud model. Solar systems that form with low 60Fe show 26Al well below the canonical value, as expected. Some solar systems show interesting levels of 182Hf and 129I.

Meyer, B. S.; Bojazi, M. J.

2014-09-01

43

Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian Margin and the Southern Australian Margin  

E-print Network

Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian October 2008 Accepted 4 November 2008 Keywords: stable isotopes benthic foraminifera 13C 18O deep sea-water geochemistry and stable isotopic values of the tests of living (stained) calcareous benthic foraminifera from

Levin, Lisa

44

Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rodushkin, I. [Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Luleaa (Sweden); Halicz, L.; Segal, I. [Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhei Israel St., Jerusalem 95501 (Israel); Pape, A. [IPHC-UMR7178, IN2P3-CNRS/ULP, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Gentry, R. V. [Earth Science Associates, P.O. Box 12067, Knoxville, Tennessee 37912-0067 (United States); Miller, H. W. [P. O. Box 1092, Boulder, Colorado 80306-1092 (United States); Kolb, D. [Department of Physics, University GH Kassel, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Brandt, R. [Kernchemie, Philipps University, D-35041 Marburg (Germany)

2007-08-15

45

Conversational Shadows: Describing Live Media Events Using Short Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microblogging concurrently with live media events is becom- ing commonplace. The resulting comment stream represents a parallel, social conversational reflection on the event. Al- though not formally 'attached' to the actual event stream it- self, we demonstrate it is possible to establish a relationship between the two streams by mapping their structural proper- ties. In this article, we examine: How

David A. Shamma; Lyndon Kennedy; Elizabeth F. Churchill

2010-01-01

46

Trapping of relatively short-lived radioactive {}^{146}Eu in a Paul trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique has been developed wherein one of the relatively short lived isotopes of europium ({}^{146}Eu, Half life =\\;4.61 days) has been generated by decay of parent {}^{146}Gd atoms and the ions are confined in a Paul trap for spectroscopic studies. Studies of the mass dependent ion oscillation frequencies show that the ions trapped have a mass number 146 amu and this was confirmed by similar measurements carried out on trapped barium and potassium ions. From calculations of thermal ionization probabilities based on the Langmuir-Saha equation and the number of trapped ions estimated from ion response signal, the approximate number of the different isobars (of mass number 146) trapped, has been evaluated. We also present simulations of the evolution of laser-induced fluorescence photons of the trapped {}^{146}Eu ions, wherein a pulsed laser is used to excite the resonance {}^{9}S_{4} - {}^{9}P_{5} transition, which rapidly decays to the metastable {}^{9}D_{4-6} states emitting fluorescence photons.

Joshi, M. K.; Sikdar, A. K.; Rao, Pushpa M.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Das, S. K.; Das, P.

2014-08-01

47

DEMOGRAPHY OF SHORT-TAILED SHREW POPULATIONS LIVING ON PCB CONTAMINATED SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River, Massachusetts on soils contaminated

RUDY BOONSTRA

2002-01-01

48

Life Extension in the Short-Lived Fish Nothobranchius furzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetic and pharmacological research on aging is hampered by the life span of available vertebrate models. We recently initiated\\u000a studies on Nothobranchius furzeri, a species with a maximum life expectancy in captivity of just 3 months, the shortest documented captive life span for a vertebrate.\\u000a Further research on N. furzeri has demonstrated the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Short life span correlates with

Alessandro Cellerino

49

The production of short-lived radionuclides by new non-rotating and rotating Wolf-Rayet model stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context.It has been speculated that WR winds may have contaminated the forming solar system, in particular with short-lived radionuclides (half-lives in the approximate 10^5{-}108 y range) that are responsible for a class of isotopic anomalies found in some meteoritic materials.Aims.We revisit the capability of the WR winds to eject these radionuclides using new models of single non-exploding WR stars with metallicity Z = 0.02.Methods. The earlier predictions for non-rotating WR stars are updated, and models for rotating such stars are used for the first time in this context.Results. We find that (1) rotation has no significant influence on the short-lived radionuclide production by neutron capture during the core He-burning phase, and (2) {}26{Al},{}36{Cl}, {}41{Ca}, and {}107{Pd} can be wind-ejected by a variety of WR stars at relative levels that are compatible with the meteoritic analyses for a period of free decay of around 105 y between production and incorporation into the forming solar system solid bodies.Conclusions.We confirm the previously published conclusions that the winds of WR stars have a radionuclide composition that can meet the necessary condition for them to be a possible contaminating agent of the forming solar system. Still, it remains to be demonstrated from detailed models that this is a sufficient condition for these winds to have provided a level of pollution that is compatible with the observations.

Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Meynet, G.

2006-07-01

50

Short-lived radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that short-lived radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M?. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range ?17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.

Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.

2012-12-01

51

Characterization of short-lived electrophilic metabolites of the anticancer agent laromustine (VNP40101M).  

PubMed

Laromustine (VNP40101M; 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-(methylamino) carbonylhydrazine) is a novel sulfonylhydrazine alkylating agent. Phase 1 metabolism of laromustine was reported recently and showed that laromustine undergoes rearrangement, dehalogenation, and hydrolysis at physiological pH to form active moieties. (1) A mechanism for the rearrangement was proposed on the basis of fragmentation ions. (1) (,) (2) In this article, we report the phase II conjugates of VNP40101M and VNP4090CE which were formed after incubation of VNP40101M or VNP4090CE with pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) and cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), glutathione (GSH), N-acetylecysteine (NAC), and cysteine (CYS). Eight novel phase II conjugates (M-1 to M-8) were identified and characterized by hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-D), stable isotope ((13)C-labeled VNP40101M), and MS(n) experiments. M-4 and M-5 were further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The short-lived CH(3)SO(2)CH(2)CH(2)-, methylformamide and CH(3)SO(2)NHN?CHCH(2)- moieties were generated from VNP40101M. The reactive intermediates CH(3)SO(2)CH(2)CH(2)- and methylformamide formed conjugates with GSH, CYS, and NAC. The CH(3)SO(2)NHN?CHCH(2)- moiety formed conjugates with GSH and NAC. M-2, M-4, and M-6 were only detected from the incubation of VNP40101M because VNP4090CE does not contain a methylformamide group. All other conjugates were formed by both VNP40101M and VNP4090CE. The in vitro studies found that VNP40101M and VNP4090CE undergo activation in human liver microsomes. The results from this study showed that laromustine produces several reactive intermediates that may play a role in the toxicities seen in the clinical trials. PMID:21361357

Nassar, A-E F; King, I; Du, J

2011-04-18

52

Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the "rapid neutron-capture process" (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) "Terra Incognita". With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a "Coordinated Research Project" on a "Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data". This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj

2014-05-01

53

Cooling of short-lived, radioactive, highly charged ions with the TITAN cooler Penning trap. Status and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TITAN is an on-line facility dedicated to precision experiments with short-lived radioactive isotopes, in particular mass measurements. The achievable resolution on mass measurement, which depends on the excitation time, is limited by the half life of the radioactive ion. One way to bypass this is by increasing the charge state of the ion of interest. TITAN has the unique capability of charge-breeding radioactive ions using an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) in combination with Penning trap mass spectrometry. However, the breeding process leads to an increase in energy spread, ? E, which in turn negatively influences the mass uncertainty. We report on the development of a cooler Penning trap which aims at reducing the energy spread of the highly charged ions prior to injection into the precision mass measurement trap. Electron and proton cooling will be tested as possible routes. Mass selective cooling techniques are also envisioned.

Simon, V. V.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ke, Z.; Shi, W.; Gwinner, G.

2011-07-01

54

The influence of short-lived ozone precursor emissions on radiative climate forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in short-lived ozone precursor emissions change tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations, influencing global climate through the radiative budget of the atmosphere. Unlike long-lived greenhouse gases, the radiative forcing (RF) due to ozone depends on the location of its precursor emissions. We assess the effects of 20% reductions in anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile

M. M. Fry; V. Naik; J. J. West; M. D. Schwarzkopf; A. M. Fiore

2010-01-01

55

Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing  

E-print Network

find that changes in short-lived pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone forcing due to ozone increases, thus masking nearly half of the PI to PD positive forcing from long-livedImpact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric

56

Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-strong hydrogen bonded cluster  

E-print Network

Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short/deuterium isotope effects, in a fundamental organic hydrogen bonded system using multiple experimental infrared the isotopically labeled systems arises from an analysis of the simulated cluster spectroscopy and leads

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

57

Short-term carbon isotopic fractionation in plants  

SciTech Connect

A system was developed for measuring carbon isotopic fractionation in plants over a time interval of 1-3 hours, in contrast to leaf combustion studies which give long-term, integrated discrimination measurements. The system was used to study environmental effects on soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays) discrimination. Changes in leaf temperature, photon flux density (PFD), O{sub 2} concentration, and CO{sub 2} concentration produced little or no change in measured discrimination ({Delta}). For soybean, {Delta} increased with decreasing PFD. For corn, {Delta} decreased with decreasing O{sub 2} concentration. For both soybean and corn, {Delta} increased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. These changes in {Delta} were interpreted as environmental effects on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity, which indirectly affect {Delta} by altering C{sub i}/C{sub a}. Respiratory discrimination in the dark and light was also investigated. Respired CO{sub 2} was 5{per thousand} and 0-1{per thousand} more positive than leaf carbon for soybean and corn, respectively. Photorespiratory discrimination was 6-7{per thousand} for soybean, supporting the contention that glycine decarboxylase may be the source of discrimination in the photorespiratory pathway.

Rooney, M.A.

1988-01-01

58

Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes  

PubMed Central

Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

2014-01-01

59

Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.  

PubMed

Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

2014-01-01

60

Waste-resource flows of short-lived goods in households of Santiago de Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply the method of material flow analysis to analyze the consumption and waste mass flows of short-lived goods and we provide first insights into the waste management behavior of households in Santiago de Cuba. The goods analyzed are glass, aluminum, organic material and PET. The necessary data were gathered in personal interviews with 1171 households using

Claudia R. Binder; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

61

Compensation of seed production after severe injury in the short-lived herb Barbarea vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment with the common ruderal herb Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) was set up to elucidate to what extent short-lived species sprouting from roots regenerate and compensate for seed production after damage. We tested if sprouting from roots ensures survival after severe aboveground biomass damage, but the number of seeds produced declines with increasing severity of injury, decreasing nutrient availability

Jana Martínková; Stanislav Mihulka

2008-01-01

62

Diffusion Experiment By Using The Short-Lived Radiotracer Of 8Li  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an interdisciplinary application of the short-lived radioactive ion beams available at TRIAC, a non-destructive on-line radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids has been developed. The experimental method using the ?-emitting radioisotope of 8Li as the Li diffusion tracer in solids is introduced. The overview of the TRIAC, presently being operational for experiments, is briefly presented.

Jeong, S. C.

2006-11-01

63

Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species  

E-print Network

1 Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species brominated peroxy radicals RO2 (with R = CH2Br, CHBr2 and CBr3) for which the most likely reaction pathways to be important. The Henry's law constants of the brominated organics products have been estimated by using

Boyer, Edmond

64

Intergenerational transfers and the stability of public debt with short-lived governments  

E-print Network

1 Intergenerational transfers and the stability of public debt with short-lived governments Jean transfers are analyzed in an overlapping generation model. Governments have preferences, which give much will be decided by future governments with different objectives. The economy follow one of two equilibrium paths

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

The ``Aerogel'' Model for the Origin of the Short-Lived Radionuclides in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic analyses of meteorites have revealed that our Solar System contained a number of live short-lived radionuclides at its birth. These include {}41Ca (t1/2 = 0.10 Myr), {}36Cl (0.30 Myr), {}26Al (0.71 Myr), {}10Be (1.5 Myr), {}60Fe (1.5 Myr), {}53Mn (3.7 Myr), {}107Pd (6.5 Myr), {}129I (15.7 Myr), and {}182Hf (9 Myr). The radionuclide {}10Be, which must be created by spallation reactions, is known to be decoupled in meteorites from the other radionuclides, and must have a separate origin that predates the Solar System. Its origin has been attributed to trapping of {}10Be Galactic cosmic rays in the Sun's molecular cloud core (Desch et al. 2004; ApJ 602, 528). The most plausible explanation for the other radionuclides is a nearby supernova. Most models of injection of supernova radioactivities into the early Solar System hypothesize that the supernova triggered the collapse of the Sun's molecular cloud core. Chevalier (2000; ApJ 538, L151) has suggested instead that the supernova occurred after the Sun's protoplanetary disk had formed, and at a distance of < 1 pc, in analogy to the proplyds observed in the Orion Nebula only a few tenths of a parsec from ? 1 Ori C. We use meteoritical and astrophysical evidence to argue that this is by far the most plausible scenario for how the Solar System acquired its short-lived radionuclides. We hypothesize that radionuclides in the supernova ejecta condensed into grains which were then injected into our protoplanetary disk; there they were stopped like dust grains lodged in aerogel. Because of the proximity of the disk to the supernova, a key prediction of this ``aerogel'' model is the presence of very short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System (< 104 yr). We discuss the recent, tentative evidence for live {}63Ni (t1/2 = 101 yr) in the early Solar System (Luck et al. 2003; GCA 67, 143) in this context, and discuss the effect of the injected radioactivities on the ionization state of the solar nebula.

Desch, S. J.; Ouellette, N.; Hester, J. J.; Leshin, L. A.

2004-12-01

66

Relatively Long-Lived Dubnium Isotopes and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements  

SciTech Connect

The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-lived Db isotopes in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO{sub 3} mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.

Tereshatov, E. E.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), JINR, Dubna RU-141980 (Russian Federation); Bruchertseifer, H. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)

2010-04-30

67

Cooling of highly-charged, short-lived ions for precision mass spectrometry at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN), masses of short-lived nuclides are measured accurately and precisely using Penning trap mass spectrometry. The achievable precision is primarily limited by the radioactive lifetime of the nuclides. To boost the precision TITAN has demonstrated that short-lived isotopes can be charge-bred to higher charge states within 10-100 s of ms using an electron beam ion trap. The charge breeding process increases the energy spread of the ions, which in turn affects the precision and the efficiency. A novel cooler Penning trap (CPET) has been developed to trap and cool highly-charged ions using electrons prior to the precision measurement. A discussion of electron cooling and the current status of CPET will be given.

Schultz, B. E.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.

2013-09-01

68

Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities

P. E. Dresel; S. R. Waichler; B. M. Kennedy; J. C. Hayes; J. I. McIntyre; J. R. Giles; A. J. Sondrup

2004-01-01

69

Phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements for short-lived nuclides.  

PubMed

A novel approach based on the projection of the Penning-trap ion motion onto a position-sensitive detector opens the door to very accurate mass measurements on the ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below a second. In addition to the accuracy boost, the new method provides a superior resolving power by which low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be easily separated from the ground state. A measurement of the mass difference of ^{130}Xe and ^{129}Xe has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach. PMID:23473137

Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Goncharov, M; Minaya Ramirez, E; Nesterenko, D A; Novikov, Yu N; Schweikhard, L

2013-02-22

70

Efficient adsorption of waterborne short-lived radon decay products by glass fiber filters.  

PubMed

Glass fiber filters of a certain brand were found to be very efficient (retention > 95%) for adsorption of short-lived radon decay products during filtration of water. Carrier-free samples are obtained in a convenient geometry for efficient gross beta counting. Adsorption of "hot atoms" is not disturbed by the presence of "cold" lead ions. Approximate radioactive equilibrium between radon and its short-lived decay products may or may not exist in water at the source, but does exist after 3 h in PET bottles. These bottles are shown to be gas-tight for radon. Calibration of activity concentration in Bq L(-1) (radon gas concentration approximately equilibrium equivalent radon concentration) was performed by several standard procedures. Limit of detection is 2 Bq L(-1) within 10 min (total time) or 10 Bq L(-1) within 5 min for a net signal of 5 times standard deviation. PMID:9003713

von Philipsborn, H

1997-02-01

71

Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes in seven groups of population living in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic casework. The aim of this study\\u000a was to present the 17 Y-STR loci haplotype distributions of groups of population living in Taiwan and to demonstrate genetic\\u000a distances between the groups as well as multidimensional scaling plot based on Y-STR genotype data. Five hundred and fifteen

Hsiao-Lin Hwa; Li-Hui Tseng; Tsang-Ming Ko; Yih-Yuan Chang; Hsiang-Yi Yin; Yi-Ning Su; James Chun-I Lee

2010-01-01

72

Short-lived nuclides in hibonite grains from Murchison: evidence for solar system evolution.  

PubMed

Records of now-extinct short-lived nuclides in meteorites provide information about the formation and evolution of the solar system. We have found excess 10B that we attribute to the decay of short-lived 10Be (half-life 1.5 million years) in hibonite grains from the Murchison meteorite. The grains show no evidence of decay of two other short-lived nuclides-26Al (half-life 700,000 years) and 41Ca (half-life 100,000 years)-that may be present in early solar system solids. One plausible source of the observed 10Be is energetic particle irradiation of material in the solar nebula. An effective irradiation dose of approximately 2 x 10(18) protons per square centimeter with a kinetic energy of >/=10 megaelectronvolts per atomic mass unit can explain our measurements. The presence of 10Be, coupled with the absence of 41Ca and 26Al, may rule out energetic particle irradiation as the primary source of 41Ca and 26Al present in some early solar system solids and strengthens the case of a stellar source for 41Ca and 26Al. PMID:12481135

Marhas, K K; Goswami, J N; Davis, A M

2002-12-13

73

Investigation of short-lived PT and PB {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line  

SciTech Connect

In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In {sup 78}Kr bombardments of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 96}Ru, the new isotopes {sup 166}Pt and {sup 167}Pt were identified via their {alpha}-decay properties and more accurate half-lives were measured for {sup 169}Pt and {sup 170}Pt. The light isotopes of lead, {sup 180}Pb, {sup 182}Pb, and {sup 184}Pb were produced in Mo bombardments of Zr target nuclei. The {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the new isotopes are as follows: (1) {sup 166}Pt, E{sub {alpha}} = 7110(15) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 0.3(1) ms; and (2) {sup 167}Pt, E{sub {alpha}} = 6988(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 0. 7(2) ms. Also, the half-life of {sup 168}Pt, which was previously unknown, was determined to be 2.0(4) ms and that of {sup 170}Pt was observed to be 14.7(5) ms. The tentative {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the even Pb isotopes are: (1) {sup 184}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 6625(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} =500(25) ms; (2) {sup 182}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 6895(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 62(5) ms; and (3) {sup 180}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 7250(15) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 5.8 {sup +2.8}{sub -1.4} ms. The a-decay rates for these Pt and Pb nuclides are compared with earlier measurements and systematic trends of the reduced widths with neutron number are discussed.

Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J.; Zimmerman, B.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

74

Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.  

PubMed

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

2003-06-01

75

The Irradiation Origin of Beryllium Radioisotopes and Other Short-lived Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Two explanations exist for the short-lived radionuclides present in the solar system when the CAIs first formed. They originated either from the ejecta of a supernova or by the in situ irradiation of nebular dust by energetic particles. With a half-life of only 53 days, Beryllium-7 is then the key discriminant, since it can be made only by irradiation. We calculate the yield of Be-7. Within model uncertainties associated mainly with nuclear cross sections, we obtain agreement with the experimental value. Moreover, if Be-7 and Be-10 have the same origin, the irradiation time must be short. The x-wind model provides a natural astrophysical setting that gives the requisite conditions. The decoupling of the Al-26 and Be-10 observed in some rare CAIs receives a quantitative explanation when rare gradual events are considered. Finally, we show that the presence of supernova-produced Fe-60 in the solar accretion disk does not necessarily mean that other short-lived radionuclides have a stellar origin.

Matthieu Gounelle; Frank H. Shu; Hsien Shang; A. E. Glassgold; K. E. Rehm; Typhoon Lee

2005-12-21

76

Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

2003-01-01

77

Health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. While attention to their impacts on climate is relatively new, these pollutants have been regulated under health-based standards in the US and elsewhere in the world for decades. Understanding the health benefits of reducing short-lived climate forcers may help inform mitigation strategies, since health will likely continue to drive concern over air quality in the future. Several recent studies have examined the health and climate co-benefits of control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor. This talk will highlight the health benefits of 14 presently available BC and methane mitigation measures examined in the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone. Fully implementing these specific measures is estimated to avoid 1-5 million annual ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2030, >80% of which occur in Asia. BC mitigation measures are estimated to achieve ~98% of the avoided deaths from all measures, due to associated reductions of non-methane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions and stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. These substantial public health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers are independent of whether CO2 measures are enacted. Further analyses are needed to improve economic valuation of the varied impacts of short-lived climate forcers and quantify the benefits and costs of these measures in individual countries or regions to support policy decisions made at the national level.

Anenberg, S.

2011-12-01

78

Measuring (n,f) cross-sections of short-lived states  

E-print Network

In order to test theories of fission cross-sections, it is desirable to measure the (n,f) cross-sections of both an isomeric state and the ground state of the same isotope of the same element. This would test the ability to calculate effects that depend only on spin and parity without the confusion of effects that depend on (Z,A). At present there is no isotope for which the (n,f) cross-section has been measured successfully at MeV energies, where theoretical predictions can be made. There have been a few measurements of the cross-section U235m at thermal and cold energies. At these energies the cross-section is expected to be dominated by incalculable resonances, so that it may not be a useful test of theoretical predictions. I suggest methods for measuring the (n,f) cross-sections to neutrons with a fission spectrum of 1/2+ (26 m) isomeric U235m and of 1- (16 h) (shorter lived than the isomer) Am242gs.

J. I. Katz

2010-03-24

79

Study of short-lived resonances with the ALICE Experiment at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of short-lived resonances allows the investigation of the collision dynamics and of the properties of the hot and dense medium created in high energy collisions. Moreover it is interesting to address the topics of the strangeness production by the analysis of strange resonances. First measurements of the phi(1020), ? *(1520), K*(892), ? *(1530) and doubly charged ?(1232) resonances in pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV with the ALICE apparatus at the LHC are presented. Thermal model predictions of particle ratios in proton-proton collisions are shown.

Karasu Uysal, Ayben

2012-02-01

80

Mass Measurement of Short-lived Nuclei at HIRFL-CSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four campaigns of mass measurements for short-lived nuclei have been conducted using an isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) technique at HIRFL-CSR(Cooler Storage Ring) in Lanzhou. The radioactive nuclei were produced by projectile fragmentation and injected into the experimental storage ring CSRe. Revolution times of the ions stored in the CSRe were measured from which masses of 78Kr, 58Ni, 86Kr and 112Sn fragments have been determined with a relative uncertainty of about 10-6-10-7. The experimental results are presented and their impacts on nucleosynthesis in the rp process and nuclear structure are discussed.

Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.

2014-03-01

81

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

82

182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System  

PubMed Central

Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ?5 × 10?5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10?6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ?3 × 10?6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; J?rgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

2013-01-01

83

182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.  

PubMed

Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ?5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ?3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock. PMID:23671077

Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

2013-05-28

84

Seeds of alpine plants are short lived: implications for long-term conservation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Alpine plants are considered one of the groups of species most sensitive to the direct and indirect threats to ecosystems caused by land use and climate change. Collecting and banking seeds of plant species is recognized as an effective tool for providing propagating material to re-establish wild plant populations and for habitat repair. However, seeds from cold wet environments have been shown to be relatively short lived in storage, and therefore successful long-term seed conservation for alpine plants may be difficult. Here, the life spans of 69 seed lots representing 63 related species from alpine and lowland locations from northern Italy are compared. Methods Seeds were placed into experimental storage at 45 °C and 60 % relative humidity (RH) and regularly sampled for germination. The time taken in storage for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) was determined using probit analysis and used as a measure of relative seed longevity between seed lots. Key Results Across species, p50 at 45 °C and 60 % RH varied from 4·7 to 95·5 d. Seed lots from alpine populations/species had significantly lower p50 values compared with those from lowland populations/species; the lowland seed lots showed a slower rate of loss of germinability, higher initial seed viability, or both. Seeds were progressively longer lived with increased temperature and decreased rainfall at the collecting site. Conclusions Seeds of alpine plants are short lived in storage compared with those from lowland populations/related taxa. The lower resistance to ageing in seeds of alpine plants may arise from low selection pressure for seed resistance to ageing and/or damage incurred during seed development due to the cool wet conditions of the alpine climate. Long-term seed conservation of several alpine species using conventional seed banking methods will be problematic. PMID:21081585

Mondoni, Andrea; Probert, Robin J.; Rossi, Graziano; Vegini, Emanuele; Hay, Fiona R.

2011-01-01

85

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.  

PubMed

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2009-06-01

86

Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182

Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2014-11-18

87

ACTIVE MEDIA. RESONATORS: Short-lived absorption in excited gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystals activated with Cr and Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the possibility of reducing short-lived losses in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with Cr and Nd when these losses are due to the short-wavelength component of the spectrum of the exciting radiation.

Zharikov, Evgeny V.; Nasel'ski?, S. P.; Ryabov, A. I.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

1987-04-01

88

From mantle to ash cloud: quantifying magma generation, ascent, and degassing rates at Kilauea during short-lived explosive episodes using short-lived U-series radionuclide disequilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed for 238U-series isotopes lava, scoria and ash samples erupted from Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i between 1982 and 2008, in order to investigate processes and timescales of magma generation in the mantle, magma ascent through the crust, and eruption. Timescales of degassing during steady-state lava flow activity occurring in Kilauea East Rift Zone and short-lived explosive episodes that occurred in both the East Rift Zone (Pu'u 'O'o vent opening in 1983 and episode 54 at N?pau crater in January 1997) and on the summit (Halema'uma'u crater eruptions in March 2008) are compared and contrasted. All samples were found to have small but variable 230Th and 226Ra activity excesses over 238U and 230Th, respectively, with (230Th/238U) ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.13 and (226Ra/230Th) ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.17. These two variable isotopic disequilibria may reflect local heterogeneities in the mantle underneath Kilauea, with sources in relatively primitive mantle with (238U)-(230Th)-(226Ra) in secular equilibrium and in recently (< 8000 years) depleted mantle with (230Th) and (226Ra) deficits over parent nuclides. In this model, both types of mantle melt to generate Kilauea magmas and subsequently mix in variable proportions. Samples from the brief explosive episodes span the entire composition range, suggesting that they were fed by heterogeneous magma batches which did not homogenize during ascent from the mantle. (210Pb/226Ra) ratios range from 0.75 to 1.00. The lack of correlation between (210Pb/226Ra) and (226Ra/230Th) or (230Th/238U), and the rapid return to secular equilibrium of 210Pb (< 100 years) suggest a fractionation process distinct from and subsequent to the Ra-Th-U fractionation inherited from mantle melting. We hypothesize that 210Pb deficits originate from 222Rn degassing during magma ascent, and estimate magma ascent from lower crust to surface to take place in a maximum of ~ 7 years for the lava flow samples. Products from the explosive episodes have ratios from ~ 0.75 to near equilibrium, suggesting that they comprise of a mix of young melts and degassed magmas which were stored in the shallow volcanic edifice for a few decades, in agreement with existing petrologic models.

Girard, G.; Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.; Thornber, C. R.

2012-12-01

89

Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

2008-12-01

90

CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

2013-12-01

91

Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs

1995-02-01

92

The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene short-lived coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of short-lived backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The ? 18O and ? 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.

Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

93

A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.  

PubMed

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument - the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument - for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

2014-12-01

94

Transfer time and source tracing in the soil - water- -plant system deciphered by the U-and Th-series short-lived nuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) and (228Th), as well as the long-lived (232Th), were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section, i.e.: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. However, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. Both primary and secondary phases show to contribute to the dissolved radium. However, depending on the season, the tree leaves degradation also produces up to 70% of dissolved radium. Immobilization of a large part of this radium occurs within the first 70cm of the soil layer, either by plant uptake, or adsorption/ precipitation in particular soil layers. Consistently, the Ra isotope ratio in the spring water is similar to the inherited primary soil fraction, suggesting a "deep" (i.e. below the shallow 70cm of soil layer) origin of the exported dissolved radium and the short-scale effect of vegetation cycling onto radium transfer. The radium isotopic ratio in the trees roots does not match the soil exchangeable fraction, nor the seepage waters, but rather the bulk soil, suggesting a large and mixed pool of radium for roots uptake. Decay of 228Ra within the various parts of the trees allows calculating a vegetation cycling duration of about 10 years for this nuclide. Finally an unexpected large amount of unsupported 228Th in the tree leaves can only be explained by a preferential migration of the 228Ac (228Th precursor). The very short life of this nuclide allows therefore assessing that such transport from roots and deposition within stem and leaves take place within 30 hours at the most.

Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.; Chabaux, F.

