Sample records for short lived isotopes

  1. Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field

  2. Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination

    E-print Network

    W. Nörtershäuser; R. Sánchez; G. Ewald; A. Dax; J. Behr; P. Bricault; B. A. Bushaw; J. Dilling; M. Dombsky; G. W. F. Drake; S. Götte; H. -J. Kluge; Th. Kühl; J. Lassen; C. D. P. Levy; K. Pachucki; M. Pearson; M. Puchalski; A. Wojtaszek; Z. -C. Yan; C. Zimmermann

    2010-12-17

    Changes in the mean-square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a new laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8 ms lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10,000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope Li-11 at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

  3. Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination

    E-print Network

    Nörtershäuser, W; Ewald, G; Dax, A; Behr, J; Bricault, P; Bushaw, B A; Dilling, J; Dombsky, M; Drake, G W F; Götte, S; Kluge, H -J; Kühl, Th; Lassen, J; Levy, C D P; Pachucki, K; Pearson, M; Puchalski, M; Wojtaszek, A; Yan, Z -C; Zimmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the mean-square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a new laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8 ms lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10,000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope Li-11 at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

  4. Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Nörtershäuser; R. Sánchez; G. Ewald; A. Dax; J. Behr; P. Bricault; B. A. Bushaw; J. Dilling; M. Dombsky; G. W. F. Drake; S. Götte; H.-J. Kluge; Th. Kühl; J. Lassen; C. D. P. Levy; K. Pachucki; M. Puchalski; A. Wojtaszek; Z.-C. Yan; C. Zimmermann

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the mean-square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic\\u000achain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements\\u000aand theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light\\u000aelements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo\\u000aphenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have\\u000adeveloped

  5. Mixing and Transport of Short-lived and Stable Isotopes and Refractory Grains in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-08-01

    Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the ~6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M ?) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M ?) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within ~104 yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level (~1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level (~10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.

  6. Mixing and Transport of Short-Lived and Stable Isotopes and Refractory Grains in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-print Network

    Boss, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogenous at the $\\sim$ 6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 $M_\\odot$) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 $M_\\odot$) and varied initial $Q$ stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within $\\sim 10^4$ yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In a...

  7. Short-lived isotopes and 23Na production in low mass AGB Stars

    E-print Network

    S. Cristallo; R. Gallino; O. Straniero; L. Piersanti; I. Dominguez

    2006-06-15

    We discuss the synthesis of some short-lived isotopes and of 23Na in thermally pulsing AGB stars with initial mass of 2 Msun and two different metallicities (Z=1.5e-2, corresponding to the metal amount in the Sun, and Z=1e-4), representative of disk and halo stars, respectively. The different nucleosynthesis channels are illustrated in some details. As previously found, the 13C formed after each third dredge up episode is usually completely consumed by alpha captures before the onset of the subsequent thermal pulse, releasing neutrons. This is the most efficient neutron source in low mass AGB stars and the resulting s-process nucleosynthesis is at the origin of the solar main component. However, in the solar metallicity model, we find that the temperature of the first formed 13C pocket remains too low during the interpulse and the 13C is not completely burnt, being partially engulfed in the convective zone generated by the following thermal pulse. Due to the rapid convective mixing in this zone, the 13C is exposed to a larger temperature and a nucleosynthesis characterized by a relatively high neutron density develops. The main effect is the strong enhancement of isotopes located beyond some critical branching in the neutron-capture path, like 60Fe, otherwise only marginally produced during a standard s-process nucleosynthesis.

  8. The proposed TITAN facility at ISAC for very precise mass measurements on highly charged short-lived isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dilling; P. Bricault; M. Smith; H.-J. Kluge

    2003-01-01

    One of the necessary experimental quantities required for the test of unitarity of the fundamental Cabbibo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix can be gained from nuclear beta decay. However, the short-lived beta-decaying nuclei have to be produced on-line in order to provide a large enough sample to carry out the experiments. At the new ISAC (Isotope Separator and Accelerator) facility at

  9. The TITAN EBIT charge breeder for mass measurements on highly charged short-lived isotopes—First online operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, A.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Simon, V.; Good, M.; Froese, M. W.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Delheij, P.; Epp, S.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.; Ullrich, J.; Dilling, J.

    2010-12-01

    TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) is a novel online facility for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. TITAN is the only such facility that employs an Electron-Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) charge-state breeder to produce highly charged ions for their use to increase the precision of mass measurements. We describe the recently commissioned TITAN EBIT and present the results of first injection, charge breeding, and extraction tests performed with stable and radioactive ions.

  10. Evolution of the Solar Nebula. VIII. Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Short-Lived Radioisotopes and Stable Oxygen Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Alan P. Boss

    2007-02-02

    Isotopic abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al provide the most precise chronometers of events in the early solar system, provided that they were initially homogeneously distributed. On the other hand, the abundances of the three stable isotopes of oxygen in primitive meteorites show a mass-independent fractionation that survived homogenization in the solar nebula. As as result of this and other cosmochemical evidence, the degree of spatial heterogeneity of isotopes in the solar nebula has long been a puzzle. We show here that based on hydrodynamical models of the mixing and transport of isotopic anomalies formed at, or injected onto, the surface of the solar nebula, initially high levels of isotopic spatial heterogeneity are expected to fall to steady state levels (~10%) low enough to validate the use of 26Al for chronometry, but high enough to preserve the evidence for mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes. The solution to this puzzle relies on the mixing being accomplished by the chaotic fluid motions in a marginally gravitationally unstable disk, as seems to be required for the formation of gas giant planets and by the inability of alternative physical processes to drive large-scale mixing and transport in the planet-forming midplane of the solar nebula. Such a disk is also capable of large-scale outward transport of the thermally annealed dust grains found in comets, and of driving the shock fronts that appear to be responsible for much of the thermal processing of the components of primitive meteorites, creating a self-consistent picture of the basic physical processes shaping the early solar nebula.

  11. Isotope-shift measurements of stable and short-lived lithium isotopes for nuclear-charge-radii determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Nörtershäuser; R. Sánchez; G. Ewald; A. Dax; J. Behr; P. Bricault; B. A. Bushaw; J. Dilling; M. Dombsky; G. W. F. Drake; S. Götte; H.-J. Kluge; Th. Kühl; J. Lassen; C. D. P. Levy; K. Pachucki; M. Pearson; M. Puchalski; A. Wojtaszek; Z.-C. Yan; C. Zimmermann

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the mean square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have

  12. Isotope-shift measurements of stable and short-lived lithium isotopes for nuclear-charge-radii determination

    SciTech Connect

    Noertershaeuser, W.; Sanchez, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Ewald, G.; Dax, A.; Goette, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kuehl, Th.; Wojtaszek, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Behr, J.; Bricault, P.; Dilling, J.; Dombsky, M.; Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Pearson, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bushaw, B. A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Drake, G. W. F. [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Puchalski, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Yan, Z.-C. [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Changes in the mean square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8-ms-lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10 000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope {sup 11}Li at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

  13. Automated system for neutron activation analysis determination of short lived isotopes at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieman, J. J.; Rigot, W. L.; Romick, J. D.; Quinn, T. J.; Kocher, C. W.

    1994-12-01

    An automated neutron activation analysis (NAA) system for the determination of short lived isotopes was constructed at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA Research Reactor in 1993. The NAA group of the Analytical Sciences Laboratory uses the reactor for thousands of analyses each year and therefore automation is important to achieve and maintain high throughput and precision (productivity). This project is complementary to automation of the long-lived counting facilities (see Romick et al., these Proceedings). Canberra/Nuclear Data Systems DEC-based software and electronics modules and an I/O mounting board are the basic commercial components. A Fortran program on a VAX computer controls I/O via ethernet to an Acquisition Interface Module (AIM). The AIM controls the ? spectrometer modules and is interfaced to a Remote Parallel Interface (RPI) module which controls the pneumatic transfer apparatus with TTL signals to the I/O mounting board. Near-infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. Spectra are acquired by a single HPGe detector mounted on a sliding rail to allow flexible and more reproducible counting geometries than with manual sample handling. The maximum sample size is 8 ml in a heat-sealed two dram vial. The sample vial is nested into a "rabbit" vial for irradiation which can be automatically removed prior to spectrum collection. The system was designed to be used by the reactor operator at the control console without the aid of an additional experimenter. Applications include the determination of selenium and silver in coal and water, fluorine in tetra-fluoro ethylene (TFE) coated membranes, aluminum and titanium in composite materials and trace fluorine in non-chlorinated cleaning solvents. Variable dead time software allows analysis for 77mSe despite high dead times from 16N encountered in samples.

  14. The Fall of the St. Robert Meteorite: Interpretation of Eyewitness Accounts, Satellite Data, Short-Lived Isotope Activity, and Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Hildebrand, A.; Green, D.; Page, D.; Jacobs, C.; Revelle, D.; Tagliaferri, E.; Wacker, J.

    1995-09-01

    The St. Robert meteoroid (a monomict H5 breccia) entered the Earth's atmosphere at 00:02 UT on June 15, 1994 approximately one hour before local sunset. The resulting daylight fireball was widely observed from the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and the states of New York, Vermont and New Hampshire. The fireball was first observed over New York state at an altitude of ~60 km traveling in a N-NE direction to its point of terminal burst ~60 km northeast of Montreal. At least one observer noted electrophonic sounds heard simultaneously with the passage of the fireball. Several episodes of fragmentation occurred at the end point near an altitude of ~33 km with observers reporting several clumps of dust along the trajectory. Eyewitnesses to the explosion described multi-directional debris dispersal. A prominent dust trail persisted for ~10 minutes after the passage of the fireball. The terminal burst produced loud detonations audible for more than 200 km and of sufficient strength to shake buildings throughout metropolitan Montreal. Twenty fragments of this meteorite have been recovered in a fall ellipse of 7.5 X 4 km located near the farming community of St. Robert. Total recovered mass to date is ~25.4 kg, but the shower of meteorites was sufficiently dense, in at least the uprange part of the ellipse, so that one fragment partially penetrated the roof of a farmer's shed, and two fragments were found on roads. The most productive UTM grid square of 1 km sides yielded 6 meteorites. From the searched fraction of this square km, and a search efficiency of ~0.5 due to ground conditions and subsequent ground disturbance by farming, we estimate that ~25 meteorites fell in this grid square. This concentration implies that as many as 100 fragments greater than 55 g (the smallest recovered) may have fallen. Eighteen of the recovered fragments were completely covered by dark fusion crusts with surfaces showing varying degrees of ablation in accord with the multiple fragmentation episodes observed. Most fragments were found in shallow pits up to ~50 cm deep in the soft clay and sand soils of the region. Dedicated searches by interested local residents and members of the Meteorites and Impacts Advisory Committee to the Canadian Space Agency (and friends) recovered half of the known fragments. Interpretation of the eyewitness data suggest that the fireball traveled from SSW to NNE with a moderate slope from the horizontal of 15-35 degrees. An evaluation of the probable orbits for the meteoroid suggests an entry velocity in the range 12 -15 km/s. The object moved in a low- inclination orbit with perihelion very near the Earth's orbit. The total mass estimated to have reached the ground is 50-100 kg while the pre-atmospheric mass derived from visual observations is found to be of order 1,000 kg. The fireball of the St. Robert meteorite shower was also observed from above by sensors located on satellites of the Department of Defense. In the visual the fireball reached a peak magnitude of -18 during its terminal flare and the observations suggest a lengthy period of fragmentation lasting perhaps as long as one second near the endpoint. Data reduction is proceeding on infrared observations of the fireball, and initial mass estimates will be derived for the pre-atmospheric meteoroid from infrasound considerations, short lived isotope measurements for 8 of the 20 fragments, and dynamical information from eyewitness data in addition to satellite measurements. The St. Robert meteorite shower affords the first opportunity to combine satellite and eyewitness observations of the hypervelocity entry of a natural object into the Earth's atmosphere together with "ground truth" from the surviving remnants of the object's atmospheric passage.

  15. Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of lithium, beryllium, and boron, analyzed in situ by ion microprobe in 66 spots of a type B1 Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI 3529-41) from the Allende meteorite, are reported. Large variations are observed for both the Li and the B isotopic ratios with 7Li/ 6Li ranging from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 12.22 ± 0.43 (a ?250‰ range in ?7Li values) and 10B/ 11B ranging from 0.2468 ± 0.0057 to 0.4189 ± 0.0493 (a 410‰ range in ?11B values). The very low Li concentrations (<1 ppb) observed in several anorthite and fassaite grains require that a correction for the contribution of spallogenic Li produced during irradiation of the Allende meteoroid by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) be made (after this correction 7Li/ 6Li ranges from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 13.44 ± 0.56, i.e., a ?350‰ range in ?7Li values). In 3529-41, the 10B/ 11B ratios are positively correlated with 9Be/ 11B in a manner indicating the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) with a 10Be/ 9Be ratio at the time of formation of the CAI of 8.8 ± 0.6 × 10 -4, which is in agreement with previous findings [McKeegan, K.D., Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., 2000. Incorporation of short-lived 10Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Science289, 1334-1337]. The present detailed investigation demonstrates that only minor perturbations of the 10Be- 10B system are present in 3529-41, contrary to the 26Al/ 26Mg system for which numerous examples of isotopic redistribution following crystallization were observed [Podosek, F.A., Zinner, E.K., MacPherson, G.J., Lundberg, L.L., Brannon, J.C., Fahey, A.J., 1991. Correlated study of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and Al-Mg systematics and petrologic properties in a suite of refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 1083-1110]. Petrographically based criteria were developed to identify within the 66 analyzed spots in 3529-41, those where post-magmatic perturbation of the Li and Be distributions occurred. Li and Be concentrations measured in different analytical spots are compared with those predicted by using experimentally determined partition coefficients according to a model of closed-system crystallization of the CAI melt. These criteria show that 56% of the spots in melilite, 38% in anorthite, and 8% in fassaite suffered post-crystallization perturbations of Li and/or Be distributions. In the remaining spots, which do not show obvious indication of redistribution of Li or Be, the 7Li/ 6Li isotopic variations (corrected for GCR exposure) are positively correlated with 9Be/ 6Li suggesting the in situ decay of now-extinct 7Be. The derived isochron implies that at the time of its formation, the CAI melt had a 7Be/ 9Be ratio of 0.0061 ± 0.0013 and a 7Li/ 6Li ratio of 11.49 ± 0.13. In contrast, all the spots in 3529-41, which do show evidence for post-magmatic redistribution of Li and Be, have relatively constant 7Li/ 6Li, averaging 11.72 ± 0.56, which is consistent with mass balance calculations for Li isotopic homogenization in the CAI after the decay of 7Be. The incorporation of live 7Be in 3529-41 requires, because of the very short half-life of this nuclide (53 days), that it be produced essentially contemporaneously with the formation of the CAI. Therefore, the irradiation processes responsible for production of 7Be must have occurred within the solar accretion disk. Calculations developed in the framework of the x-wind model [Gounelle, M., Shu, F.H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A.E., Rehm, E.K., Lee, T., 2004. The origin of short-lived radionuclides and early Solar System irradiation (abstract). Lunar Planet. Sci.35, 1829] reproduce the 7Be and 10Be abundances observed in 3529-41. The correlated presence of 7Be and 10Be in 3529-41 is thus a strong argument that 10Be, which is observed rather ubiquitously in CAIs, is also a product of irradiation in the early solar system, as might be a significant fraction of other short-lived radionuclides observed in early solar system materials.