2011-12-01

95

Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these

Simone Tilmes; Doug Kinnison; Rolando Garcia; Ross Salawitch; Julia Lee-Taylor

2010-01-01

96

The influence of short-lived ozone precursor emissions on radiative climate forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductions in short-lived ozone precursor emissions change tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations, influencing global climate through the radiative budget of the atmosphere. Unlike long-lived greenhouse gases, the radiative forcing (RF) due to ozone depends on the location of its precursor emissions. We assess the effects of 20% reductions in anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds), individually and together, on the net global RF for emission reductions from four world regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia). We calculate the multi-model mean changes in ozone distributions and the global average methane abundance across an ensemble of global chemical transport models that contributed to the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) Source-Receptor Experiments. For methane, although the model perturbation simulations all used a uniform mixing ratio of 1760 parts per billion (ppb), we infer the steady-state changes in global methane abundance across the various model simulations using the losses by tropospheric OH. We employ the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) radiative transfer model to estimate the stratospheric-adjusted net RF due to changes in ozone and methane, for emissions reductions of each precursor from each region. We simulate monthly mean net radiation fluxes, and calculate the net RF as the difference in net fluxes between the base and perturbed simulations. Our analysis indicates how changes in emissions of each ozone precursor in each of the four regions affect tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations, the net global RF, and the net global RF per unit change in precursor emissions.

Fry, M. M.; Naik, V.; West, J. J.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fiore, A. M.; Task Force On Hemispheric Transport Of Air Pollution Modeling Team

2010-12-01

97

AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

1993-01-01

98

The impacts of short-lived ozone precursors on climate and air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human emissions of short-lived ozone precursors not only degrade air quality and health, but indirectly affect climate via chemical effects on ozone, methane, and aerosols. Some have advocated for short-lived air pollutants in near-term climate mitigation strategies, in addition to national air quality programs, but their radiative forcing (RF) impacts are uncertain and vary based on emission location. In this work, global chemical transport modeling is combined with radiative transfer modeling to study the impacts of regional ozone precursor emissions (NOx, CO, and NMVOCs) on climate, via changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate, and on regional and global air quality. The first study evaluates NOx, CO, and NMVOC emission reductions from four regions across an ensemble of models, finding that NMVOC and CO reductions from all four regions cool climate (negative RF) by decreasing ozone and methane, while improving air quality. NOx and NMVOC global warming potentials (GWPs), a measure of the relative radiative effects of individual climate forcers, vary strongly among regions, while CO GWPs show less variability. The second and third studies investigate further the RF and air quality impacts of CO and NMVOC emission reductions from 10 world regions. The greatest benefits to RF and air quality (per unit emissions) are achieved by CO reductions from the tropics, due to more active photochemistry and convection. CO GWPs are fairly independent of the reduction region (GWP20: 3.71 to 4.37; GWP100: 1.26 to 1.44), while NMVOC GWPs are more variable (GWP 20: -1.13 to 18.9; GWP100: 0.079 to 6.05). Accounting for additional forcings from CO and NMVOC emissions would likely change RF and GWP estimates. Regionally-specific GWPs for NOx and NMVOCs and a globally-uniform GWP for CO may allow these gases to be included in a multi-gas emissions trading framework, and enable comprehensive strategies for meeting climate and air quality goals simultaneously. Future research could investigate full climate responses using coupled chemistry-climate models, and perform regional analyses of specific emission control measures to maximize climate and air quality benefits.

Fry, Meridith McGee

99

Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a short-lived rodent  

PubMed Central

Background Short lived, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a “young-of-the-year” life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an “overwinter” life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring). We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-lived OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled. We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Results Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as short latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Conclusion Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as suggested by the POL theory, however, was not found. Nevertheless, correlations of traits suggest the existence of animal personalities. In conclusion, complex patterns of population dynamics, seasonal variation in life histories, and variability of behaviour due to asset-protection may cause complex seasonal behavioural dynamics in a population. PMID:24238069

2013-01-01

100

Storm time, short-lived bursts of relativistic electron precipitation detected by subionospheric radio wave propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we report on ground-based observations of short bursts of relativistic electron precipitation (REP), detected by a subionospheric propagation sensor in Sodankylä, Finland during 2005. In two ˜4 hour case study periods from L = 5.2, around local midnight, several hundred short-lived radio wave perturbations were observed, covering a wide range of arrival azimuths. The vast majority (˜99%) of these perturbations were not simultaneous with perturbations on other paths, consistent with a precipitation "rainstorm" producing ionospheric changes of small spatial sizes around the Sodankylä receiver. The recovery time of these radio wave perturbations are ˜1.2 s, which is consistent with the modeled effects of a burst of >2 MeV precipitating electrons. This agrees with satellite observations of the microburst energy spectrum. The energetic nature of the precipitation which produces the FAST perturbations suggests that they should be observable in both day and night conditions. While it is widely assumed that satellite-detected REP microbursts are due to wave-particle interactions with very low-frequency chorus waves, the energy spectra predicted by our current models of chorus propagation and wave-particle interaction are not consistent with the experimentally observed radio wave perturbations presented here or previously reported satellite observations of REP microbursts. The results inferred from both the satellite and subionospheric observations, namely the absence of a large, dominant component of <100 keV precipitating electrons, fundamentally disagrees with a mechanism of chorus-driven precipitation. Nonetheless, further work on the modeling of chorus-driven precipitation is required.

Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Nunn, David; Verronen, Pekka T.; Bortnik, Jacob; Turunen, Esa

2007-07-01

101

Metrics for comparing climate impacts of short- and long-lived climate forcing agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities emit a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with different characteristics that influence both air quality and climate. The emissions affect climate both directly and indirectly and operate on both short and long timescales. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on a common scale in terms of climate impact, i.e. metrics, have a number of applications (e.g. agreements and emission trading schemes, when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions). The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Global Warming Potential (GWP) over a 100 year time-horizon. The IPCC First Assessment Report states the GWP was presented to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. There have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed, but there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. Furthermore, the capability to compare components with very different lifetimes and temporal behaviour needs consideration. The temperature based metrics (e.g. the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)) require a model for the temperature response, and additional uncertainty is thus introduced. Short-lived forcers may also give more spatially heterogeneous responses, and the possibilities to capture these spatial variations by using other indicators than global mean RF or temperature change in metrics will be discussed. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) should, however, depend on the objectives of climate policy. Alternatives to the current 'multi-gas and single-basket' approach will also be explored and discussed (e.g. how a two-target approach may be implemented using a two-basket approach). One example is measures to reduce near-term rate of warming and long-term stabilization which can be implemented through two separate targets and two baskets with separate set of metrics for each target, but still keeping all components in both baskets.

Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.

2013-12-01

102

Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating Among Extra-solar Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes  

E-print Network

We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10$^{5}$ to 10$^{8}$ years that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) to include electron-capture supernovae (ECSN), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (Super-AGB) stars, thermonuclear/Type Ia supernovae (TNSN), and kilonovae/neutron star mergers (KN). We revisit previous estimates of the 60Fe and 26Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include 53Mn, 41Ca, and 244Pu, among others. We discuss interpretations of the 60Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar rocks in terms of a nearby stellar explosion ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (i) the 60Fe yield rules out the thermonuclear/Type Ia and kilonova interpretations, and that (ii) upper limits on contemporaneous 26Al deposition rule out an Super-AGB interpretation and exert pressure on a CCSN interpretation, but (iii) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation, while (iv) too little 60Fe would...

Fry, Brian J; Ellis, John R

2014-01-01

103

Observation and modeling of short-lived oxygenated hydrocarbons in the tropical free troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO (Jan/Feb 2012) probed the influence of air-sea exchange of organic carbon species and very short lived halogen species on the oxidative capacity of the tropical free troposphere over the full tropospheric air column above the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Organic carbon is important in the atmosphere, because it influences the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., methane, ozone, dimethyl sulfide), and because of its relevance for the formation, composition and climate impact of aerosols. This presentation summarizes unequivocal evidence for the presence of numerous oxygenated hydrocarbons (i.e., glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, MVK, MEK, aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols etc.) in the remote marine boundary layer, and in the tropical free troposphere. These species were detected by means of both Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Airborne MAX-DOAS), and online GC-MS (TOGA) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft. We employ atmospheric modeling constrained by observations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, aerosols, photolysis frequencies, and meterological parameters measured aboard the plane to elucidate the formation mechanism of this as of yet unaccounted source for oxidized organic carbon, and quantify the influence on the OVOCs on hydroxyl, bromine, chlorine and iodine radical abundances.

Volkamer, Rainer; Apel, Eric

2013-04-01

104

Waste-resource flows of short-lived goods in households of Santiago de Cuba  

E-print Network

In this paper, we apply the method of material flow analysis to analyze the consumption and waste mass flows of short-lived goods and we provide first insights into the waste management behavior of households in Santiago de Cuba. The goods analyzed are glass, aluminum, organic material and PET. The necessary data were gathered in personal interviews with 1171 households using a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-demographic variables, such as age, sex, education, income and occupation. The households were asked how many PET bottles, aluminum and glass containers they consume per month and how they dispose of the different kinds of garbage. Our investigations show that: (i) Cuba has a high recycling rate closely comparable to that of Switzerland and Germany, which have the highest recycling rates world-wide. The high recycling rate is achieved through a combination of social organization, control and internalized norms. In contrast to other developing countries, where the informal sector plays an important role in recycling activities, in Santiago de Cuba the contribution of the informal sector is marginal. (ii) The preferred recycling path, where 50–70 % of the waste is disposed of, is Comité de Defensa

Claudia R. Binder A; Hans-joachim Mosler B

2005-01-01

105

Simulating Supernova Injection of Short Lived Radionuclides with Consideration of the Solar Birth Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRNs) in the early solar system above their background galactic abundances is well accepted. Studies into the relative abundances and possible sources for radioisotopes indicate a model with three separate sources for the total abundance of SLRNs: the background galactic value, material from some nearby stellar source, and in-situ creation by the early active Sun. A type II SN may be the most likely source for the stellar component, specifically 60Fe. The geometric details of the stellar birth are largely unknown despite evidence that the presolar cloud was not isolated. From a hydrodynamic perspective, the injection of SLRNs may be difficult because of intervening material between the core and the explosion necessary to slow the shock speed enough that the core is compressed rather than shredded. For the SN component it is vital to understand how SN ejecta can reach a core and whether certain SN/cloud environments are precluded by the hydrodynamics. We present Zeus-2D simulations studying the possibility of SLRN injection into a presolar core that is part of a larger cloud complex.

Davis, Keith W.; Leising, M. D.

2006-12-01

106

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

E-print Network

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

T. Sonoda; M. Wada; H. Tomita; C. Sakamoto; T. Takatsuka; T. Furukawa; H. Iimura; Y. Ito; T. Kubo; Y. Matsuo; H. Mita; S. Naimi; S. Nakamura; T. Noto; P. Schury; T. Shinozuka; T. Wakui; H. Miyatake; S. Jeong; H. Ishiyama; Y. X. Watanabe; Y. Hirayama; K. Okada; A. Takamine

2012-10-24

107

BNL 896: Search for Short Lived H0 Dibaryons--Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment is a search for the long sought for short--lived H0 di-baryon, a strangeness = -2, 6--quark object predicted by phenomenological models. It features large sensitivity for detecting H_0s down to lifetimes c? ~ 4 cm. The environment for H0 production is provided through Au + Au central collisions at 11.6 GeV/c per nucleon (fixed target). The experiment features a 15 detector Silicon Drift Detector Array (SDDA) which is located near the target in a 7.5 T superconducting sweeping magnet followed by a 144--plane distributed drift chamber (DDC) in a 1.6 T analyzing magnet. The experiment also features time-of-flight (TOF) walls behind the analyzing magnet and a neutron detector array (MUFFINS), also located after the analyzing magnet. The objective of the experiment is to find the H0 through observation of the decay topologies H0 arrow ?^- p arrow pn ?^-, H0 arrow ? p ?^-, and possibly H0 arrow ? n. The SDDA and DDC should provide precise track parameters (charged particles only) so that an accurate calculation of the H0 mass can be made if the appropriate decay topology is identified. An overview of the experiment will be presented.

Jensen, P.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Paganis, S. D.; Schambach, J. J.; Tang, J.-L.

1997-10-01

108

Labeling suspended aerosol particles with short-lived radionuclides for determination of particle deposition  

SciTech Connect

Radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to deliver insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. Microaggregated bovine serum albumin microspheres that were to be suspended were labeled with iodine-131 (t1/2 . 8 d). This iodination procedure (greater than 80% effective) is also applicable to iodine-123, which possesses superior characteristics for external imaging and further in vivo studies. This report shows that for pressurized aerosols containing suspended particles, each metered dose is approximately equal (not including the priming doses and the emptying doses). Increase in the delivery of the albumin particles out of the canister was best achieved by pretreating the valve assembly with a solution of 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin in phosphate buffer. Use of a cascade impactor delineated the particle size distribution of the micropheres, with the majority of particles ranging in size from 2 to 8 microns. The data disclosed here indicate that the techniques developed with short-lived radionuclides can be used to quantitate each metered dose, characterize the particle size distribution profile of the aerosol contents, and determine the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol canister and all of its components.

Smith, M.F.; Bryant, S.; Welch, S.; Digenis, G.A.

1984-08-01

109

Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

2014-05-01

110

A short-wavelength infrared emitting multimodal probe for non-invasive visualization of phagocyte cell migration in living mice.  

PubMed

For the non-invasive visualization of cell migration in deep tissues, we synthesized a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) emitting multimodal probe that contains PbS/CdS quantum dots, rhodamine 6G and iron oxide nanoparticles. This probe enables multimodal (SWIR fluorescence/magnetic resonance) imaging of phagocyte cell migration in living mice. PMID:25296382

Tsukasaki, Y; Komatsuzaki, A; Mori, Y; Ma, Q; Yoshioka, Y; Jin, T

2014-10-23

111

A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

112

Determination of Gamma-Ray Exposure Rate from Short-Lived Fission Products under Criticality Accident Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the assessment of ? -ray doses from short-lived fission products (FPs) under criticality accident conditions, ? -ray exposure rates varying with time were experimentally determined in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). The data were obtained by reactivity insertion in the range of 1.50 to 2.93$. It was clarified from the experiments that the contribution of ? -ray from

Hiroshi YANAGISAWA; Akio OHNO; Eijyu AIZAWA

2002-01-01

113

Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants  

E-print Network

air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030 anthropogenic aerosols, including direct and indirect effects and tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. ForsterStrong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants

114

Short title: Hygrophoraceae Conservation of biotrophy in Hygrophoraceae inferred from combined stable isotope and  

E-print Network

stable isotope and phylogenetic analyses Brian H. Seitzman1 Department of Biology, 950 Main Street, Clark Hygrophoraceae collected in central Massachusetts and combined with isotopic datasets from five prior studies.3852/10-195 Copyright 2010 by The Mycological Society of America. #12;optimization of stable isotope data suggests

Bruns, Tom

115

Short-term carbon-isotope discrimination in C3-C 4 intermediate species.  

PubMed

Short-term discrimination in assimilation of stable isotopes of carbon was measured for leaves of the C3 speciesPhaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Hawkesbury Wonder andFlaveria pringlei Gandoger, the C4 speciesAmaranthus edulis Speg., and the C3-C4 intermediate speciesPanicum milioides Nees ex. Trin,Flaveria floridana Johnson, andFlaveria anomala B.L. Robinson. Discriminations in the C3 and C4 species were similar to those expected from theoretical considerations. When ambient CO2 pressure was 330 ?bar the mean discriminations in the C3 species andPanicum milioides were similar, whereas the mean discriminations inF. floridana andF. anomala were less than discrimination in C3 species andPanicum milioides. When ambient CO2 pressure was 100 ?bar the mean discriminations inPanicum milioides andF. anomala were greater, and that inF. floridana was less, than that inPhaseolus vulgaris. We conclude that the pattern of discrimination inPanicum milioides is consistent with the presence of a glycine shuttle; inF. floridana andF. anomala, discrimination is consistent with the presence of a C4 pathway coupled with the operation of a glycine shuttle. PMID:24213044

von Caemmerer, S; Hubick, K T

1989-12-01

116

Inheritance of early Archaean Pb-isotope variability from long-lived Hadean protocrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of initial Pb-isotope signatures of several early Archaean (3.65-3.82 Ga) lithologies (orthogneisses and metasediments) and minerals (feldspar and galena) documents the existence of substantial isotopic heterogeneity in the early Archaean, particularly in the 207Pb\\/204Pb ratio. The magnitude of isotopic variability at 3.82-3.65 Ga requires source separation between 4.3 and 4.1 Ga, depending on the extent of U\\/Pb fractionation possible

Balz S. Kamber; Kenneth D. Collerson; Stephen Moorbath; Martin J. Whitehouse

2003-01-01

117

Distributions of Short-lived Radioactive Nuclei Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (l ~ 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (l ~ 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ~10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of 26Al and 60Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM ? (where 1 pM ? = 10-12 M ?). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?SLR ~ 1-5 × 10-19 s-1. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?CR ~ 10-17 s-1, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa

2014-07-01

118

Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

2014-01-01

119

Limits to the sensitivity of living benthic foraminifera to pore water carbon isotope anomalies in methane vent environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

13C depletions in the carbon isotopic composition of benthic foraminiferal tests preserved in the stratigraphic record have been interpreted as an active incorporation of methane-derived carbon. Understanding the extent to which these isotope excursions reflect basin-wide fluxes of methane carbon to bottom waters versus a local supply of methane carbon within the sediments in which benthic foraminifera live, or a postmortem diagenetic imprint is critical to the interpretation of ?13C paleoceanographic proxies. Here we evaluate the impact of chemical gradients measured in pore waters adjacent to active methane vents on carbon assimilation by living benthic foraminifera and show that those living near methane vents do not assimilate the distinctly 13C depleted methane-derived dissolved inorganic carbon into their tests from the pore water in which they were found. Our observations can be explained by the recently articulated physiological limits imposed on deep-sea fauna by low-oxygen and high-pCO2 environments. Understanding the importance of the different processes involved in the observed disequilibrium between the carbon isotopic composition of the benthic forams and the pore waters where they were found has important implications on the reliability of carbon isotopic composition of benthic foraminifera for paleoceanographic reconstructions. In particular, the observation on the inhospitability of these environments for benthic foraminifera at least for reproduction and growth raises the issue on the overprint either in the late adult stages of foraminifera that grew in a different neighboring environment or during early diagenesis in these geochemically active environments.

Herguera, J. C.; Paull, C. K.; Perez, E.; Ussler, W.; Peltzer, E.

2014-03-01

120

Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at the site.

Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

2007-05-01

121

A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF SHORT-LIVED {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The short-lived radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.

Liu, Ming-Chang [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chaussidon, Marc [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CNRS, Nancy (France); Srinivasan, Gopalan [Center for Earth Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); McKeegan, Kevin D., E-mail: mcliu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-12-20

122

Global Modeling and Projection of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In predicting and mitigating future global warming, short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced in the maximal feasible reduction (MFR) scenario, contributing to global mean temperature reduction by about -0.25 oC after 2030. This heating-SLCPs-induced warming mitigation in MFR is, however, largely cancelled out by the temperature increase due to decreases in cooling aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, and organics), resulting in temperature projection which is not quite different from the other scenarios like CLE (current legislation for air quality) or 450ppm climate stabilization (intermediate reduction) scenario. References Bond et al. (2013): Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 5380-5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013. Cofala et al. (2007): Scenarios of global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane until 2030, Atmos. Environ., 41, 8486-8499. Kerr et al. (2013): Soot is warming the world even more than thought, Science, 339, 382, doi: 10.1126/science.339.6118.382. Klimont, Z., Brink, C. (2006): Modelling of Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Sources in Europe. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria. Shindell et al. (2012): Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security, Science, 335, 183-189, doi: 10.1126/science.1210026.

Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.

2013-12-01

123

Solar system genealogy revealed by extinct short-lived radionuclides in meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Little is known about the stellar environment and the genealogy of our solar system. Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs, mean lifetime ? shorter than 100 Myr) that were present in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Gyr ago could potentially provide insight into that key aspect of our history, were their origin understood. Aims: Previous models failed to provide a reasonable explanation of the abundance of two key SLRs, 26Al (?26 = 1.1 Myr) and 60Fe (?60 = 3.7 Myr), at the birth of the solar system by requiring unlikely astrophysical conditions. Our aim is to propose a coherent and generic solution based on the most recent understanding of star-forming mechanisms. Methods: Iron-60 in the nascent solar system is shown to have been produced by a diversity of supernovae belonging to a first generation of stars in a giant molecular cloud. Aluminum-26 is delivered into a dense collected shell by a single massive star wind belonging to a second star generation. The Sun formed in the collected shell as part of a third stellar generation. Aluminum-26 yields used in our calculation are based on new rotating stellar models in which 26Al is present in stellar winds during the star main sequence rather than during the Wolf-Rayet phase alone. Our scenario eventually constrains the time sequence of the formation of the two stellar generations that just preceded the solar system formation, along with the number of stars born in these two generations. Results: We propose a generic explanation for the past presence of SLRs in the nascent solar system, based on a collect-injection-and-collapse mechanism, occurring on a diversity of spatial/temporal scales. In that model, the presence of SLRs with a diversity of mean lifetimes in the solar protoplanetary disk is simply the fossilized record of sequential star formation within a hierarchical interstellar medium. We identify the genealogy of our solar system's three star generations earlier. In particular, we show that our Sun was born together with a few hundred stars in a dense collected shell situated at a distance of 5-10 pc from a parent massive star having a mass greater than about 30 solar masses and belonging to a cluster containing ~1200 stars.

Gounelle, M.; Meynet, G.

2012-09-01

124

Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes--even after pileup correction--unlikely.

Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2011-01-15

125

Stable isotope cellular imaging reveals that both live and degenerating fungal pelotons transfer carbon and nitrogen to orchid protocorms.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to elucidate the transfer of nutrient elements in orchid symbiotic protocorms at the cellular level by imaging of stable isotope tracers. We address the long-standing question of whether nutrients move by transport across the symbiotic interface or solely by lysis of fungal pelotons. [U-(13) C]glucose and (15) NH4 (15) NO3 were added to Ceratobasidium sp. hyphae extending from symbiotic protocorms of Spiranthes sinensis. Isotope images were taken from resin-embedded sections of protocorms using ultra-high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses of regions of interest were conducted on isotope ratio images for fungal and host structures. Amyloplasts adjacent to young pelotons showed elevated (13) C/(12) C, which indicated that fungal carbon (C) was transferred from live hyphae. Senescent pelotons and their surrounding host cytoplasm showed significantly higher isotope ratios than young pelotons and surrounding host cytoplasm. These results indicate an inflow of C to senescent hyphae, which was then transferred to the host. The findings of this study provide some support for each of the two contradictory hypotheses concerning nutrient exchange in the symbiotic protocorm: the interface between the symbionts is involved before fungal senescence, and peloton degradation also releases a significant amount of C and nitrogen to host cells. PMID:24494717

Kuga, Yukari; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

2014-04-01

126

Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

2002-01-01

127

Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed chemical reaction schemes for the atmospheric degradations of the very short-lived species (VSLS) bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) have been established. These degradation schemes have been implemented in the meteorological/tracer transport model CATT-BRAMS used in the present case as pseudo one-dimensional model with chemistry of CH4, CO, HOx, NOx, NOy and Ox. They include the main possible reactions of the intermediate brominated peroxy radicals RO2 (with R = CH2Br, CHBr2 and CBr3) for which the most likely reaction pathways with HO2 have been found using ab initio computational calculations. The full degradation schemes have been run for two well-defined realistic scenarios, “clean” atmosphere and “moderately” NOy-polluted atmosphere, as representative of a tropical coastal region where these VSLS natural emissions are expected to be important. The Henry's law constants of the brominated organics products have been estimated by using the Bond Contribution Method (BCM; Meylan and Howard, 1991) or the Molecular Connectivity Index (MCI; Nirmalakhandan and Speece, 1988). Using these constants, the least soluble species formed from the VSLS degradation are found to be CBr2O, CHBrO, CBr3O2NO2, CHBr2O2NO2, BrO, BrONO2 and HOBr, which leads those to be potentially transported into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in case of deep convection and contribute to stratospheric bromine additionally to the original substances. For bromoform and dibromomethane degradation, the moderate NOy pollution increases the production of the least soluble species and thus approximately doubles the bromine quantity potentially able to reach the TTL (from 22.5% to 43% for CHBr3 and from 8.8% to 20.2% for CH2Br2). The influence of the reactions of the RO2 radicals with HO2, CH3O2 and NO2 on the nature and abundance of the stable intermediate and end-products has been tested for CHBr3 degradation. As a result, the reactions of the RO2 radicals with NO2 have no impact. Taking into account the reaction between RO2 and CH3O2 and modifying the branching ratios of the reaction between RO2 and HO2 lead to a small impact on the bromoform degradation by slightly decreasing (by 10%) the bromine quantity potentially able to reach the TTL. As a final point, in contrast to CHBr3, CH2Br2 degradation produces negligible quantities of organics species and the effects of pollution increase only the inorganic species production. By taking into account the results of these tests, new simplified degradation schemes for CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are proposed.

Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Poulet, G.; Marécal, V.; Pirre, M.; Louis, F.; Canneaux, S.; Josse, B.

2012-11-01

128

Short-lived orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological-isotopic data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar-39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the

Alfredo Camacho; James K. W. Lee; Bastiaan J. Hensen; Jean Braun

2005-01-01

129

Short-lived orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological–isotopic data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar–39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the

Alfredo Camacho; Bastiaan J. Hensen; Jean Braun; James K. W. Lee

2005-01-01

130

Calpain-generated natural protein fragments as short-lived substrates of the N-end rule pathway  

PubMed Central

Calpains are Ca2+-dependent intracellular proteases. We show here that calpain-generated natural C-terminal fragments of proteins that include G protein–coupled receptors, transmembrane ion channels, transcriptional regulators, apoptosis controllers, kinases, and phosphatases (Phe-GluN2a, Lys-Ica512, Arg-Ankrd2, Tyr-Grm1, Arg-Atp2b2, Glu-Bak, Arg-Igfbp2, Glu-I?B?, and Arg-c-Fos), are short-lived substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which targets destabilizing N-terminal residues. We also found that the identity of a fragment’s N-terminal residue can change during evolution, but the residue’s destabilizing activity is virtually always retained, suggesting selection pressures that favor a short half-life of the calpain-generated fragment. It is also shown that a self-cleavage of a calpain can result in an N-end rule substrate. Thus, the autoprocessing of calpains can control them by making active calpains short-lived. These and related results indicate that the Arg/N-end rule pathway mediates the remodeling of oligomeric complexes by eliminating protein fragments that are produced in these complexes through cleavages by calpains or other nonprocessive proteases. We suggest that this capability of the Arg/N-end rule pathway underlies a multitude of its previously known but mechanistically unclear functions. PMID:24550490

Piatkov, Konstantin I.; Oh, Jang-Hyun; Liu, Yuan; Varshavsky, Alexander

2014-01-01

131

Comparisons of the ecology and stable isotopic compositions of living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Sulu and South China Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences are observed between living (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera found in 14 box cores (510-4515 m) from the thermospheric (> 10°C) environments of the Sulu Sea and the psychrospheric (<10°C) conditions in the South Ch ina Sea. Gavelinopsis, Bolivinopsis, Astrononion, Osangularia and Ceratobulimina are common taxa in the South China Sea, but are rare to absent in the Sulu Sea; Siphonina and Valvulineria are dominant genera at certain depths in the Sulu Sea, but are rare to absent in the South China Sea. Faunal differences appear to result from large differences of the bottom-water temperatures (differences from about 6 to 8°C) between these basins. Faunal abundance patterns within each basin are suggested to be related to the organic carbon contents in the sediments, since temperatures, salinities and dissolved oxygen levels of the bottom-waters are relatively uniform. The ?18O values show a > 2‰ range and are similar to those presented by previous workers, but have no consistent relationship with microhabitat preferences. Vertical distribution patterns and carbon isotope compositions of species, however, reflect microhabitat preferences and are consistent with previous observations from other regions. Epifaunal species (0-1 cm interval) such as Cibicidoides pachyderma, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Hoeglundina elegans and Anomalinoides colligera, have higher ?13C values than taxa which have the ability to live deeper within the sediments. Infaunal taxa that live in the upper 2-3 cm, including Uvigerina peregrina, Uvigerina proboscidea, and Bulimina mexicana, have lower ?13C values than epifaunal species, and the deep infaunal species, Chilostomella oolina, has the lowest ?13C. Cibicidoides bradyi and Oridorsalis umbonatus are found between 0 and ˜ 4 cm and have lower carbon isotope values (by > 1.4‰ in some cores) than epifaunal Cibicidoides species. Exceptions to this pattern include the aragonitic species, Gavelinopsis lobatulus, (0-4 cm) which produces significantly lower ?13C values than deep infaunal taxa, and the shallow infaunal species, Ceratobulimina pacifica (also aragonitic) and Bolivinopsis cubensis (deep infaunal), which yield higher carbon isotopic values than epifaunal taxa. These exceptions are found primarily in only one core, and additional samples are needed to confirm the relationship between their distribution patterns and isotopic compositions. Each of the species examined has a relatively consistent ?13C value throughout its distribution within the sediments that may result from heterogeneity of microhabitats within the intervals sampled. Intrageneric differences in ?13C of Cibicidoides, and possibly Uvigerina and Bulimina, are evident. The isotopic differences between C. bradyi and many other Cibicidoides species are related to differences in microhabitat preferences between species. The ?13C results confirm the influence of microhabitat preferences on the carbon isotopic composition of deep-sea benthic foraminifera and reaffirm the importance of assessing the microhabitat preferences of species used for isotopic analyses.