  16. Precision Test of Many-Body QED in the Be$^+$ $2p$ Fine Structure Doublet Using Short-Lived Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\; ^2{\\rm S}_{1/2} \\rightarrow 2p\\;^2\\mathrm{P}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured for the isotopes $^{7,9-12}$Be. The fine structure splitting of the $2p$ state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of \\textit{ab initio} calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of $m \\alpha^6$ and $m \\alpha^7 \\ln \\alpha$. Accuracy has been improved in both the theory and experiment by 2 orders of magnitude, and good agreement is observed. This represents one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics for many-electron systems, being insensitive to nuclear uncertainties.

  17. The Birth of the Solar System in a Molecular Cloud: Evidence from the Isotopic Pattern of Short-lived Nuclides in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    A good positive correlation between the initial solar abundances of short-lived (now extinct) nuclides (when normalized to their nucleosynthetic production ratios) and their mean lifetimes on a logarithmic plot has been well known for some time. Here I show that: (i) the slope for short-lived nuclides in the average interstellar medium in such a diagram is always 1. (ii) for molecular clouds, the slope is expected to be 2 or slightly less than 2 for a model where the molecular clouds are at a steady state and slowly exchange matter with the remaining interstellar medium. The existing data suggest a residence time of ˜ 6 x107 yrs for the matter present in molecular clouds. (iii) the intercept depends on (1) the residence time of matter in molecular clouds, (2) the mass fraction of the interstellar medium that is in molecular clouds, (3) the age of the galaxy and (4) the ratio of the time-average nucleosynthtic production rate and the production rate at the time of solar system formation. (iv) the abundances of 53Mn, 182Hf, 244Pu and 146Sm in the early solar system are likely formed by the same type of supernova sources (SNII?) over the history of our galaxy, while 129I (and possibly 107Pd) were produced in a different type of supernova sources (SNIa?) with the production rate skewed toward the early history of our galaxy. The abundances of these nuclides most likely characterize the average ISM values modified during their residence in the molecular cloud complex where the solar system formed. The abundances of 26Al, 41 Ca and 60Fe are too high to be of galactic production; these must be a contamination from young stellar sources that formed within the proto-Solar molecular cloud. These young sources could not have contributed significant quantities of 53Mn, 182Hf, 244Pu and 146Sm or 129I and thus were dissimilar to typical supernova sources.

  18. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ? 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ? 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ? 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  19. Short-lived Extinct Radioactivities and the Birth of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Bradley

    2002-10-01

    Extinct radioactivities are isotopes that were extant at the time of formation of the solar system but that have since decayed. Their abundances may be inferred from isotopic anomalies in the daughter isotopes, and these data provide valuable constraints on the circumstance of the birth of our Sun. Remarkably, among ten or so isotopes we are convinced were alive in the early solar nebula, only two or three agree with expectations from Galactic nucleosynthesis. The r-process isotopes tend to be lower in the meteorites than a naive Galactic nucleosynthesis would imply, and the short-lived species seem to have had extra production from either a nearby star or from energetic particles from the early Sun. This talk will review the data available and then will attempt to reconcile the abundances of the short-lived radioactivities with appropriate models for Galactic chemical evolution and the astrophysical setting of the Sun's birth.

  20. Short-Lived Radioactivities and the Birth of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Bradley S.; Clayton, Donald D.

    2000-04-01

    Now extinct short-lived radioactive isotopes were apparently extant in the early solar system. Their abundances can be inferred from isotopic effects in their daughter nuclei in primitive meteorites, and the deviation of these abundances from expectations from continuous galactic nucleosynthesis yields important information on the last nucleosynthetic events that contributed new nuclei to the solar system and on the general circumstances of the Sun's birth. In this paper we present a rudimentary model that attempts to reconcile the abundances of ten short-lived radioactivities in the early solar system. In broad outlines, the picture requires 1) that Type Ia supernovae maintained a steady ISM supply of 53Mn and 146Sm, 2) that the r-process events that slowly admixed new 107Pd, 129I, 182Hf, and 244Pu nuclei to the solar system occurred over an interval of several hundred million years prior to solar system formation, and 3) that a massive star, by injecting only material outside its helium-exhausted core into the proto-solar nebula, contributed 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 182Hf no more than one million years prior to the Sun's birth. In this picture, the live 182Hf present in the early solar system was not due to r-process production but rather to a fast s-process in helium or carbon burning shell in the massive star. We conclude with a possible chemical-memory explanation for the putative 53Cr/52Cr gradient in the solar system.

  1. Precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides for nuclear structure studies at TITAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Andreoiu, C.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Klawitter, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Lunney, D.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2014-03-01

    TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) at TRIUMF's rare isotope beam facility ISAC is an advanced Penning trap based mass spectrometer dedicated to precise and accurate mass determinations. An overview of TITAN, the measurement technique and a highlight of recent mass measurements of the short-lived nuclides important to the nuclear structure program at TITAN are presented.

  2. Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris

    2004-04-01

    Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey Bay, CA from two cold seeps (Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs) and from sediments ˜5 m outside of the Clam Flats seep. Clam Flats has steep ?13CDIC gradients (to <-45‰), but DIC at Extrovert Cliffs is less enriched in 12C (to approximately -22‰). Oxygen isotope values of fossil foraminifera at Clam Flats are ˜1.5‰ enriched in 18O over the living foraminifera, as well as those of both live and fossil foraminifera at Extrovert Cliffs, suggesting they may have lived during the last glacial maximum. Statistical comparisons (Student's t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) of ?13C and ?18O values indicate that live and fossil foraminifera come from different populations at both Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs. At Clam Flats, the difference appears to result from alteration enriching some fossil foraminifera in 12C over live foraminifera. At Extrovert Cliffs, the fossil foraminifera are enriched in 13C over the live foraminifera, suggesting they lived prior to the onset of venting and thus that venting began recently. The short time of venting at Extrovert Cliffs may be responsible for the less alteration there compared with Clam Flats. These results indicate that preservation of foraminifera is likely to be poor within long-lived cold seeps, but that foraminifera living in the surrounding sediment may incorporate and preserve broad basin-wide changes in isotopic compositions of the ambient water.

  3. Analysis of long-lived isotopes by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, D.L.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron production cross sections are reported for reactions leading to long-lived isotopes in fusion reactor materials. Pure elements and separated isotopes were irradiated with 14.6 to 14.8 MeV neutron fluences up to 10 Y n/cmS. Undesired activities were chemically separated and the long-lived activities were measured using both liquid scintillation and x-ray spectrometry. Results are presented for the reactions VWFe(n,2n)VVFe (2.73 y), WUNi(n,2n)WTNi (100 y), WTCu(n,P)WTNi, and WNi(n,2n)VZNi (76,000 y).

  4. Oxygen IsotopesOxygen Isotopes A Short Course VU March, 2009 Peter K. Swart University of Miami

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    2/25/2009 1 Oxygen IsotopesOxygen Isotopes A Short Course VU March, 2009 Peter K. Swart University;2/25/2009 3 What do Oxygen Isotopes mean? · Temperature of precipitation/formation · Source of Water ­ Hydrological Cycle Diagenetic Reactions­ Diagenetic Reactions · pH Oxygen Isotopes and Oxygen Isotopes

  5. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite. PMID:10600738

  6. Long-lived digital integrity using short-lived hash functions Stuart Haber

    E-print Network

    Long-lived digital integrity using short-lived hash functions Stuart Haber Hewlett-Packard Laboratories stuart.haber@hp.com August 2006 Abstract New collision-finding attacks on widely used crypto integrity certifi- cates 2.1 Time-stamp certificates Here we describe the process of "renewing" digital time

  7. Managing short-lived and long-lived values in Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Arrays

    E-print Network

    Hauck, Scott

    Managing short-lived and long-lived values in Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Arrays Brian Van Essen as area. Examination of applications for coarse-grained recon- figurable arrays (CGRAs) shows that most architects to guide future design choices. Keywords-CGRA; energy-efficiency; storage; architec- ture; I

  8. Search for short-lived isomer of 204Tl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Horrocks

    1968-01-01

    After 9.4 y observation, the best half-life for 204Tl is 3.825+\\/-0.003 y. No evidence of a short-lived (about 2.5 y) isomer of 204Tl has been found. Based on work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  9. Measurement of long-lived isotopes in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Bowers, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron cross section measurements are reviewed for the production of long-lived isotopes in fusion reactor materials. Samples were irradiated at 14.5 to 14.8 MeV at the RTNSII facility. Long-lived reaction products were detected using gamma and x-ray spectroscopy, liquid scintillation spectrometry, and accelerator mass spectrometry. Radiochemical separations were performed for many samples prior to analysis. Results are summarized for reactions leading to /sup 26/Al (720,000 y), /sup 53/Mn (3,700,000 y), /sup 55/Fe (2.73 y), /sup 63/Ni (100 y), /sup 59/Ni (76,000 y), /sup 91/Nb (700 y), and /sup 94/Nb (20,300 y). 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Conversion-electron spectroscopy of short-lived nuclides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Zolnowski; T. T. Sugihara

    1974-01-01

    A simple technique for obtaining conversion-electron spectra of short-; lived activities with a Si(Li) detector is described. The method employs the ; helium-jet technique to produce sources repetitively for subsequent counting ; through a 0.90 mg\\/cm² aluminized Mylar window. The effects of the Mylar ; window on resolution and line shape were investigated and shown to give ; acceptable results

  11. Stellar (n, ?)-cross sections of short-lived nuclei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeler, F.

    Stellar neutron capture cross sections are the essential input for investigating the element production via the slow neutron capture process (s-process). With the availability of accurate cross sections for the stable s-process isotopes, analyses of the abundance patterns in the various branchings of the s-process flow require also reliable cross sections for unstable nuclei with stellar half-lives down to a few days. This contribution deals with the question to which extent existing techniques can be applied for these cases, and whether a future radioactive ion beam could be used for the preparation of suited samples. As an example, recent measurements of the stellar (n, ?) cross section of 147Pm (t1/2 = 2.6 yr) are discussed.

  12. Ozone depletion potentials for very short lived species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P.; Esler, G.; Fueglistaler, F.; Law, K.; Berthet, G.; Hoor, P.

    2009-04-01

    How many molecules of ozone would a single molecule of depleting species released at the surface destroy? Ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) give an approximate answer to this question for most (long lived) species considered in the Montreal protocol. However, the actual figure for a Very Short Lived Species (VSLS) is likely to depend on the location and time of release. VSLSs include precursors to odd bromine (Bry), an active depleting trace gas family with sources in the boundary layer. Hence, ODPs for VSLSs should take into account location and time of release. The work reported here sets out a scheme for using ensemble trajectory calculations as a basis for calculating ODPs for VSLSs. The trajectory calculations are divided into two parts to reflect the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  13. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  14. Short-living supermassive magnetar model for the early X-ray flares following short GRBs

    E-print Network

    W. H. Gao; Y. Z. Fan

    2006-09-14

    We suggest a short-living supermassive magnetar model to account for the X-ray flares following short $\\gamma-$ray bursts. In this model, the central engine of the short $\\gamma-$ray bursts is a supermassive millisecond magnetar. The X-ray flares are powered by the dipole radiation of the magnetar. When the magnetar has lost a significant part of its angular momentum, it collapses to a black hole and the X-ray flares disappear abruptly. Two important predictions of this model are (i) X-ray flares much more energetic than that detected in GRB 050724 may be detectable in the coming months and years by the XRT onboard {\\it Swift}. (ii) The short GRBs with X-ray flares may occur outside of their host galaxy.

  15. Very short-lived Substances as Sources for Stratospheric Bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Halogen-containing gases, when transported into the stratosphere, release chlorine and bromine atoms, which can lead to the destruction of ozone by catalytic cycles. Long-lived anthropogenic source gases like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorocarbons, methyl bromide (CH3Br, also with natural sources) and halons are the most important sources for stratospheric halogen. While the budget of stratospheric chlorine is relatively well understood, greater uncertainties are present in terms of quantity and attribution of stratospheric bromine. BrO measurements in the stratosphere indicate abundances of inorganic bromine Bry that cannot be explained by the contribution from the long-lived halons and methyl bromide only. Additional input is expected to be provided by natural very-short-lived substances (VSLS), inorganic product gases and bromine tied to aerosols. We present measurements of all important brominated source gases, including the five most abundant VSLS, in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) from balloon-borne air samples collected in June 2008 in Teresina (Brazil). The results were used to derive a local budget of organic bromine, which is revealing a considerable contribution from VSLS. We discuss variabilities in the concentrations of VSLS species both in the TTL and in the tropical marine boundary layer to assess the significance of our measurements on a global scale.

  16. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  17. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 ?13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (?13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive ?13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative ?13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of ?13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk sedimentary organic matter from the core is used to identify further changes in environment and vegetation. From the base to the top of the formation, there is a gradual increase in relatively drier conditions, with more developed palaeosols and deep desiccation cracks. However, the main character of the formation is that of rapidly changing deposition between silts, sands and carbonates with many periods of pedogenesis and/or desiccation suggesting frequent switching from alluvial-plain to coastal environments. Marine incursions were short-lived, but important and caused a significant increase in the macro and microfaunal diversity. This temporal variability in the environments may have been an important factor in the evolution of tetrapods in the Early Carboniferous.

  18. Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Martin; Shelley A. Day; Anthony E. Rathburn; M. Elena Perez; Chris Mahn; Joris Gieskes

    2004-01-01

    Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey

  19. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brunner, T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chowdhury, U. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Simon, V. V. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Brodeur, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Andreoiu, C. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gwinner, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lapierre, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lunney, D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Ringle, R. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  20. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.

  1. Existence of long-lived isotopes of a superheavy element in natural Au

    E-print Network

    Marinov, A; Gentry, R V; Halicz, L; Kashiv, Y; Kolb, D; Miller, H W; Pape, A; Rodushkin, I; Segal, I

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of long-lived isotopes with atomic mass numbers 261 and 265 and abundance of (1-10)x10$^{-10}$ relative to Au has been found in a study of natural Au using an inductively coupled plasma - sector field mass spectrometer. The measured masses fit the predictions made for the masses of $^{261}$Rg and $^{265}$Rg (Z=111) and for some isotopes of nearby elements. The possibility that these isotopes belong to the recently discovered class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  2. Existence of long-lived isotopes of a superheavy element in natural Au

    E-print Network

    A. Marinov; I. Rodushkin; A. Pape; Y. Kashiv; D. Kolb; R. Brandt; R. V. Gentry; H. W. Miller; L. Halicz; I. Segal

    2007-02-25

    Evidence for the existence of long-lived isotopes with atomic mass numbers 261 and 265 and abundance of (1-10)x10$^{-10}$ relative to Au has been found in a study of natural Au using an inductively coupled plasma - sector field mass spectrometer. The measured masses fit the predictions made for the masses of $^{261}$Rg and $^{265}$Rg (Z=111) and for some isotopes of nearby elements. The possibility that these isotopes belong to the recently discovered class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian Margin and the Southern Australian Margin

    E-print Network

    Levin, Lisa

    Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian October 2008 Accepted 4 November 2008 Keywords: stable isotopes benthic foraminifera 13C 18O deep sea-water geochemistry and stable isotopic values of the tests of living (stained) calcareous benthic foraminifera from

  4. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Marinov; I. Rodushkin; Y. Kashiv; L. Halicz; I. Segal; A. Pape; R. V. Gentry; H. W. Miller; D. Kolb; R. Brandt

    2006-05-10

    Evidence for the existence of long-lived neutron-deficient isotopes has been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using iductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. They are interpreted as belonging to the recently discovered class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomers.