Rathburn, A. E.; Corliss, B. H.; Tappa, K. D.; Lohmann, K. C.

1996-10-01

132

Live, Online Short-Courses: A Case Study of Innovative Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers are searching for new venues through which they may meet stringent professional development requirements. Under competitive funding from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Office of Education and the NASA Explorer Schools Project, U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc. created a series of live, online, interactive…

Marrero, Meghan E.; Woodruff, Karen A.; Schuster, Glen S.; Riccio, Jessica Fitzsimons

2010-01-01

133

Evaluation of Uncertainties in Decay Constants of ``Short-Lived'' Radionuclides: A Meta-Analysis Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a meta-analysis of half-lives for cosmochemically relevant radionuclides. We show that there is a range of behavior from well (e.g., 10Be) to poorly constrained (e.g., 53Mn or 129I).

Boehnke, P.; Steele, R. C. J.

2014-09-01

134

Incidence of leukaemia and other malignant diseases following injections of the short-lived ?-emitter 224 Ra into man  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an epidemiological study on 1,471 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with repeated intravenous injections\\u000a of the short lived ?-emitter 224Ra (excluding radiation therapy with X-rays) between 1948 and 1975. These patients have been followed together with a control\\u000a group of 1,324 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated neither with radioactive drugs nor with X-rays. The mean follow-up\\u000a time was 26.3 years in

Roland R. Wick; M. J. Atkinson; E. A. Nekolla

2009-01-01

135

Age-dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor short-lived radon progeny.  

PubMed

The main contribution of radiation dose to the human lungs from natural exposure originates from short-lived radon progeny. In the present work, the inhalation doses from indoor short-lived radon progeny, i.e., (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, and (214)Po, to different age groups of members of the public were calculated. In the calculations, the age-dependent systemic biokinetic models of polonium, bismuth, and lead published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were adopted. In addition, the ICRP human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models were applied to determine the deposition fractions in different regions of the lungs during inhalation and exhalation, and the absorption fractions of radon progeny in the alimentary tract. Based on the calculated contribution of each progeny to equivalent dose and effective dose, the dose conversion factor was estimated, taking into account the unattached fraction of aerosols, attached aerosols in the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes, and the potential alpha energy concentration fraction in indoor air. It turned out that for each progeny, the equivalent doses to extrathoracic airways and the lungs are greater than those to other organs. The contribution of (214)Po to effective dose is much smaller compared to that of the other short-lived radon progeny and can thus be neglected in the dose assessment. In fact, 90 % of the effective dose from short-lived radon progeny arises from (214)Pb and (214)Bi, while the rest is from (218)Po. The dose conversion factors obtained in the present study are 17 and 18 mSv per working level month (WLM) for adult female and male, respectively. This compares to values ranging from 6 to 20 mSv WLM(-1) calculated by other investigators. The dose coefficients of each radon progeny calculated in the present study can be used to estimate the radiation doses for the population, especially for small children and women, in specific regions of the world exposed to radon progeny by measuring their concentrations, aerosol sizes, and unattached fractions. PMID:24831865

Brudecki, K; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O; Tschiersch, J; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U

2014-08-01

136

Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb  

E-print Network

Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of 145,147Cs, 181,183Tl, 186Tlm, 187Tl, 196Tlm, 205Tl, 197Pbm, 208Pb, 190 to 197Bi, 209,215,216Bi, 203,205,229Fr, and 214,229,230Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of $2 \\cdot 10^{-7}$ to $2 \\cdot 10^{-8}$ is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

C. Weber; G. Audi; D. Beck; K. Blaum; G. Bollen; F. Herfurth; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; D. Lunney; S. Schwarz

2008-01-14

137

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

138

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile\\/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2009-01-01

139

Structure effects in the calculation of beta strength functions and half lives of Rb and Br isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The properties of beda delayed neutron emission of the precursors around mass 95 are investigated using spherical Shell Model plus pairing. The objective of this work is to find out the important parameters that effect these properties. The strength functions and half lives of both even and odd Rb and Br precursors are calculated in BCS quasi-particle theory as well as in Seniority Truncated Exact Diagonalization (STED) scheme. The calculated half lives from the two schemes are in close agreement with each other. STED gave much smoother overall trend which is in better agreement with experimental values. The calculations reveal that the so called 'odd decays' which depend in an essential way on the parent ground state configuration are of crucial importance in determining both half life, t/sub 1/2/ and delayed neutron emission probability, P/sub n/. Furthermore, it is shown that it is not possible to choose apriori global set for the single particle Shell model basis to predict the correct ground state configurations for both the odd and even nuclei. Instead, it is necessary to examine available experimental evidence in order to construct a more valid global set for single particle basis. The significant variations of the predicted half lives according to the different parent ground-state configuration choices, reveal the importance of nuclear structure effects in these isotopes. The calculated t/sub 1/2/ and P/sub n/ of Rb and Br precursors are presented, discussed and compared with experimental values.

Rab, S.; Shihab-Eldin, A.

1987-12-10

140

Application of neutron activation analysis and high resolution x-ray spectrometry for the determination of trace quantities of elements with short-lived activation products  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS AND HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROMETRY FQR THE DETFRMINATIQN OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF ELEMENTS KITH SHORT-LIVED ACTIVATION PRODUCTS A Thesis JOHN RICHARD MARSHALL Submitted to the Graduate College... Application of Neutron Activation Analysis and High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry for the Determination of Trace quantities of Elements with Short-Lived Activation Products. (August 1974) John Richard Marshall, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman...

Marshall, John Richard

2012-06-07

141

Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag ? 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

2012-03-01

142

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a "run-away-decline process" leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to semi-natural grassland fragmentation, four short-lived grassland species were studied. During three years, data on population sizes were gathered for Carum carvi, Rhinanthus minor, Trifolium arvense and Viola tricolor in Swedish semi-natural grasslands varying in size and degree of isolation. A seed-sowing experiment was conducted to assess dispersal and seed limitation at a local and regional scale, respectively. Overall, the presence/absence of species was not related to fragment size and isolation (connectivity). However, for the fragments where the species were present, positive relationships between grassland size and population size were detected for three species. No significant relationships between isolation and population size were detected for any species. This study thus demonstrates that short-lived plant species, confined to semi-natural grasslands, respond to decreases in fragment size by forming smaller populations. Seed sowing indicated that the species are both dispersal and seed limited in the study area, and that disturbances are important for establishment. In order to maintain characteristic grassland species in fragmented (isolated) semi-natural grasslands, it may therefore be of interest to preserve large intact fragments instead of several small ones.

Kiviniemi, Katariina

2008-01-01

143

Short- and long-lived radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine  

SciTech Connect

The radon-222 progeny and long-lived radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- lived radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-lived radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.

Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.

1997-04-01

144

Linking early Earth magma ocean crystallization and overturn with observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and short-lived radioisotopic measurements in Archean rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the well-characterized discrepancy between measurements of 142Nd in chondrites and those in Earth rocks (e.g.,[1][2]) in addition to recent measurements of Archean rocks with anomalous 142Nd and 182W (e.g.,[3][4][5]), we model the crystallization and overturn of a terrestrial chondritic magma ocean, and track the isotopic reservoirs that may result. Following magma ocean solidification, solid-state overturn occurs because solidification produces a gravitationally unstable configuration where the last cumulates to solidify are densest and also enriched in incompatible elements. As suggested by [1][2], these originally shallow cumulates that, following overturn, would now reside near the core-mantle boundary are tantalizing targets for the hypothesized hidden reservoir(s) of incompatible elements. These last, dense, enriched cumulates may have evolved negative 142Nd and 182W isotopic anomalies, while cumulates that form earlier and deeper in the magma ocean would likely be poor in incompatible elements and have evolved complementary positive isotopic anomalies. Because crystal - liquid partition coefficients of Sm, Nd, Hf, and W in nucleating mantle phases are poorly constrained and vary over orders of magnitude, we use a Monte Carlo approach to cover the parameter space of reported partition coefficients. Although data are limited, Archean rocks appear to show a non-linear trend between age and 142Nd and 182W, suggesting inefficient heterogeneous mixing of some of the early enriched reservoir (EER or late stage cumulates) back into the early depleted reservoir (EDR or deeper cumulates) during or after overturn, also first suggested by [1][2]. To account for this, we model various mixing scenarios using post-overturn mantle stratigraphy. Additionally, because 142Nd and 182W are decay products of short-lived radioisotopes, the timing of magma ocean crystallization is critical to producing a modern day mantle consistent with measured compositions. We therefore iterate through time to determine the statistically most likely time of the last major mantle-melting event. Consistent with [2], we argue that the EER is not hidden but is instead the seismologically observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs), or the D'' region, and the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZs) are dense, iron-rich silicon-poor melts of the LLSVPs. Given this, the isotopic reservoirs produced by our models must mix such that the EER remaining after mixing is the same volume as the LLSVPs, or 2% of the mantle (e.g., [6][7]). Approximately two-thirds our run results are "successful" given known partition coefficients, and so our results suggest that this model is viable: magma ocean fractional solidification can produce mantle reservoirs consistent with isotopic compositions observed in some rocks, and can produce a dense lower mantle layer consistent in longevity and volume to the LLSVPs. [1]Boyet and Carlson,2005,Science,309(5743),576-81.[2]Carlson and Boyet,2008,Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A,366(1883),4077-103. [3]Willbold et al.,2011,Nature,477(7363), 195-8. [4]Touboul et al.,2012,Science,335(6072),1065-9. [5]Rizo et al.,Nature,491(7422),96-100. [6]Burke et al.,2008,EPSL,265(1-2),49-60. [7]Hernlund and Houser,2008,EPSL,265(3-4),423-37.

Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walker, R. J.

2013-12-01

145

Spatial and Time Coincidence Detection of the Decay Chain of Short-Lived Radioactive Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The quantum counting position sensitive pixel detector Timepix with per-pixel energy and time resolution enables to detect radioactive ions and register the consecutive decay chain by simultaneous position-and time-correlation. This spatial and timing coincidence technique in the same sensor is demonstrated by the registration of the decay chain {sup 8}He{yields}{sup {beta} 8}Li and {sup 8}Li{yields}{sup {beta}-} {sup 8}Be{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} and by the measurement of the {beta} decay half-lives. Radioactive ions, selectively obtained from the Lohengrin fission fragment spectrometer installed at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble, are delivered to the Timepix silicon sensor where decays of the implanted ions and daughter nuclei are registered and visualized. We measure decay lifetimes in the range {>=}{mu}s with precision limited just by counting statistics.

Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Koester, Ulli [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-08-04

146

Use of Stable Isotopes to Follow Intracellular Water Dynamics in Living Cells  

SciTech Connect

Despite the importance of water to cell structure and function, intracellular water dynamics are poorly understood. A new method based on isotope ratio measurements has revealed that a substantial portion of the O and H atoms in the intracellular water of rapidly-dividing cultured cells is derived from metabolic activity, and not from environmental water. These findings have led to a dynamic model of intracellular water composition: (1) Intracellular water is composed of water that diffuses in from the extracellular environment and water that is created as a result of metabolic activity. (2) The relative amounts of environmental and metabolic water inside a cell are a function of the cell's metabolic activity. (3) The oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellular metabolites are a function of those of intracellular water, and therefore reflect the metabolic activity of the cell at the time of biosynthesis. Data from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as cultured mammalian cells are consistent with the model.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-28

147

Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense short lived when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).

Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

2013-12-01

148

Id2 influences differentiation of KLRG1hi short-lived CD8+ effector T cells  

PubMed Central

CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens through the generation of cytotoxic effector cells that eliminate infected cells and long-lived memory cells that provide enhanced protection against reinfection. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, Id2, is necessary for accumulation of effector and memory CD8+ T cells during infection. Here we show that CD8+ T cells lacking Id2 did not generate a robust terminally-differentiated KLRG1hi effector population, but displayed a cell-surface phenotype and cytokine profile consistent with memory precursors, raising the question as to whether loss of Id2 impairs the differentiation and/or survival of effector-memory cells. We found that deletion of Bim rescued Id2-deficient CD8+ cell survival during infection. However, the dramatic reduction in KLRG1hi cells caused by loss of Id2 remained in the absence of Bim, such that Id2/Bim double-deficient cells form an exclusively KLRG1lo CD127hi memory precursor population. Thus we describe a role for Id2 in both the survival and differentiation of normal CD8+ effector and memory populations. PMID:23325888

Knell, Jamie; Best, J. Adam; Lind, Nicholas A.; Yang, Edward; D'Cruz, Louise M.; Goldrath, Ananda W.

2013-01-01

149

Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the short-lived rodent, Octodon degus.  

PubMed

The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a short-lived and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined. PMID:23524002

Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D

2013-06-01

150

FORMATION OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu [Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Chemical Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide [School of Ocean, Earth Science and Technology, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ishii, Hope A. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J., E-mail: jacobsen5@llnl.gov [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-04-20

151

Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

2013-06-01

152

TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2013-06-10

153

Formation of the Short-lived Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 ?m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (? 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.

2011-04-01

154

Effects of East Asian Short-lived Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA short-lived anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian short-lived anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from local anthropogenic sources. In terms of long-range transport, anthropogenic pollutants from EA generally account for 2-5ppbv surface ozone from east to west mid-latitude North Pacific, but with distinct seasonal variability. During spring, EA anthropogenic emissions enhance nearly 2ppbV ozone over the west coast of California, USA, which increases the number of days when MADA8 exceeds 75ppbV by 2~5days/season in JJA. We find that the high aerosol loadings over EA significantly elevate aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Eastern China (0.2-0.4 in DJF and 0.3-0.5 in JJA), which warms up the atmosphere (15~20 Watts/m2) at the expense of cooling the surface (-30~-20 Watts/m2), potentially reducing the local surface temperature by -0.5K ~ -2K. Moreover, our model results also show that EA anthropogenic pollutants significantly depress local precipitation rate (up to 1.5 mm/day) and rain frequency (4-10 days/season), particularly over South and Southwestern China. This may partly explain the change of seasonal precipitation patterns over EA during the past decades.

Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.

2012-12-01

155

Short burst oxygen therapy after activities of daily living in the home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Short burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) is widely prescribed in the UK with little evidence of benefit. A study was performed to examine whether SBOT benefits patients when undertaking normal activities at home among those who already use it. Methods Twenty?two patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were included in the study. All regularly used SBOT at home and claimed that it helps them. Each patient chose two daily living activities for which they used SBOT for relief of breathlessness. Patients were then randomised to use either an air or oxygen gas cylinder. At least 15?min later the same activity was performed using the other gas cylinder. The same process was then repeated for the second chosen activity. The main endpoints were subjective and objective times to recovery, analysed for each activity separately or taking the average over the two activities. A paired statistical analysis was performed. Results All patients used SBOT with nasal prongs after exercise. Using the average recovery time over two activities for each patient, the mean objective recovery time was 38?s lower (95% CI ?81 to +5) using oxygen and the mean subjective recovery time was 34?s lower (95% CI ?69 to +2). Five patients were correctly able to distinguish oxygen from air after both activities and there was a suggestion that their recovery times were shorter than those who did not correctly identify the gases (91?s vs 20?s using objective recovery times, and 80?s vs 22?s using subjective recovery times), although this was a subgroup analysis based on only five patients with non?significant results. Conclusions There is some evidence that SBOT shortens recovery time after activities of daily living in a selected group of patients with COPD, but the effect is small. There appears to be a subgroup of patients who may benefit to a much greater degree. PMID:17311844

Quantrill, S J; White, R; Crawford, A; Barry, J S; Batra, S; Whyte, P; Roberts, C M

2007-01-01

156

Isotopic and physiological responses during short-term acclimation to atmospheric CO2 concentration in Pinus nigra.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of plants to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will have an important influence on biogeochemical cycles in the future. These responses are physiologically driven, but have important feedbacks to water and nutrient cycles as the plants adjust photosynthetic activity within the constraints of these other cycles. Leaf scale manipulations of CO2 concentration provide us with a wealth of information on the short-term, biochemical response of leaf photosynthesis, but these responses do not translate to whole plant responses under sustained growth at higher CO2 concentrations, as has been evidenced by free air enrichment studies. Here we report on a study into whole plant responses to CO2 concentration using a new, 10m3 isotope-biogeochemistry growth chamber housing small (1.5m) potted Pinus nigra trees under controlled conditions. This chamber is capable of controlling the climatic and CO2 conditions and designed for sampling biogeochemical pools for isotopic analysis with minimal disturbance to the system. The trees were maintained at 20°C and 50-60% RH, and at three CO2 concentrations (380 ppm, 500 ppm, 800 ppm) for ~10 days each to explore whole-plant physiological acclimation responses with other factors being constant (i.e. soil nutrient and water status). New steady-state conditions were reached after 5-6 days, and samples of chamber air and transpired water vapour were collected during a diurnal period at the end of the treatment period and analysed for their isotopic (13C, 18O) composition. Transpiration rate and 18O composition were relatively steady over the photoperiod, while the 18O of air CO2 typically displayed a 5-10 permil decline. The 13C of air CO2 varied by 2-3 permil over the day, but did not show a consistent pattern between treatments. There was a highly correlated enrichment in the end-of-day values of atmospheric CO2 18O (by ~3 permil) and 13C (by ~2 permil) across the three CO2 concentrations. Transpiration trends were consistent between leaf-level and total canopy measurement, and leaf-level gas exchange measurements indicated that there was a 125% increase in water use efficiency between 380 ppm and 800 ppm, driven by both reductions in stomatal conductance (33%) and increases in CO2 assimilation rate (39%). Ongoing measurements include the analysis of leaf, twig and soil water and leaf sugars.

Maseyk, Kadmiel; Biron, Philippe; Richard, Patricia; Canal, Laurent; Bariac, Thierry

2010-05-01

157

Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.

Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

2014-01-01

158

Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked. PMID:20356953

Malikova, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesova, Jitka

2010-01-01

159

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants  

PubMed Central

In this report we review the health effects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276

Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George

2014-01-01

160

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent.  

PubMed

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes. PMID:25073082

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-01-01

161

The evolution of the galaxy and the birth of the solar system: The short-lived nuclides connection  

E-print Network

An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an N-body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. On contrary to the conventional galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach pr...

Sahijpal, Sandeep

2014-01-01

162

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes.

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H.; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R.; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-07-01

163

Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10 European regions. METHODS: The Models of Organizing Access to Intensive Care for Very Preterm Births (MOSAIC) study

J. Zeitlin; E. S. Draper; L. A. A. Kollee; D. Milligan; K. Boerch; R. Agostino; L. Gortner; P. van Reempts; J.-L. Chabernaud; J. Gadzinowski; G. Breart; E. Papiernik

2008-01-01

164

Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using short message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with short message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using

Curtis M. Coomes; Megan A. Lewis; Jennifer D. Uhrig; Robert D. Furberg; Jennie L. Harris; Carla M. Bann

2011-01-01

165

Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using short message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with short message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using

Curtis M. Coomes; Megan A. Lewis; Jennifer D. Uhrig; Robert D. Furberg; Jennie L. Harris; Carla M. Bann

2012-01-01

166

Materials Research in France: A Short-lived National Initiative (1982-1994). Emanuel Bertrand, Physico-chimie des Electrolytes, Collodes, et Sciences Analytiques  

E-print Network

1 Materials Research in France: A Short-lived National Initiative (1982-1994). Emanuel Bertrand cedex 05, France. Abstract This paper describes the French initiative in materials research against both prompted this governmental initiative, and to characterize the specific profile of materials research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

SHORT-LIVED STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are short-lived and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.

Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M. [Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig [Max Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Johansson, Peter H. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dave, Romeel [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: shy@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: forster@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: naab@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: burkert@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi, E-mail: rad@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany)

2012-01-20

168

How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short-lived bromocarbons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly levels.

Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

2014-10-01

169

Starbursts and high-redshift galaxies are radioactive: high abundances of 26Al and other short-lived radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) like 26Al are synthesized by massive stars and are a byproduct of star formation. The abundances of SLRs in the gas of a star-forming galaxy are inversely proportional to the gas consumption time. The rapid evolution of specific star formation rate (SSFR) of normal galaxies implies they had mean SLR abundances ˜3-10 times higher at z = 2. During the epoch of Solar system formation, the background SLR abundances of the Galaxy were up to twice as high as at present, if SLR yields from massive stars do not depend on metallicity. If SLRs are homogenized in the gas of galaxies, the high SSFRs of normal galaxies can partly explain the elevated abundance of SLRs like 60Fe and 26Al in the early Solar system. Starburst galaxies have much higher SSFRs still, and have enormous mean abundances of 26Al (26Al/27Al ?10-3 for solar metallicity gas). The main uncertainty is whether the SLRs are mixed with the star-forming molecular gas: they could be trapped in hot gas and decay before entering the colder phases, or be blown out by starburst winds. I consider how variability in star formation rate affects the SLR abundances, and I discuss how SLR transport may differ in these galaxies. The enhanced 26Al of starbursts might maintain moderate ionization rates (10-18-10-17 s-1), possibly dominating ionization in dense clouds not penetrated by cosmic rays. Similar ionization rates would be maintained in protoplanetary discs of starbursts, if the SLRs are well mixed, and the radiogenic heating of planetesimals would likewise be much higher. In this way, galaxy evolution can affect the geological history of planetary systems.

Lacki, Brian C.

2014-06-01

170

The effects of ?-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees.  

PubMed

Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the ?(13)C and ?(18)O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and ?-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if ?-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the ?(13)C or ?(18)O values of ?-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of ?-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the ?(13)C (up to 0.4‰) and ?(18) O (up to 1.2‰) of ?-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the ?(13)C and ?(18)O of whole wood or ?-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and ?-cellulose ?(13)C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between ?(18)O of whole wood and ?-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States. PMID:21953963

English, Nathan B; McDowell, Nate G; Allen, Craig D; Mora, Claudia

2011-10-30

171

Development of a fast and efficient separation for short-lived plutonium isotopes produced in accelerator-based irradiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, fast and simple separation procedure is presented for separation of plutonium from lighter actinides and fission products. Classical methods, such as TTA-extraction and anion exchange resin techniques, were examined but failed to provide sufficient separation from lighter actinides. A successful procedure based on solid phase extraction chromatography was developed. Plutonium was effectively separated from interfering activities within 8

C. A. Laue; R. Sudowe; K. E. Gregorich; D. C. Hoffman

1999-01-01

172

Development of a fast and efficient separation for short-lived plutonium isotopes produced in accelerator-based irradiations  

SciTech Connect

A novel, fast and simple separation procedure is presented for separation of plutonium from lighter actinides and fission products. Classical methods, such as TTA-extraction and anion exchange resin techniques, were examined but failed to provide sufficient separation from lighter actinides. A successful procedure based on solid phase extraction chromatography was developed. Plutonium was effectively separated from interfering activities within 8 minutes using TEVA-resino, a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert support. Recoveries of about 70 percent were achieved for plutonium with decontamination factors of 105 to 106 from neptunium, uranium and thorium.

Laue, C.A.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

1999-10-01

173

DEVELOPMENT OF A FAST AND EFFICIENT SEPARATION FOR SHORT-LIVED PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES PRODUCED IN ACCELERATOR-BASED IRRADIATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, fast and simple separation procedure is presented for separation of plutonium from lighter actinides and fission products. Classical methods, such as TTA-extraction and anion exchange resin techniques, were examined but failed to provide sufficient separation from lighter actinides. A successful procedure based on solid phase extraction chromatography was developed. Plutonium was effectively separated from interfering activities within 8?minutes

C. A. Laue; R. Sudowe; K. E. Gregorich; D. C. Hoffman

2000-01-01

174

Analysis of Very Short-Lived Halocarbons in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean and Atmosphere using Fully Automated Sampling Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive halogen species, originating in part from very short-lived halocarbons (VSLH), play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular their reaction with ozone to form halogen oxides. Oceanic iodocarbon production is believed to be a significant source of IO. Unfortunately, VSLH datasets are sparse compared to those of other important trace gases, especially in oligotrophic oceans and the equatorial Pacific where recent satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY show elevated levels of iodine oxide in the free troposphere. A new, fully automated purge and trap- thermal desorption system coupled to a GC-MS was developed to provide continuous measurement of VSLH in water sampled from a ship's surface seawater inlet and semi-automated analysis of bottle samples from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature Depth) casts. This instrument was deployed on NOAA vessel Ka'imimoana, alongside a new system for continuous on-line air measurements (TD-GC-MS), during the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Experiment of Reactive halogen species and OVOCs (TORERO) campaign. High frequency boundary layer and surface seawater measurements are presented here with ocean depth profiling of VSLH along the 110°W TOA buoy line. Owing to the high sample throughput and continuous sampling, photolysis driven processes of iodocarbons in the ocean have been observed which have previously only been predicted in modelling and laboratory studies. Sea-air fluxes have been calculated along the cruise track using corresponding meteorological data from the ship. Extensive, open-ocean VSLH flux data is presented which, for the region of this study, is missing or sparse in the WMO ozone assessment of 2010. Inter-comparison of a standard gas used during the campaign allows the use of a single calibration scale (NOAA GMD) between research groups which adds confidence to the results and allows collation of data from the ship with simultaneous measurements taken on-board the NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft using the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA). The inter-comparison will additionally link these data sets with recent inter-comparisons in the UK and US.

Andrews, S. J.; Lidster, R.; Carpenter, L.

2012-12-01

175

NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of short-lived color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was found that the short-lived color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.

Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.

1987-11-01

176

Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (Mus musculus).  

PubMed

Lower ROS release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (short-lived). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-lived species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate. PMID:19464314

Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F

2009-08-01

177

Carbon Isotopic Signatures in Living Benthic Foraminifera from Methane-Soaked Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ongoing discussion on the role of methane outgassing from costal basins to explain the rapid warmings in the Northern Hemisphere during the last Glacial cycle. The recurring anomalous depletions in the benthic foraminifera carbon isotopic composition, observed in a few high resolution cores in carbon rich coastal basins, has been interpreted as an indication of the assimilation of methane derived carbon by these organisms. The magnitude and timing of these depletions, coincident with rapid warmings in the Northern hemisphere, have been interpreted in terms of large methane releases from these carbon loaden sediments into the atmosphere. However, it is still poorly known whether benthic foraminifera do in fact assimilate methane derived carbon and if at all the observed carbon isotopic depletions are related to periods of methane release. Here we report on some recent results from an extensive ROV-based exploration along the NE transform margin of the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California with the objective of characterizing the patterns of carbon isotopic assimilation into the benthic foraminiferal tests along known gradients of present methane venting. Cores were retrieved from beds of living calyptogenid clams, tubeworms, and white bacterial mats, commonly found on exposed strata on the flanks of the basin; from a methane venting site visible by a continuous emanation of gas bubbles from the seafloor in 1,582 m of water; and from background sites at the same depth in Guaymas Basin. Rose bengal-stained specimens of Uvigerina peregrina (Up), Planulina wüllerstorfi (Pw), Globobulimina pacifica (Gp), and Bulimina mexicana (Bm) were hand-picked and their carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined in 117 samples. The mean carbon isotopic values (relative to PDB) in any group of these benthic foraminifera are not distinctly lighter than expected for these sites (-1.14% Up, -0.28% Pw, -1.71% Gp, and -0.5% Bm). Their range of values are small (1.26% Up, 1.14% Pw, 2.17% Gp, and 0.81% Bm) and can be fully explained in terms of the pore water carbon isotopic composition, that results from the oxidation of organic carbon in the upper few cm of the sediment column further mirrored in the strong sulphate reduction gradients with depth. DIC isotopic composition measured in several pore water sample range from -2.9% to -35.85%. The most depleted values indicate that while some methane derived carbon has entered the authigenic DIC pool within the seafloor sediments, there is no record of the assimilation of this carbon on the calcitic shells of living benthic foraminifera. These results question the extent to which strong carbon isotopic depletion signals in the geological record are features recorded by living foraminifera or the result of a posterior diagenetical imprint.

Herguera, J.; Perez, E.; Paull, C.; Ussler, B.; Peltzer, E.; Brewer, P.; Cortina, A.

2004-12-01

178

Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.

Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.

2007-03-26

179

SHORT-PERIOD PRICING MODELS FOR FED CATTLE AND IMPACTS OF WHOLESALE CARCASS BEEF AND LIVE CATTLE FUTURES MARKET PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattlemen have expressed concern about variation among transaction prices for fed cattle, wholesale beef and fed cattle pricing and have and to determine the impacts of wholesale car- antitrust lawsuits pending against supermarkets, cass beef prices and live cattle futures market meatpackers, trade associations, and a meat prices on fed cattle prices. price reporting firm. Lawsuits allege manipula- tion of

Clement E. Ward

1981-01-01

180

Freshly induced short-lived gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the short-lived 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the short-lived gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.

Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.

2010-12-01

181

Short-lived p-nuclides in the early solar system and implications on the nucleosynthetic role of X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

The data available for short-lived $p$-nuclides are used in an open nonlinear model of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy in order to discuss the origin of extinct radionuclides, the stellar sources of $p$-nuclides, and the chronology of solar system formation. It is concluded that the observed abundances of $^{97}$Tc, $^{98}$Tc, $^{92}$Nb, and $^{146}$Sm in the early solar system are consistent with nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae during continuous chemical evolution of the Galaxy and a subsequent short isolation of the presolar molecular cloud from fresh nucleosynthetic inputs. However, further work on supernova models is needed before $p$-radionuclides will comprise reliable cosmochronometers. Despite these limitations, we argue that niobium-92 can be used to test whether the {\\it rp}-process contributed to the synthesis of light {\\it p}-nuclides in the Mo-Ru region.

Nicolas Dauphas; Thomas Rauscher; Bernard Marty; Laurie Reisberg

2002-11-20

182

Determination of k0 and related nuclear data for short-lived radionuclides to be used in KAYZERO-NAA at DSM research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to further enhance at DSM research the capabilities and competitiveness of NAA (especially via short-time k0-NAA supported by the KAYZERO/SOLCOI © PC-software package) as a key analytical technique, in the present work experimental measurements and evaluations have been carried out of k0 and related nuclear data for 10 analytically important ( n,?) reactions leading to short-lived radionuclides: 20F, 71Zn, 77mSe, 80Br, 104Rh, 109mPd, 110Ag, 124m1Sb, 179mHf and 205Hg. For 80Br, 104Rh and 124m1Sb, the branched activation/decay mechanism was taken into account.

Van Lierde, S.; De Corte, F.; Bossus, D.; van Sluijs, R.; Pommé, S.

1999-02-01

183

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a “run-away-decline process” leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to

Katariina Kiviniemi

2008-01-01

184

Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

1976-01-01

185

a Coupled nd and HF Isotopic Study of Isua Archean Rocks and the Differentiation of the Hadean Mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 500 Ma of Earth's history is for the most part unknown due to the scarcity of rocks and minerals available for investigation. Instead, early mantle evolution can be inferred from short- and long-lived isotope systematics in Earth's oldest rocks. While low concentrations of Sm and Nd in zircons make this mineral unsuitable for Nd isotope analysis, its high

H. L. Rizo Garza; M. M. Boyet; J. Blichert-Toft; M. Rosing; A. Gannoun

2010-01-01

186

Short communication: survival, growth to weaning, and subsequent fertility of live-born dairy heifers after a difficult birth.  

PubMed

The experience of a difficult birth (dystocia) is traumatic and has adverse effects on the newborn in various species. Despite affecting up to 1 in 3 births in dairy cattle, studies on calves have been mostly limited to the first day of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dystocia on the survival to calving, growth to weaning, and subsequent fertility as nulliparous animals. Historical data from live-born Holstein heifer calves born from cows with various birth difficulty scores (no assistance; moderate; high difficulty) were obtained from 2 herds (Edinburgh herd: n=1,237; Crichton Royal Farm herd: n=721). Each herd was analyzed separately for birth weights, weaning weights, growth rate to weaning, number of services to conception, and age at first calving using REML and generalized linear mixed model analyses. Survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) was used in the Edinburgh herd to analyze the subsequent survival of live-born heifers, whereas descriptive data are presented for the Crichton Royal Farm herd. A higher mortality risk to weaning and to first service was observed in the live-born heifers that experienced moderate difficulty at birth compared with heifers born naturally. Surviving dystocial heifers had similar growth-to-weaning and fertility performance as heifers born naturally in both herds. It could be that the performance of dystocial heifers that survived to weaning was not affected or that it was compensated for by farm management. This study highlights long-term effects of the early experience of a difficult birth and thereby stresses the importance of preventing dystocia not just from the point of view of the adult cow, but also from the perspective of the calf. This would also improve farm efficiency and calf welfare. PMID:22939781

Barrier, A C; Dwyer, C M; Macrae, A I; Haskell, M J

2012-11-01

187

Proteomic profiling identified multiple short-lived members of the central proteome as the direct targets of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells.  

PubMed

"Oncogene addiction" is an unexplained phenomenon in the area of cancer targeted therapy. In this study, we have tested a hypothesis that rapid apoptotic response of cancer cells following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes is because of loss of multiple short-lived proteins whose activity normally maintain cell survival by blocking caspase activation directly or indirectly. It was shown that rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis could be induced in both A431 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, and quick down-regulation of 17 proteins, which were all members of the central proteome of human cells, was found to be associated with the onset of acute apoptosis. Knockdown of PSMD11 could partially promote the occurrence of acute apoptosis in both MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. These findings indicate that maintaining the stability of central proteome may be a primary mechanism for addicted oncogenes to maintain the survival of cancer cells through various signaling pathways, and quick loss of some of the short-lived members of the central proteome may be the direct reason for the rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells. These findings we have presented can help us better understand the phenomenon of oncogene-addiction and may have important implications for the targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:24105791

Qi, Tonggang; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Yun; Kong, Feng; Xu, Dawei; Cheng, Guanghui; Wang, Yunshan

2014-01-01

188

Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice  

PubMed Central

Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. PMID:23832075

Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Rakoczy, Sharlene

2013-01-01

189

Unattached fraction of short-lived Rn decay products in indoor and outdoor environments: An improved single-screen method and results  

SciTech Connect

The unattached fraction fp of potential alpha energy of short-lived Rn decay products was measured under realistic, natural conditions in different dwellings and in the open atmosphere by a single-screen technique. An improved data evaluation method was developed where the measured activities of {sup 218}Po (RaA) and {sup 214}Pb (RaB) were corrected by the screen-attached activities of {sup 214}Bi ({sup 214}Po) (RaC (RaC')). This method is based on the experimental observation that the {sup 214}Bi ({sup 214}Po) unattached activities are negligible under realistic living conditions and that the size distributions of the aerosol-attached activities of all short-lived Rn daughters are identical. In closed rooms without additional aerosol sources, a mean unattached fraction fp of the potential alpha energy of 0.096 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 6100 cm-3 and at a mean equilibrium factor F of 0.30. This mean fp value is about three times higher than the value used in the literature for the radiation exposure calculation of the human public. In closed rooms with additional aerosol sources (cigarette smoke, heating systems, aerosols from a burning candle), the aerosol particle concentrations ranged up to 10(6) cm-3 and the attachment rates, X, increased up to 1000 h-1. The fp values sometimes decreased below the detection limit of 0.005, and the F values increased to as high as 0.77. In the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of Goettingen, a mean unattached fraction fp of 0.02 and a mean aerosol particle concentration of 3.4 x 10(4) cm-3 were measured at 1 m above the ground. The mean equilibrium factor F was determined to be 0.7.A

Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J. (Universitaet Goettingen (Germany, F.R.))

1990-06-01

190

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

191

Carbon isotope anomaly and other geochemical changes at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from a marine section in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most mass extinctions are linked with carbon isotope excursions, implying that biotic crises are coupled with changes in the global carbon cycle. The isotopic evolution during the end-Triassic extinction is far less documented than that for the other major Phanerozoic extinctions. Here we report a sharp and short-lived -3.50\\/00 excursion in carbon isotope values for carbonate (delta13Ccarb) corresponding to a

József Pálfy; Attila Demény; János Haas; Magdolna Hetényi; Michael J. Orchard; István Veto

2001-01-01

192

Short lived 36Cl and its decay products 36Ar and 36S in the early solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable excesses of 36S have previously been reported in sodalite in the Allende and Ningqiang meteorites and used to infer the presence of 36Cl in the early solar system. Until now no unambiguous evidence of the major decay product, 36Ar (98%), has been found. Using low fluence fast neutron activation we have measured small amounts of 36Ar in the Allende sodalite Pink Angel, corresponding to 36Cl/35Cl = (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10-8. This is a factor of 200 lower than the highest value inferred from 36S excesses in sodalite. High resolution I-Xe analyses confirm that the sodalite formed between 4561 and 4558 Ma ago. The core of Pink Angel sodalite yielded a precise formation age of 4559.4 ± 0.6 Ma. Deposition of sodalite containing live 36Cl, seven million years or so after the formation of the CAI, appears to require a local production mechanism involving intense neutron irradiation within the solar nebula. The constraint imposed by the near absence of neutron induced 128Xe is most easily satisfied if the 36Cl were produced in a fluid precursor of the sodalite. The low level of 36Ar could be accounted for as a result of residual in-situ36Cl decay, up to 1-2 Ma after formation of the sodalite, and/or later diffusive loss, in line with the low activation energy for Ar diffusion in sodalite.

Turner, G.; Crowther, S. A.; Burgess, R.; Gilmour, J. D.; Kelley, S. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.

2013-12-01

193

Determination of residence time and mixing processes of the Ubatuba, Brazil, inner shelf waters using natural Ra isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal waters contain elevated dissolved activities of short-lived radium isotopes, 223Ra and 224Ra, having half-lives of 11.4 and 3.66days, respectively. The input of these isotopes near the coast must be balanced by decay and mixing into the open ocean, where excess activities are zero. Since the decay rate is known, in the ideal case the mixing rate may be determined

Willard S. Moore; Joselene de Oliveira

2008-01-01

194

Seasonal variations in photosynthesis, intrinsic water-use efficiency and stable isotope composition of poplar leaves in a short-rotation plantation.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and transpirational water loss play an important role in the yield and the carbon sequestration potential of bioenergy-devoted cultures of fast-growing trees. For six poplar (Populus) genotypes in a short-rotation plantation, we observed significant seasonal and genotypic variation in photosynthetic parameters, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) and leaf stable isotope composition (?13C and ?18O). The poplars maintained high photosynthetic rates (between 17.8 and 26.9??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) depending on genotypes) until late in the season, in line with their fast-growth habit. Seasonal fluctuations were mainly explained by variations in soil water availability and by stomatal limitation upon photosynthesis. Stomatal rather than biochemical limitation was confirmed by the constant intrinsic photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) during the growing season, closely related to leaf nitrogen (N) content. Intrinsic water-use efficiency scaled negatively with carbon isotope discrimination (?13Cbl) and positively with the ratio between mesophyll diffusion conductance (gm) and stomatal conductance. The WUEi-?13Cbl relationship was partly influenced by gm. There was a trade-off between WUEi and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, but only when soil water availability was limiting. Our results suggest that seasonal fluctuations in relation to soil water availability should be accounted for in future modelling studies assessing the carbon sequestration potential and the water-use efficiency of woody energy crops. PMID:25074859

Broeckx, L S; Fichot, R; Verlinden, M S; Ceulemans, R

2014-07-01

195

Seasonal and Short-term Variation of Water Vapor Isotope ratios in Surface Air in Sapporo, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes of atmospheric water vapor provide information about movement of water and its phase changes in the atmosphere. Surface water vapor's ?D and ?18O measurement was conducted in Sapporo (43.1N, 141.3E), a humid continental site characterized by a warm but not humid summer and a quite cold and snowy winter, in Hokkaido, Japan with a Los Gatos Research's (LGR) Water-Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA, model DLT-100). The observation in Sapporo was carried out in four phases: (I) 28 April 2009 - 25 June 2009; (II) 15 September 2009 - 29 November 2009; (III) 1 April 2010 - 21 May 2010 and (IV) 17 December 2010 - 30 May 2011. In addition, auxiliary data (air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed & direction, etc.) were obtained with an automatic weather station (AWS). Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of ?D and ?18O of atmospheric water vapor near the ground in Sapporo and to explore the meteorological processes that influence ?D and ?18O of atmospheric water vapor at the surface. In general, ?D and ?18O were higher in warm season (PHASES I & III) than in cold season (PHASES II & IV) with almost equal day-to-day ?D variability in both seasons. The lightest ?D (-239.7%) occurs in the month of March/April despite not being the coldest month in Sapporo. This is thought to be due to "rigorous" evaporation due to snow-melting. In addition, over periods of about 1-7days, considerable variations occurred, sometimes exceeding 100% for ?D. These considerable variations were attributable to weather phenomena such as sea-breeze and cold frontal passages. The former causes ?D to increase abruptly while the latter causes an abrupt decrease.

Sunmonu, L. A.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Muramoto, K.; Kurita, N.

2011-12-01

196

Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 ?F) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ? = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

2010-10-01

197

Charge and frequency resolved isochronous mass spectrometry in storage rings: First direct mass measurement of the short-lived neutron-deficient $^{51}$Co nuclide  

E-print Network

Revolution frequency measurements of individual ions in storage rings require sophisticated timing detectors. One of common approaches for such detectors is the detection of secondary electrons released from a thin foil due to penetration of the stored ions. A new method based on the analysis of intensities of secondary electrons was developed which enables determination of the charge of each ion simultaneously with the measurement of its revolution frequency. Although the mass-over-charge ratios of $^{51}$Co$^{27+}$ and $^{34}$Ar$^{18+}$ ions are almost identical, and therefore, the ions can not be resolved in a storage ring, by applying the new method the mass excess of the short-lived $^{51}$Co is determined for the first time to be ME($^{51}$Co)=-27342(48) keV. Shell-model calculations in the $fp$-shell nuclei compared to the new data indicate the need to include isospin-nonconserving forces.

P. Shuai; H. S. Xu; X. L. Tu; Y. H. Zhang; B. H. Sun; Yu. A. Litvinov; X. L. Yan; K. Blaum; M. Wang; X. H. Zhou; J. J. He; Y. Sun; K. Kaneko; Y. J. Yuan; J. W. Xia; J. C. Yang; G. Audi; X. C. Chen; G. B. Jia; Z. G. Hu; X. W. Ma; R. S. Mao; B. Mei; Z. Y. Sun; S. T. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; X. Xu; T. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamaguchi; Y. D. Zang; H. W. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; W. Zhang; W. L. Zhan

2014-04-04

198

Creating dynamic images of short-lived dopamine fluctuations with lp-ntPET: dopamine movies of cigarette smoking.  

PubMed

We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis--yielding a dopamine movie--is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters. This aspect of the analysis--temporal-variation--is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model to a conventional model. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

Morris, Evan D; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Cosgrove, Kelly P

2013-01-01

199

The transcript catalogue of the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA levels  

PubMed Central

Background The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri has over recent years been established as a model species for ageing-related studies. This is mainly based on its exceptionally short lifespan and the presence of typical characteristics of vertebrate ageing. To substantiate its role as an alternative vertebrate ageing model, a transcript catalogue is needed, which can serve e.g. as basis for identifying ageing-related genes. Results To build the N. furzeri transcript catalogue, thirteen cDNA libraries were sequenced using Sanger, 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina technologies yielding about 39 Gb. In total, 19,875 protein-coding genes were identified and annotated. Of these, 71% are represented by at least one transcript contig with a complete coding sequence. Further, transcript levels of young and old fish of the strains GRZ and MZM-0403, which differ in lifespan by twofold, were studied by RNA-seq. In skin and brain, 85 differentially expressed genes were detected; these have a role in cell cycle control and proliferation, inflammation and tissue maintenance. An RNA-seq experiment for zebrafish skin confirmed the ageing-related relevance of the findings in N. furzeri. Notably, analyses of transcript levels between zebrafish and N. furzeri but also between N. furzeri strains differed largely, suggesting that ageing is accelerated in the short-lived N. furzeri strain GRZ compared to the longer-lived strain MZM-0403. Conclusions We provide a comprehensive, annotated N. furzeri transcript catalogue and a first transcriptome-wide insight into N. furzeri ageing. This data will serve as a basis for future functional studies of ageing-related genes. PMID:23496936

2013-01-01

200

The oxygen isotope composition of earth's oldest rocks and evidence of a terrestrial magma ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of Hadean and Archean rocks for 16O-17O-18O isotopes demonstrates that the Terrestrial Mass Fractionation Line of oxygen isotopes has had the same slope and intercept for at least the past 4.0 and probably for as long as 4.2 Ga. The homogenization of oxygen isotopes required to produce such long-lived consistency was most easily established by mixing in a terrestrial magma ocean. The measured identical oxygen isotope mass fractionation lines for Earth and Moon suggest that oxygen isotope reservoirs of both bodies were homogenized at the same time during a giant moon-forming impact. But other sources of heat for global melting cannot be excluded such as bolide impacts during early accretion of proto-Earth, the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes, or the energy released during segregation of core from mantle.

Rumble, D.; Bowring, S.; Iizuka, T.; Komiya, T.; Lepland, A.; Rosing, M. T.; Ueno, Y.

2013-06-01

201

Holocene variability of bottom water hydrography on the Kara Sea shelf (Siberia) depicted in multiple single-valve analyses of stable isotopes in ostracods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ostracods secrete their valve calcite within a few hours or days, therefore, its isotopic composition records ambient environmental conditions of only a short time span. Hydrographic changes between the calcification of individuals lead to a corresponding range (max.–min.) in the isotope values when measuring several (?5) single valves from a specific sediment sample. Analyses of living (stained) ostracods from the

Johannes Simstich; Vladimir Stanovoy; Dorothea Bauch; Helmut Erlenkeuser; Robert F. Spielhagen

2004-01-01

202

Forcing Switch from Short- to Intermediate- and Long-lived States of the ?A Domain Generates LFA-1/ICAM-1 Catch Bonds*  

PubMed Central

Binding of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mediates leukocyte adhesion under force. Using a biomembrane force probe capable of measuring single bond interactions, we showed ICAM-1 binding to LFA-1 at different conformations, including the bent conformation with the lowest affinity. We quantify how force and conformations of LFA-1 regulate its kinetics with ICAM-1. At zero-force, on-rates were substantially changed by conditions that differentially favor a bent or extended LFA-1 with a closed or open headpiece; but off-rates were identical. With increasing force, LFA-1/ICAM-1 bond lifetimes (reciprocal off-rates) first increased (catch bonds) and then decreased (slip bonds). Three states with distinct off-rates were identified from lifetime distributions. Force shifted the associated fractions from the short- to intermediate- and long-lived states, producing catch bonds at low forces, but increased their off-rates exponentially, converting catch to slip bonds at high forces. An internal ligand antagonist that blocks pulling of the ?7-helix suppressed the intermediate-/long-lived states and eliminated catch bonds, revealing an internal catch bond between the ?A and ?A domains. These results elucidate an allosteric mechanism for the mechanochemistry of LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding. PMID:20819952

Chen, Wei; Lou, Jizhong; Zhu, Cheng

2010-01-01

203

On-line separation and identification of several short-lived fission products: Decay of 84Se, 91Kr, 97Y, 99Nb, 99Zr, 100, 101Nb and 101Zr  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for nuclear spectroscopy of short-lived fission products was run at the focus of the gas-filled on-line mass separator at the FRJ-2 reactor. By the known y-lines of long-lived fission products, a mass calibration of the separator was carried out. Several unknown shortlived fission products could be identified by investigating some very intense gamma-lines. For these lines, the decay

J. Eidens; E. Roeckl; P. Armbruster

1970-01-01

204

Half-lives and branchings for ?-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL ?-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for ?-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for Co74 (18±15%) and Ni75-77 (10±2.8%, 14±3.6%, and 30±24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of Cu77-79, Zn79,81, and Ga82. For Cu77-79 and for Zn81 we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of Co75 (30±11 ms) and Cu80 (170-50+110 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

Hosmer, P.; Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Clement, R. R. C.; Estrade, A.; Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Liddick, S. N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Mantica, P. F.; Möller, P.; Mueller, W. F.; Montes, F.; Morton, A. C.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Pereira, J.; Pfeiffer, B.; Reeder, P.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Tomlin, B. E.; Walters, W. B.; Wöhr, A.

2010-08-01

205

Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2013-11-01

206

Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2014-04-01

207

Composition and Trends of Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS over Europe Observed by the CARIBIC Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 . Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG), halocarbon and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. CARIBIC flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany with routes to India, East Asia, South America, North America and Africa, and typical aircraft cruising altitudes of 10-12km allow for the monitoring of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) along these routes. Data collected during the aircraft’s departure from and return to Frankfurt provide a 4 year time series of near-monthly measurements of the composition of the UT/LS above Europe. Here we present a discussion of the composition of short-lived trace gases in the whole air samples collected above Europe during CARIBIC flights. Over 150 air samples were collected between May 2005 and July 2009, or about 4 samples per month. Of the whole air samples collected, about 45% showed influence by stratospheric air (i.e. very low values of GHG, NMHC and halocarbons, elevated O3, high potential vorticity). The remaining samples were representative of the upper troposphere; back trajectories for these samples indicate that a little over half were collected in air masses that had been in the boundary layer within the previous 8 days. The predominant source regions for these samples were the Gulf of Mexico and continental North America. Owing to their wide range of chemical lifetimes and the varying composition of emissions, short-lived trace gases transported to the UT/LS can be useful indicators of source region, photochemical processing and transport timescales of an air mass. Seasonal and longer-term trends in trace gases and trace gas composition are discussed, as well as composition of air masses having different origins. Additionally, we apply relationships between the different species, particularly the NMHC, to gain a qualitative understanding of photochemical processes occurring during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere over Europe.

Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Slemr, F.; Schuck, T. J.

2009-12-01

208

Individual thyroid dose estimation for a case-control study of Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus-part I: 131I, short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I), and short-lived radiotelluriums (131MTe and 132Te).  

PubMed

Large amounts of radioiodines were released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. In order to investigate whether the thyroid cancers observed among children in Belarus could have been caused by radiation exposures from the Chernobyl accident, a team of Belarusian, Russian, and American scientists conducted a case-control study to compare cases and controls according to estimated thyroid dose. The primary purpose of this paper is to present detailed information on the estimated thyroid doses, due to intakes of 131I, that were used in the case-control study. The range of the 131I thyroid doses among the 107 cases and the 214 controls was found to extend from 0.00002 to 4.3 Gy, with medians of approximately 0.2 Gy for the cases and 0.07 Gy for the controls. In addition, the thyroid doses resulting from the intakes of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe and 132Te) were estimated and compared to the doses from 131I. The ratios of the estimated thyroid doses from the short-lived radionuclides and from I for the cases and the controls range from 0.003 to 0.1, with median values of approximately 0.02 for both cases and controls. PMID:15167120

Gavrilin, Yuri; Khrouch, Valeri; Shinkarev, Sergey; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Shemiakina, Elena; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Bouville, André; Anspaugh, Lynn; Voillequé, Paul; Luckyanov, Nickolas

2004-06-01

209

PI(3)K-Dependent Upregulation of Mcl-1 by Human Cytomegalovirus is Mediated by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Inhibits Apoptosis in Short-Lived Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Monocytes are a primary target for HCMV infection and are a key cell type responsible for hematogenous dissemination of the virus. Biologically these cells have a short life span of 1–3 days in the circulation, yet infected cells remain viable for weeks despite the lack of viral anti-apoptotic gene expression during this time period. To understand the mechanism by which HCMV inhibits the initial phase of monocyte apoptosis, we focused on the viral modulation of early pro-survival cell signalling events following infection. We demonstrate here that the viral upregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI(3)K] pathway promotes an early block in apoptosis following infection. Temporal transcriptome and protein analyses revealed Mcl-1, a member of the Bcl-2 family, was transiently induced in a PI(3)K-dependent manner during the early stages of HCMV infection. In accord with the survival studies, virally induced levels of Mcl-1 expression dissipated to mock levels by 72 hours post infection. Through the use of Mcl-1 specific siRNA, we confirmed the functional role that Mcl-1 plays as a key early regulator of apoptosis in monocytes. Lastly, we showed that HCMV engagement and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) during viral binding triggered the upregulation of Mcl-1. Overall, our data indicates that activation of the EGFR/PI(3)K signalling pathway, via the PI(3)K-dependent upregulation of Mcl-1, is required to circumvent apoptosis in naturally short-lived monocytes during the early stages of HCMV infection, thus ensuring the early steps in the viral persistence strategy. PMID:20173022

Chan, Gary; Nogalski, Maciej T.; Bentz, Gretchen L.; Smith, M. Shane; Parmater, Alexander; Yurochko, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

210

Some observations on the concentrations of short-lived decay products of radon and thoron in the monsoon rains of Bombay, India  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of radon decay products /sup 214/Pb(RaB) and /sup 214/Bi(RaC) and thoron daughter /sup 212/Pb(ThB) have been measured in rainfall at Bombay. The presence of short-lived /sup 218/Po(RaA) is indicated in a few samples. The levels of /sup 214/ Pb varied from 300 to 7000 pCi (11-260 Bq) per liter, while the activity ratios of /sup 214/Bi//sup 214/Pb are in the range of 0.5-1.5. From these values of the ratios a cloud drop lifetime, from nucleation to deposition, of 20--60 min is estimated. The concentrations of /sup 212/Pb varied from 2 to 30 pCi (0.075-1.1 Bq) per liter. The levels of radon and thoron daughter products are lower in Bombay summer rainfall compared with other areas due to their reduced concentrations in the maritime monsoon winds. Approximate estimates of scavenging ratios based on the surface air concentrations are 85 +- 65 (1 standard deviation) and 30 +- 20 (1 standard deviation) for radon and thoron daughters, respectively.

Rangarajan, C.; Eapen, C.D.

1985-08-20

211

Garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins in eclogite from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane: Imprint of a short-lived, high-temperature metamorphic stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eclogite-hosted garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins and lenses (10-20 cm in width) are described for the first time in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane. Some of the lenses were aligned parallel to the foliation of the host eclogite, suggesting that they were the product of ductile deformation of one titanohematite layer. A vein composed of titanohematite + ilmenite + hematite + spinel + garnet + corundum + quartz + K-feldspar + albite was studied in detail. Ti-Fe oxides account for up to >80% and Al-rich phases for ˜15% of the total volume of this vein. Electron microprobe analyses show that the titanohematite solid solution was made up of 0.75 hematite + 0.25 ilmenite. The unusual mineral assemblage of garnet + spinel + corundum + quartz implies that this vein could have experienced high temperatures (>900 °C). Although the garnets showed well-defined Mg and Mn diffusion zoning in the rim as a result of the high temperature event, slight Mg and Mn growth zoning was preserved in the core. Thus, we suggest that the Sulu UHP terrane could have experienced a short-lived, high-temperature (>900 °C) stage during exhumation. Garnets in the titanohematite vein were characterized by extremely low trace-element contents. Petrological and geochemical features of the veins suggest that they could be metamorphic products of igneous cumulates composed of magnetite + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene.

Zong, Keqing; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Changgui; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan

2011-09-01

212

Y chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a representative group of males living in South Württemberg: a database for application in forensic medicine.  

PubMed

In this study, we resolved the allelic distribution of three Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19 (n=218), DYS390 (n=257) and DYS393 (n=215), in a population study of 257 unrelated men living in the area of South Wüerttemberg/Hohenzollern. In DYS19 and in DYS393, five different alleles were discovered, and in DYS390, six different alleles. Forty-nine different haplotypes were found in 202 unrelated male individuals. By investigating each of the three STR systems separately, the most powerful results were found in DYS390, with a PE (power of exclusion) of 0.74, followed by DYS19 (PE: 0.65) and DYS393 (PE: 0.47). Using a combination of two systems (n=202), the PEs ranged from 0.79 (DYS19 and DYS393) to 0.89 (DYS19 and DYS390). The combination of all three STR systems revealed a PE of 0.93. PMID:10978600

Graw, M; Seitz, T

2000-09-11

213

Homeostasis: From Living Creatures to Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Problem: While many robots in industry and research have proven capable of operating in com- plex environments, most robots still fall well short of living creatures in their ability to deal with extreme variations in their environment. Living creatures, by contrast, will typically cope in any environment to the extent that their physical bodies allow. Living creatures never give

Bryan Adams

2001-01-01

214

Constraining the Time-Scale of Interaction of Sea Ice Sediments and Surface Sea Water in the Arctic Ocean Using Short-Lived Radionuclide Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the activities of short-lived radionuclides (Th-234, Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Cs-137, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228) and concentrations of several elements (Be, Pb, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on a suite of ice-rafted sediments (IRS) collected during BERINGIA-2005 in the Western Arctic Ocean. A suite of water samples were also collected and analyzed for particulate and dissolved Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228. The activities of Be-7 and Pb-210 in the IRS are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the source sediments. Presence of excess Th-234 in the IRS indicates that the removal of Th-234 from surface seawater took place on time scales comparable to the mean-life of Th-234. While the Po-210/Pb-210 activity ratios in the source sediments (1.0) and the atmospheric depositional input (~0.1) are known, varying ratios of 0.78 to 1.0 were found in the IRS. This ratio can be utilized to obtain the residence time of the IRS in sea ice. The activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in all the IRS is nearly constant (within a factor of 1.6) and are comparable to the benthic sediments in the source region. The activities of atmospherically-delivered radionuclides, Be-7 and Pb-210, in IRS varied by factors of ~4.5 and 9, respectively, and this variation is attributed to differences in the extent of interaction of surface water with IRS and differences in the mean-lives of these nuclides. While significant enrichment of Be-7 and Pb-210 has been found, there is no enrichment of stable Pb or Be. The Al-normalized enrichment factor for elements measured (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Be) indicate that there is no significant enrichment of these elements, with Al-normalized enrichment factors less than 1.3.