  5. On the Vega Debris Disc's Dust Grains: Short-Lived or Long-Lived ?

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2009-01-01

    Through Spitzer Space Telescope's observations, Su et al. (2005) show that the Vega debris disc is dominated by grains which are small enough to be blown out by radiation pressure. This implies the lifetime of Vega debris disc's grains is relatively short, about 1000 years, and a continuous dust production is necessary to maintain the observed debris disc. However, Krivov et al. (2006)'s theoretical calculations show that the Vega debris disc is dominated by 10 micro-meter grains, which would be in bound orbits and thus long-lived, provided that the disc is in a steady state. In order to solve the above contradiction, through dynamical simulations, we determine the grains' orbital evolutions and density profiles and seek a model of size distribution which can reproduce the observed surface brightness. Our results show that a self-consistent dynamical model with a 1/R disc density profile can be constructed when the grains have a power-law size distribution. Moreover, both types of models, dominated by short-l...

  6. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method G. Boutoux1 Abstract. The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron

  7. nature geoscience | ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 1 Short-lived uncertainty?

    E-print Network

    climate warming. Curbing their emissions and quantifying the forcing by all short-lived components could-first century. But rolling back anthropogenic emissions of several short-lived atmospheric pollutants that lead's climate can only be stabilized by bringing carbon dioxide emissions under control in the twenty

  8. The origin of short-lived radionuclides and the astrophysical environment of solar system formation

    E-print Network

    Gounelle Meibom

    2008-05-05

    Based on early solar system abundances of short-lived radionuclides (SRs), such as $^{26}$Al (T$_{1/2} = 0.74$ Myr) and $^{60}$Fe (T$_{1/2} = 1.5$ Myr), it is often asserted that the Sun was born in a large stellar cluster, where a massive star contaminated the protoplanetary disk with freshly nucleosynthesized isotopes from its supernova (SN) explosion. To account for the inferred initial solar system abundances of short-lived radionuclides, this supernova had to be close ($\\sim$ 0.3 pc) to the young ($\\leqslant$ 1 Myr) protoplanetary disk. Here we show that massive star evolution timescales are too long, compared to typical timescales of star formation in embedded clusters, for them to explode as supernovae within the lifetimes of nearby disks. This is especially true in an Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC)-type of setting, where the most massive star will explode as a supernova $\\sim$ 5 Myr after the onset of star formation, when nearby disks will have already suffered substantial photoevaporation and/or formed large planetesimals. We quantify the probability for {\\it any} protoplanetary disk to receive SRs from a nearby supernova at the level observed in the early solar system. Key constraints on our estimate are: (1) SRs have to be injected into a newly formed ($\\leqslant$ 1 Myr) disk, (2) the disk has to survive UV photoevaporation, and (3) the protoplanetary disk must be situated in an enrichment zone permitting SR injection at the solar system level without disk disruption. The probability of protoplanetary disk contamination by a supernova ejecta is, in the most favorable case, 3 $\\times$ 10$^{-3}$.

  9. FISSION HALF LIVES OF FERMIUM ISOTOPES WITHIN SKYRME HARTREE-FOCK-BOGOLIUBOV THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University; Staszczak, Andrzej [ORNL; Nazarewicz, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission barriers, mass parameters and spontaneous fission half lives of fermium isotopes calculated in a framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the SkM* force are discussed. Zero-point energy corrections in the ground state are determined for each nucleus using the Gaussian overlap approximation of the generator coordinate method and in the cranking formalism. Results of spontaneous fission half lives are compared to experimental data.

  10. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Of significance are the continued detection and analysis of such short-lived events as forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes.

  11. Impact of Reducing Short-Lived Air Pollutants on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Naik; L. W. Horowitz; A. M. Fiore; H. Levy

    2010-01-01

    Most studies to date have quantified the impact of short-lived air pollutants on climate in terms of radiative forcing, where radiative forcing is calculated based on changes in forcing agent distributions induced by emission perturbations simulated in a chemistry-transport model (CTM). Here, we employ the GFDL AM3 model to investigate the impact of a change in the emissions of short-lived

  12. Short-lived nuclei in the early Solar System: Possible AGB sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Nollett, K. M.

    2006-10-01

    The abundances of short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System (ESS) are reviewed, as well as the methodology used in determining them. These results are compared with the inventory estimated for a uniform galactic production model. It is shown that, to within a factor of two, the observed abundances of 238U, 235U, 232Th, 244Pu, 182Hf, 146Sm, and 53Mn are roughly compatible with long-term galactic nucleosynthesis. 129I is an exception, with an ESS inventory much lower than expected from uniform production. The isotopes 107Pd, 60Fe, 41Ca, 36Cl, 26Al, and 10Be require late addition to the protosolar nebula. 10Be is the product of energetic particle irradiation of the Solar System as most probably is 36Cl. Both of these nuclei appear to be present when 26Al is absent. A late injection by a supernova (SN) cannot be responsible for most of the short-lived nuclei without excessively producing 53Mn; it can however be the source of 53Mn itself and possibly of 60Fe. If a late SN injection is responsible for these two nuclei, then there remains the problem of the origin of 107Pd and several other isotopes. Emphasis is given to an AGB star as a source of many of the nuclei, including 60Fe; this possibility is explored with a new generation of stellar models. It is shown that if the dilution factor (i.e. the ratio of the contaminating mass to the solar parental cloud mass) is f˜4×10, a reasonable representation for many nuclei is obtained; this requires that (60Fe/56Fe)ESS ˜ 10-7 to 2×10. The nuclei produced by an AGB source do not include 53Mn, 10Be or 36Cl if it is very abundant. The role of irradiation is discussed with regard to 26Al, 36Cl and 41Ca, and the estimates of bulk solar abundances of these isotopes are commented on. The conflict between various scenarios is emphasized as well as the current absence of an astrophysically plausible global interpretation for all the existing data. Examination of abundances for the actinides indicates that a quiescent interval of ˜10 yr is required for actinide group production. This is needed in order to explain the data on 244Pu and the new bounds on 247Cm. Because this quiescent interval is not compatible with the 182Hf data, a separate type of r-process event is needed for at least the actinides, distinct from the two types that have previously been identified. The apparent coincidence of the 129I and trans-actinide time scales suggests that the last heavy r contribution was from an r-process that produced very heavy nuclei but without fission recycling so that the yields at Ba and below (including I) were governed by fission.

  13. The production of short-lived radionuclides by new non-rotating and rotating Wolf-Rayet model stars

    E-print Network

    M. Arnould; S. Goriely; G. Meynet

    2006-03-21

    It has been speculated that WR winds may have contaminated the forming solar system, in particular with short-lived radionuclides (half-lives in the approximate 10^5 - 10^8 y range) that are responsible for a class of isotopic anomalies found in some meteoritic materials. We revisit the capability of the WR winds to eject these radionuclides using new models of single non-exploding WR stars with metallicity Z = 0.02. The earlier predictions for non-rotating WR stars are updated, and models for rotating such stars are used for the first time in this context. We find that (1) rotation has no significant influence on the short-lived radionuclide production by neutron capture during the core He-burning phase, and (2) 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 107Pd can be wind-ejected by a variety of WR stars at relative levels that are compatible with the meteoritic analyses for a period of free decay of around 10^5 y between production and incorporation into the forming solar system solid bodies. We confirm the previously published conclusions that the winds of WR stars have a radionuclide composition that can meet the necessary condition for them to be a possible contaminating agent of the forming solar system. Still, it remains to be demonstrated from detailed models that this is a sufficient condition for these winds to have provided a level of pollution that is compatible with the observations.

  14. Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, Iris [TRIUMF, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3, Canada and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Abriola, Daniel [Laboratorio Tandar, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, B1650KINA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-05-02

    Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the 'rapid neutron-capture process' (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) 'Terra Incognita'. With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a 'Coordinated Research Project' on a 'Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data'. This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

  15. Life Extension in the Short-Lived Fish Nothobranchius furzeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Cellerino

    \\u000a Genetic and pharmacological research on aging is hampered by the life span of available vertebrate models. We recently initiated\\u000a studies on Nothobranchius furzeri, a species with a maximum life expectancy in captivity of just 3 months, the shortest documented captive life span for a vertebrate.\\u000a Further research on N. furzeri has demonstrated the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Short life span correlates with

  16. Production of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals for pet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    1987-04-01

    Research projects currently being undertaken in the area of postron emission tomography (PET), require the use of very high specific activity radiopharmaceuticals. The cyclotron targetry necessary to produce near carrier free radiopharmaceuticals has posed some interesting and challenging problems in target design and construction. Radionuclides are produced at Brookhaven from gas, liquid and solid targets. Each of these phases of matter has its own special problems associated with it. Besides the normal design considerations such as heat transfer, density reduction and beam scattering, other factors such as radiation damage to metal surfaces, surface wetting angles, transport line materials and solder fluxes must also be taken in account in the design of the target. The most difficult target in which to maintain the isotopic purity has proven to be the 11C from nitrogen gas target. The most difficult target in which to maintain the chemical form and reactivity over long periods of time is the 18F from 18O water target. These targets and the design consideration which went into them are discussed in detail.

  17. Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-strong hydrogen bonded cluster

    E-print Network

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short/deuterium isotope effects, in a fundamental organic hydrogen bonded system using multiple experimental infrared the isotopically labeled systems arises from an analysis of the simulated cluster spectroscopy and leads

  18. Short-term diet changes revealed using stable carbon isotopes in horse tail-hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. WEST; L. K. AYLIFFE; T. E. CERLING; T. F. ROBINSON; B. KARREN; M. D. DEARING; J. R. EHLERINGER

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. We demonstrate the potential of extracting high-resolution dietary information from stable carbon isotopes ( ? 13 C) in horse tail-hair, in response to short-term changes in diet in controlled feeding experiments. 2. Tail hairs were sampled from six horses that had been equilibrated to C3 forage and were then subjected to a series of short-term diet switches to

  19. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

  20. Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

  1. A technique for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived excited species

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.; Pinnaduwage, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bitouni, A.P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived ({approx lt}10{sup {minus}9} s) excited species. Preliminary results are presented for photoenhanced electron attachment to short-lived electronically-excited states of triethylamine molecules produced by laser two-photon excitation. The attachment cross sections for these excited states are estimated to be >10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2} and are {approximately}10{sup 7} larger compared to those for the unexcited (ground-state) molecules. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  2. New Half-lives of r-process Zn and Ga Isotopes Measured with Electromagnetic Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Madurga, M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Surman, Rebecca [Union College; Borzov, Ivan N [ORNL; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Miller, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Batchelder, Jon Charles [ORNL; Brewer, N.T. [Vanderbilt University; Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hamilton, J. H. [Vanderbilt University; Hwang, J. K. [Vanderbilt University; Liu, S. H. [Vanderbilt University; Ilyushkin, S. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Krolas, W. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Kuzniak, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mazzocchi, C. [University of Warsaw; Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Padgett, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Paulauskas, S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ramayya, A. V. [Vanderbilt University; Winger, J. A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena [ORNL; Zganjar, E. F. [Louisiana State University

    2012-01-01

    The {beta} decays of neutron-rich nuclei near the doubly magic {sup 78}Ni were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using an electromagnetic isobar separator. The half-lives of {sup 82}Zn (228 {+-} 10 ms), {sup 83}Zn (117 {+-} 20 ms), and {sup 85}Ga (93 {+-} 7 ms) were determined for the first time. These half-lives were found to be very different from the predictions of the global model used in astrophysical simulations. A new calculation was developed using the density functional model, which properly reproduced the new experimental values. The robustness of the new model in the {sup 78}Ni region allowed us to extrapolate data for more neutron-rich isotopes. The revised analysis of the rapid neutron capture process in low entropy environments with our new set of measured and calculated half-lives shows a significant redistribution of predicted isobaric abundances strengthening the yield of A > 140 nuclei.

  3. Investigation of short-lived PT and PB α emitters near the proton drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, C. R.; Wauters, J.; Zimmerman, B. E.; Toth, K. S.; Batchelder, J. C.; Zganjar, E. F.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Davids, C. N.; Henderson, D. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Brown, L. T.; Busse, B. C.; Conticchio, L. F.; Walters, W. B.; Davinson, T.; Irvine, R. J.; Woods, P. J.

    1997-02-01

    In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several ? emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In 78Kr bombardments of 92Mo and 96Ru, the new isotopes 166Pt and 167Pt were identified via their ?-decay properties and more accurate half-lives were measured for 168Pt and 170Pt. The light isotopes of lead, 180Pb, 182Pb, and 184Pb were produced in Mo bombardments of Zr target nuclei. The ?-decay energies and half-lives of the new isotopes are as follows: 1) 166Pt, E?=7110(15) keV, T1/2=0.3(1) ms; and 2) 167Pt, E?=6988(10) keV, T1/2=0.7(2) ms. Also, the half-life of 168Pt, which was previously unknown, was determined to be 2.0(4) ms and that of 170Pt was observed to be 14.7(5) ms. The tentative ?-decay energies and half-lives of the even Pb isotopes are: 1) 184Pb, E?=6625(10) keV, T1/2=500(25) ms; 2) 182Pb, E?=6895(10) keV, T1/2=62(5) ms; and 3) 180Pb, E?=7250(15) keV, T1/2=5.8-1.4+2.8 ms. The ?-decay rates for these Pt and Pb nuclides are compared with earlier measurements and systematic trends of the reduced widths with neutron number are discussed.

  4. Cooling of highly-charged, short-lived ions for precision mass spectrometry at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, B. E.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.

    2013-09-01

    At TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN), masses of short-lived nuclides are measured accurately and precisely using Penning trap mass spectrometry. The achievable precision is primarily limited by the radioactive lifetime of the nuclides. To boost the precision TITAN has demonstrated that short-lived isotopes can be charge-bred to higher charge states within 10-100 s of ms using an electron beam ion trap. The charge breeding process increases the energy spread of the ions, which in turn affects the precision and the efficiency. A novel cooler Penning trap (CPET) has been developed to trap and cool highly-charged ions using electrons prior to the precision measurement. A discussion of electron cooling and the current status of CPET will be given.