Baskaran, M.; Andersson, P. S.; Jweda, J.; Dahlqvist, R.; Ketterer, M. E.

2007-12-01

215

IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 is a key in vivo signal for CD8+ short-lived effector T cell differentiation.  

PubMed

During infection or vaccination, only a small proportion of CD8(+) T cells differentiate into memory cells. The mechanisms underlying the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) or memory precursor effector cells are poorly defined. It was recently shown in infectious models that the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) enhances the formation of SLECs. The factors controlling Blimp-1 expression leading to the in vivo formation of SLECs are still not known. However, it has been shown that cytokines such as IL-2 induce Blimp-1 expression in vitro. In this study, we took advantage of the low-inflammation model of dendritic cell immunization to study the role of the IL-2/Blimp-1 axis in SLEC differentiation as well as the importance of Blimp-1 expression in memory precursor effector cells for proper CD8(+) memory generation. Our results show that Blimp-1 deficiency affects effector differentiation and function in the absence of inflammation. Unexpectedly, memory generation was not affected in Blimp-1-deficient OT-I cells responding to vaccination. In addition, modulation of the bioavailability of IL-2 by injection either of a blocking Ab or of the cytokine, demonstrates a link between IL-2, Blimp-1 induction, and SLEC formation in wild-type cells. Conversely, injection of IL-2 had less effect on Blimp-1-deficient CD8(+) T cells, indicating that the effect of IL-2 on in vivo SLEC differentiation is mediated by Blimp-1. In conclusion, IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 expression is a key regulator of SLEC differentiation in vivo. PMID:25015830

Boulet, Salix; Daudelin, Jean-François; Labrecque, Nathalie

2014-08-15

216

RNA-seq of the aging brain in the short-lived fish N. furzeri - conserved pathways and novel genes associated with neurogenesis.  

PubMed

The brains of teleost fish show extensive adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. The patterns of gene regulation during fish brain aging are unknown. The short-lived teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows markers of brain aging including reduced learning performances, gliosis, and reduced adult neurogenesis. We used RNA-seq to quantify genome-wide transcript regulation and sampled five different time points to characterize whole-genome transcript regulation during brain aging of N. furzeri. Comparison with human datasets revealed conserved up-regulation of ribosome, lysosome, and complement activation and conserved down-regulation of synapse, mitochondrion, proteasome, and spliceosome. Down-regulated genes differ in their temporal profiles: neurogenesis and extracellular matrix genes showed rapid decay, synaptic and axonal genes a progressive decay. A substantial proportion of differentially expressed genes (~40%) showed inversion of their temporal profiles in the last time point: spliceosome and proteasome showed initial down-regulation and stress-response genes initial up-regulation. Extensive regulation was detected for chromatin remodelers of the DNMT and CBX families as well as members of the polycomb complex and was mirrored by an up-regulation of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark. Network analysis showed extensive coregulation of cell cycle/DNA synthesis genes with the uncharacterized zinc-finger protein ZNF367 as central hub. In situ hybridization showed that ZNF367 is expressed in neuronal stem cell niches of both embryonic zebrafish and adult N. furzeri. Other genes down-regulated with age, not previously associated with adult neurogenesis and with similar patterns of expression are AGR2, DNMT3A, KRCP, MEX3A, SCML4, and CBX1. CBX7, on the other hand, was up-regulated with age. PMID:25059688

Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Priebe, Steffen; Savino, Aurora; Testa, Giovanna; Dix, Andreas; Ripa, Roberto; Spallotta, Francesco; Gaetano, Carlo; Ori, Michela; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Guthke, Reinhard; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro

2014-12-01

217

NMR of short-lived nuclei implanted in crystals and a new isol for projectile fragments in relativistic heavy-ion reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperfine interactions of substitutional and interstitial impurities in crystals were studied by use of the asymmetric ? decay\\u000a and NMR detection, following recoil implantation. A new ISOL for the projectile fragments produced in relativistic heavy-ion\\u000a reaction separated radioactive isotopes. Their high kinetic energies obtained in the reaction enabled us to created spin polarization\\u000a artificially in the isotopes and to implant

Tadanori Minamisono

1987-01-01

218

Soluble maize fibre affects short-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable isotopic tracers.  

PubMed

Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable isotope method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases short-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca. PMID:24848974

Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

2014-08-01

219

Identification in primitive basalts of a single melt reaction from an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the broad scale effects of recycled material in the source mantle are seen through isotopic variations in basalts, how this material explicitly contributes to the melting process is less constrained. The Big Pine Volcanic Field, CA, provides an excellent natural laboratory to study processes associated with mantle melting. The monogentic vents there preserve primitive, short-lived (< 100 year) eruptive

M. S. Blondes; M. T. Brandon

2008-01-01

220

PuXe, UXe, UPb chronology and isotope systematics of ancient zircons from Western Australia  

E-print Network

of short-lived 244 Pu has been confirmed in a suite of 16 Hadean detrital zircons from Western Australia.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: 244 Pu; xenon; Pu­Xe; U­Xe; zircon; Hadean; Pu/U; isotope; chronology

221

Collective degrees of freedom of neutron-rich A?100 nuclei and the first mass measurement of the short-lived nuclide 100Rb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass surface in the A˜100 region of the nuclear chart is extended by the measurement of the 98-100Rb isotopes with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The mass of 100Rb is determined for the first time. The studied nuclides mark the known low-Z frontier of the shape transition at N=60. To describe the shape evolution towards the krypton isotopic chain, a theoretical analysis is presented in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach. The importance of the pairing interaction for describing the extent and strength of the region of quadrupole deformation is emphasized. A later transition to large prolate deformation or, alternatively, the predominance of oblate deformation is proposed as explanation for the different behavior of the krypton isotopes. Octupole collectivity is explored as a possible mechanism for the evolution of two-neutron separation energies around N=56.

Manea, V.; Atanasov, D.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, C.; Cakirli, R. B.; Eronen, T.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

2013-11-01

222

Tracing historical tropical cyclones and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami in short-lived geological archives of the Ashburton Delta (NW Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Records of coastal geological archives are discontinuous. They store traces of both episodic and long-term processes as particular depositional landforms, deposits or erosional features. In particular the identification and interpretation of episodic high-energy coastal flooding due to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis is associated with a number of difficulties, including the spatial and temporal variability of geological records as well as the application of different dating techniques. In addition, the differentiation between tsunami and storm deposits remains challenging, notably where modern deposits and/or historical reports on the event are absent. Analysing modern (or historic) analogues for which documentation of process-specific parameters and/or geomorphic and sedimentary effects are available contributes to a better understanding of their sedimentary signatures and related depositional processes. These studies are key components to unravel the fossil record and the history of past events. The NW coast of Western Australia (WA) is highly vulnerable to extreme wave events. On average 1-2 TCs impact the W Australian coast per year, and ten historically documented tsunami events are recorded since 1858, including the tsunami following the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. However, no sedimentary evidence on this particular event has been presented yet, and little is known about the geological imprint of both (pre)historic TCs and tsunamis in NW Australia in general. Here we present new data on the sedimentology and chronostratigraphy of historical washover events found in short-lived geological archives of the Ashburton River delta (NW part of Western Australia), where clearly distinguishable traces of both TCs and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami are recorded. We aim at (i) establishing (at least locally valid) sedimentary criteria differentiating between TCs and tsunami deposits; (ii) presenting an OSL-based local chronostratigraphy with direct relation to historical events; and (iii) discussing the archive's overall significance for palaeoevent research. Our results show that the presented archive is discontinuous on different spatial and temporal levels, related to the episodic nature of extreme wave events and the general variability of geological archives.

May, Simon Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Pint, Anna; Wennrich, Volker; Squire, Peter; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

2014-05-01

223

Formation of short-lived radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The origin of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.

Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F

2010-11-30

224

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis  

SciTech Connect

Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

Lugmair, G.W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); Galer, S.J.G. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany))

1992-04-01

225

Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via short-lived radium isotopes and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.  

PubMed

(224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management. PMID:24703767

Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming

2014-05-15

226

Short-lived thorium isotopes ( 234 Th , 228 Th ) as indicators of POC export and particle cycling in the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated measurements of depth profiles of 234Th (dissolved, 1–70 and >70?m particulate) at three stations (Orca, Minke, Sei) in the Ross Sea have been used to estimate the export of Th and particulate organic carbon (POC) from the euphotic zone. Sampling was carried out on three JGOFS cruises covering the period from October 1996 (austral early spring) to April 1997

J. K. Cochran; K. O. Buesseler; M. P. Bacon; H. W. Wang; D. J. Hirschberg; L. Ball; J. Andrews; G. Crossin; A. Fleer

2000-01-01

227

Timescales of Magmatic processes in Eastern Sunda Arc: Rindjani and Tambora in light of new geochemical data including short lived U-Th series isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tambora and Rindjani are active volcanoes situated on the neighbouring islands of Lombok and Sumbawa in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Both are stratovolcanoes situated about 300 km north of the Java Trench and between 170 and 200 km above the Benioff seismic zone (Hamilton, 1974; Hutchinson, 1976). Rindjani's lavas are calc-alkaline ankaramites, hi-Al basalts to andesites, hi-K andesites and dacites. Tambora's lavas are ne-normative relatively potassium rich trachyandesites and trachybasalts including the intermediate (<57% SiO2) members (Foden, 1979, PhD thesis) which is the main difference to Rindjani's lavas. On a more general scale, Tambora's lavas are intermediate between the Hi-Al basalt-andesite of Rindjani and the highly undersaturated K-rich, leucite bearing lavas of G. Soromundi and G. Sangenges (both extinct volcanoes situated on Sumbawa east and respectively west of Tambora). There are other important differences however. Tambora's lavas remain ne-normative throughout the entire suite, whereas Rindjani's become Q-normative in the more evolved members (>53%SiO2). The concentrations of K2O, Rb, Sr and P2O5 are also very different between the two suites (Foden, 1979). Both volcanoes however show minor U-Th series disequilibrium with either Th or U excess but less than 10%, typical of this sector of the Eastern Sunda Arc. Investigating data across the whole arc, (Turner & Foden, 2001) have interpreted that mantle wedge has had a sediment component added as a melt and slab derived fluids added afterwards could not imprint their Th-U disequilibrium over the high Th signature of the sedimentary material. Evidence from volcanoes where the sediment component does not show as markedly (Iya, Werung) in the form of large U238/Th230 and (Ra226/Th230)0 suggests evolutionary timescales for magmatic processes of less than 8000years. Furthermore, in a 2003 paper, Turner et al., investigate the timescales of magmatic evolution of Sangeang Api, another active volcano just off the northern coast of Sumbawa and found that the residence times of magmas here are in the order of 2000 years and by analogy with the 226Ra/230Th ratio of Tambora's 1815 lava suggest a residence time of 5000 years, figure which correlates with the time lapsed since the previous major eruption at Tambora (Takada et al., 2000). New data generated shows a wider range of values for Tambora where (238U/232Th) is between .46 and .9 and (230Th/232Th) between .56 and .841 whereas for Rindjani the data is more closely grouped between .692 and .821 for (238U/232Th) and .725 to .833 for (230Th/232Th). An interesting feature of the Rindjani data is that it shows a distinct break between the precaldera samples and the freshly erupted lavas of Anak Rindjani (the newly formed cone inside the caldera) which shows clearly the younger lavas are closer to radioactive equilibrium. The possibility that these two groups represent different batches of magmas is examined and compared to Tambora's data where precaldera lavas and the 1815 pumice are consistent and seem to lie on the same line, suggesting the evolving magma chamber that has discharged in the 1815 eruption were part of the same batch.

Paraschivoiu, Viorel

2010-05-01

228

Living Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First take this pretest to test your knowledge of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Mrs.

2010-02-23

229

Current Trends and Short-term Outcomes of Live Donor Nephrectomy: A Population-based Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data suggest that live kidney donation is stagnant. Current practices and trends\\u000a in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) among the transplant community remain largely unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1998 to 2006, patients undergoing LDN (n = 9,437) were identified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Live kidney donation in the United States did not show an

Beth Colombo; Anand Singla; YouFu Li; Jennifer F. Tseng; Reza F. Saidi; Adel Bozorgzadeh; Shimul A. Shah

2010-01-01

230

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

1992-01-01

231

Positron range in PET imaging: non-conventional isotopes.  

PubMed

In addition to conventional short-lived radionuclides, longer-lived isotopes are becoming increasingly important to positron emission tomography (PET). The longer half-life both allows for circumvention of the in-house production of radionuclides, and expands the spectrum of physiological processes amenable to PET imaging, including processes with prohibitively slow kinetics for investigation with short-lived radiotracers. However, many of these radionuclides emit 'high-energy' positrons and gamma rays which affect the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET images.The objective of the present work is to investigate the positron range distribution for some of these long-lived isotopes.Based on existing Monte Carlo simulations of positron interactions in water, the probability distribution of the line of response displacement have been empirically described by means of analytic displacement functions.Relevant distributions have been derived for the isotopes (22)Na, (52)Mn, (89)Zr, (45)Ti, (51)Mn, (94m)Tc, (52m)Mn, (38)K, (64)Cu, (86)Y, (124)I, and (120)I. It was found that the distribution functions previously found for a series of conventional isotopes (Jødal et al 2012 Phys. Med. Bio. 57 3931-43), were also applicable to these non-conventional isotopes, except that for (120)I, (124)I, (89)Zr, (52)Mn, and (64)Cu, parameters in the formulae were less well predicted by mean positron energy alone.Both conventional and non-conventional range distributions can be described by relatively simple analytic expressions. The results will be applicable to image-reconstruction software to improve the resolution. PMID:25386999

Jødal, L; Le Loirec, C; Champion, C

2014-12-01

232

Using short-lived nuclides of the U- and Th-series to probe the kinetics of colloid migration in forested soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent chemical dynamics of a podzolic forest soil section (from the Strengbach watershed, France) was investigated using U- and Th-series nuclides. Analyses of ( 238U), ( 230Th), ( 226Ra), ( 232Th), ( 228Ra) and ( 228Th) activities in the soil particles, the seepage waters, and the mature leaves of the beech trees growing on this soil were performed by TIMS or gamma spectrometry. The simultaneous analysis of the different soil ( sl) compartments allows to demonstrate that a preferential Th leaching over Ra must be assumed to explain the ( 226Ra/ 230Th), ( 228Ra/ 232Th) and ( 228Th/ 228Ra) disequilibria recorded in the soil particles. The overall Ra- and Th- transfer schemes are entirely consistent with the prevailing acido-complexolysis weathering mechanism in podzols. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) and ( 228Ra/ 232Th) disequilibria measured in the different soil layers enable dating of the contemporary processes occurring in this soil. In this way, we have determined that a preferential Th-leaching from the shallow Ah horizon, due to a strong complexation with organic colloids, began fairly recently (18 years ago at most). The continual increase in pH recorded in precipitations over the last 20 years is assumed to be the cause of this enhanced organic complexation. A lower soil horizon (50-60 cm) is also affected by preferential Th leaching, though lasting over several centuries at least, with a much smaller leaching rate. The migration of Th isotopes through this soil section might hence be used as a tracer for the organic colloids migration and the induced radioactive disequilibria demonstrate to be useful for assessing the colloidal migration kinetics in a forested soil. Ra and Th isotopic ratios also appear to be valuable tracers of some mineral-water-plant interactions occurring in soil. The ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) ratio enables discrimination of the Ra flux originating from leaf degradation from that originating from mineral weathering in shallow -10 cm seepage soil waters. It appears that, at least in some cases, the Ra-isotopic ratio measured in forest-soil seepage waters may not be representative of the Ra-isotopic ratio released from mineral weathering, indicating that the different origins of the dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra must be taken into account.

Rihs, Sophie; Prunier, Jonathan; Thien, Bruno; Lemarchand, Damien; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Chabaux, François

2011-12-01

233

High tandem repeat content in the genome of the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri: a new vertebrate model for aging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the vertebrate with the shortest known life span in captivity. Fish of the GRZ strain live only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions, show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioral decline, and express aging related biomarkers. Treatment with resveratrol and low temperature significantly extends the maximum life

Kathrin Reichwald; Chris Lauber; Indrajit Nanda; Jeanette Kirschner; Nils Hartmann; Susanne Schories; Ulrike Gausmann; Stefan Taudien; Markus B Schilhabel; Karol Szafranski; Gernot Glöckner; Michael Schmid; Alessandro Cellerino; Manfred Schartl; Christoph Englert; Matthias Platzer

2009-01-01

234

The effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution: Six-month short-term effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution. There were 146 participants with intellectual disabilities (age 19–67 years) were recruited in the

Chia-Ling Wu; Jin-Ding Lin; Jung Hu; Chia-Feng Yen; Cheng-Tung Yen; Yu-Lan Chou; Po-Hsun Wu

2010-01-01

235

The Effectiveness of Healthy Physical Fitness Programs on People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in a Disability Institution: Six-Month Short-Term Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution. There were 146…

Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Tung; Chou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Po-Hsun

2010-01-01

236

Design and realization of a microfluidic device devoted to the application of ultra-short pulses of electrical field to living cells  

E-print Network

component of cells, like the endoplasmic reticulum [9] or the mitochondria [10]. Nevertheless, both effects of electrical field to living cells Claire Dalmaya , Julien Villemejanea,b,c , Vanessa Joubertb,c , Olivier.e. nanopulses) on cells and the visualization of their effects. Cell plasma membranes can be rendered permeable

Boyer, Edmond

237

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the trace, ultratrace and isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides in solid samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for determination of long-lived radionuclides in different materials (e.g., in geological samples, high-purity graphite and nonconducting concrete matrix) was investigated. The main problem in the quantification of the analytical results of long-lived radionuclides is that (except for geological samples) no suitable standard reference materials are available. Therefore, synthetic laboratory

Johanna Sabine Becker; Carola Pickhardt; Hans-Joachim Dietze

2000-01-01

238

Chemical and Isotopic Study of Lab-formed Carbonates Under Cryogenic and Hydrothermal Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous environments on early Mars were probably relatively short-lived and localized, as evidenced by the lack of abundant secondary minerals detected by the TES instrument. In order to better understand the aqueous history of early Mars we need to be able to interpret the evidence preserved in secondary minerals formed during these aqueous events. Carbonate minerals, in particular, are important secondary minerals for interpreting past aqueous environments as illustrated by the carbonates preserved in ALH84001. Carbonates formed in short-lived, dynamic aqueous events often preserve kinetic rather than equilibrium chemical and isotopic processes, and predicting the behavior of such systems is facilitated by empirical data.

Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

2004-01-01

239

Short communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an isotope dilution technique.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas. PMID:23332845

Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H

2013-03-01

240

Direct Mass Measurements of Short-Lived A=2Z-1 Nuclides Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 and Their Impact on Nucleosynthesis in the rp Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass excesses of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclei Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 have been directly measured to be -46921(37), -46937(85), -46580(67), and -46320(141)keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)keV for As65 shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of As65 suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through Ge64 via proton capture, indicating that Ge64 is not a significant rp-process waiting point.

Tu, X. L.; Xu, H. S.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sun, Y.; Schatz, H.; Zhou, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Du, C. M.; Geng, P.; Hu, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Jin, S. L.; Liu, L. X.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.; Mao, R. S.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Sun, Z. Y.; Suzuki, H.; Tang, S. W.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, S. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, X.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Ye, R. P.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhan, W. L.

2011-03-01

241

Isotopic And Geochemical Investigations Of Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goals of our research over the past four years are to constrain the timing of certain early planetary accretion/differentiation events, and to constrain the proportions and provenance of materials involved in these processes. This work was achieved via the analysis and interpretation of long- and short-lived isotope systems, and the study of certain trace elements. Our research targeted these goals primarily via the application of the Re-187, Os-187, Pt-190 Os-186 Tc-98 Ru-99 and Tc-99 Ru-99 isotopic systems, and the determination/modeling of abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE; including Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, and maybe Tc). The specific events we examined include the segregation and crystallization histories of asteroidal cores, the accretion and metamorphic histories of chondrites and chondrite components, and the accretionary and differentiation histories of Mars and the Moon.

Walker, Richard J.

2005-01-01

242

Geochronology and geochemistry of the Parashi granitoid, NE Colombia: Tectonic implication of short-lived Early Eocene plutonism along the SE Caribbean margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parashi granitoid of northeasternmost Colombia intrudes the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene accretionary complex formed by the collision of the Caribbean arc and the continental margin of South America. This granitoid presently separated of the continental margin includes a major quartzdiorite body with andesite to dacite dikes and mafic enclaves. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS and K-Ar geochronology on the quartzdiorite and the dikes suggest that crystallization extended from ca. 47 to 51 Ma. Major and trace elements are characterized by a medium-K, immature continental arc signature and high Al2O3, Na2O and Ba-Sr contents. Initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic values range between 0.7050 and 0.7054, with 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51235-0.51253, ?Nd and ?Hf values from -0.81 to -4.40 and -4.4 and -5.2. Major and trace element ratios and isotopic modeling suggest that sedimentary and/or quartzofeldspathic crustal sources were mixed with a mafic melt input. The petrotectonic and geological constraints derived from this granitoid suggest that Parashi plutonism records an immature, oblique subduction-zone setting in which the presence of a high-temperature mantle realm and strong plate coupling associated to upper crust subduction caused the partial fusion of a previously tectonically underplated mafic crust and associated metasediments exposed in the continental margin. The limited temporal expression of this magmatism and the transition to a regional magmatic hiatus are related to a subsequent change to strongly and slow oblique tectonics in the Caribbean-South America plate interactions and the underflow of a relatively thick slab of Caribbean oceanic crust.

Cardona, A.; Weber, M.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; Montes, C.; Cordani, U.; Muñoz, C. M.

2014-03-01

243

Living Longer, Living Better  

E-print Network

Living Longer, Living Better ­ Functional Longevity Our mission is to promote long, healthy.azgec.arizona.edu - Arizona Reynolds Program of Applied Geriatrics: www.reynolds.med.arizona.edu - UA Studies on Aging Program with conference planning; provide technical support, including needs assessment and evaluation; and offer monthly

Arizona, University of

244

Beta-decay half-lives of new neutron-rich isotopes of Re, Os and Ir approaching the r-process path near N = 126  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy neutron-rich nuclei close to N = 126 were produced by fragmentation of a 1 A GeV 208Pb beam at the FRS at GSI. The ?-decay half-lives of 7 nuclides have been determined using a novel numerical analysis method. The half-lives of 202,199Ir, 200,199Os and 196Re are reported for the first time. The comparison of the data with model calculations provides indications on the importance of first-forbidden transitions on the ?-decay of nuclei around N = 126 and Z < 82.

Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Audouin, L.; Becker, F.; Blank, B.; Borzov, I. N.; Casarejos, E.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Ordóñez, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Henzlova, D.; Jurado, B.; Langanke, K.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Pereira, J.; Yordanov, O.

2014-09-01

245

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half-lives of the isotopes specified.  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 38 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half), is called KREEP norite. ASSESS The age of the rock is on the same order as the age of the Earth, which-lives since the Earth formed is so large, that the number of these atoms left will be zero. The half-life of U

Ringwald, Frederick A.

246

Unmodified prolactin (PRL) and S179D PRL-initiated bioluminescence resonance energy transfer between homo- and hetero-pairs of long and short human PRL receptors in living human cells.  

PubMed

We have used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to examine the interaction between human prolactins (PRLs) and the long (LF) and two short isoforms (SF1a and SF1b) of the human PRL receptor in living cells. cDNA sequences encoding the LF, SF1a, and SF1b were subcloned into codon-humanized vectors containing cDNAs for either Renilla reniformis luciferase (Rluc) or a green fluorescent protein (GFP(2)) with a 12- or 13-amino acid linker connecting the parts of the fusion proteins. Transfection into human embryonic kidney 293 cells demonstrated maintained function of Rluc and GFP(2) when linked to the receptors, and confocal microscopy demonstrated the localization of tagged receptors in the plasma membrane by 48 h after transfection. All three tagged receptors transduced a signal, with the LF and SF1a stimulating, and SF1b inhibiting, promoter activity of an approximately 2.4-kb beta-casein-luc construct. Both unmodified PRL (U-PRL) and the molecular mimic of phosphorylated PRL, S179D PRL, induced BRET with all combinations of long and short receptor isoforms except SF1a plus SF1b. No BRET was observed with the site two-inactive mutant, G129R PRL. This is the first demonstration, 1) that species homologous PRL promotes both homo- and hetero-interaction of most long and short PRLR pairs in living cells, 2) that both U-PRL and S179D PRL are active in this regard, and 3) that there is some aspect of SF1a-SF1b structure that prevents this particular hetero-receptor pairing. In addition, we conclude that preferential pairing of different receptor isoforms is not the explanation for the different signaling initiated by U-PRL and S179D PRL. PMID:15695371

Tan, Dunyong; Johnson, David A; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Lingfang; Chen, Yen Hao; Chen, Wen Y; Vonderhaar, Barbara K; Walker, Ameae M

2005-05-01

247

Manganese and chromium isotopes: Nebular processes and early solar system chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes and short-lived radionuclides are useful for examining nucleosynthetic origins of solar system material, studying mixing processes in the early solar nebula and dating nebular events and secondary processes. Chromium isotopes offer an excellent tool for these studies as chromium has four stable isotopes ( 50 Cr, 52 Cr, 53 Cr and 54 Cr) of which one ( 53 Cr) is the daughter of the short-lived radionuclide 53 Mn (half-life of 3.7 Ma). Chromium isotopes can therefore be used both to examine mixing efficiencies in the early solar nebula using the stable isotope 54 Cr and to date secondary events (such as aqueous alteration in carbonaceous chondrites) using radiogenic 53 Cr. Isotopic anomalies of several neutron-rich nuclides observed in chondrites bear evidence of incomplete mixing in the early solar system. High-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) can be used to determine 54 Cr isotopic anomalies in the epsilon (parts per 10 4 ) range. Chromium isotopic analyses were performed using bulk samples of carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary chondrites and enstatite chondrites. In this study I report systematic deficits in ordinary chondrites (-0.66 to -1.80 [varepsilon] 54 Cr), excesses in carbonaceous chondrites (+0.29 to +1.66 [varepsilon] 54 Cr) and isotopic compositions in enstatite chondrites that overlap with terrestrial values. These observed differences in [varepsilon] 54 Cr between different chondrite groups suggest that three or more Cr carriers were present in presolar matter and that the solar nebula that produced planetesimals between ~1 and ~3 AU was not isotopically uniform. Radiogenic 53 Cr can be used to date alteration products in carbonaceous chondrites. CM chondrite materials have been modified by several post- accretionary processes. These chondrites contain carbonates and other secondary minerals that are believed to have formed by alteration reactions on the CM parent body. The timescales for the formation of secondary minerals can be quantified using the radioactive decay of 53 Mn to 53 Cr. Here I report measurements of excess 53 Cr in carbonates from the highly aqueously altered CM2.1 chondrites QUE 93005 and ALH 83100. These excesses are correlated with the 53 Mn/ 55 Mn ratio and result from the in situ decay of 53 Mn, a short- lived radioisotope with a half-life of 3.7 Ma. Results from CM chondrites imply that the degree of aqueous alteration is roughly correlated with the age of carbonate formation in CM chondrites of different subtypes and that alteration started contemporaneously or shortly after CAI formation and lasted at least 4 Ma on the CM parent body.

de Leuw, Simone

248

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Assisted Living Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... t need round-the-clock nursing care. Assisted living facilities provide an alternative. Assisted living is for ...

249

Presolar graphite from the Murchison meteorite: An isotopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied presolar graphite grains from four density fractions, KE3 (1.65-1.72 g/cm3), KFA1 (2.05-2.10 g/cm3), KFB1 (2.10-2.15 g/cm3), and KFC1 (2.15-2.20 g/cm3), extracted from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite, with the ion microprobe. One of the most interesting features of presolar graphite is that isotopic features depend on density. There are grains with 15N and 18O excesses, Si isotopic anomalies, high 26Al/27Al ratios (˜0.1), and Ca and Ti isotopic anomalies, including the initial presence of short-lived 41Ca and 44Ti. These isotopic features are qualitatively explained by nucleosynthesis in core collapse supernovae. We estimate that 76%, 50%, 7% and 1% of the KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 grains, respectively, are supernova grains. We performed 3- and 4-zone supernova mixing calculations to reproduce the C, O (18O/16O) and Al isotopic ratios of the KE3 grains, using 15 M? model calculations by Rauscher et al. (2002). Isotopic ratios of grains with high 12C/13C ratios (>200) can be reproduced, whereas those of grains with ratios ?200 are hard to explain if we assume that graphite grains form in C-rich conditions.

Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

2014-05-01

250

The effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution: six-month short-term effect.  