  5. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)

    SciTech Connect

    Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H. [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)] [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); England, T.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Compensation of seed production after severe injury in the short-lived herb Barbarea vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Martínková; Stanislav Mihulka

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment with the common ruderal herb Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) was set up to elucidate to what extent short-lived species sprouting from roots regenerate and compensate for seed production after damage. We tested if sprouting from roots ensures survival after severe aboveground biomass damage, but the number of seeds produced declines with increasing severity of injury, decreasing nutrient availability

  7. Short-Lived Ontology Approach for Agent\\/HLA Federated Enterprise Interoperability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Zacharewicz; David Chen; Bruno Vallespir

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at proposing an implementation of the federation oriented enterprise interoperability concept, using the rising notion of short-lived ontology. We give first, a review of ongoing researches on enterprise interoperability. Then, we recall on artificial agent concept and HLA standard that appear to be adequate to support execution of the studied concept. Indeed, on the one hand agent

  8. Involvement of short-lived proteins in the regulation of expression of the LH recep-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , cells exhibited a transient over-expression of the LH receptor upon treatment with cycloheximideInvolvement of short-lived proteins in the regulation of expression of the LH recep- tor. B Goxe, R Jouy en-Josas Cedex, France) The expression of the LH receptor can be in- duced in porcine granulosa

  9. ? decay half-lives for Z = 108, 114, 120, 126 isotopes and N = 162, 184 isotones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Zhang, H. F.; Li, J. Q.

    2013-04-01

    Within the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in the neck and the gap between the nascent fragments, the ? decay half-lives of the 108, 114, 120, 126 isotopes and 162, 184 isotones are investigated in the quasi-molecular shape path. The Q? is obtained from the macroscopic-microscopic method (MMM) or from the experimental data. The calculated results are compared with experimental data, and both reveal that 270Hs is a double magic nucleus. The correct agreement allows us to make predictions for the ? decay half-lives of other still-unknown superheavy nuclei(SHN) in the same framework. It is concluded that 298114 may be a double magic nucleus and N = 184 the neutron magic number for Z = 120 and Z = 126, however, further experimental evidence is needed.

  10. Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Measurements for Short-Lived Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Droese, C.; Goncharov, M.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nesterenko, D. A.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Schweikhard, L.

    2013-02-01

    A novel approach based on the projection of the Penning-trap ion motion onto a position-sensitive detector opens the door to very accurate mass measurements on the ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below a second. In addition to the accuracy boost, the new method provides a superior resolving power by which low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be easily separated from the ground state. A measurement of the mass difference of Xe130 and Xe129 has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach.

  11. Multicolor Live-Cell Chemical Imaging by Isotopically Edited Alkyne Vibrational Palette

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational imaging such as Raman microscopy is a powerful technique for visualizing a variety of molecules in live cells and tissues with chemical contrast. Going beyond the conventional label-free modality, recent advance of coupling alkyne vibrational tags with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy paves the way for imaging a wide spectrum of alkyne-labeled small biomolecules with superb sensitivity, specificity, resolution, biocompatibility, and minimal perturbation. Unfortunately, the currently available alkyne tag only processes a single vibrational “color”, which prohibits multiplex chemical imaging of small molecules in a way that is being routinely practiced in fluorescence microscopy. Herein we develop a three-color vibrational palette of alkyne tags using a 13C-based isotopic editing strategy. We first synthesized 13C isotopologues of EdU, a DNA metabolic reporter, by using the newly developed alkyne cross-metathesis reaction. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the mono-13C (13C?12C) and bis-13C (13C?13C) labeled alkyne isotopologues display Raman peaks that are red-shifted and spectrally resolved from the originally unlabeled (12C?12C) alkynyl probe. We further demonstrated three-color chemical imaging of nascent DNA, RNA, and newly uptaken fatty-acid in live mammalian cells with a simultaneous treatment of three different isotopically edited alkynyl metabolic reporters. The alkyne vibrational palette presented here thus opens up multicolor imaging of small biomolecules, enlightening a new dimension of chemical imaging. PMID:24849912

  12. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Papadopoulos; N. F. Tsagas

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay\\u000a during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting\\u000a prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container\\u000a damage. The operation of the analytical system

  13. Application of short-lived radionuclides in neutron activation analysis of biological and environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Grass; M. Bichler; J. Dorner; H. Holzner; A. Ritschel; A. Ramadan; G. P. Westphal; R. Gwozdz

    1994-01-01

    The application of short-lived nuclides, especially in connection with the6LiD-converter, in biological and environmental samples is demonstrated on I and Br determination in human urine, on I in pet\\u000a food, and on the analysis of all the halogens in volcanic gases in a single activation. Trace element determination in lichens\\u000a indicates polluted and unpolluted areas. The use of the 74-s38mCl

  14. Have we underestimated the role of short-lived chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very short lived substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer lived sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very short-lived chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-lived compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting short-lived compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.

  15. Short-lived Radiative Species at the Intersection of Climate and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, H.

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.2 of the US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is attempting to assess the sign, magnitude and duration of future climate impacts due to changing levels of short-lived radiative species which may be subject to future mitigation actions to address air quality issues. We will first discuss the policy relevance of this study in the hierarchy of CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Products. We will then present and discuss results from the GFDL climate model integrations of 3 member ensembles employing both the A1B emission scenario and a modified A1B scenario where short-lived radiative species are fixed at present values throughout the integration. In all cases the integrations run from 2000 to 2100. This idealized study is seen as a first step in examining the climate impact of potential actions taken to mitigate air pollution which would also reduce radiatively active short-lived species. We will conclude with some thoughts about the potential for policy cross-fertilization.

  16. Investigation of short-lived PT and PB {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J.; Zimmerman, B.E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Toth, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Batchelder, J.C.; Zganjar, E.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N.; Henderson, D.J.; Seweryniak, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Brown, L.T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Busse, B.C. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Conticchio, L.F.; Walters, W.B. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Davinson, T.; Irvine, R.J.; Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, EH93JZ (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In {sup 78}Kr bombardments of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 96}Ru, the new isotopes {sup 166}Pt and {sup 167}Pt were identified {ital via} their {alpha}-decay properties and more accurate half-lives were measured for {sup 168}Pt and {sup 170}Pt. The light isotopes of lead, {sup 180}Pb, {sup 182}Pb, and {sup 184}Pb were produced in Mo bombardments of Zr target nuclei. The {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the new isotopes are as follows: (1) {sup 166}Pt, E{sub {alpha}}=7110(15)keV, T{sub 1/2}=0.3(1)ms; and (2) {sup 167}Pt, E{sub {alpha}}=6988(10)keV, T{sub 1/2}=0.7(2)ms. Also, the half-life of {sup 168}Pt, which was previously unknown, was determined to be 2.0(4) ms and that of {sup 170}Pt was observed to be 14.7(5) ms. The tentative {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the even Pb isotopes are: (1) {sup 184}Pb, E{sub {alpha}}=6625(10)keV, T{sub 1/2}=500(25)ms; (2) {sup 182}Pb, E{sub {alpha}}=6895(10)keV, T{sub 1/2}=62(5)ms; and (3) {sup 180}Pb, E{sub {alpha}}=7250(15)keV, T{sub 1/2}=5.8{sup +2.8}{sub {minus}1.4} ms. The {alpha}-decay rates for these Pt and Pb nuclides are compared with earlier measurements and systematic trends of the reduced widths with neutron number are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Investigation of short-lived PT and PB {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J.; Zimmerman, B.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several {alpha} emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In {sup 78}Kr bombardments of {sup 92}Mo and {sup 96}Ru, the new isotopes {sup 166}Pt and {sup 167}Pt were identified via their {alpha}-decay properties and more accurate half-lives were measured for {sup 169}Pt and {sup 170}Pt. The light isotopes of lead, {sup 180}Pb, {sup 182}Pb, and {sup 184}Pb were produced in Mo bombardments of Zr target nuclei. The {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the new isotopes are as follows: (1) {sup 166}Pt, E{sub {alpha}} = 7110(15) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 0.3(1) ms; and (2) {sup 167}Pt, E{sub {alpha}} = 6988(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 0. 7(2) ms. Also, the half-life of {sup 168}Pt, which was previously unknown, was determined to be 2.0(4) ms and that of {sup 170}Pt was observed to be 14.7(5) ms. The tentative {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives of the even Pb isotopes are: (1) {sup 184}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 6625(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} =500(25) ms; (2) {sup 182}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 6895(10) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 62(5) ms; and (3) {sup 180}Pb, E{sub {alpha}} = 7250(15) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 5.8 {sup +2.8}{sub -1.4} ms. The a-decay rates for these Pt and Pb nuclides are compared with earlier measurements and systematic trends of the reduced widths with neutron number are discussed.

  18. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  19. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ?5 × 10?5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10?6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ?3 × 10?6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

  20. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  1. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy manifesting shortly after living-donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced numbness in both lower extremities and spastic paralysis a few months after undergoing living-donor renal transplantation. The patient was negative for human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibodies prior to the procedure; however, she was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) based on positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers after the surgery. Because the donor was also positive for HTLV-1 antibodies, the infection likely originated from the transplanted kidney. Clinical and imaging improvements were noted following the administration of interferon-?. HAM has been reported to occur after living-donor renal transplantation; however, there are no previous reports of onset within such a short period. PMID:25742898

  2. Health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. While attention to their impacts on climate is relatively new, these pollutants have been regulated under health-based standards in the US and elsewhere in the world for decades. Understanding the health benefits of reducing short-lived climate forcers may help inform mitigation strategies, since health will likely continue to drive concern over air quality in the future. Several recent studies have examined the health and climate co-benefits of control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor. This talk will highlight the health benefits of 14 presently available BC and methane mitigation measures examined in the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone. Fully implementing these specific measures is estimated to avoid 1-5 million annual ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2030, >80% of which occur in Asia. BC mitigation measures are estimated to achieve ~98% of the avoided deaths from all measures, due to associated reductions of non-methane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions and stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. These substantial public health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers are independent of whether CO2 measures are enacted. Further analyses are needed to improve economic valuation of the varied impacts of short-lived climate forcers and quantify the benefits and costs of these measures in individual countries or regions to support policy decisions made at the national level.

  3. Short-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of live cell dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Stefan; Plau?ka, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C.; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Groot, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines short-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of live cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock. PMID:23024912

  4. Mass Measurement of Short-lived Nuclei at HIRFL-CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.

    2014-03-01

    Four campaigns of mass measurements for short-lived nuclei have been conducted using an isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) technique at HIRFL-CSR(Cooler Storage Ring) in Lanzhou. The radioactive nuclei were produced by projectile fragmentation and injected into the experimental storage ring CSRe. Revolution times of the ions stored in the CSRe were measured from which masses of 78Kr, 58Ni, 86Kr and 112Sn fragments have been determined with a relative uncertainty of about 10-6-10-7. The experimental results are presented and their impacts on nucleosynthesis in the rp process and nuclear structure are discussed.

  5. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ?10{sup –4} to ?3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  6. Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants

    E-print Network

    not follow the regional patterns of changes in short-lived species emissions, tropospheric loadings] This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B ``marker'' scenario) in emissions of four short decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions

  7. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  8. Short-Lived K2S Molecules in Superionic Potassium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumuraya, Kazuo; Okeya, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    First principles molecular dynamics study enables us to elucidate the formation of short-lived K2S molecules in superionic potassium sulfide. Covalent electron densities exist between the ionized immobile sulfurs and their coordinated ionized mobile potassiums forming the respective covalent and the Coulomb bonds between them. Both the bonds induce indirect covalent and indirect Coulomb attractions between the di-interstitial potassiums on the mid-sulfurs forming the molecules. The lifetime of the molecules is 120 fs at 1050 K. The covalent density also exists in short-lived potassium pairs with the lifetime of 110 fs. The three attractions constrain the self-diffusion of the potassiums in the sulfide which reduces Haven's ratios of the potassiums. The absence of the rigid potassium dimers indicates a failure of the chain models for the superionic diffusion. The attractions reduce the Coulomb attractions between them comparing with their completely ionized states which induces the melting of the sublattice of smaller size of the potassiums than the sulfurs: the electronic state of the conductor is intermediate between the ionic crystals and the covalent crystals. The present study classifies the conductors into four types from their electronic states; ionomolecular, ionocovalent, ionometalloid, and ionometallic type superionic conductors.

  9. Direct detection and reactivity of the short-lived phenyloxenium ion.

    PubMed

    Hanway, Patrick J; Xue, Jiadan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Milot, Maeia J; Ruixue, Zhu; Phillips, David Lee; Winter, Arthur H

    2013-06-19

    Photolysis of protonated phenylhydroxylamine was studied using product analysis, trapping experiments, and laser flash photolysis experiments (UV-vis and TR(3) detection) ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond time scale. We find that the excited state of the photoprecursor is followed by two species: a longer-lived transient (150 ns) that we assign to the phenoxy radical and a shorter-lived (3-20 ns) transient that we assign to the singlet phenyloxenium ion. Product studies from photolysis of this precursor show rearranged protonated o-/p-aminophenols and solvent water adducts (catechol, hydroquinone) and ammonium ion. The former products can be largely ascribed to radical recombination or ion recombination, while the latter are ascribed to solvent water addition to the phenyloxenium ion. The phenyloxenium ion is apparently too short-lived under these conditions to be trapped by external nucleophiles other than solvent, giving only trace amounts of o-/p-chloro adducts upon addition of chloride trap. Product studies upon thermolysis of this precursor give the same products as those generated from photolysis, with the difference being that the ortho adducts (o-aminophenol, hydroquinone) are formed in a higher ratio in comparison to the photolysis products. PMID:23713909

  10. Seeds of alpine plants are short lived: implications for long-term conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mondoni, Andrea; Probert, Robin J.; Rossi, Graziano; Vegini, Emanuele; Hay, Fiona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Alpine plants are considered one of the groups of species most sensitive to the direct and indirect threats to ecosystems caused by land use and climate change. Collecting and banking seeds of plant species is recognized as an effective tool for providing propagating material to re-establish wild plant populations and for habitat repair. However, seeds from cold wet environments have been shown to be relatively short lived in storage, and therefore successful long-term seed conservation for alpine plants may be difficult. Here, the life spans of 69 seed lots representing 63 related species from alpine and lowland locations from northern Italy are compared. Methods Seeds were placed into experimental storage at 45 °C and 60 % relative humidity (RH) and regularly sampled for germination. The time taken in storage for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) was determined using probit analysis and used as a measure of relative seed longevity between seed lots. Key Results Across species, p50 at 45 °C and 60 % RH varied from 4·7 to 95·5 d. Seed lots from alpine populations/species had significantly lower p50 values compared with those from lowland populations/species; the lowland seed lots showed a slower rate of loss of germinability, higher initial seed viability, or both. Seeds were progressively longer lived with increased temperature and decreased rainfall at the collecting site. Conclusions Seeds of alpine plants are short lived in storage compared with those from lowland populations/related taxa. The lower resistance to ageing in seeds of alpine plants may arise from low selection pressure for seed resistance to ageing and/or damage incurred during seed development due to the cool wet conditions of the alpine climate. Long-term seed conservation of several alpine species using conventional seed banking methods will be problematic. PMID:21081585

  11. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    PubMed Central

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  12. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  13. The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene short-lived coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    The formation of short-lived backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The ? 18O and ? 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.

  14. Transfer time and source tracing in the soil - water- -plant system deciphered by the U-and Th-series short-lived nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.; Chabaux, F.

    2011-12-01

    Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) and (228Th), as well as the long-lived (232Th), were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section, i.e.: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. However, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. Both primary and secondary phases show to contribute to the dissolved radium. However, depending on the season, the tree leaves degradation also produces up to 70% of dissolved radium. Immobilization of a large part of this radium occurs within the first 70cm of the soil layer, either by plant uptake, or adsorption/ precipitation in particular soil layers. Consistently, the Ra isotope ratio in the spring water is similar to the inherited primary soil fraction, suggesting a "deep" (i.e. below the shallow 70cm of soil layer) origin of the exported dissolved radium and the short-scale effect of vegetation cycling onto radium transfer. The radium isotopic ratio in the trees roots does not match the soil exchangeable fraction, nor the seepage waters, but rather the bulk soil, suggesting a large and mixed pool of radium for roots uptake. Decay of 228Ra within the various parts of the trees allows calculating a vegetation cycling duration of about 10 years for this nuclide. Finally an unexpected large amount of unsupported 228Th in the tree leaves can only be explained by a preferential migration of the 228Ac (228Th precursor). The very short life of this nuclide allows therefore assessing that such transport from roots and deposition within stem and leaves take place within 30 hours at the most.

  15. Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with Short-Lived Responses to Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

  16. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.

    2012-11-01

    Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a~three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a~significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principal, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model, VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. If heterogeneous chemistry is ignored, the HBr/Bry fraction exceeds 50% and about 10% of bromine from VSLS is scavenged. Dehydration plays a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr. In this case, up to 12% of bromine from VSLS is removed. Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%. In conclusion, considering the average abundance of bromine short-lived source gases in convective updrafts of 6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) we find a most likely contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine in the range of 4.5-6 pptv.

  17. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model, VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. If heterogeneous chemistry is ignored, the HBr/Bry fraction exceeds 50% and about 10% of bromine from VSLS is scavenged. Dehydration plays a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr. In this case, up to 12% of bromine from VSLS is removed. Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%. Assuming 6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) of bromine short-lived source gases in convective updrafts, a value that is supported by observational data, we find a most likely contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine in the range of 4.5-6 pptv.

  18. New Developments for Isochronous Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winckler, N. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Sun, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beckert, K.; Beller, P.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Montes, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-02-26

    The combination of the in-flight separator FRS and the storage-ring ESR at GSI offers unique possibilities for high accuracy mass and lifetime measurements of bare and few-electron fragments. Operating the ESR in the isochronous mode allows for measurements of revolution frequencies of stored ions without cooling. Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can be applied to fragments with half-lives as short as several tens of microseconds. Newly developed magnetic rigidity tagging increases the resolving power of IMS to about 500000. IMS can be used to measure masses of nuclei with rates even lower than one ion per day, a property also needed for the purpose of the ILIMA project at the future facility FAIR.

  19. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  20. Mass spectrometric detection of short-lived drug metabolites generated in an electrochemical microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Floris T G; Büter, Lars; Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; Karst, Uwe; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-02-01

    The costs of drug development have been rising exponentially over the last six decades, making it essential to select drug candidates in the early drug discovery phases before proceeding to expensive clinical trials. Here, we present novel screening methods using an electrochemical chip coupled online to mass spectrometry (MS) or liquid chromatography (LC) and MS, to generate phase I and phase II drug metabolites and to demonstrate protein modification by reactive metabolites. The short transit time (?4.5 s) between electrochemical oxidation and mass spectrometric detection, enabled by an integrated electrospray emitter, allows us to detect a short-lived radical metabolite of chlorpromazine which is too unstable to be detected using established test routines. In addition, a fast way to screen candidate drugs is established by recording real-time mass voltammograms, which allows one to identify the drug metabolites that are expected to be formed upon oxidation by applying a linear potential sweep and simultaneously detect oxidation products. Furthermore, detoxification of electrochemically generated reactive metabolites of paracetamol was mimicked by their adduct formation with the antioxidant glutathione. Finally, the potential toxicity of reactive metabolites can be investigated by the modification of proteins, which was demonstrated by modification of carbonic anhydrase I with electrochemically generated reactive metabolites of paracetamol. With this series of experiments, we demonstrate the potential of this electrochemical chip as a complementary tool for a variety of drug metabolism studies in the early stages of drug discovery. PMID:25531627

  1. Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics

    E-print Network

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2015-01-01

    The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have bee...

  2. Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Tilmes; Doug Kinnison; Rolando Garcia; Ross Salawitch; Julia Lee-Taylor

    2010-01-01

    In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these

  3. Development of resonance ionization in a supersonic gas-jet for studies of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, Takaaki; Tomita, Hideki; Sonnenschein, Volker; Sonoda, Tetsu; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Chika; Mita, Hiroki; Noto, Takuma; Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Michiharu; Wendt, Klaus; Moore, Iain

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) is required for laser spectroscopy and trace analysis of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei. We have proposed high-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy in a gas jet combined with a narrow band-width injection-locked Ti:Sapphire laser. Resonance ionization of stable 93Nb in a gas jet was demonstrated using a broad bandwidth Ti:Sapphire laser. In addition, a setup for high-resolution RIS in a gas-jet was designed using numerical simulations of the gas-jet conditions based on computational fluid dynamics.

  4. Uncertainties and constraints regarding the contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, Jan; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin

    2013-04-01

    A major factor of uncertainty in the assessment of stratospheric bromine loading is the unclear role of very short-lived substances (VSLS). One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be the loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer due to dehydration. Besides the dehydration process itself, transportation pathways and velocities are also of vital importance as they influence the partitioning between mostly insoluble organic source gases and partly soluble inorganic degradation products. To investigate this complex system we employ an extensive set of sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parameterization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) assuming a fixed and uniform detrainment mixing ratio of 1 pptv each. Despite our simplified approach our model agrees reasonably well with available observations of bromine source and product gases. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway for VSLS into the stratosphere; about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the inter-annual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model; VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. The loss of inorganic bromine is not very sensitive to moderate changes of the involved parameters such as the abundance of water vapor, sedimentation velocity of particles or ice uptake coefficients. However, dehydration may play a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr (up to 12% loss of bromine from VSLS). Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%.

  5. Living on the Edge? Clumped Isotope and Oxygen Isotope Record of Early Cascade Topography (Eocene Chumstick Basin, WA, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens exerts a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Using carbonate stable and clumped isotope data together with low-temperature thermochronology information from the terrestrial Eocene Chumstick Basin (Central Washington; USA), today located to the East of the Washington Cascades, we investigate the E-W extent of the western North American plateau region and the evolution of Cascade topography. Oxygen isotope measurements of Eocene (51 to 37 Ma) pedogenic carbonate concretions and calcic horizons yield low ?18Ocarbonate values of +9 to +13 ‰ (SMOW) despite the proximity of the Eocene Chumstick Basin to the Pacific moisture source and paleofloral data that indicate moderate elevations and montane rain forest conditions during a warm and rather wet, seasonal climate. This either suggests that 51-37 Ma ago Cascade-like topography characterized the western edge of the North American-Pacific plate margin to the West of the Chumstick Basin or that the ?18Ocarbonate data were variably reset or only formed during burial and diagenesis. Clumped isotope (?47) thermometry of pedogenic carbonate and carbonate concretions (n=11 samples) indicates spatially variable burial temperatures of 80 to 120 °C that correlate with vitrinite reflectance data in these sediments. In concordance with changes in depositional environment the youngest (<40 Ma) Chumstick sediments experienced a lesser degree of post-depositional burial and heating (ca. 70 - 80 °C) compared to the older Chumstick series (80 - 120 °C). Calculated ?18O values of the circulating fluids in the Chumstick basin sediments range from -6 ‰ (T ~100 °C at ca. 40-30 Ma) to -9 ‰ (T ~75 °C at ca. 25-15 Ma). These values suggest a low-altitude meteoric fluid source and as a consequence only moderate Cascade topography during the Eo-/Oligocene. The combined stable isotope and clumped isotope data, therefore support models of late Miocene Cascade uplift and provide insight into the topographic configuration of the western North American plate margin prior to the late Miocene.

  6. A short-wavelength infrared emitting multimodal probe for non-invasive visualization of phagocyte cell migration in living mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Y; Komatsuzaki, A; Mori, Y; Ma, Q; Yoshioka, Y; Jin, T

    2014-11-28

    For the non-invasive visualization of cell migration in deep tissues, we synthesized a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) emitting multimodal probe that contains PbS/CdS quantum dots, rhodamine 6G and iron oxide nanoparticles. This probe enables multimodal (SWIR fluorescence/magnetic resonance) imaging of phagocyte cell migration in living mice. PMID:25296382

  7. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  8. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, 1 August 1979-1 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is the development of a movable laser spectroscopy system. Progress in this area is described in this report along with plans for experiments at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 figures.

  9. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.

    1981-02-01

    The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  10. Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics

    E-print Network

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

    2015-02-03

    The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory - one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

  11. Multiple, short-lived ``stellar prominences'' on O stars: the supergiant ? Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrichs, H. F.; Sudnik, N.

    2015-01-01

    Many OB stars show unexplained cyclical variability in their winds and in many optical lines, which are formed at the base of the wind. For these stars no dipolar magnetic fields have been detected. We propose that these cyclical variations are caused by the presence of multiple, transient, short-lived, corotating magnetic loops, which we call ``stellar prominences''. We present a simplified model representing these prominences as corotating spherical blobs and fit the rapid variability in the Heii ?4686 line of the O supergiant ? Cep for time-resolved spectra obtained in 1989. Our conclusions are: (1) From model fits we find that the life time of the prominences varies, and is between 2-7 h. (2) The adopted inclination angle is 68° with a rotation period of ~ 4.1 d (but not well constrained). (3) The contribution of non-radial pulsations is negligible (4) Similar behavior is observed in at least 4 other O stars. We propose that prominences are a common phenomenon among O stars.

  12. Spin relaxation of a short-lived radical in zero magnetic field.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain

    2011-01-21

    A short-lived radical containing only one I = 1/2 nucleus, the muoniated 1,2-dicarboxyvinyl radical dianion, was produced in an aqueous solution by the reaction of muonium with the dicarboxyacetylene dianion. The identity of the radical was confirmed by measuring the muon hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) by transverse field muon spin rotation spectroscopy and comparing this value with the hfcc obtained from DFT calculations. The muon spin relaxation rate of this radical was measured as a function of temperature in zero magnetic field by the zero field muon spin relaxation technique. The results have been interpreted using the theoretical model of Fedin et al. (J. Chem. Phys., 2003, 118, 192). The muon spin polarization decreases exponentially with time after muon implantation and the temperature dependence of the spin relaxation rate indicates that the dominant relaxation mechanism is the modulation of the anisotropic hyperfine interaction due to molecular rotation. The effective radius of the radical in solution was determined to be 1.12 ± 0.04 nm from the dependence of the muon spin relaxation rate on the temperature and viscosity of the solution, and is approximately 3.6 times larger than the value obtained from DFT calculations. PMID:21079834

  13. Simulating Supernova Injection of Short Lived Radionuclides with Consideration of the Solar Birth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Keith W.; Leising, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    The existence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRNs) in the early solar system above their background galactic abundances is well accepted. Studies into the relative abundances and possible sources for radioisotopes indicate a model with three separate sources for the total abundance of SLRNs: the background galactic value, material from some nearby stellar source, and in-situ creation by the early active Sun. A type II SN may be the most likely source for the stellar component, specifically 60Fe. The geometric details of the stellar birth are largely unknown despite evidence that the presolar cloud was not isolated. From a hydrodynamic perspective, the injection of SLRNs may be difficult because of intervening material between the core and the explosion necessary to slow the shock speed enough that the core is compressed rather than shredded. For the SN component it is vital to understand how SN ejecta can reach a core and whether certain SN/cloud environments are precluded by the hydrodynamics. We present Zeus-2D simulations studying the possibility of SLRN injection into a presolar core that is part of a larger cloud complex.

  14. Solar system genealogy revealed by extinct short-lived radionuclides in meteorites

    E-print Network

    Gounelle, Matthieu; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219031

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the stellar environment and the genealogy of our solar system. Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs, mean lifetime shorter than 100 Myr) that were present in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Gyr ago could potentially provide insight into that key aspect of our history, were their origin understood. Previous models failed to provide a reasonable explanation of the abundance of two key SLRs, 26Al (mean lifetime = 1.1 Myr) and 60Fe (mean lifetime = 3.7 Myr), at the birth of the solar system by requiring unlikely astrophysical conditions. Our aim is to propose a coherent and generic solution based on the most recent understanding of star-forming mechanisms. Iron-60 in the nascent solar system is shown to have been produced by a diversity of supernovae belonging to a first generation of stars in a giant molecular cloud. Aluminum-26 is delivered into a dense collected shell by a single massive star wind belonging to a second star generation. The Sun formed in the collected shell as part of a thir...

  15. A quantitative genetic signature of senescence in a short-lived perennial plant.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Benoit; Marrot, Pascal; Pannell, John R

    2014-03-31

    The evolution of senescence (the physiological decline of organisms with age) poses an apparent paradox because it represents a failure of natural selection to increase the survival and reproductive performance of organisms. The paradox can be resolved if natural selection becomes less effective with age, because the death of postreproductive individuals should have diminished effects on Darwinian fitness [1, 2]. A substantial body of empirical work is consistent with this prediction for animals, which transmit their genes to progeny via an immortal germline. However, such evidence is still lacking in plants, which lack a germline and whose reproduction is diffuse and modular across the soma. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a genetic basis of senescence in the short-lived perennial plant Silene latifolia. Our pedigree-based analysis revealed a marked increase with age in the additive genetic variance of traits closely associated with fitness. This result thus extends to plants the quantitative genetic support for the evolutionary theory of senescence. PMID:24631239

  16. 3D Modelling of Halogenated Very Short-Lived Source Gas Degradation in the Tropical Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived species (VSLS) are known to provide an additional supply of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the stratosphere (e.g. WMO, 2003). The magnitude of this supply is uncertain with current estimates ranging from ~3-8 ppt. Furthermore, uncertainties exist as to the relative importance of the so-called, source gas injection (SGI) and product gas injection (PGI) pathways. This is enhanced by a lack of observational data, particularly of the degradation products (aka. product gases, e.g.CBr2O) formed following the breakdown of source gases (e.g. CHBr3) via reaction with OH or photolysis. Previous model work has not directly considered the fate of these species and thus this is omission is addressed. A detailed chemical scheme describing the tropospheric degradation of CHBr3, dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and other bromo/chloro-carbon source gases has been developed for use in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT 3D chemical transport model (CTM). We present results from multi-annual simulations quantifying the contribution of these species to the stratospheric halogen budget. We also present novel estimates of the degradation products of these species in the tropical near-tropopause region. In addition, results are verified with comparison of modelled source gas profiles with observations taken during the 2007 NASA TC4 campaign. Sensitivity runs investigating the importance of convection and also the lifetime of Bry due to washout have also been performed

  17. Recovery of short-lived chemical species in a couette flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Q.; Swinney, H.L. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US)); Roux, J.C.; Kepper, P.; Boissonade, J. (Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Univ. de Bordeau I, Chateau Brivazac, F-33600 (FR))

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on a new technique for studying and recovering short-lived chemical intermediate species that has been developed using a Couette reactor, which is an open one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. Reaction occurs in the annulus between concentric cylinders with the inner one rotating and the outer one at rest. Fresh reagents are in contact with the ends of the annulus, but there is no net axial flow. The axial transport arising from the hydrodynamic motion is effectively diffusive, but has a diffusion coefficient 3 to 5 order of magnitude larger than that of molecular diffusion. The oxidant (ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) and reductant (I{sup {minus}}) of an autocatalytic reaction are fed at opposite ends of the reactor. The reactants diffuse toward each other and react, forming a steady, sharp chemical front and a stable spatial concentration band of unstable intermediate species (HOCl) in the front region. Unstable intermediate species are thus stabilized at a well-defined spatial position where they can be recovered and studied. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the faster the reaction rate, the stabler the chemical front and the more effective the recovery of unstable intermediate species.