PubMed

Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution. There were 146 participants with intellectual disabilities (age 19-67 years) were recruited in the study. We collected information on disability condition (type and level), height, weight, BMI, and physical fitness status (includes V-shape sit and reach test, sit-up 30s, sit-up 60s, and shuttle run) at the beginning and 6 months later of the program intervention. The results show that there were statistical decreases in individual's weight, BMI score, BMI category, and positive improvement in V-shape sit and reach test, sit-up in 30s and 60s tests after 6-month interventions. However, the shuttle run test did not improve at the post-test among people with intellectual disabilities. The results also showed that the mild disability level group has the highest effectiveness on the healthy fitness program on decreasing body weight. Generally speaking, the preliminary study found the healthy exercise program has positive fitness effects on people with intellectual disabilities. To maximize the benefits of regular physical activity on people with ID, there is a need to evaluate the long-term effect of the intervention program and then to initiate the healthy exercise strategies in institution for this group of people. PMID:20172687

Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Tung; Chou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Po-Hsun

2010-01-01

251

High tandem repeat content in the genome of the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri: a new vertebrate model for aging research  

PubMed Central

Background The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the vertebrate with the shortest known life span in captivity. Fish of the GRZ strain live only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions, show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioral decline, and express aging related biomarkers. Treatment with resveratrol and low temperature significantly extends the maximum life span. These features make N. furzeri a promising new vertebrate model for age research. Results To contribute to establishing N. furzeri as a new model organism, we provide a first insight into its genome and a comparison to medaka, stickleback, tetraodon and zebrafish. The N. furzeri genome contains 19 chromosomes (2n = 38). Its genome of between 1.6 and 1.9 Gb is the largest among the analyzed fish species and has, at 45%, the highest repeat content. Remarkably, tandem repeats comprise 21%, which is 4-12 times more than in the other four fish species. In addition, G+C-rich tandem repeats preferentially localize to centromeric regions. Phylogenetic analysis based on coding sequences identifies medaka as the closest relative. Genotyping of an initial set of 27 markers and multi-locus fingerprinting of one microsatellite provides the first molecular evidence that the GRZ strain is highly inbred. Conclusions Our work presents a first basis for systematic genomic and genetic analyses aimed at understanding the mechanisms of life span determination in N. furzeri. PMID:19210790

Reichwald, Kathrin; Lauber, Chris; Nanda, Indrajit; Kirschner, Jeanette; Hartmann, Nils; Schories, Susanne; Gausmann, Ulrike; Taudien, Stefan; Schilhabel, Markus B; Szafranski, Karol; Glockner, Gernot; Schmid, Michael; Cellerino, Alessandro; Schartl, Manfred; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

2009-01-01

252

Immunotoxins constructed with chimeric, short-lived anti-CD22 monoclonal antibodies induce less vascular leak without loss of cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

An immunotoxin (IT) constructed with RFB4, a murine anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, and the “deglycosylated” A chain of ricin has shown activity at safe doses in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The dose limiting toxicity is vascular leak syndrome (VLS), which appears to be due to a unique amino acid motif in the ricin toxin A (RTA) chain that damages vascular endothelial cells. We mutated recombinant (r) RTA to disable this site, but await testing of the IT prepared with this mutant RTA in humans. Another possible approach to reducing IT-induced VLS is to shorten the half-life of the IT in vivo. We previously constructed a mouse-human chimeric RFB4 by grafting the variable genes of RFB4 onto the human IgG1k constant regions. Here, we report the expansion of our panel of mutant chimeric RFB4s (mcRFB4s) that lack the ability to bind to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). In comparison with cRFB4, which had a T1/2 of 263 h, the mcRFB4s had T1/2s ranging from 39–106 h. ITs were constructed with these mcRFB4s and rRTA. The mcRFB4-RTA ITs retained their cytotoxicity in vitro and had shorter half lives than the parental cRFB4-RTA IT. In addition, the mcRFB4 IT with the shortest T1/2 induced less pulmonary vascular leak in mice, which we have postulated is a surrogate marker for VLS in humans. PMID:22327430

Schindler, John

2012-01-01

253

High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600 000 and an accuracy of ?m ? 13 keV have been obtained. The masses of 123,124,126Ba and 122 mCs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model.

Ames, F.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; de Saint Simon, M.; Jertz, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; König, M.; Lunney, D.; Martel, I.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, T.; Patyk, Z.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Rouleau, G.; Savard, G.; Schark, E.; Schwarz, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Szerypo, J.; Isolde Collaboration

1999-05-01

254

Correlated helium-3 and tungsten isotopes in iron meteorites: Quantitative cosmogenic corrections and planetesimal formation times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core formation in planetesimals can, in principle, be dated using the short-lived 182Hf–182W chronometer. However, it has been predicted that burnout and production of W isotopes by nuclear reactions can substantially modify the compositions in iron meteorites when exposed for several hundred million years (Myr) to galactic cosmic-rays. This may severely limit the use of the Hf–W system for determining

A. Markowski; I. Leya; G. Quitté; K. Ammon; A. N. Halliday; R. Wieler

2006-01-01

255

The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epithermal neutron shape factor, ? of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The ? values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common sources for Co, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cr, Ni, Sn, Li and Sb and Na, V, Cl, Mn, Al, Br and K. The PCA/FA identified 3 dominant factors as responsible for the data structure, explaining 84.5% of the total variance in the dataset.

Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.

2012-04-01

256

Living Longer, Healthier Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular images that portray a bleak future, important life tasks and accomplishments characterize the lives of\\u000a older women. Midlife women are more likely than not to work full-time, and some will earn the highest salaries of their careers.\\u000a A high percentage of women in public service or elected office are in their 50s and 60s. Bernadine Healy was

Susan D. Lonborg; Cheryl B. Travis

257

PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2012-10-10

258

Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1995-09-01

259

Mechanistic positron emission tomography studies of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine in living baboon heart: selective imaging and control of radiotracer metabolism using the deuterium isotope effect.  

PubMed

Mechanistic positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the deuterium isotope effect and specific pharmacological intervention were undertaken to examine the behavior of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine (6-[18F]-FDA; 1) and (-)-6-[18F]fluoronorepinephrine [(-)-6-[18F]FNE; 2] in the baboon heart. Two regiospecifically deuterated derivatives of 6-[18F]FDA [alpha,alpha-D2 (3) and beta,beta-D2 (4)] were used to assess the contributions of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase, respectively, to the clearance kinetics of 6-[18F]FDA. Compound 3 showed a reduced rate of clearance, consistent with MAO-catalyzed cleavage of the alpha C-D bond, whereas compound 4 showed no change, indicating that cleavage of the beta C-D bond is not a rate-limiting step. Pretreatment with pargyline, an MAO inhibitor, also decreased the rate of clearance. Desipramine and tomoxetine [norepinephrine (NE) uptake inhibitors], but not GBR-12909 (a dopamine uptake inhibitor), blocked the uptake of both (-)-6-[18F]FNE and 6-[18F]FDA, with (-)-6-[18F]FNE showing a higher degree of blockade. Chiral HPLC demonstrated that 6-[18F]FDA is stereoselectively converted to (-)-6-[18F]FNE in vivo in the rat heart. These studies demonstrate that (a) the more rapid clearance of 6-[18F]FDA relative to (-)-6-[18F]FNE can be largely accounted for by metabolism by MAO; (b) selective deuterium substitution can be used to protect a radiotracer from metabolism in vivo and to favor a particular pathway; (c) 6-[18F]FDA and (-)-6-[18F]FNE share the NE transporter; (d) 6-[18F]FDA is stereoselectively converted to (-)-6-[18F]FNE in vivo; and (e) the profile of radioactivity in the heart for 6-[18F]FDA is complex, probably including labeled metabolites as well as neuronal and nonneuronal uptake. PMID:7616224

Ding, Y S; Fowler, J S; Gatley, S J; Logan, J; Volkow, N D; Shea, C

1995-08-01

260

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste  

E-print Network

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

Hammock, Bruce D.

261

Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) CAIs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F CAIs previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F CAIs known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka CAIs with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor CAIs with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and evolution of O-isotope composition of silicate dust in the Galaxy and in the protoplanetary disk. Thus, this work satisfies the overall objectives of NASA and the specific objectives of the Origins of Solar System Program.

Krot, Alexander

262

Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) CAIs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F CAIs previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F CAIs known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka CAIs with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states¿. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor CAIs with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and evolution of O-isotope composition of silicate dust in the Galaxy and in the protoplanetary disk. Thus, this work satisfies the overall objectives of NASA and the specific objectives of the Origins of Solar System Program.

Krot, Alexander

263

DANCEing with the Stars: Measuring Neutron Capture on Unstable Isotopes with DANCE  

SciTech Connect

Isotopes heavier than iron are known to be produced in stars through neutron capture processes. Two major processes, the slow (s) and rapid (r) processes are each responsible for 50% of the abundances of the heavy isotopes. The neutron capture cross sections of the isotopes on the s process path reveal information about the expected abundances of the elements as well as stellar conditions and dynamics. Until recently, measurements on unstable isotopes, which are most important for determining stellar temperatures and reaction flow, have not been experimentally feasible. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was designed to perform time-of-flight neutron capture measurements on unstable isotopes for nuclear astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and reactor development. DANCE is a 4-{pi}BaF{sub 2} scintillator array which can perform measurements on sub-milligram samples of isotopes with half-lives as short as a few hundred days. These cross sections are critical for advancing our understanding of the production of the heavy isotopes.

Couture, A.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA, 94551 (United States); Baker, J. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Bayarbadrahk, B.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Reifarth, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-03-10

264

Characteristics of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to an internet program that is all about life. Just what is life? This seems like a strange question. We all know what is meant by the word \\"life\\". But how do we define it? Are all living things alike? In this internet program, you will watch several short movies and some slides. After you see each movie and slide, you will write something about the movie and slide. Our learning goal is to make a list of the traits that all living things have in common. Get out a pencil and a piece of paper. We are off on a great adventure to learn about living things! This first movie is called, \\"Is It Alive?\\" It will help you begin thinking about living things and what they all have in common. Write on your paper: \\"Living Things\\". As you watch this movie, write the names of the things that you think are alive. Copy the ...

Melenson, Richard S.

2005-11-21

265

Living Vs. Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First mouse over the objects to see some of the characteristics of living and non living things.Living Nonliving Characteristics 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Carrie

2012-10-08

266

Numerical Analyses of Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Grains from Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presolar grains have large isotopic anomalies revealing the traces of nucleosynthesis at their birth, and thus they are considered to originate from stellar outflows and supernova ejecta. These grains have been extracted from primitive meteorites, and the isotopic ratios of each individual grain have been analyzed in the laboratory. Several isotopic signatures of SiC X and low-density graphite grains indicate an origin in supernovae. We investigate the isotopic ratios of Type II supernova ejecta with large-scale mixing so as to reproduce the ratios of as many ratios from supernovae as possible. We pursued the evolution and the supernova explosion of a massive star using a 4 Msolar He star model and calculated detailed nucleosynthesis by postprocessing. We then show how many isotopic ratios of each individual grain agree with those of the mixtures of the supernova ejecta under appropriate mixing ratios. We assume two cases of mixtures with artificial mixing ratios: one consists of Si/S, O/Ne, He/C, and He/N layers, and the other consists of Ni, Si/S, He/C, and He/N layers. We select the isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 14N/15N, 26Al/27Al, 29Si/28Si, 30Si/28Si, and 44Ti/48Ti from eleven SiC X grains and four low-density graphite grains that contain evidence for the original presence of the short-lived isotope 44Ti. For one SiC X grain and one low-density graphite grain, four isotopic ratios are reproduced by the corresponding mixtures. For seven SiC X grains and three graphite grains, three isotopic ratios agree with those of the mixtures. Most mixtures that reproduce the isotopic ratios of the grains have a large contribution from the He/N layer. The characteristics of the mixtures are found to be 0.01<(Si+Ti)/C<10 and C/O>0.1. For C/O<0.1, the isotopic ratios of most grains are not reproduced.

Yoshida, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

2004-05-01

267

Production of Cs and Fr isotopes from a high-density UC targets with different grain dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A UC target material of 11.3±0.5 g/cm^3 uranium density with the grain size of 20 and 5?m manufactured in a form of pills by the method of powder metallurgy has been tested on-line within the temperature range of 1800-2100 ° C . The mass of uranium exposed to the beam was 4-7g. The yields and release rates of Cs and Fr isotopes produced by fission and spallation reactions of 238U by 1GeV protons have been measured. The yields of Cs and Fr isotopes obtained from the tested target materials have been compared, including yields of very short-lived Fr isotopes with half-lives down to 1ms. Temperature-resistant materials (porous graphite and tantalum foil) have been used for the internal-container construction, which holds the UC target pills inside a tungsten external container heated by the resistant heating. The fastest release and the highest efficiency for short-lived isotopes have been obtained for the targets with the internal container manufactured from the tantalum foil. Results of on-line tests of a big mass target (730g of 5?m grain UC target material) have been discussed.

Panteleev, V. N.; Alyakrinskiy, O.; Barbui, M.; Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Stroe, L.; Tecchio, L. B.; Tonezzer, M.; Volkov, Yu. M.

2009-12-01

268

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

269

Short Report 1965 Introduction  

E-print Network

(TIRF) and 3D fast spinning-disk conf-up phase (prophase to metaphase), leading to effective membrane accumulation within the cell and a decrease and supplementary material Movie 1). Among the dynamic pool, short-lived caveolae (2 seconds) corresponded to 30

Kirchhausen, Tomas

270

Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are investigating the Re-Os isotope systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 isotope system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os isotope system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the short-lived system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.

Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1993-01-01

271

1. Isotope Definitions and terms a) Isotopes and isotope ratios.  

E-print Network

3/24/2011 1 Outline 1. Isotope Definitions and terms a) Isotopes and isotope ratios. Isotopes fractionation c) Simple illustration with the water cycle 2. CO2 isotopes in photosynthesis a) Photosynthetic discrimination in C3 plants b) C3 vs C4 photosynthesis and the distinction in isotopes c) Measuring isotopic

Saleska, Scott

272

Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center  

DOE Data Explorer

The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production FacilityExternal link (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope ProducerExternal link (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development CenterExternal link (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

273

Zn isotope fractionation during adsorption on birnessite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of zinc (Zn), an important micronutrient in the ocean, may influence primary productivity and species composition within surface waters. The chemical speciation and bioavailability of Zn is governed by diverse abiotic and biotic processes. These processes include adsorption reactions at mineral/water interfaces, as nanoparticles of oxyhydroxide minerals are known to adsorb significant amounts of Zn in surface waters (and during formation of ferromanganese crusts). Investigation of Zn isotope fractionation caused by adsorption onto birnessite, the dominant manganese oxide mineral in ferromanganese crusts, may help to explain the enrichment of heavy Zn isotopes in ferromanganese crusts. This will provide insight into the role of adsorption of Zn to nanoparticulate minerals in surface waters and into the overall biogeochemical cycling of Zn. This work aims to determine the mechanism and magnitude of Zn isotope fractionation during adsorption onto synthetic birnessite (KMn2O4.1.5H2O). Our simple-system experiments involve mixing solutions of 130 ppb Zn with aliquots of birnessite suspension (proportions varied to give a range of surface coverage) and a fixed pH near that of seawater at ~8.5. The mixtures react for 48 hours. The recovered dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn are then separated, purified, and analyzed isotopically on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS. Preliminary results show enrichment of light Zn isotopes on the mineral surfaces (?66/64Znsorbed-aqueous = -0.3‰). A time series will reveal whether this process is governed by equilibrium or Rayleigh fractionation. Contrary to our results, previously published studies led us to hypothesize that isotopically heavy Zn would adsorb compared to co-existing dissolved Zn. Maréchal et al. (2000) recorded ferromanganese crusts that were heavier than seawater with a mean ?66Zn value of 0.90‰. Dissolved Zn is octahedrally coordinated with oxygen atoms, but an EXAFS study by Manceau et al. (2002) reported a mixture of tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Zn sorbed on Mn oxides. In general, a species with lower coordination number favors heavier isotopes (Schauble, 2004). The potential explanations for the discrepancy between our results and our expectations include (1) a short-lived kinetic isotope effect favors sorption of light Zn in our short experiments, but will reverse on long time scales, (2) there are structural differences between our synthetic birnessite and Mn oxides previously studied, (3) our experiments are conducted at low ionic strength, and a change in Zn speciation at high ionic strength may lead to different isotope behavior. Our subsequent work will evaluate these possible explanations. Manceau et al. (2002). GCA 66, 2639-2663. Maréchal et al. (2000). G3 1, 1015. Schauble (2004). RiMG 55, 65-112.

Bryan, A. L.; Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.

2013-12-01

274

Matthew Weinberger Final Short Story  

E-print Network

Matthew Weinberger EGL 389 Final ­ Short Story Gary Singularity Gary Simons decided to use realized that they were all using Simons LS-4000 ocular implants to record live video, streaming footage added it to the ToDo list that lived in the corner of his vision in his own corneal implants. Then he

Walter, Frederick M.

275

More on Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We reported last year on endemic isotope anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo isotopes, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for isotope anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many isotopes from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process isotopes show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the short half-lives, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general isotope anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.

Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

2004-01-01

276

Isotope fingerprints in elephant bone and ivory  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen as well as of strontium in animal bone is related to the environment in which the animal lived1-6. It can be assumed that this is also the case for lead isotopes. In theory, therefore, we have a way of pinpointing the origin of elephant ivory, which may be of value in conservation. Here

J. C. Vogel; B. Eglington; J. M. Auret

1990-01-01

277

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-11-05

278

Short communication Corticosterone and stable  

E-print Network

behaviour prior to the breeding season can influence egg mass in Atlantic Puffins Fratercula arctica, the Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica. To do this, we measured d15 N values, which gauge the relative trophicShort communication Corticosterone and stable isotopes in feathers predict egg size in Atlantic

279

Study of short-lived climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April-May), even if at NCO-P significantly lower levels of eqBC and aerosol particle number (ratio 7% for eqBC, 29% for accumulation and 12% for coarse particles) were observed in respect to Kathmandu. Moreover, case studies concerning simultaneous events of eqBC and O3 increases in Kathmandu and in the high Himalayas will be investigated.

Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo

2014-05-01

280

Cryogenics for the Rare Isotope Accelerator project  

SciTech Connect

With 600 meters of superconducting accelerator, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility will have an extensive cryogenic system operating at both 2.0 K and 4.4 K. Approximately 250 4.4 K resonators, 200 2.0 K resonators, 160 4.4 K magnets, and several 4.4 K bunchers will be used in a 1.4-GV superconducting CW driver linac. Ion beams ranging from protons (up to 900 MeV) to uranium (up to 400 MeV per nucleon) at beam powers up to 400 kW will be produced. The facility will also have a superconducting linac to accelerate short-lived rare isotopes produced by the driver. This post accelerator is composed of another 100 superconducting resonators and associated superconducting focusing magnets. Liquid helium will also be provided to a variety of experimental instruments including, for example, large superconducting magnetic spectrographs. Overall, the liquid helium refrigerator will need to provide approximately 8.6 kW of cooling at 2.0 K, 4.8 kW at 4.4 K, and 15.3 kW at 35 K for shield cooling. A review of the various loads, cryostats, distribution system, and refrigeration schemes will be presented along with some special needs for reliable operation.

J. R. Specht; W. C. Chronis

2002-05-10

281

Molybdenum Isotopes and Soil Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable isotope fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo isotope compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their short- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo isotope compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo isotope compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo isotopes relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo isotopes during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo isotope compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light isotope compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general isotope behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative isotope excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo isotope fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show isotope fractionation. Our data open interesting possibilities for the use of molybdenum isotopes as a paleo-proxy for soil processes. It also becomes clear that weathering processes can cause large variation in the isotope composition of the riverine input of Mo over (geologically) short time scales.

Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

2011-12-01

282

Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of ?17O versus ?18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (<8 solar masses), and 18O coming primarily from high-mass stars (Prantzos et al., 1996). These differences in type of stellar source result in large observable variations in stellar isotopic abundances as functions of age, size, metallicity, and galactic location ( Prantzos et al., 1996). In their paper reporting the discovery of 18O in the Earth's atmosphere, Giauque and Johnston (1929) refer to nonuniform distribution of oxygen isotopes as a "remote possibility," whereas Manian et al. (1934) sought to find variations in oxygen isotope abundances in meteorites as evidence for an origin outside the solar system.In addition to the abundance variations due to nuclear processes, there are important isotopic variations produced within molecular clouds, the precursors to later star-formation. The most important process is isotopic self-shielding in the UV photodissociation of CO (van Dishoeck and Black, 1988). This process results from the large differences in abundance between C16O, on the one hand, and C17O and C18O on the other. Photolysis of CO occurs by absorption of stellar UV radiation in the wavelength range 90-100 nm. The reaction proceeds by a predissociation mechanism, in which the excited electronic state lives long enough to have well-defined vibrational and rotational energy levels. As a consequence, the three isotopic species - C16O, C17O, and C18O - absorb at different wavelengths, corresponding to the isotope shift in vibrational frequencies. Because of their different number densities, the abundant C16O becomes optically thick in the outermost part of the cloud (nearest to the external source of UV radiation), while the rare C17O and C18O remain optically thin, and hence dissociate at a greater rate in the cloud interior. The differences in chemical reactivity between C16O molecules and 17O and 18O atoms may lead to isotopically selective reaction products. This scenario has been suggested to explain meteoritic isotope patterns, as discussed below (Yurimoto and Kuramoto, 2002).Stable isotope abundances in meteoritic material provide an opportunity to evaluate the thoroughness of mixing of isotopes of diverse stellar sources. Molybdenum presents a good test case: it has seven stable isotopes, derived from at least three types of stellar sources, corresp

Clayton, R. N.

2003-12-01

283

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

284

IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE ISOTOPE MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.

Quitte, Ghylaine [Universite de Lyon (France); Markowski, Agnes [ETH Zurich, Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Latkoczy, Christopher [ETH Zurich, D-CHAB, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Wolfgang-Pauli Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas, E-mail: Ghylaine.Quitte@ens-lyon.f [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2010-09-10

285

Is it living or non living?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once completed, students will have a deeper understanding of what is living and non living. Students will be able to identify the characteristics of non living and living things and will be able to classify them in an environment. Take this pretest to test your knowlege of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz Read this to learn more about living and non living things.Living vs Non Living Things Living things need 7 characteristics of life. Click on this link to learn more about what they are.7 Characteristics of Living Things Living and non living things have different characteristics. Look ...

Aitken, Miss

2009-04-17

286

Live Well  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV, following a healthy diet offers several benefits. Physical Activity - Exercise offers benefits that can help you maintain ... Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel Abroad Resources ...

287

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

288

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

289

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcano Live contains maps of volcanoes from around the world, a kids' page that provides volcano education links for teachers and students, a volcano glossary, volcano news, links to live video cams of volcanoes, geography and volcano information of countries around the world, and video clips of active volcanoes. There is also information for travelling to volcanoes, a volcano photo section, a section on the destruction of Pompeii, a volcanology section, and volcano safety rules.

Seach, John

290

Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.  

PubMed

A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions. PMID:14711171

Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

2003-12-01

291

Living with fame: Geri and Living with Michael Jackson  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will examine two recent and contrasting British television documentaries about particular stars\\/celebrities from the world of popular music – Geri (Channel 4, 1999) and Living with Michael Jackson (ITV, 2003). Geri comes from the British documentary film-maker\\/auteur Molly Dineen's journey with Geri Halliwell shortly after she had left the group TheSpice Girls, and Living with Michael Jackson features

Ian Goode

2008-01-01

292

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

293

Living and Non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to help students understand the difference between living and non-living things by teaching them the characteristics of living things. Introduction: We know what living things are, right? People are living things, aren't they? Can you think of any other living things? How do you know they are living? Task: If you were asked to explain what the difference between living and non-living things, how would you? This ...

Davies, Mrs.

2010-02-11

294

Isotope spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of isotopic ratios provides a privileged insight both into nucleosynthesis and into the mechanisms operating in stellar envelopes, such as gravitational settling. In this article, we give a few examples of how isotopic ratios can be determined from high-resolution, high-quality stellar spectra. We consider examples of the lightest elements, H and He, for which the isotopic shifts are very large and easily measurable, and examples of heavier elements for which the determination of isotopic ratios is more difficult. The presence of 6Li in the stellar atmospheres causes a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li 670.7 nm doublet which can only be detected in spectra of the highest quality. But even with the best spectra, the derived 6Li abundance can only be as good as the synthetic spectra used for their interpretation. It is now known that 3D non-LTE modelling of the lithium spectral line profiles is necessary to account properly for the intrinsic line asymmetry, which is produced by convective flows in the atmospheres of cool stars, and can mimic the presence of 6Li. We also discuss briefly the case of the carbon isotopic ratio in metal-poor stars, and provide a new determination of the nickel isotopic ratios in the solar atmosphere.

Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Monaco, L.; Lo Curto, G.; Kamp, I.

2014-01-01

295

Application of a sealed tube neutron generator to the characterization of very short half-life isomeric states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A SODERN sealed tube neutron generator producing 14 MeV neutrons has been used for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from about 20 ?s to 1 s. An interesting feature of this kind of sealed tube neutron generator is the pulsed operation at adjustable pulse width from 5 ?s to 10 ms or more, and at frequencies from continuous mode to 10 kHz. This capability allows the study of very short-lived isotopes down to a few microseconds with the cyclic activation method. A semiconductor ? ray detector Ge(HP) and ORTEC electronics were used for spectrometric measurements. The half-life measurement of short-lived activation products is performed with a fast multiscaler. Seven isomeric states have been successfully studied, characterized and their activation cross sections evaluated by the cyclic activation method: 114In ?, 181Ta ?, 181W ?, 205Pb ?, 206Pb ?, 207Pb ?, and 208Bi ?.

Antonot, B.; Cluzeau, S.; Le Tourneur, P.; Bergamo, F.

1995-05-01

296

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

297

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

298

Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

Boulyga, Sergei F

2010-01-01

299

Living and non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things often rely on non-living things to accomplish daily tasks. Living things have several characteristics that non-living things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. Living things and non-living things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

300

Periodic Table Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic Table Live!, produced by the Division of Chemical Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, allows users "to explore a broad range of information about the elements, their reactions, their properties, their structures and their histories." After selecting an element from the periodic table, users can access a myriad of information divided into three sections: Description, Physical, and Atomic. Students can view short videos of many of the elements' reactions with air, water, acids, and bases. The website is equipped with a helpful glossary and images of the elements, scientists, and other related items.

301

High-Resolution Isotope Records of the Late Ordovician and Late Carboniferous: A Comparative Perspective on Glacial Carbon and Sulfur Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) faithfully tracks the sulfur isotope composition of seawater in both modern and ancient environments. Therefore, analyses of carbonate rocks permit the generation of parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope data for seawater spanning geologic history. Our previous work in the early and middle Paleozoic has revealed parallel, short-term (1-4 Myrs) carbon and sulfur isotope excursions. The relationship between the two isotope systems seems to change over time, perhaps tracking longer-term evolution of the marine sulfur reservoir and of the primary loci of carbon burial, including increased burial on land. CAS isotope records therefore have the potential to shed essential mechanistic light on the causes (global versus regional) for carbon isotope excursions observed throughout the geological record. Previous work on the Late Carboniferous and Late Ordovician documented the existence of carbon isotope excursions of varying magnitude during these glacial episodes. The Late Carboniferous glaciations classically show evidence for multiple glacial-interglacial cycles with repeated, low magnitude (1 to 3 per mil) carbon isotope excursions. By contrast, the Late Ordovician was characterized by a short-lived glaciation with a corresponding single 4-6 per mil carbon isotope excursion. The modes and rates of carbon cycling reflected in the differing styles of C isotope behavior are the subject of debate, making these time-slices ideal for the CAS isotope approach. Carbon and sulfur isotope data from Pennsylvanian (Missourian Stage) cyclothems exposed in Kansas City, Missouri, show rapid isotope variability. We have preliminarily attributed these rapid changes to local reservoir effects linked to fluctuating sea level and its relationship to black shale deposition within the midcontinent basin and weathering on the basin margin during lowstands. Other work on the cyclic Carboniferous Bird Spring Formation, Nevada, is also contributing to an improved understanding of the local and global controls on carbon and sulfur cycling during this major glaciation. For comparison, our ongoing work in the Upper Ordovician (Hirnantian Stage) Hanson Creek Formation is exploring carbon-sulfur relationships through the single, large (6 per mil) carbon excursion observed during this glacial episode.

Gill, B. C.; Lyons, T. W.; Saltzman, M. R.

2005-12-01

302

Properties of halo nuclei from atomic isotope shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews progress that has been made in obtaining essentially exact solutions to the nonrelativistic three-body problem for helium by a combination of variational and asymptotic expansion methods. The calculation of relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections by perturbation theory is discussed, and in particular, methods for the accurate calculation of the Bethe logarithm part of the electron self energy are presented. As an example, the results are applied to the calculation of isotope shifts for the short-lived 'halo' nucleus 6He relative to 4He in order to determine the nuclear charge radius of 6He from high precision spectroscopic measurements carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory. The results demonstrate that the high precision that is now available from atomic theory is creating new opportunities to create novel measurement tools, and helium, along with hydrogen, can be regarded as a fundamental atomic system whose spectrum is well understood for all practical purposes.