  18. Simulating the impact of emissions of brominated very short lived substances on past stratospheric ozone trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Meul, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Bromine from very short lived substances (VSLS), primarily from natural oceanic sources, contributes substantially to the stratospheric bromine loading. This source of stratospheric bromine has so far been ignored in most chemistry climate model calculations of stratospheric ozone trends. Here we present a transient simulation with the chemistry climate model EMAC for the period 1960-2005 including emissions of the five brominated VSLS CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, and CHBr2Cl. The emissions lead to a realistic stratospheric bromine loading of about 20 pptv for present-day conditions. Comparison with a standard model simulation without VSLS shows large differences in modeled ozone in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere and in the troposphere. Differences in ozone maximize in the Antarctic Ozone Hole, resulting in more than 20% less ozone when VSLS are included. Even though the emissions of VSLS are assumed to be constant in time, the model simulation with VSLS included shows a much larger ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere during the 1979-1995 period and a faster ozone increase during 1996-2005, in better agreement with observed ozone trends than the standard simulation without VSLS emissions.

  19. Genome-wide determination of RNA stability reveals hundreds of short-lived noncoding transcripts in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Hidenori; Mizutani, Rena; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Tano, Keiko; Ijiri, Kenichi; Wakamatsu, Ai; Isogai, Takao; Suzuki, Yutaka; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian genomes produce huge numbers of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, the functions of most ncRNAs are unclear, and novel techniques that can distinguish functional ncRNAs are needed. Studies of mRNAs have revealed that the half-life of each mRNA is closely related to its physiological function, raising the possibility that the RNA stability of an ncRNA reflects its function. In this study, we first determined the half-lives of 11,052 mRNAs and 1418 ncRNAs in HeLa Tet-off (TO) cells by developing a novel genome-wide method, which we named 5?-bromo-uridine immunoprecipitation chase–deep sequencing analysis (BRIC-seq). This method involved pulse-labeling endogenous RNAs with 5?-bromo-uridine and measuring the ongoing decrease in RNA levels over time using multifaceted deep sequencing. By analyzing the relationship between RNA half-lives and functional categories, we found that RNAs with a long half-life (t1/2 ? 4 h) contained a significant proportion of ncRNAs, as well as mRNAs involved in housekeeping functions, whereas RNAs with a short half-life (t1/2 < 4 h) included known regulatory ncRNAs and regulatory mRNAs. The stabilities of a significant set of short-lived ncRNAs are regulated by external stimuli, such as retinoic acid treatment. In particular, we identified and characterized several novel long ncRNAs involved in cell proliferation from the group of short-lived ncRNAs. We designated this novel class of ncRNAs with a short half-life as Short-Lived noncoding Transcripts (SLiTs). We propose that the strategy of monitoring RNA half-life will provide a powerful tool for investigating hitherto functionally uncharacterized regulatory RNAs. PMID:22369889

  20. Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of Franciscan graywackes with implications for short time of recycling of detritus and interaction of continental sediments with metabasites during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.; Wakabayashi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Trace element concentrations and Nd-Sr-Pb-isotopic ratios of graywackes from the Franciscan subduction complex appear to reflect two geochemically distinct sources. Some of the graywackes show no negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* >0.9), slightly concave up heavy REE, and generally arc-like trace element patterns. These graywackes have Western Pacific intra-oceanic arc-like Pb-isotopic ratios, probably reflecting derivation from older accreted oceanic arc terranes and supra-subduction zone ophiolites that are common in the Sierra Nevada-Klamath Mountains region. Other graywackes display small but distinctly negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* <0.9) with Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) like trace element patterns and Pb-isotopic compositions similar to the Sierra Nevada granitic rocks. Although the latter continental arc signature may be expected to typify the younger graywacke samples, there is no systematic separation of these two geochemical groups by age. The two youngest samples fall into the oceanic arc group. In addition, all the graywackes show distinctly gradual light REE depletions from La to Sm when normalized to PAAS. Thus the geochemical characteristics may reflect variation in location of sediment delivery and distributary systems and/or reworking of previously accreted Franciscan materials, rather than progressive unroofing of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Comparison of our data with published data on the forearc basin deposits of the Great Valley Group suggests the same sediment sources. The derivation of trench sediments (subduction complex graywacke) and forearc basin deposits from the same sources precludes a significant exotic source for Franciscan graywackes as proposed in the past by some researchers. The systematic variation of Nd and Sr isotopic composition with age for our Franciscan graywacke samples also mimics the trends of coeval Great Valley Group rocks, in spite of widespread evidence of significant reworking of the detritus which result in Franciscan isotopic compositions resembling older Great Valley Group rocks. Although there is much scatter in the collective dataset, these results suggest that the burial-exhumation cycles that recycled Franciscan clastic material were short lived. A comparison of the trace element and isotopic ratios of the Franciscan graywackes with those of Franciscan metabasites reaffirms the conclusion in several of our recent studies that the metabasites were not chemically modified by interaction with fluids derived from continental sediments during subduction and exhumation.

  1. Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes--even after pileup correction--unlikely.

  2. Transport and Chemistry of Short-Lived Bromocarbons in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Richards, Nigel; Atlas, Elliot; Blake, Donald

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a detailed chemical scheme for the degradation of the short-lived source gases bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and implemented it in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3D) chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM has been used to predict the distribution of the two source gases (SGs) and 11 of their organic product gases (PGs). These first global calculations of the organic PGs show that their abundance is small. The longest lived organic PGs are CBr2O and CHBrO, but their peak tropospheric abundance relative to the surface volume mixing ratio (vmr) of the SGs is less than 5%. We calculate their mean local tropospheric lifetimes in the tropics to be ~7 and ~2 days (due to photolysis), respectively. Therefore, the assumption in previous modelling studies that SG degradation leads immediately to inorganic bromine seems reasonable. We have compared observed tropical SG profiles from a number of aircraft campaigns with various model experiments. In the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) we find that the CTM run using p levels (TOMCAT) and vertical winds from analysed divergence overestimates the abundance of CH2Br2, and to a lesser extent CHBr3, although the data is sparse and comparisons are not conclusive. Better agreement in the TTL is obtained in the sensitivity run using ? levels (SLIMCAT) and vertical motion from diabatic heating rates. Trajectory estimates of residence times in the two model versions show slower vertical transport in the SLIMCAT ?-level version. In the p-level model even when we switch off convection we still find significant amounts of the SGs considered may reach the cold point tropopause; the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) is only reduced by ~16% for CHBr3 and ~2% for CH2Br2 without convection. Overall, the relative importance of the SG pathway and the PG pathway for transport of bromine to the stratospheric overworld (?>380 K) has been assessed. Assuming a 10-day washout lifetime of Bry in TOMCAT, we find the delivery of total Br from CHBr3 to be 0.72 pptv with ~53% of this coming from SGI. Similary, for CH2Br2 we find a total Br value of 1.69 pptv with ~94% coming from SGI. We infer that these species contribute ~2.4 pptv of inorganic bromine to the lower stratosphere with SGI being the dominant pathway. Slower transport to and through the TTL would decrease this estimate.

  3. A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF SHORT-LIVED {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming-Chang [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chaussidon, Marc [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CNRS, Nancy (France); Srinivasan, Gopalan [Center for Earth Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); McKeegan, Kevin D., E-mail: mcliu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The short-lived radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.

  4. Distributions of short-lived radioactive nuclei produced by young embedded star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Fatuzzo, Marco [Physics Department, Xavier University, Cincinatti, OH 45255 (United States); Holden, Lisa [Department of Mathematics, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (? ? 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (? ? 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ?10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM {sub ?} (where 1 pM {sub ?} = 10{sup –12} M {sub ?}). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?{sub SLR} ? 1-5 × 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?{sub CR} ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

  5. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic very short-lived species to stratospheric bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Feng, W.; Breider, T. J.; Atlas, E.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Moore, F.; Elkins, J.

    2011-08-01

    We have used a global three-dimensional chemical transport model to quantify the impact of the very short-lived species (VSLS) CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2, CH2BrCl and C2H5Br on the bromine budget of the stratosphere. Atmospheric observations of these gases allow constraints on surface mixing ratios that, when incorporated into our model, contribute ~ 4.9-5.2 parts per trillion (ppt) of inorganic bromine (Bry) to the stratosphere. Of this total, ~ 76 % comes from naturally-emitted CHBr3 and CH2Br2. The remaining species individually contribute modest amounts. However, their accumulated total accounts for up to ~ 1.2 ppt of the supply and thus should not be ignored. We have compared modelled tropical profiles of a range of VSLS with observations from the recent 2009 NSF HIPPO-1 aircraft campaign. Modelled profiles agree reasonably well with observations from the surface to the lower tropical tropopause layer. We have also considered the poorly studied anthropogenic VSLS, C2H5Br, CH2BrCH2Br, n-C3H7Br and i-C3H7Br. We find the local atmospheric lifetime of these species in the tropical tropopause layer are ~ 183, 603, 39 and 49 days, respectively. These species, particularly C2H5Br and CH2BrCH2Br, would thus be important carriers of bromine to the stratosphere if emissions were to increase substantially. Our model shows ~ 70-73 % and ~ 80-85 % of bromine from these species in the tropical boundary layer can reach the lower stratosphere.

  6. Name Modelling Activities for the CAST/Contrast/Attrex Very Short Lived Species Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N. R. P.; Filus, M. T.; Ashfold, M.; Pyle, J. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Manning, A.; Meneguz, E.

    2014-12-01

    The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME) is used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of transport of very short-lived halogenated organic species (VSLS), in particular bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, within the West Pacific tropical region. The NAME modelling results are compared with airborne measurements of VSLS taken during NASA ATTREX, NCAR CONTRAST and NERC CAST campaigns in January-March, 2014. In this work, the NAME model is used to link the aircraft measurements to examine the vertical distribution of VSLS in the West Pacific troposphere. The major focus will be on assessing vertical transport in deep convection which is one of the crucial factors in redistributing chemicals within the tropical troposphere. The work presented shows the analysis of NAME runs made from the ATTREX flights over the East Pacific in January-February, 2013 and the ATTREX and CONTRAST flight tracks over the West Pacific in January-March, 2014. Each ATTREX 2013 and 2014 flight track is divided into segments, from which particles are released and followed backward to identify the low-level sources of air. Particles (10,000 per single point along the flight track) are released from the flight tracks and followed 12-days backwards. Fractions of trajectories are calculated according to particles which crossed below 5 and 1 km (corresponding to low troposphere and oceanic boundary layer, respectively). Then, initial concentrations for VSLS are assigned to particles which originated from below 5/1 km and final concentrations at flight altitudes are determined based on e-folding equations. Results, obtained by running NAME, are compared with ATTREX VSLS flight measurements.

  7. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  8. Nuclear decay properties of light einsteinium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ahmad; R. K. Sjoblom; R. F. Barnes; E. P. Horwitz; P. R. Fields

    1970-01-01

    The light einsteinium isotopes 248Es, 249Es, 250Es and 251Es were synthesized by irradiating a 249Bk target with 3He and 4He ions. Because of the short half-life of 248Es, it was necessary to characterize this isotope by using the recoil technique, whereas the other isotopes were chemically purified before their properties were determined. The half-lives of the above nucleides were found

  9. Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together defined a SLCP mitigation (MIT) scenario. Compared to CLE, the MIT scenario would reduce global methane (CH4) and black carbon emissions by about 50 and 80%, respectively. For CH4, measures on shale gas production, waste management and coal mines were most important. For non-CH4 SLCPs, elimination of high emitting vehicles and wick lamps, as well as reducing emissions from gas flaring, coal and biomass stoves, agricultural waste, solvents and diesel engines were most important. These measures lead to large reductions in calculated surface concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. We estimate that in the EU the loss of statistical life expectancy due to air pollution was 7.5 months in 2010, which will be reduced to 5.2 months by 2030 in the CLE scenario. The MIT scenario would reduce this value by another 0.9 to 4.3 months. Substantially larger reductions due to the mitigation are found for China (1.8 months) and India (11-12 months). The climate metrics cannot fully quantify the climate response. Therefore, a second research path was taken. Transient climate ensemble simulations with these ESMs were run for the CLE and MIT scenarios, to determine the climate impacts of the mitigation. In these simulations, the CLE scenario resulted in a surface temperature increase of 0.70±0.14 K between the years 2006 and 2050. For the decade 2041-2050, the warming was reduced by 0.22±0.07 K in the MIT scenario, and this result was in almost exact agreement with the response calculated based on the emission metrics (reduced warming of 0.22±0.09 K). The metrics calculations suggest that non-CH4 SLCPs contribute ∼22% to this response and CH4 78%. This could not be fully confirmed by the transient simulations, which attributed about 90% of the temperature response to CH4 reductions. Attribution of the observed temperature response to non-CH4 SLCP emission reductions and black carbon (BC) specifically is hampered in the transient simulations by small forcing and co-emitted species of the emission basket chosen. Nevertheless, an important conclusion is that our mitig

  10. On the ecology of short-lived forbs in chalk grasslands: micro-site tolerances in relation to vegetation structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Verkaar; A. J. Schenkeveld; J. M. Brand

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of vegetation structure in two chalk grasslands were studied throughout the year in relation to the occurrence of some short-lived plant species per life-cycle stage. Whereas the main growth period is in May–June, there is another relatively important growth period in less productive stands in August. When the species are arranged in the order of their tolerance for

  11. Short-lived chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode

    2005-01-01

    Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of short-lived chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ?5 × 10-6. Different from other short-lived radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of short-lived nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the short-lived 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168

  12. Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. X. Pico ´; J. Retana

    2008-01-01

    Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse sev- eral factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived peren- nial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field

  13. Global Modeling and Projection of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    In predicting and mitigating future global warming, short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced in the maximal feasible reduction (MFR) scenario, contributing to global mean temperature reduction by about -0.25 oC after 2030. This heating-SLCPs-induced warming mitigation in MFR is, however, largely cancelled out by the temperature increase due to decreases in cooling aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, and organics), resulting in temperature projection which is not quite different from the other scenarios like CLE (current legislation for air quality) or 450ppm climate stabilization (intermediate reduction) scenario. References Bond et al. (2013): Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 5380-5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013. Cofala et al. (2007): Scenarios of global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane until 2030, Atmos. Environ., 41, 8486-8499. Kerr et al. (2013): Soot is warming the world even more than thought, Science, 339, 382, doi: 10.1126/science.339.6118.382. Klimont, Z., Brink, C. (2006): Modelling of Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Sources in Europe. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria. Shindell et al. (2012): Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security, Science, 335, 183-189, doi: 10.1126/science.1210026.

  14. On the relation between stratospheric chlorine/bromine loading and short-lived tropospheric source gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1997-11-01

    Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species (Cly/Bry) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cly/Bry concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cly/Bry out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cly/Bry in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cly/Bry is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cly/Bry from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cly/Bry from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cly/Bry (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cly/Bry in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cly/Bry than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cly/Bry that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cly/Bry loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cly/Bry at the tropopause. This paper illustrates the mechanism by using results from a two-dimensional chemistry-transport model. However, in view of the importance of tropospheric transport on stratospheric loading the detailed values should be further evaluated using a three-dimensional model with appropriate treatment of convective transport.

  15. Fast-neutron activation of long-lived isotopes in enriched Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V. E.; LaRoque, B. H.; Johnson, R. A.; Mashnik, S. G. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle Washington, 98195 (United States); XCP Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We measured the production of {sup 57}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co in a sample of Ge enriched in isotope 76 due to high-energy neutron interactions. These isotopes, especially {sup 68}Ge, are critical in understanding background in Ge detectors used for double {beta} decay experiments. They are produced by cosmogenic-neutron interactions in the detectors while they reside on the Earth's surface. These production rates were measured at neutron energies of a few hundred MeV. We compared the measured production to that predicted by cross-section calculations based on CEM03.02. The cross-section calculations overpredict our measurements by approximately a factor of 3 depending on isotope. We then use the measured cosmic-ray neutron flux, our measurements, and the CEM03.02 cross sections to predict the cosmogenic production rate of these isotopes. The uncertainty in extrapolating the cross-section model to higher energies dominates the total uncertainty in the cosmogenic production rate.

  16. Incorporation of Short-Lived Be in a Calcium-Aluminum

    E-print Network

    in meteorites are controversial: These isotopes can be pro- duced by nucleosynthesis in different stellar canonical abundance of aluminum-26 may still require seeding of the solar system by radioactive stellar with the destruction of these elements in stellar interiors by nuclear burning, accounts for the depleted cosmic

  17. Living with an ostomy and short bowel syndrome: Practical aspects and impact on daily life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Carlsson; Barbro Berglund; Svante Nordgren

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Practical aspects and impact on daily life of short bowel syndrome (SBS) and an ostomy were explored in people with SBS. Interest was focused on nutrition and excretion, ostomy problems, associated medical and surgical problems, socioeconomic situation, and social and leisure activities. Subjects and Setting: Six subjects (range, 38-68 years) with Crohn's disease were included from the University Short

  18. Use of short half-life cosmogenic isotopes to quantify sediment mixing and transport in karst conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paylor, R.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) transport and flux in karst aquifers is poorly understood. Methods to quantify PIC flux are needed in order to account for total inorganic carbon removal (chemical plus mechanical) from karst settings. Quantifying PIC flux will allow more accurate calculations of landscape denudation and global carbon sink processes. The study concentrates on the critical processes of the suspended sediment component of mass flux - surface soil/stored sediment mixing, transport rates and distance, and sediment storage times. The primary objective of the study is to describe transport and mixing with the resolution of single storm-flow events. To quantify the transport processes, short half-life cosmogenic isotopes are utilized. The isotopes 7Be (t1/2 = 53d) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22y) are the primary isotopes measured, and other potential isotopes such as 137Cs and 241Am are investigated. The study location is at Mammoth Cave National Park within the Logsdon River watershed. The Logsdon River conduit is continuously traversable underground for two kilometers. Background levels and input concentrations of isotopes are determined from soil samples taken at random locations in the catchment area, and suspended sediment collected from the primary sinking stream during a storm event. Suspended sediment was also collected from the downstream end of the conduit during the storm event. After the storm flow receded, fine sediment samples were taken from the cave stream at regular intervals to determine transport distances and mixing ratios along the conduit. Samples were analyzed with a Canberra Industries gamma ray spectrometer, counted for 24 hours to increase detection of low radionuclide activities. The measured activity levels of radionuclides in the samples were adjusted for decay from time of sampling using standard decay curves. The results of the study show that surface sediment mixing, transport and storage in karst conduits is a dynamic but potentially quantifiable process at the storm-event scale.

  19. Detection of short lived radioisotopes as a fast diagnostic for intense laser-solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. J.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; McKenna, P.; Robson, L.; McCanny, T.; Neely, D.; Lundh, O.; Lindau, F.; Wahlstroem, C.-G.; Simpson, P. T.; Zepf, M. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom); CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-02

    As a diagnostic of high-intensity laser interactions (>10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}), the detection of radioactive isotopes is regularly used for the characterization of proton, neutron, ion, and photon beams. This involves sample removal from the interaction chamber and time consuming post shot analysis using NaI coincidence counting or Ge detectors. This letter describes the use of in situ detectors to measure laser-driven (p,n) reactions in {sup 27}Al as an almost real-time diagnostic for proton acceleration. The produced {sup 27}Si isotope decays with a 4.16 s half-life by the predominantly {beta}+ emission, producing a strong 511 keV annihilation peak.

  20. Investigation of short-lived PT and PB ? emitters near the proton drip line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Bingham; J. Wauters; B. E. Zimmerman; K. S. Toth; J. C. Batchelder; E. F. Zganjar; D. J. Blumenthal; C. N. Davids; D. J. Henderson; D. Seweryniak; L. T. Brown; B. C. Busse; L. F. Conticchio; W. B. Walters; T. Davinson; R. J. Irvine; P. J. Woods

    1997-01-01

    In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several ? emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M\\/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In 78Kr bombardments of 92Mo and 96Ru, the new isotopes 166Pt and

  1. Investigation of short-lived PT and PB α emitters near the proton drip line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Bingham; J. Wauters; B. E. Zimmerman

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments at the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator Facility, several α emitters near the proton drip line were produced with fusion evaporation reactions, separated from the beam and dispersed in M\\/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer, and implanted and studied in a double-sided silicon strip detector. In ⁷⁸Kr bombardments of ⁹²Mo and ⁹⁶Ru, the new isotopes ¹⁶⁶Pt and

  2. Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307

  3. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID:11541324

  4. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  5. Production of Short-lived Radionuclides by Protons and Neutrons in Fe and Ni Targets: Cross Sections Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Vincent, J.; Jones, D. T. L.; Binns, P. J.; Langen, K.; Schroeder, I.; Buthelezi, Z.; Brooks, F. D.; Buffler, A.; Allie, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    New neutron and proton cross sections for short-lived radionuclides produced in Fe and Ni are presented. These cross sections are essential to understand cosmic ray interactions with meteorites and the lunar surface.

  6. Evaluation of Uncertainties in Decay Constants of ``Short-Lived'' Radionuclides: A Meta-Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Steele, R. C. J.

    2014-09-01

    We have performed a meta-analysis of half-lives for cosmochemically relevant radionuclides. We show that there is a range of behavior from well (e.g., 10Be) to poorly constrained (e.g., 53Mn or 129I).

  7. Adult-to-adult live donor liver transplantation: A short-term clinicopathologic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gamze Ayata; Elizabeth Pomfret; James J Pomposelli; Fredric D Gordon; W. David Lewis; Roger L Jenkins; Urmila Khettry

    2001-01-01

    With the success of pediatric live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and the continued shortage of cadaveric donors, adult-to-adult LDLT has been performed at some centers, including ours. We performed a detailed histologic review of all liver specimens obtained from 9 adult recipients at and after LDLT and correlated these findings with the patients' course and outcome. Five patients had histologic

  8. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the two-dimensional results in order to derive our final results: an nPB chemical lifetime of 19 days and an Ozone Depletion Potential range of 0.033 to 0.040 for assumed global emissions over landmasses, 19 days and 0.021 to 0.028, respectively, for assumed emissions in the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and 9 days and 0.087 to 0.105, respectively, for assumed emission in tropical Southeast Asia.

  9. VLA Observations Confirm Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts in Short-Lived Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Radio telescope studies of the fiery afterglow of a Gamma Ray Burst have provided astronomers with the best clues yet about the origins of these tremendous cosmic cataclysms since their discovery more than 30 years ago. Observations with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope confirm that a blast seen to occur on March 29 had its origin in a star-forming region in a distant galaxy. "There are two leading theories for the causes of Gamma Ray Bursts," said Dale Frail of the NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "According to one theory, the blasts occur in the death throes of pairs of old stars. The other requires them to arise from exploding, massive, short-lived stars that still reside within the star-forming gas and dust from which they formed. The VLA studies of the burst show that at least this one almost certainly occurred within a star-forming region. This result also explains why half of the Gamma Ray Burst afterglows are not detected by optical telescopes." Frail heads a VLA observing team including Greg Taylor, also of NRAO, and Shri Kulkarni of Caltech, that reported its findings to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, CA. The March 29 burst was seen clearly by radio telescopes (the accompanying image is GRB 980329 as seen by the VLA) but only very faintly with optical instruments. "That is extremely important," said Taylor. "This burst was very faint at visible wavelengths, brighter at infrared wavelengths and brighter still at radio wavelengths. This is a clear indication that the exploding object was surrounded by dust. Dust is most commonly found in star-forming regions." This strongly favors one of the two leading theories about Gamma Ray Bursts over the other. One explanation for these tremendously energetic fireballs is that a pair of superdense neutron stars collides. The other is that a single, very massive star explodes in a "hypernova," more powerful than a supernova, at the end of its normal life. The hypernova explosion, scientists believe, would come only a few million years after the giant star was formed, while it is still within the cloud of gas and dust from which it formed. Neutron stars, on the other hand, are formed by supernova explosions that give a "kick" to the resulting neutron star, propelling it at high speeds. An orbiting pair of neutron stars, astronomers think, would collide only after hundreds of millions of years of orbital decay, by which time they would be far away from the gas and dust of their birthplace. "The observations already have provided crucial insight; we intend to continue observing the relic of the March 29 burst with the VLA, and in the coming months, we will gain new information that will help further refine our ideas about these fireballs," Frail said. "We're going to learn about the size and expansion rate of the fireball and test predictions made by the models." "These observations indicate the extraordinary importance of radio astronomy for providing information that can be gained in no other way about one of the major frontier areas of astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The March 29 burst (GRB 980329) was the second such blast to have its afterglow detected at radio wavelengths. Last year, the VLA made the first radio detection of a GRB afterglow, finding radio emission coming from the location of a Gamma Ray Burst on May 8, 1997 (GRB 970508). "Of the world's radio telescopes, only the VLA has the sensitivity and resolving power to quickly detect these radio afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts and study them in detail over extended periods of time," Taylor said. "Even so, we only see the brightest one-third of them. With upgraded capabilities at the VLA, as planned by NRAO, we will see them all." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agr

  10. Live-cell vibrational imaging of choline metabolites by stimulated Raman scattering coupled with isotope-based metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fanghao; Wei, Lu; Zheng, Chaogu; Shen, Yihui; Min, Wei

    2014-05-21

    Choline is a small molecule that occupies a key position in the biochemistry of all living organisms. Recent studies have strongly implicated choline metabolites in cancer, atherosclerosis and nervous system development. To detect choline and its metabolites, existing physical methods such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography are often limited by the poor spatial resolution and substantial radiation dose. Fluorescence imaging, although with submicrometer resolution, requires introduction of bulky fluorophores and thus is difficult in labeling the small choline molecule. By combining the emerging bond-selective stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with metabolic incorporation of deuterated choline, herein we have achieved high resolution imaging of choline-containing metabolites in living mammalian cell lines, primary hippocampal neurons and the multicellular organism C. elegans. Different subcellular distributions of choline metabolites are observed between cancer cells and non-cancer cells, which may reveal a functional difference in the choline metabolism and lipid-mediated signaling events. In neurons, choline incorporation is visualized within both soma and neurites, where choline metabolites are more evenly distributed compared to proteins. Furthermore, choline localization is also observed in the pharynx region of C. elegans larvae, consistent with its organogenesis mechanism. These applications demonstrate the potential of isotope-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for future choline-related disease detection and development monitoring in vivo. PMID:24555181

  11. Live-cell vibrational imaging of choline metabolites by stimulated Raman scattering coupled with isotope-based metabolic labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fanghao; Wei, Lu; Zheng, Chaogu; Shen, Yihui

    2014-01-01

    Choline is a small molecule that occupies a key position in the biochemistry of all living organisms. Recent studies have strongly implicated choline metabolites in cancer, atherosclerosis and nervous system development. To detect choline and its metabolites, existing physical methods such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography, are often limited by the poor spatial resolution and substantial radiation dose. Fluorescence imaging, although with submicrometer resolution, requires introduction of bulky fluorophores and thus is difficult in labeling the small choline molecule. By combining the emerging bond-selective stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with metabolic incorporation of deuterated choline, herein we have achieved high resolution imaging of choline-containing metabolites in living mammalian cell lines, primary hippocampal neurons and multicellular organism C. elegans. Different subcellular distributions of choline metabolites are observed between cancer cells and non-cancer cells, which may reveal functional difference in the choline metabolism and lipid-mediated signaling events. In neurons, choline incorporation is visualized within both soma and neurites, where choline metabolites are more evenly distributed compared to the protein. Furthermore, choline localization is also observed in the pharynx region of C. elegans larvae, consistent with its organogenesis mechanism. These applications demonstrate the potential of isotope-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for future choline-related disease detection and development monitoring in vivo. PMID:24555181

  12. Determination of long-lived Nb isotopes in nuclear power plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szabolcs Osváth; Nóra Vajda; Zsuzsa Molnár

    2008-01-01

    94Nb and 93mNb are long-lived radionuclides, produced by thermal and fast neutrons from 93Nb that is a major component of the Zr alloys used in nuclear reactors. A radiochemical method for the determination of these nuclides has been developed. The separation is based on the insolubility of Nb oxides and the retention of the fluoric complexes on anion exchange resin.