Drake, G. W. F.; Yan, Z.-C.

2007-06-01

303

Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

1984-01-01

304

How Can I Live with Heart Failure?  

MedlinePLUS

What medicine might I take? The goal of heart failure treatment is to help you live a longer, better-quality life. Treating the causes of heart failure with medication can lessen tiredness (fatigue), shortness of ...

305

Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon isotope anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the isotope record shows a series of short-lived positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the isotopic pattern consists of a series of short duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the isotopic record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Ward, P. D.; Garrison, G. H.; Haggart, J. W.; Kring, D. A.; Beattie, M. J.

2004-01-01

306

Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

None

2009-04-23

307

Evolution of oxygen isotopic composition in the inner solar nebula  

E-print Network

Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the solar nebula with time are reflected in the properties of different constituents that are preserved in chondritic meteorites. CR carbonaceous chondrites are among the most primitive of all chondrite types and must have preserved solar nebula records largely unchanged. We have analyzed the oxygen and magnesium isotopes in a range of the CR constituents of different formation temperatures and ages, including refractory inclusions and chondrules of various types. The results provide new constraints on the time variation of the oxygen isotopic composition of the inner (<5 AU) solar nebula - the region where refractory inclusions and chondrules most likely formed. A chronology based on the decay of short-lived 26Al (t1/2 ~ 0.73 Ma) indicates that the inner solar nebula gas was 16O-rich when refractory inclusions formed, but less than 0.8 Ma later, gas in the inner solar nebula became 16O-poor and this state persisted at least until CR chondrules formed ~1-2 Myr later. We suggest that the inner solar nebula became 16O-poor because meter-size icy bodies, which were enriched in 17,18O due to isotopic self-shielding during the ultraviolet photo dissociation of CO in the protosolar molecular cloud or protoplanetary disk, agglomerated outside the snowline, drifted rapidly towards the Sun, and evaporated at the snowline. This led to significant enrichment in 16O-depleted water, which then spread through the inner solar system. Astronomical studies of the spatial and/or temporal variations of water abundance in protoplanetary disks may clarify these processes.

Alexander N. Krot; Ian D. Hutcheon; Hisayoshi Yurimoto; Jeffrey N. Cuzzi; Kevin D. McKeegan; Edward R. D. Scott; Guy Libourel; Marc Chaussidon; Jerome Aleon; Michael I. Petaev

2005-01-05

308

Using radium isotopes to estimate cross-shelf mixing rates: Spatial and temporal variability of radium isotopes in the surf zone and coastal ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the impact and fate of surface water runoff and associated contaminants requires knowledge of the rates of mixing and transport in the coastal zone. The distribution of naturally-occurring radium isotopes is being explored as a tracer to evaluate these rates. Two types of sampling have been utilized to study these processes: shore-based sampling in the surf zone and offshore sampling on transects from 0.5 to 15 km from the coast. Shoreline samples were collected every other hour for 10-12 hours at several locations between Huntington Beach and Santa Monica, California, during a range of seasons and tidal amplitudes. The 223Ra and 224Ra concentrations are related to the tides, with higher concentrations during low tide and lower concentrations at high tide. However, the 223Ra/223Ra ratio remains relatively constant. This indicates that the two isotopes co-vary and probably have a coherent source. As the tidal range while sampling increased, the average isotope concentration decreased, apparently reflecting increased offshore mixing rates. Six offshore transects have been obtained in the Huntington Beach area. Vertical profiles indicate that in most cases, the short-lived radium isotopes are primarily confined to the mixed layer. Results show that on the time scale of a few days, the system appears to be in steady state. During spring, higher concentrations in offshore surface waters were observed. This difference appears to result from confinement of the radium input to a shallower mixed layer, because integrated isotope inventories are remarkably consistent and suggest that the input does not vary greatly with time. Fits to a one-dimensional exponential function indicate that the two short-lived isotopes have quite similar horizontal scale distances. This is unexpected because a 1-D diffusion-reaction formulation predicts that scale distances should differ by a factor of 1.6. In contrast to the Huntington Beach region, three transects at Hermosa Beach indicate considerable temporal variability. Analyses of 228Ra are underway to provide further constraints on mixing.

Colbert, S. L.; Hammond, D. E.

2002-12-01

309

Estuary Live!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intended for elementary, middle, and high school students, this electronic estuary excursion, Estuary Live!!!, will take place May 8-12, 2000. Free to participants (but please sign up in advance), the field trip will explore the Rachel Carson Site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve, covering four islands and salt marshes off the North Carolina coast. The site features useful educational materials, including a photo-illustrated field guide (of the "ecology, habitats and specific plants and animals found in North Carolina's estuaries"); lesson plans (covering highschool biology, estuary habitats, species interactions, and adaptations and communities); and a series of related links. The interactive field trip will require a java-enabled browser, RealVideo (to see a moving image and hear sound), and/or Chatvideo, to see a moving image, ask questions of the naturalist leading the trip, and receive responses via a chat window. Note that ChatVideo requires Netscape 4.0 or better and will not work with AOL or Internet Explorer, and pages "look best" on a screen with resolution of 800x600. The Estuary Live!!! Website is provided by the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and The Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at East Carolina University.

310

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

311

Tritium isotope separation using resonance radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for separating hydrogen isotopes - particularly directed at tritium from deuterium is outlined. The method involves no fundamental scientific or technological developments but requires significant R & D in a number of subareas in order to establish the engineering and economic feasibility of the approach. The hardware required is of a simple, robusting long lived variety, i.e., electrical discharges, gas pumping units, etc. The system is comparatively easy to maintain. The concept is analyzed in the content of hydrogenic isotope separation.

Stangeby, P. C.

1982-08-01

312

Analysis of radium isotopes and radon in a groundwater affected coastal area of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All four naturally occurring radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) and 222Rn in the groundwater affected Eckernförder Bay (EB) of the Baltic Sea (Germany) were measured using alpha-spectrometry and liquid scintillation (LS) counting. The applied analytical methods are optimally adapted for extensive field surveillance of short lived radiotracers. Dispersive physical mixing acting over time scales in the order of days is responsible for the distribution of 223Ra, 224Ra and 222Rn in EB. The distribution of these natural tracers is controlled by the strength of the sedimentary source, the influence of direct groundwater input, the dispersive mixing coefficient in the water column and their own radioactive decay. From the inventory of 222Rn in the EB the obtained groundwater discharge rate can be estimated. In order to balance the inventory of 223Ra and 224Ra a source other than groundwater seepage has to responsible for almost all of the 224Ra and 223Ra inventory of the EB. Diffusion from sediments seems to be the major source for short-lived Ra isotopes in the lower water column of EB.

Purkl, S.; Eisenhauer, A.

2003-04-01

313

Charge breeding rare isotopes for high precision mass measurements: challenges and opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion charge breeding for Penning-trap mass spectrometry has been established as providing a precision increase that scales linearly with the charge state of the ion. Fast and efficient charge breeding is a precondition for the application of this approach to rare isotopes. However, in view of low yields and short half-lives the precision boost is partly compromised by unavoidable ion losses inherent to the charge breeding process. The mass spectrometer TRIUMFs ion trap for atomic and nuclear science is pioneering this field by coupling a Penning trap and an electron beam ion trap to the rare-isotope beam facility ISAC at TRIUMF. Here we present simulations that calculate and maximize the effective precision gain of time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements with highly charged ions of short-lived nuclides. In addition we compare the characteristics of measurements with singly and highly charged ions, and we summarize recent results that explored benefits of charge breeding that go beyond the precision increase.

Simon, M. C.; Macdonald, T. D.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eberhardt, B.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Jang, F.; Lennarz, A.; Luichtl, M.; Ma, T.; Robertson, D.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Delheij, P.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lapierre, A.; Mané, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Ringle, R.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

2013-09-01

314

ON THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of the solar system is 5.2 while that of the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects is approx4. This difference cannot be explained by pollution of the Sun's natal molecular cloud by {sup 18}O-rich supernova ejecta because (1) the necessary B-star progenitors live longer than the duration of star formation in molecular clouds, (2) the delivery of ejecta gas is too inefficient and the amount of dust in supernova ejecta is too small compared to the required pollution (2% of total mass or approx20% of oxygen), and (3) the predicted amounts of concomitant short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) conflicts with the abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca in the early solar system. Proposals for the introduction of {sup 18}O-rich material must also be consistent with any explanation for the origin of the observed slope-one relationship between {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O in the high-temperature components of primitive meteorites. The difference in {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratios can be explained by enrichment of the ISM by the {sup 17}O-rich winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the sequestration of comparatively {sup 18}O-rich gas from star-forming regions into long-lived, low-mass stars, and a monotonic decrease in the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of interstellar gas. At plausible rates of star formation and gas infall, Galactic chemical evolution does not follow a slope-one line in a three-isotope plot, but instead moves along a steeper trajectory toward an {sup 17}O-rich state. Evolution of the ISM and star-forming gas by AGB winds also explains the difference in the carbon isotope ratios of the solar system and ISM.

Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R., E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.ed, E-mail: sasha@higp.hawaii.ed, E-mail: huss@higp.hawaii.ed [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States)

2009-11-10

315

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

316

Living Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.

317

Nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies and the Hf-W chronometry of Ca-Al-rich inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are the oldest dated objects formed in the solar system and are pivotal reference points in early solar system chronology. Knowledge of their initial 182Hf/180Hf and 182W/184W is essential, not only for obtaining precise Hf-W ages relative to the start of the solar system, but also to assess the distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar nebula. However, the interpretation of Hf-W data for CAI is complicated by nucleosynthetic W isotope variations. To explore their extent and nature, and to better quantify the initial Hf and W isotope compositions of the solar system, we obtained Hf-W data for several fine- and coarse-grained CAI from three CV3 chondrites. The fine-grained CAI exhibit large and variable anomalies in ?183W (?iW equals 0.01% deviation from terrestrial values), extending to much larger anomalies than previously observed in CAI, and reflecting variable abundances of s- and r-process W isotopes. Conversely, the coarse-grained (mostly type B) inclusions show only small (if any) nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies. The investigated CAI define a precise correlation between initial ?182W and ?183W, providing a direct empirical means to correct the ?182W of any CAI for nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies using their measured ?183W. After correction for nucleosynthetic W isotope variations, the CAI data define an initial 182Hf/180Hf of (1.018±0.043)×10-4 and an initial ?182W of -3.49±0.07. The Hf-W formation intervals of the angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555 relative to this CAI initial is 4.8±0.6 Ma, in good agreement with Al-Mg ages of these two angrites. This renders a grossly heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the inner solar system unlikely, at least in the region were CAI and angrites formed.

Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Burkhardt, Christoph; Wieler, Rainer

2014-10-01

318

Harvard@Home: Living Healthier, Living Longer: Part I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Harvard@Home, these two websites contain a collection of video presentations from an Alumni College and Harvard Medical School event titled Living Healthier, Living Longer. The video presentations feature expert doctors discussing a variety of health issues including aging, menopause, prostate cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cardiology, nutrition, stress management, and more. Presenters also address the history of the Harvard Medical School, and new cancer research. The presentations range from approximately 15 to 30 minutes in length. In addition to the video clips, the site includes accompanying slides, and short biographies of the presenters.

319

Isotopes in groundwater hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopes in groundwater hydrology give a direct insight into the movement and distribution processes within the aquifer. Groundwater in its natural state contains environmental isotopes and conclusions may be drawn from their abundance variations. The isotopes commonly employed in groundwater investigations are the heavy stable isotopes of the water molecule, deuterium and oxygen-18 and the radioactive isotopes, tritium and carbon-14.

J. L. TERWEY

320

Seasonal variations on the residence times and partitioning of short-lived radionuclides (234Th, 7Be and 210Pb) and depositional fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb in Tampa Bay, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, Tampa Bay has been impacted heavily by a wide range of anthropogenic perturbations that may include, agricultural-, shipping-, phosphate mining/distribution-related activities, as well as a burgeoning coastal population. Due to the presence of U-rich underlying sediments, elevated activities of U- and Th-series daughter products may be naturally released into this system. This region is also known for summer thunderstorms and corresponding increases in precipitation and surface water runoff. Only limited work has been conducted on the partitioning of particle-reactive radionuclides (such as 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th) in such a dynamic coastal system. We investigated both the removal residence time and partitioning of these radionuclides between filter-retained particulate matter (? 0.5 ?m) and the filtrate ( Our results indicate that the partitioning of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th between filtrate and filter-retained phase is controlled foremost by enhanced bottom resuspension events during summer thunderstorms. As a consequence, no significant relationship exists between the distribution coefficients (Kd values) of these isotopes and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Relatively faster recycling rates of atmospheric water vapor derived from the ocean results in lower atmospheric depositional fluxes of 210Pb to the study site than predicted. The relationship between 7Be and 210Pb in bulk (wet + dry) deposition is compared to their respective water column activities. The residence times of particulate and dissolved 234Th, 7Be and 210Pb, as well the distribution coefficients of these radionuclides, are then compared to values reported in other coastal systems.

Baskaran, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.

2007-01-01

321

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

322

New, heavy transuranium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we offer our most recent results concerning the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In additions to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements from bombardments of {sup 254}Es with heavy ions. {sup 2} An exciting finding in the course of this work is a new fission phenomenon, which we have termed bidmodal fission''. This is described in a subsequent section. The final part summarizes our conclusions based on the unexpectedly long half-lives and surprising fission properties of the heaviest nuclei. 27 refs., 19 figs.

Hulet, E.K.

1990-10-22

323

Neutron capture on Pt isotopes in iron meteorites and the Hf-W chronology of core formation in planetesimals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived 182Hf-182W isotope system can provide powerful constraints on the timescales of planetary core formation, but its application to iron meteorites is hampered by neutron capture reactions on W isotopes resulting from exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Here we show that Pt isotopes in magmatic iron meteorites are also affected by capture of (epi)thermal neutrons and that the Pt isotope variations are correlated with variations in 182W/184W. This makes Pt isotopes a sensitive neutron dosimeter for correcting cosmic ray-induced W isotope shifts. The pre-exposure 182W/184W derived from the Pt-W isotope correlations of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorites are higher than most previous estimates and are more radiogenic than the initial 182W/184W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI). The Hf-W model ages for core formation range from +1.6±1.0 million years (Ma; for the IVA irons) to +2.7±1.3 Ma after CAI formation (for the IID irons), indicating that there was a time gap of at least ˜1 Ma between CAI formation and metal segregation in the parent bodies of some iron meteorites. From the Hf-W ages a time limit of <1.5-2 Ma after CAI formation can be inferred for the accretion of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorite parent bodies, consistent with earlier conclusions that the accretion of differentiated planetesimals predated that of most chondrite parent bodies.

Kruijer, Thomas S.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten; Sprung, Peter; Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer

2013-01-01

324

COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup 26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

Injection of material from a core-collapse supernova into the solar system's already-formed disk is one proposed mechanism for producing the short-lived radionuclides, such as {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, inferred from isotopic studies of meteorites to have existed in the solar nebula. This hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis that the injection of enough supernova material to match the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca would produce large, measurable, and unobserved collateral effects on oxygen isotopes. Here we calculate again the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of supernova material in the solar nebula, using a variety of nucleosynthetic conditions of our own progenitor explosions. Unlike previous studies of this type, we also consider the effect of non-homogeneity in abundance distribution of the nucleosynthesis products after the explosion. We calculate the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of sufficient supernova material to produce the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, and analyze the predicted shifts in detail for compatibility with meteoritic data. We find that the range in possible isotopic shifts is considerable and sensitive to parameters such as progenitor mass and anisotropy of the explosion; however, a small number of compatible scenarios do exist. Because of the wide range of outcomes and the sensitivity of isotopic yields to assumed conditions, it is difficult to constrain the supernova that may have led to the injection of {sup 26}Al in the solar nebula. Conversely, we argue that the existence of viable counterexamples demonstrates that it is premature to use oxygen isotopes to rule out the injection of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca into the solar nebula protoplanetary disk by a nearby supernova.

Ellinger, Carola I. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 1504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

2010-12-20

325

Potential impact of releases from a new molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon isotopes.  

PubMed

The monitoring of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe, and (135)Xe is important for the detection of nuclear explosions. While backgrounds of the xenon isotopes are short-lived, they are constantly replenished from activities dominated by the fission-based production of (99)Mo used for medical procedures. At present, one of the most critical locations on earth for the monitoring of nuclear explosions is the Korean peninsula where the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has announced that it conducted three nuclear tests between 2006 and 2013. This paper explores the backgrounds that would be caused by the medium to large scale production of (99)Mo in the region of the Korean peninsula. PMID:24365483

Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Cameron, I M; Friese, J I; Hayes, J C; Metz, L A; Miley, H S

2014-03-01

326

Mercury isotope effects in the environmental chemistry and biochemistry of mercury-containing compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury isotope effects in environmentally significant chemical and biochemical reactions are considered. The recently discovered anomaly for the 199Hg and 201Hg magnetic nuclei proves that both chemical and biochemical transformations of mercury compounds (outside and inside living organisms) follow radical spin-selective mechanisms. The regularities of isotope fractionation in natural photochemical processes and in living tissues are discussed.

Anatolii L Buchachenko

2009-01-01

327

Mercury isotope effects in the environmental chemistry and biochemistry of mercury-containing compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury isotope effects in environmentally significant chemical and biochemical reactions are considered. The recently discovered anomaly for the 199Hg and 201Hg magnetic nuclei proves that both chemical and biochemical transformations of mercury compounds (outside and inside living organisms) follow radical spin-selective mechanisms. The regularities of isotope fractionation in natural photochemical processes and in living tissues are discussed.

Buchachenko, Anatolii L.

2009-04-01

328

Horizontal mixing of Great Barrier Reef waters: Offshore diffusivity determined from radium isotope distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), northern Australia, is the largest coral reef system in the world and provides habitat for highly diverse tropical marine ecosystems. Mixing in the coastal waters of the GBR is an important parameter influencing the health of these ecosystems. We have used the distribution of the four naturally occurring radium isotopes to determine the rate of mixing of nearshore waters of the central part of the GBR lagoon with water from the Coral Sea. The observed radium distribution is modeled using a one-dimensional diffusion model. The model improves on previous radium offshore mixing models by incorporating the benthic flux of radium diffusing across the sediment-water interface and offshore changes in water column depth. We find that the inner lagoon diffusivity (<20 km offshore) is best estimated using the short-lived isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra. The concordance of Kx estimated using the two different isotopes and the apparent consistency between measured riverine inflows to the lagoon and inflows inferred from the modeled salinity distribution provide confidence in the results. The mean value of Kx for the inner lagoon region of the southern central zone between latitudes 15.8°S and 19.0°S (265 ± 36 m2 s-1) is more than twice that in the northern central zone (14.3°S to 15.8°S). This difference likely reflects the different reef matrix density in the two zones. The distribution of the longer-lived isotope 228Ra indicates more rapid mixing in the middle and outer lagoon. These results indicate that central GBR water within 20 km of coast is flushed with outer lagoon water on a timescale of 18-45 days, with the flushing time increasing northward.

Hancock, Gary J.; Webster, Ian. T.; Stieglitz, Thomas C.

2006-12-01

329

Long-Lived, Sub-Surface Layers of Toxic Oil in the Deep-Sea: A Molecular Organic and Isotopic Geochemical Approach to Understanding their Nature, Molecular Distribution, Origin and Impact to the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the results from two research cruises to the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during May and August 2010, after the April 20th blowout of BP’s Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig. Not only was the DWH tragedy the largest oil spill to have ever occurred in the United States but it was also the first blowout of a deep-sea oil exploration well. The BP oil spill presents the scientific community with a critically important and unique opportunity: i) to characterize the occurrence, molecular distribution and abundance of the hydrocarbons in the sub-surface, ii) to identify the source of the oil in the environment and, iii) to study how the distribution and chemistry of the hydrocarbons change over time and space and whether the sub-surface hydrocarbons are toxic to marine plankton and bacteria. Using sonar, fluorometry and backscatter, we were able to trace the occurrence of layers of sub-surface oil. These oil layers were found suspended at depths of 400 m and 1000-1400 m in the form of small microdroplets that were not visible to the naked eye. Both the 400 and the 1000 m layers were traced for more than 20 miles in length and 4 miles in width. Molecular organic geochemical analyses determined that petroleum hydrocarbons were the dominant components of the 400 and 1000 m layers. Interesting, the distribution of compounds was extremely consistent among all the samples with n-alkanes ranging from C24 to C37 with a maximum at C28. The loss of the lower molecular weight components of the crude oil is attributed to biodegradation. This distribution of n-alkanes was the same regardless of whether the samples were from 400 or 1000 m, whether the sites were 25 or 45 miles from the DWH site or whether the samples were collected in May or August. These observations strongly suggest that the bacteria are not able to consume all of the oil, and that these higher molecular weight compounds may persist in the environment for extended lengths of time, at least months if not years. Biosensor assays, to dbe discussed in detail, indicate that marine organisms, phytoplankton and bacteria, express a strong toxic response when introduced to these sub-surface and surface waters rich in hydrocarbons. The distribution of hydrocarbons of the fresh BP’s MC-252 oil, the surface oil mousse, and the sub-surface oils are distinctly different. Due to the biodegradation of the sub-surface oil samples, hopane and sterane biomarker molecules were not present thereby making traditional oil-oil correlations impossible. Using Compound Specific Isotopic Analyses (CSIA) we were able to perfectly correlate the “molecular isotopic” fingerprint of the BP MC-252 oil, including a decreasing trend in ?13C values of n-alkanes from C27 to C34, to all sub-surface and surface oil samples. CSIA was able to definitively correlate the expansive clouds of degraded underwater oil found in the northern GoM to the BP’s DWH.

Hollander, D. J.; Freeman, K. H.; Ellis, G.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Peebles, E. B.; Paul, J.

2010-12-01

330

EVIDENCE FOR MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE HETEROGENEITY IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK  

SciTech Connect

With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the {sup 26}Al-to-{sup 26}Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical assumption that the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} recorded by the oldest dated solids, calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), represents the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al for the solar system as a whole. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope measurements of inner solar system solids, asteroids, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition ({mu}{sup 26}Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk at the time of CAI formation and/or Mg-isotope heterogeneity. By comparing the U-Pb and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of pristine solar system materials, we infer that the bulk of the {mu}{sup 26}Mg* variability reflects heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk. We conclude that the canonical value of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} represents the average initial abundance of {sup 26}Al only in the CAI-forming region, and that large-scale heterogeneity-perhaps up to 80% of the canonical value-may have existed throughout the inner solar system. If correct, our interpretation of the Mg-isotope composition of inner solar system objects precludes the use of the {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg system as an accurate early solar system chronometer.

Larsen, Kirsten K.; Trinquier, Anne; Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Connelly, James N.; Nordlund, Ake; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark); Ivanova, Marina A. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-07-10

331

Stable isotope studies  

SciTech Connect

The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

Ishida, T.

1992-01-01

332

SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS OF TYPE C PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE UNSTABLE ISOTOPE {sup 32}Si IN SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-rich grains are observed to condense in the ejecta of recent core-collapse supernovae (SNe) within a year after the explosion. Silicon carbide grains of type X are C-rich grains with isotopic signatures of explosive SN nucleosynthesis have been found in primitive meteorites. Much rarer silicon carbide grains of type C are a special sub-group of SiC grains from SNe. They show peculiar abundance signatures for Si and S, isotopically heavy Si, and isotopically light S, which appear to be in disagreement with model predictions. We propose that C grains are formed mostly from C-rich stellar material exposed to lower SN shock temperatures than the more common type X grains. In this scenario, extreme {sup 32}S enrichments observed in C grains may be explained by the presence of short-lived {sup 32}Si ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 153 yr) in the ejecta, produced by neutron capture processes starting from the stable Si isotopes. No mixing from deeper Si-rich material and/or fractionation of Si from S due to molecular chemistry is needed to explain the {sup 32}S enrichments. The abundance of {sup 32}Si in the grains can provide constraints on the neutron density reached during the SN explosion in the C-rich He shell material. The impact of the large uncertainty of the neutron capture cross sections in the {sup 32}Si region is discussed.

Pignatari, M.; Rauscher, T.; Thielemann, F.-K. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Zinner, E. [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bertolli, M. G. [Theoretical Division (T-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Trappitsch, R. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hoppe, P. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Fryer, C. [Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Herwig, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hirschi, R. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Timmes, F. X. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2013-07-01

333

Using radium isotopes as tracers of transfers in the soil - water- -plant system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) as well as (228Th) were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. Moreover, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. The radium isotopic ratio in the trees roots does not match the soil exchangeable fraction, suggesting a mixed pool of radium for roots uptake. Decay of 228Ra within the various parts of the trees allows calculating a vegetation cycling duration of about 12 years for this nuclide. Finally an unexpected large amount of unsupported 228Th in the tree leaves can only be explained by a preferential migration of the 228Ac (228Th precursor). The very short life of this nuclide allows therefore assessing that such transport from roots and deposition within stem and leaves take place within 30 hours at the most.

Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.-C.; Chabaux, F.

2012-04-01

334

Assisted Living Community Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... of all residents live in small communities. 2 Fee Structures - The costs for assisted living residences vary ... inclusive rate model, and 17 percent use a fee-for-service model. 1 Services - Assisted living residences ...

335

Mass spectrometer for accurate hydrogen isotopic analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study of the mass spectrometric analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen and helium isotopes shows that mass discrimination and low ion intensity in ion sources are the principal factors that limit accuracy. A virtual-image ion source with short focal length and high brightness avoids these limitations. Suitable analyzers and accessory equipment are available. Development and construction of an

Chastagner

1978-01-01

336

Significant increases in global weathering during Oceanic Anoxic Events 1a and 2 indicated by calcium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium-isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) were measured in carbonate-rich sedimentary sections deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events 1a (Early Aptian) and 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian). In sections from Resolution Guyot, Mid-Pacific Mountains; Coppitella, Italy; and the English Chalk at Eastbourne and South Ferriby, UK, a negative excursion in ? 44/42Ca of ~ 0.20‰ and ~ 0.10‰ is observed for the two events. These ? 44/42Ca excursions occur at the same stratigraphic level as the carbon-isotope excursions that define the events, but do not correlate with evidence for carbonate dissolution or lithological changes. Diagenetic and temperature effects on the calcium-isotope ratios can be discounted, leaving changes in global seawater composition as the most probable explanation for ? 44/42Ca changes in four different carbonate sections. An oceanic box model with coupled strontium- and calcium-isotope systems indicates that a global weathering increase is likely to be the dominant driver of transient excursions in calcium-isotope ratios. The model suggests that contributions from hydrothermal activity and carbonate dissolution are too small and short-lived to affect the oceanic calcium reservoir measurably. A modelled increase in weathering flux, on the order of three times the modern flux, combined with increased hydrothermal activity due to formation of the Ontong-Java Plateau (OAE1a) and Caribbean Plateau (OAE2), can produce trends in both calcium and strontium isotopes that match the signals recorded in the carbonate sections. This study presents the first major-element record of a weathering response to Oceanic Anoxic Events.

Blättler, Clara L.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Reynard, Linda M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

2011-09-01

337

High precision measurements of non-mass-dependent effects in nickel isotopes in meteoritic metal via multicollector ICPMS.  

PubMed

We measured the Ni isotopic composition of metal from a variety of meteorite groups to search for variations in the 60Ni abundance from the decay of the short-lived nuclide 60Fe (t(1/2) = 1.49 My) and for possible nucleosynthetic effects in the other stable isotopes of Ni. We developed a high-yield Ni separation procedure based on a combination of anion and cation exchange chromatography. Nickel isotopes were measured on a single-focusing, multicollector, inductively coupled mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The external precision on the mass-bias-corrected 60Ni/58Ni ratio (+/-0.15 epsilon; 2sigma) is comparable to similar studies using double-focusing MC-ICPMS. We report the first high-precision data for 64Ni, the least abundant Ni isotope, obtained via MC-ICPMS. The external precision on the mass-bias-corrected 64Ni/58Ni ratio (+/-1.5 epsilon; 2sigma) is better than previous studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. No resolvable excesses relative to a terrestrial standard in the mass-bias-corrected 60Ni/58Ni ratio were detected in any meteoritic metal samples. However, resolvable deficits in this ratio were measured in the metal from several unequilibrated chondrites, implying a 60Fe/56Fe ratio of approximately 1 x 10(-6) at the time of Fe/Ni fractionation in chondritic metal. A 60Fe/56Fe ratio of (4.6 +/- 3.3) x 10(-7) is inferred at the time of Fe/Ni fractionation on the parent bodies of magmatic iron meteorites and pallasites. No clearly resolvable non-mass-dependent anomalies were detected in the other stable isotopes of Ni in the samples investigated here, indicating that the Ni isotopic composition in the early solar system was homogeneous (at least at the level of precision reported here) at the time of meteoritic metal formation. PMID:17165842

Cook, David L; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Janney, Philip E; Dauphas, Nicolas; Clayton, Robert N; Davis, Andrew M

2006-12-15

338

No Indications from Cr Isotopes for the Late Heavy Bombardment on Earth in Early Archean Metasediments from Isua, Greenland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived 53Mn-53Cr (half-life of 3.7 Ma) isotope system has been widely used in cosmochemical studies and excess 53Cr relative to the terrestrial 53Cr/52Cr ratio has been detected in a variety of ancient solar system objects. Inspired by the highly debatted, apparent indications from W isotopes for a meteoritic component in ~3.8 Ga sediments from Isua ([1]) and the potential of the Mn-Cr extinct isotope system to trace extraterrestrial components in K-T sections ([2]), we have initiated a long-term study of Cr isotope systematics in these sediments, from which Rosing ([3]) reported graphitic microparticles with isotopically light C, indicative of a biogenic origin. We document our ability to reproduce the terrestrial Cr standard to +/- 0.15 \\epsilon-units, applying a second order mass bias correction to acccount for residual mass fractionation effects after application of a strict exponential law. While we are able to detect an apparent deficit of 53Cr in the order of -0.3 \\epsilon-units in the K-T boundary clay from Stevns Klint and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (and thus confirm results by [2]), several pelagic shales (with Cr concentrations from 30-70 ppm) from Isua give statistically indistinguishable values from the terrestrial standard. We are thus not capable of detecting a Cr-component of extraterrestrial origin within the limits of our mass spectrometric precision in the Isua sediments and therefore are unable to confirm the W-isotope evidence for early meteorite bombardment apparently recorded by them. [1] Schoenberg R., Kamber B.S., Collerson K.D. and Moorbath S. (2002), Nature 418, 403-405; [2] Shukolyukov A. and Lugmair G.W. (1998), Science 282, 927-929, [3] Rosing M.T. (1999), Science 283, 674-676.

Frei, R.; Schoenberg, R.; Rosing, M. T.

2004-12-01

339

Supernova graphite in the NanoSIMS: Carbon, oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions of a spherule and its TiC sub-components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presolar graphite spherules from the Murchison low-density separate KE3 contain a large number of internal TiC crystals that range in size from 15 to 500 nm. We have studied one such graphite grain in great detail by successive analyses with SEM, ims3f SIMS, TEM and NanoSIMS. Isotopic measurements of the 'bulk' particle in the ims3f indicate a supernova origin for this graphite spherule. The NanoSIMS measurements of C, N, O and Ti isotopes were performed directly on TEM ultramicrotome sections of the spherule, allowing correlated studies of the isotopic and mineralogical properties of the graphite grain and its internal crystals. We found isotopic gradients in 12C/ 13C and 16O/ 18O from the core of the graphite spherule to its perimeter, with the most anomalous compositions being present in the center. These gradients may be the result of isotopic exchange with isotopically normal material, either in the laboratory or during the particle's history. No similar isotopic gradients were found in the 16O/ 17O and 14N/ 15N ratios, which are normal within analytical uncertainty throughout the graphite spherule. Due to an unusually high O signal, internal TiC crystals were easily located during NanoSIMS imaging measurements. It was thus possible to determine isotopic compositions of several internal TiC grains independent of the surrounding graphite matrix. These TiC crystals are significantly more anomalous in their O isotopes than the graphite, with 16O/ 18O ratios ranging from 14 to 250 (compared to a terrestrial value of 499). Even the most centrally located TiC grains show significant variations in their O isotopic compositions from crystal to crystal. Measurement of the Ti isotopes in three TiC grains found no variations among them and no large differences between the compositions of the different crystals and the 'bulk' graphite spherule. However, the same three TiC crystals vary by a factor of 3 in their 16O/ 18O ratios. It is not clear in what form the O is associated with the TiC grains and whether it is cogenetic or the result of surface reactions on the TiC grains before they accreted onto the growing graphite spherule. The presence of 44Ca from short-lived 44Ti (t 1/2 = 60y) in one of the TiC subgrains confirms the identification of this graphite spherule as a supernova condensate.

Stadermann, F. J.; Croat, T. K.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Amari, S.; Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.

2005-01-01

340

Short-lived Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from {sup 222}Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized {sup 222}Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.

Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)

2013-08-08

341

Short-lived Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from 222Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized 222Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.

Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin

2013-08-01

342

Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

Adelstein, S.J.

1991-01-01

343

Short report: Migration among persons living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the first national probability sample of persons with HIV, the HIV Cost of Services and Utilization Survey (HCSUS), are used to examine migration patterns among persons with HIV\\/AIDS in the USA. Persons with serious illness may choose to relocate to receive better care or support. This migration has implications for the distribution of resources. This study describes the

Marc L. Berk; Claudia L. Schur; Jennifer L. Dunbar; Sam Bozzette; Martin Shapiro

2003-01-01

344

Halogenated Very Short-Lived Substances Lead Authors  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.20 2.3.3 Production and Gas-Phase Removal of VSL Organic Product Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 2.2.1.1 Bromine and Iodine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.15 2.2.3.2 Iodine

Nassar, Ray

345

RADIATIONS FROM SHORT-LIVED RARE GAS FISSION PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies of the primary gamma rays emitted in the decay of 3.2 min ; Kr⁸⁹, 33 sec Kr⁹°, 1.2 min Rb\\/sup 91m\\/, 41 sec Xe\\/sup 139 and 66 sec ; Cs¹⁴° were determined and relative gamma -ray intensities measured. ; Photon per disintegration values were estimated for Kr⁸⁹, Kr⁹°, Xe\\/; sup 139\\/, and for 9.5 min Cs¹³⁹. BETA -ray

M. A. Wahlgren; W. W. Meinke

1962-01-01

346

Short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medicine - II  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied effectively in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the prognosis of stroke, and the evaluation of the efficacy of tumor therapy. In addition, PET has been applied to studies of the neuroreceptor distribution in the human brain, to studies of epilepsy and congenital disorders of the brain, and to the study of flow and metabolism of the human heart muscle. Of the many current investigations of PET, the three discussed here are now of clinical importance for patient care.

Budinger, T.F.; Peng, C.T.

1985-11-01

347

Tropospheric Ozone as a Short-lived Chemical Climate Forcer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.

Pickering, Kenneth E.

2012-01-01

348

SHORT COMMUNICATION You are where you live: parasitic nematode mitochondrial  

E-print Network

by their definitive host type (ectothermal vs. endothermal), did not differ in their rates of protein evolu- tion of parasites of endotherms were significantly smaller than those of parasites of ectotherms, supporting the race for replication hypothesis. As mitochondrial genomes of endothermal animals are usually more

Poulin, Robert

349

Helping Students Live Longer and Healthier Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which was written for adult educators in Georgia, offers instructional plans and practical strategies for helping students in adult literacy, adult basic education (ABE), General Educational Development, and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs live longer and healthier lives. The document begins with a discussion of why…

Valentine, Tom, Ed.; Sandlin, Jenny, Ed.

1997-01-01

350

ChemTeacher: Isotopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Isotopes page includes resources for teaching students about the structure and uses of isotopes.

2011-01-01

351

Mixing in the Solar Nebula: Implications for Isotopic Heterogeneity and Large-Scale Transport of Refractory Grains  

E-print Network

The discovery of refractory grains amongst the particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft (Brownlee et al. 2006) provides the ground truth for large-scale transport of materials formed in high temperature regions close to the protosun outward to the comet-forming regions of the solar nebula. While accretion disk models driven by a generic turbulent viscosity have been invoked as a means to explain such large-scale transport, the detailed physics behind such an ``alpha'' viscosity remains unclear. We present here an alternative physical mechanism for large-scale transport in the solar nebula: gravitational torques associated with the transient spiral arms in a marginally gravitationally unstable disk, of the type that appears to be necessary to form gas giant planets. Three dimensional models are presented of the time evolution of self-gravitating disks, including radiative transfer and detailed equations of state, showing that small dust grains will be transported upstream and downstream (with respect to the mean inward flow of gas and dust being accreted by the central protostar) inside the disk on time scales of less than 1000 yr inside 10 AU. These models furthermore show that any initial spatial heterogeneities present (e.g., in short-lived isotopes such as 26Al) will be homogenized by disk mixing down to a level of ~10%, preserving the use of short-lived isotopes as accurate nebular chronometers, while simultaneously allowing for the spread of stable oxygen isotope ratios. This finite level of nebular spatial heterogeneity appears to be related to the coarse mixing achieved by spiral arms, with radial widths of order 1 AU, over time scales of ~1000 yrs.

Alan P. Boss

2008-01-10

352

Search for traces of the late heavy bombardment on Earth—Results from high precision chromium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision mass spectrometric analyses of the chromium isotopic composition of metamorphosed turbiditic and pelagic sedimentary rocks and banded iron stones from the ˜3.7 Gyr Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in West Greenland cannot be distinguished from the standard terrestrial 53Cr / 52Cr ratio at our present level of resolution. As a consequence, our search for chemical traces of possible impact-derived meteoritic components (asteroidal and/or cometary material, or accreted cosmic dust) in the Earth's oldest chemical and detrital sediments was negative. Our results, based on the 53Mn- 53Cr short-lived radionuclide system (half-life of 3.7 Myr), cannot confirm the recent findings by [1] [R. Schoenberg, B.S. Kamber, K.D. Collerson, S. Moorbath. Tungsten isotope evidence from approximately 3.8-Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth. Nature 418 (2002) 403-405.] of tungsten isotope anomalies (based on the 182Hf- 182W short-lived radionuclide system; half-life of 9 Myr) in these sediments, which were interpreted as indicating a component derived from meteorites. Possible reasons for the failure to trace cosmic material in the ISB metasediments are various: 1. The samples studied are not representative; 2: The sedimentation period did not overlap with the period of late heavy bombardment of the Moon; and 3. The potential chromium anomalies, if present, are too small to be traceable by our present levels of detection. Unequivocal evidence of a late heavy bombardment on the early Earth therefore remains elusive and uncertain.

Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik T.

2005-07-01

353

Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

1985-01-30

354

Photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to the carbon isotope signals of stem, soil and ecosystem respiration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthetic carbon (C) isotope discrimination labels photosynthates (?A) and atmospheric CO2 (?a) with variable C isotope compositions during fluctuating environmental conditions. In this context, the C isotope composition of respired CO2 within ecosystems is often hypothesized to vary temporally with photosynthetic discrimination. We investigated the relationship between photosynthetic discrimination and the C isotope signals from stem (?W), soil (?S) and ecosystem (?E) respired CO2 to environmental fluctuations, using novel tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer instrumentation in a mature maritime pine forest. Broad seasonal changes in photosynthetic discrimination were reflected in ?W, ?S and ?E. However, respired CO2 signals had smaller short-term variations than photosynthetic discrimination and were offset and delayed by 2-10 d, indicating fractionation and isotopic mixing in a large C pool. Variations in ?S did not follow photosynthetic discrimination at all times, especially during rainy periods and when there is a strong demand for C allocation above ground. It is likely that future isotope-enabled vegetation models will need to develop transfer functions that can account for these phenomena in order to interpret and predict the isotopic impact of biosphere gas exchange on the C isotope composition of atmospheric CO2. L. Wingate, J. Ogée, R. Burlett, A. Bosc, M. Devaux, J. Grace, D. Loustau and A. Gessler. Photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to the carbon isotope signals of stem, soil and ecosystem respiration. New Phytologist, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03384.x

Wingate, L.; Ogée, J.; Burlett, R.; Bosc, A.; Devaux, M.; Grace, J.; Loustau, D.; Gessler, A.

2010-12-01

355

Identification in primitive basalts of a single melt reaction from an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the broad scale effects of recycled material in the source mantle are seen through isotopic variations in basalts, how this material explicitly contributes to the melting process is less constrained. The Big Pine Volcanic Field, CA, provides an excellent natural laboratory to study processes associated with mantle melting. The monogentic vents there preserve primitive, short-lived (< 100 year) eruptive sequences that show a simple chemical evolution, unrelated to shallow-level processes, that repeats at different vents throughout the volcanic field. Furthermore, these chemical trends are paralleled by an increase in ?Nd and a decrease 87Sr/86Sr, indicating the progressive interaction between a mantle melt from a depleted source with a more isotopically evolved unit. We present new evidence here that show that the chemical evolution of these eruptive sequences are controlled by a single, univariant reaction seen as straight chemical and isotopic trends in log compositional space. Generalized equations for dynamic melting reaction progress indicate that straight trends are only possible for continuous reactions with constant distribution coefficients, modes, and melting modes. This relationship is remarkable given that the eruptive sequences shows clear evidence of an isotopically heterogeneous source region. Inversion of rare earth elements (REEs) using published partition coefficients indicate a non-modal melt reaction involving, at the minimum, garnet and pyroxene. The degree of reaction progress indicates the generation of 12% of new melt from a depleted source, and a melt porosity of 15%. These estimates should be viewed as apparent values since they depend on the geometry of the magmatic plumbing system and the percentage of the actual melt that is in equilibrium with the surrounding solid phases. We consider two models consistent with the inversion: 1) melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, consisting of a "plum pudding" mixture of peridotite and pyroxenite, and 2) reaction of an asthenospheric melt with shallower mantle lithosphere.

Blondes, M. S.; Brandon, M. T.

2008-12-01

356

Long Lived NMR Signal in Bone  

PubMed Central

Solids and rigid tissues, such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in MRI, which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. It is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high resolution and sensitivity via MRI. PMID:23562664

Zhang, Boyang; Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, Anatoly; Jerschow, Alexej

2013-01-01

357

Long Lived NMR Signal in Bone  

E-print Network

Solids and rigid tissues such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. Contrary to long-standing belief, it is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high sensitivity, resolution, and specificity via MRI.

Zhang, Boyang; Khitrin, Anatoly; Jerschow, Alexej

2012-01-01

358

Long Lived NMR Signal in Bone  

E-print Network

Solids and rigid tissues such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. Contrary to long-standing belief, it is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high sensitivity, resolution, and specificity via MRI.

Boyang Zhang; Jae-Seung Lee; Anatoly Khitrin; Alexej Jerschow

2012-09-18

359

Long lived NMR signal in bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solids and rigid tissues, such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in MRI, which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. It is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high resolution and sensitivity via MRI.

Zhang, Boyang; Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, Anatoly; Jerschow, Alexej

2013-06-01

360

Living with Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

361

Living with Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart ... suddenly faint, collapse, or have other severe symptoms. Living With Broken Heart Syndrome Most people who have ...

362

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

Haller, Eugene E.

2001-12-21

363

Versatile dynamic isotope power systems for the exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic, isotope-heated power systems are needed to carry out the exploration of space and are major elements identified by NASA for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program is aimed at establishing the advanced technology as well as the system designs and hardware for the SEI and other exploratory missions. Several conceptual designs of DIPS systems have been developed to provide compact, reliable, and long-lived power systems.

Johnson, Richard A.; Stadnik, Andrew G.; Cataldo, Robert; Williams, Rex

1991-01-01

364

Intercultural Learning on Short-Term Sojourns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an ethnographic case study of advanced second language (L2) students from Hong Kong who took part in a short-term sojourn in England after 14 weeks of preparation. While abroad, they lived with a host family, took literary/cultural studies courses, visited cultural sites, participated in debriefing sessions, and conducted…

Jackson, Jane

2009-01-01

365

Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

366

FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY  

E-print Network

logistics operations and secondary services in the area of insurance, customs and carbon footprint trackingFUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab that will provide logistics solutions for the future. The Living Lab is a demonstration, exhibition and work space

Heiser, Gernot

367

Living related liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver

Masatoshi Makuuchi; Hideo Kawarazaki; Tadashi Iwanaka; Naoshi Kamada; Tadatoshi Takayama; Masamitsu Kumon

1992-01-01

368

Living Willow Huts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

Keeler, Rusty

2007-01-01

369

Isotopic systematics of the early Mauna Kea shield phase and insight into the deep mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3500 m deep Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project core provides a ~680 kyr record of the magmatic history and source components of Mauna Kea volcano. We report high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of 40 basalts from the last 408 m of the final drilling phase (HSDP2-B and HSDP2-C) and show that these lowermost basalts represent the early shield stage of Mauna Kea's growth history. Two sample groups are distinguished based on their isotopic variability compared to the rest of the core. Over a depth interval of 210 m (3098.2-3308.2 mbsl), the basalts show very restricted isotopic variation and represent sampling of a relatively homogeneous source. Samples from the bottom 192 m record the largest range of 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb in the core, reflecting the greater isotopic variability of the earlier stages of volcanism compared to subsequent stages. The heterogeneity of Mauna Kea lavas is explained by mixing variable proportions of four distinct components intrinsic to the Hawaiian mantle plume. One of these components, Kea, is a prevalent and long-lived composition within the Hawaiian plume, whereas the other three components are involved at different stages of the volcano's history and contribute to the short-term isotopic variability of Mauna Kea. The compositional similarity of the Kea component to "C" and to the super-chondritic bulk-silicate Earth suggests that Kea may be part of the primitive mantle of a non-chondritic Earth. Other Pacific oceanic island basalts share Kea-like compositions, indicating that the Kea component is a common, widespread composition within the Pacific deep mantle.

Nobre Silva, Inês G.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.

2013-03-01

370

(220)Rn/(222)Rn isotope pair as a natural proxy for soil gas transport.  

PubMed

Radon (Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, which is ubiquitous in soil gas. Especially, its long-lived isotope (222)Rn (half-life: 3.82 d) gained widespread acceptance as a tracer for gas transport in soils, while the short-lived (220)Rn (half-life: 55.6 s) found less interest in environmental studies. However, in some cases, the application of (222)Rn as a tracer in soil gas is complex as its concentrations can be influenced by changes of the transport conditions or of the (222)Rn production of the soil material. Due to the different half-lives of (220)Rn and (222)Rn, the distances that can be traveled by the respective isotopes before decay differ significantly, with (220)Rn migrating over much shorter distances than (222)Rn. Therefore, the soil gas concentrations of (220)Rn and (222)Rn are influenced by processes on different length scales. In laboratory experiments in a sandbox, we studied the different transport behaviors of (220)Rn and (222)Rn resulting from changing the boundary conditions for diffusive transport and from inducing advective gas movements. From the results gained in the laboratory experiments, we propose the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn to determine gas transport processes in soils. In a field study on soil gases in the cover soil of a capped landfill we applied the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn in soil gas for the first time and showed the feasibility of this approach to characterize soil gas transport processes. PMID:24266394

Huxol, Stephan; Brennwald, Matthias S; Henneberger, Ruth; Kipfer, Rolf

2013-12-17

371

Disturbances in the Isotopic Record of Asuka 881394  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asuka 881394 is a unique achondrite with a granulitic texture, very calcic approximately An(sub 98) plagioclase, and pigeonite that has not inverted to orthopyroxene. First thought to be a eucrite, recent Oisotopic studies show it has a closer affinity to angrites . Initial isotopic studies provided evidence for now extinct A-26, Mn-53, and Sm-146. A recent study confirmed an early chronology with an absolute Pb-207 - Pb-206 age of 4566.5 +/- 0.2 Ma, a new measurement of the Al-Mg formation interval as 3.7 +/- 0.1 Ma since Al-26/Al-27 = approximately 4.63 x 10(exp -5) for the E60 CAI, and a Mn-Cr formation interval of -6.0 +/- 0.2 Ma relative to LEW86010 ("LEW"). Absolute ages relative to age anchors presented by were 4563.4 +/- 0.2 Ma by Al- Mg and 4564.6 +/- 0.5 Ma by Mn-Cr. These ages are in good, but not perfect, agreement with the Pb-207 - Pb-206 age. Perhaps the most direct comparison of the early chronology of A881394 as determined by various workers is provided by reported Al-26/Al-27 values of 1.18 +/- 0.14, 1.28 +/- 0.07, and 2.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -6). Analyses of mineral separates by TIMS and MC-ICPMS6] agree well, but the higher value obtained by in situ SIMS analysis is significant in light of the slight inconsistency between absolute ages inferred from the short-lived chronometers and the Pb-207 - Pb-206 age. We examine the possibility that inconsistencies in the earliest fine-scale chronology of Asuka 881394 may be related to isotopic "disturbances" observed in Ar-39 - Ar-40, Rb-97 - Sr-87, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 chronometers.

Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

2011-01-01

372

Application of radium isotopes to determine crustal residence times of hydrothermal fluids from two sites on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium isotopes were used to determine the crustal residence times of hydrothermal fluids from two geothermal wells (Svartsengi and Reykjanes) from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The availability of rock samples from the subsurface (to depths of 2400 m) allowed direct comparison of the radium isotopic characteristics of the fluids with those of the rocks within the high temperature and pressure reaction zone. The 226Ra activity of the Svartsengi fluid was ˜one-fourth of the Reykjanes fluid and the 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio of the Svartsengi fluid was ˜twice that of Reykjanes. The fluid isotopic characteristics were relatively stable for both sites over the 6 years (2000-2006) of the study. It was determined, using a model that predicts the evolution of the fluid 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio with time, that both sites had fluid residence times, from the onset of high temperature water-rock reaction, of less than 5 years. Measurement of the short-lived 224Ra and 223Ra allowed estimation of the recoil input parameter used in the model. The derived timescale is consistent with results from similar studies of fluids from submarine systems, and has implications for the use of terrestrial systems in Iceland as an exploited energy resource.

Kadko, David; Gronvold, Karl; Butterfield, David

2007-12-01

373

USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

374

In Situ Investigation of Mg Isotope Compositions in a FUN Inclusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mg isotopic composition of a forsterite-rich FUN inclusion is investigated by high-precision multiple collector ion microprobe analysis. The CAI is found to have contained live 26Al when it crystallized.

McKeegan, K. D.; Davis, A. M.; Taylor, D. J.; MacPherson, G. J.

2005-03-01

375

Radon and radium isotopes as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge Results from the Ubatuba, Brazil SGD assessment intercomparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined groundwater flow rates shortly after the wet season into an embayment near Ubatuba, Brazil as part of an international intercomparison experiment for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessment techniques. Our estimated rates were determined by the combined use of continuous radon measurements and assessment of radium isotope patterns. The spatial distribution of the short-lived radium isotopes ( 223Ra and 224Ra) provided the means for independent evaluations of radon losses by mixing and atmospheric evasion. We were thus able to construct a well-constrained mass balance for radon that included a groundwater flux term. Our results showed that the groundwater discharge into this embayment from the fractured crystalline rock aquifer is not steady-state but varies with tidal modulation and rain-induced forcing. Tidally modulated and rain-induced flow rates were comparable during this period. The SGD rates estimated from radon ranged from 1 cm/day to 29 cm/day (cm 3/cm 2 day) with a mean and standard deviation of 13 ± 6 cm/day. These estimates were mostly similar to a dye-dilution automatic seepage meter (15 ± 19 cm/day) and were within the broad ranges estimated by manual and continuous heat seepage meters but lower than indicated by an artificial tracer test performed nearshore.

Burnett, William C.; Peterson, Richard; Moore, Willard S.; de Oliveira, Joselene

2008-02-01

376

Isotopes of Pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from Science Netlinks is designed to explain the weighted averages that are used in average atomic mass calculations. Students can be expected to learn that isotopes of an element have different masses; that isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons; and that atomic mass is the weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

Netlinks, Science; Science, American A.

377

Hybrid isotope separation scheme  

DOEpatents

A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01

378

Stable isotope enrichment using a plasma centrifuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (Isotope Program) within the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is to produce isotopes that are in short supply in the U.S. and of which there exists no or insufficient domestic commercial production capability. A vacuum arc plasma centrifuge is a rigid rotor column of metal plasma in which centrifugal forces re-distribute ions radially according to their mass/charge ratio. Early work demonstrated rotation at 2 million rpm and separation of various stable isotopes. The spinning plasma column had a Gaussian flux profile, peaked on the rigid rotor axis. This work adopts a more efficient approach, with the plasma created as a hollow column, wherein the flux is concentrated at larger radii where the centrifugal action is highest. By tailoring the vacuum arc discharge geometry, the rotation rate can also be increased to ˜10 million rpm. Data from Cu, Al and other metal plasmas will be presented and discussed in light of enriched stable isotopes needed for research and medicine.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; Madden, Robert

2012-10-01

379

Combined carbonate carbon isotopic and cellular ultrastructural studies of individual benthic foraminifera: Method description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon isotopes of foraminiferal tests provide a widely used proxy for past oceanographic environmental conditions. This proxy can be calibrated using live specimens, which are reliably identified with observations of cell ultrastructure. Observations of ultrastructures can also be used for studies of biological characteristics such as diet and presence of symbionts. Combining biological and isotopic studies on individual foraminifera could

Jonathan B. Martin; Joan M. Bernhard; Jason Curtis; Anthony E. Rathburn

2010-01-01

380

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

2009-02-01

381

Living Wage Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy

382

Detrital feeding in natural zooplankton communities: Discrimination between live and dead algal foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater zooplankton species differ in their consumption of live and dead algal cells when tested in situ. Using isotopically-labeled living and heat-killed Chlamydomonas reinhardti as models for phytoplankton and detrital seston, respectively, we tested differential feeding on these foods by 3 rotifers and 2 microcrustaceans. Keratella cochlearis selectively feeds on ‘detrital’ materials while 2 sympatric rotifer species, Conochilus dossuarius and

Peter L. Starkweather; Kenneth G. Bogdan

1980-01-01

383

Living with Cough  

MedlinePLUS

... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Pneumonia Asthma COPD Bronchitis Bronchiectasis Related Media Videos Quizzes Send a ...

384

Shortness of Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms of heart failure include difficult breathing when lying down (this is a specific symptom of heart ... shortness of breath; coughing at night or when lying down; experiencing shortness of breath with activity; swelling ...

385

Nitrogen Isotope Tracing of Eutrophication Sources on a Watershed Scale: Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Nitrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifers and surface waters associated with agricultural activities has become a major concern in river basins, like the Neuse, where significant agricultural land use is coupled with growing numbers of intensive animal operations (ILO's). The development of effective management practices to preserve water quality, or remediation strategies for basins already polluted requires source identification. The stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate has been used as tracers to evaluate nitrogen sources on small scales, such as agricultural fields, or small watersheds with one dominate land use. This discrimination is possible because of the large fractionation associated with the volatilization of ammonia from animal wastes. Using stable isotopes on larger scales to evaluate nutrient sources is complicated by multiple sources, overlapping point and non-point sources, and co-existing biogeochemical processes that alter nitrate concentrations. To evaluate the potential of stable isotopes to determine the character of nutrient fluxes on larger scales, the isotopic/discharge relationship was examined for a watershed with little agricultural activity, an urban watershed, a watershed with mixed urban and agricultural land use, a watershed dominated by swine ILO's, and a watershed dominated by poultry ILO's. The watershed with little agricultural activity and the poultry watershed have similar isotope/discharge relationships with isotopic values at natural background levels and no change in concentration or isotopic composition in different discharge states. The urban watershed is dominated by point source isotopic values at all flow levels, the mixed urban and agricultural watershed is dominated by point source values during low flow conditions, and fertilizer non-point source values during high flow conditions. In this watershed nutrient concentrations also increase during low flow conditions. The swine watershed is dominated by elevated nitrogen isotopic values during all flow regimes and concentrations that decrease in the larger order streams. Oxygen isotopes show that while denitrification may occur in groundwaters, riparian buffers, and carbon-rich stream beds, the large flux of nitrogen precludes a change in the nitrogen isotopic signal measured in the river water. This indicates animal waste nitrate is present during all discharge states in this watershed. These results indicate that land use has important controls on the character of nutrient loading and isotope chemistry as expected, but that the type of animal operation is also important. High resolution nitrate concentration measurements made with a new instream nutrient analyzer system shows significant variations occur over very short (hourly) time spans, making the calculation of TMDL's problematic.

Showers, W. J.; Genna, B.; Karr, J.

2001-05-01

386

Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-four vanadium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Shore; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

2009-07-11

387

Discovery of the Tungsten Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-five tungsten isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-03-25

388

Discovery of the Silver Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-eight silver isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-07-09

389

Discovery of the Tin Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-eight tin isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

2010-03-26

390

Discovery of the Indium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

2010-04-29

391

Discovery of the Einsteinium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Seventeen einsteinium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Bury; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-12-22

392

Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes  

E-print Network

Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

2009-12-01

393

Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

T. Szymanski; M. Thoennessen

2009-09-04

394

Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

2009-10-22

395

Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

2010-04-28

396

Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

2009-12-01

397

Discovery of the Iron Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-eight iron isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-09-01

398

Discovery of the Gold Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-six gold isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-03-10

399

Discovery of the Barium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Shore; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

2009-08-13

400

Discovery of the Krypton Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-two krypton isotopes have been observed so far; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

M. Heim; A. Fritsch; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-04-15

401

Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M

2009-01-01

402

Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Shore; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

2009-02-25