  13. Contribution of very short-lived organic substances to stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the tropics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Möbius, T.; Worton, D. R.; Sturges, W. T.; Grunow, K.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-12-01

    The total stratospheric organic chlorine and bromine burden was derived from balloon-borne measurements in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5°04´ S, 42°52´ W) in 2005. Whole air samples were collected cryogenically at altitudes between 15 and 34 km. For the first time, we report measurements of a set of 28 chlorinated and brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere including ten substances with an atmospheric lifetime of less than half a year. The substances were quantified using pre-concentration techniques followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric detection. In the tropical tropopause layer at altitudes between 15 and 17 km we found 1.1-1.4% of the chlorine and 6-8% of the bromine to be present in the form of very short-lived organic compounds. By combining the data with tropospheric reference data and age of air observations the abundances of inorganic chlorine and bromine (Cly and Bry) were derived. At an altitude of 34 km we calculated 3062 ppt of Cly and 17.5 ppt of Bry from the decomposition of both long- and short-lived organic source gases. Furthermore we present indications for the presence of additional organic brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere.

  14. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb

    E-print Network

    C. Weber; G. Audi; D. Beck; K. Blaum; G. Bollen; F. Herfurth; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; D. Lunney; S. Schwarz

    2008-01-14

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of 145,147Cs, 181,183Tl, 186Tlm, 187Tl, 196Tlm, 205Tl, 197Pbm, 208Pb, 190 to 197Bi, 209,215,216Bi, 203,205,229Fr, and 214,229,230Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of $2 \\cdot 10^{-7}$ to $2 \\cdot 10^{-8}$ is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  15. Yields of Short-lived Fission-Products of ^235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Schier, W. A.

    1996-10-01

    Delayed gamma spectra from ^235U(n_th, f) fission-products were measured over delay times ranging from 0.4 to 7500 s using an HPGe detector enclosed in a NaI(Tl) Compton suppression annulus. Use of beta-gamma coincidence for background reduction, and a helium-jet/moving tape arrangement to rapidly transport the fission products to the detector allowed for a precise measurement of the delay time after fission. Yields of the individual gamma lines were compared with the intensity values listed in the Nuclear Data Sheets. From the relative intensities of the gamma lines, the relative independent and cumulative yields of the precursor isotopes were calculated using the Bateman equations and compared with the values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission-product data base. Charge-mass complementarity was used to estimate the elemental yields of the unmeasured fission-products.

  16. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

    2009-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile\\/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda

  17. Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviniemi, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a "run-away-decline process" leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to semi-natural grassland fragmentation, four short-lived grassland species were studied. During three years, data on population sizes were gathered for Carum carvi, Rhinanthus minor, Trifolium arvense and Viola tricolor in Swedish semi-natural grasslands varying in size and degree of isolation. A seed-sowing experiment was conducted to assess dispersal and seed limitation at a local and regional scale, respectively. Overall, the presence/absence of species was not related to fragment size and isolation (connectivity). However, for the fragments where the species were present, positive relationships between grassland size and population size were detected for three species. No significant relationships between isolation and population size were detected for any species. This study thus demonstrates that short-lived plant species, confined to semi-natural grasslands, respond to decreases in fragment size by forming smaller populations. Seed sowing indicated that the species are both dispersal and seed limited in the study area, and that disturbances are important for establishment. In order to maintain characteristic grassland species in fragmented (isolated) semi-natural grasslands, it may therefore be of interest to preserve large intact fragments instead of several small ones.

  18. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense short lived when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).

  19. Spatial and Time Coincidence Detection of the Decay Chain of Short-Lived Radioactive Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Koester, Ulli [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-08-04

    The quantum counting position sensitive pixel detector Timepix with per-pixel energy and time resolution enables to detect radioactive ions and register the consecutive decay chain by simultaneous position-and time-correlation. This spatial and timing coincidence technique in the same sensor is demonstrated by the registration of the decay chain {sup 8}He{yields}{sup {beta} 8}Li and {sup 8}Li{yields}{sup {beta}-} {sup 8}Be{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} and by the measurement of the {beta} decay half-lives. Radioactive ions, selectively obtained from the Lohengrin fission fragment spectrometer installed at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble, are delivered to the Timepix silicon sensor where decays of the implanted ions and daughter nuclei are registered and visualized. We measure decay lifetimes in the range {>=}{mu}s with precision limited just by counting statistics.

  20. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10yr; 11-18yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age × sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence. PMID:25795492

  1. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. (Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Cambridge (England))

    1990-09-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.

  2. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  3. FORMATION OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu [Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Chemical Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide [School of Ocean, Earth Science and Technology, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ishii, Hope A. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J., E-mail: jacobsen5@llnl.gov [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-04-20

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

  4. Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides

    E-print Network

    S. George; G. Audi; B. Blank; K. Blaum; M. Breitenfeldt; U. Hager; F. Herfurth; A. Herlert; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; M. Kretzschmar; D. Lunney; R. Savreux; S. Schwarz; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian

    2008-01-17

    High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide 27Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides 26Al and 38,39Ca have been performed by use of radiofrequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of 26,27Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed beta-emitter 38Ca as well as of the groundstate of the beta-emitter 26Al m confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

  5. Upper mantle lower crust dikes of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (Philippines): distinct short-lived, subduction-related magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Faustino, D. V.; de Jesus, J. V.

    1998-09-01

    The residual harzburgite-lherzolite suites in the Coto and Acoje blocks of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex are cut by numerous dikes that range from clinopyroxenites to diabases, gabbros and diorites. Diabase dikes extensively cut the Coto block harzburgites while some clinopyroxenite to gabbro dikes are noted in the Acoje block lherzolite-harzburgite-dunite suite. The upper mantle-lower crust dikes in both blocks do not extend to their respective overlying sheeted dike-sill complexes. The whole-rock geochemistry of the mafic dikes intruded into the Coto and Acoje block peridotites show subduction-related signatures. These island-arc dikes are not unextracted frozen melts from their respective abyssal peridotite-like country rocks. They represent post-ophiolite, short-lived magmatic events that tapped geochemically different mantle source regions in a subduction-related marginal basin setting.

  6. The Notch Signaling Pathway Controls Short-Lived Effector CD8+ T Cell Differentiation but Is Dispensable for Memory Generation.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Mélissa; Duval, Frédéric; Daudelin, Jean-François; Labrecque, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    Following an infection, naive CD8(+) T cells expand and differentiate into two main populations of effectors: short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells (MPECs). There is limited understanding of the molecular mechanism and cellular processes governing this cell fate. Notch is a key regulator of cell fate decision relevant in many immunological pathways. In this study, we add to the role of Notch in cell fate decision and demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway controls the MPEC/SLEC differentiation choice following both Listeria infection and dendritic cell immunization of mice. Although fewer SLECs were generated, Notch deficiency did not alter the rate of memory CD8(+) T cell generation. Moreover, we reveal that the Notch signaling pathway plays a context-dependent role for optimal cytokine production by effector CD8(+) T cells. Together, our results unravel critical functions for the Notch signaling pathway during effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation. PMID:25972473

  7. SHORT-TERM (INTESTINAL) AND LONG-TERM (WHOLE BODY) CONVERSION OF BETA-CAROTENE TO VITAMIN A IN ADULTS USING A STABLE ISOTOP REFERENCE METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative and detailed information on the conversion of beta-carotene (b-C) to vitamin A in humans is limited. Our objective is to determine the short and long term conversion of synthetic deuterium labeled b-C to vitamin A in well-nourished adults by using a stable isotope reference method. A p...

  8. Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with short interfering DNA (Dbait) in various living systems

    PubMed Central

    Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M

    2011-01-01

    Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) live zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower ‘efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials. PMID:21799529

  9. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short-Lived Nuclides Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahijpal, S.

    2014-06-01

    An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an N-body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. In contrary to the conventional Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach provides a natural framework to understand the astrophysical environment related with the origin of the solar system. We deduce the nature of the two stellar clusters; the one that formed and evolved prior to the solar system formation, and the other within which the solar system that was probably formed. The former could have contributed to the short-lived nuclides 129I and 53Mn, whereas, the supernova associated with the most massive star in the latter contributed 26Al and 60Fe to the solar system. The analysis was performed with the revised solar metallicity of 0.014.

  10. Short-lived halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

    2015-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-lived anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.

  11. Injection of Short-Lived Radionuclides into the Early Solar System from a Faint Supernova with Mixing-Fallback

    E-print Network

    A. Takigawa; J. Miki; S. Tachibana; G. R. Huss; N. Tominaga; H. Umeda; K. Nomoto

    2008-08-11

    Several short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) were present in the early solar system, some of which should have formed just prior to or soon after the solar system formation. Stellar nucleosynthesis has been proposed as the mechanism for production of SLRs in the solar system, but no appropriate stellar source has been found to explain the abundances of all solar system SLRs. In this study, we propose a faint supernova with mixing and fallback as a stellar source of SLRs with mean lives of solar system. In such a supernova, the inner region of the exploding star experiences mixing, a small fraction of mixed materials is ejected, and the rest undergoes fallback onto the core. The modeled SLR abundances agree well with their solar system abundances if mixing-fallback occurs within the C/O-burning layer. In some cases, the initial solar system abundances of the SLRs can be reproduced within a factor of 2. The dilution factor of supernova ejecta to the solar system materials is ~10E-4 and the time interval between the supernova explosion and the formation of oldest solid materials in the solar system is ~1 Myr. If the dilution occurred due to spherically symmetric expansion, a faint supernova should have occurred nearby the solar system forming region in a star cluster.

  12. Short-term risk of hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis in children living near an aluminum smelter.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Antoine; Buteau, Stéphane; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have measured the effect of short-term exposure to industrial emissions on the respiratory health of children. Here we estimate the risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children associated with their recent exposure to emissions from an aluminum smelter. We used a case-crossover design to assess the risk of hospitalization, February 1999-December 2008, in relation to short-term variation in levels of exposure among children 0-4 years old living less than 7.5 km from the smelter. The percentage of hours per day that the residence of a hospitalized child was in the shadow of winds crossing the smelter was used to estimate the effect of wind-borne emissions on case and crossover days. Community-wide pollutant exposure was estimated through daily mean and daily maximum SO2 and PM2.5 concentrations measured at a fixed monitoring site near the smelter. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. The risk of same-day hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis increased with the percentage of hours in a day that a child's residence was downwind of the smelter. For children aged 2-4 years, the OR was 1.27 (95% CI=1.03-1.56; n=103 hospitalizations), for an interquartile range (IQR) of 21% of hours being downwind. In this age group, the OR with PM2.5 daily mean levels was slightly smaller than with the hours downwind (OR: 1.22 for an IQR of 15.7 ?g/m(3), 95% CI=1.03-1.44; n=94 hospitalizations). Trends were observed between hospitalizations and levels of SO2 for children 2-4 years old. Increasing short-term exposure to emissions from a Quebec aluminum smelter was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children who live nearby. Estimating exposure through records of wind direction allows for the integration of exposure to all pollutants carried from the smelter stack. PMID:23695491

  13. The effects of ?-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees†

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, C.D.; Mora, C.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the ?13C and ?18O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and ?-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if ?-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the ?13C or ?18O values of ?-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of ?-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the ?13C (up to 0.4‰) and ?18O (up to 1.2‰) of ?-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the ?13C and ?18O of whole wood or ?-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and ?-cellulose ?13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between ?18O of whole wood and ?-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.

  14. The formation and breach of a short-lived landslide dam at Hsiaolin village, Taiwan — part I: Post-event reconstruction of dam geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Jyun Dong; Yun-Shan Li; Chyh-Yu Kuo; Rui-Tang Sung; Ming-Hsu Li; Chyi-Tyi Lee; Chien-Chih Chen; Wang-Ru Lee

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, technologies from multiple disciplines are used to reconstruct the shape of the Hsiaolin landslide dam, a short-lived landslide dam (SLD), that was triggered by Typhoon Morakot. Here, the formation, failure mode and breaching process of this SLD are investigated. The results indicate that the overtopping time and the debris budget constrained the dam geometry. The inferred volume

  15. Measuring (n,f) cross-sections of short-lived Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences

    E-print Network

    Katz, Jonathan I.

    small fission cross-sections at these energies. I present quantitative calculations of the efficiencyMeasuring (n,f) cross-sections of short-lived states J. I. Katz Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 63130 and Lawrence Livermore National

  16. Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.

  17. Fifteen non-CODIS autosomal short tandem repeat loci multiplex data from nine population groups living in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic genetics. We developed a multiplex system in which 15 non-Combined DNA Index System autosomal STRs (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 1,098 unrelated subjects of nine population groups living in Taiwan, including Taiwanese Han, indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, Thais, Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Caucasians, were collected and analyzed using this system. The distributions of the allelic frequencies and the forensic parameters of each population group were presented. The combined discrimination power and the combined power of exclusion were high in all population groups tested in this study. A multidimensional scaling plot of these nine population groups based on the Reynolds' genetic distances calculated from 15 autosomal STRs was constructed, and the genetic substructure in this area was presented. In conclusion, this 15 autosomal STR multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing in different populations. PMID:22430197

  18. Attached and unattached fractions of short-lived radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A

    2014-12-01

    The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon short-lived progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. PMID:24390974

  19. Contribution of very short-lived organic substances to stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the tropics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Möbius, T.; Worton, D. R.; Sturges, W. T.; Grunow, K.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-05-01

    The total stratospheric organic chlorine and bromine burden was derived from balloon-borne measurements in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5°04´S, 42°52´W) in 2005. Whole air samples were collected cryogenically at altitudes between 15 and 34 km. For the first time, we report measurements of a set of 28 chlorinated and brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere including ten substances with an atmospheric lifetime of less than half a year. The substances were quantified using pre-concentration techniques followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric detection. In the tropical tropopause layer at an altitude of 15.2 km we found 1.4% of the chlorine and 8% of the bromine to be present in the form of very short-lived compounds. By combining the data with tropospheric reference data and age of air observations the abundances of inorganic chlorine and bromine (Cly and Bry) were derived. At an altitude of 34 km we calculated 3062 ppt of Cly and 17.5 ppt of Bry from organic source gases. Furthermore we present indications for the presence of additional organic brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere.

  20. Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Picó, F X; Retana, J

    2008-05-01

    Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse several factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived perennial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field conditions. We collected data on plant mortality of the effect of biotic agents (moth larvae and mycoplasma-like organisms, MLOs) and environmental variables. We also estimated density-dependent relationships affecting the fate of seedlings and adults. Results show that cohorts differed in their survival curves and ageing significantly increased mortality risk. Seedling mortality was density-dependent whereas adult mortality was not affected by density. MLO infection led to higher plant mortality whereas moth larvae attack did not affect plant mortality. In general, seedlings and adult plants experienced the highest mortality events in summer. We found, however, weak relationships between weather records and plant mortality. Age and size structures were not correlated. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive review of age-specific, density-dependent and density-independent factors that account for mortality of L. maritima plants throughout their life cycle in field conditions, highlighting the fact that age is an important factor in determining plant population dynamics. PMID:18426484

  1. Gamma-ray study of short-lived aggregate fission products from {sup 235}U(n,f)

    SciTech Connect

    Schier, W.A.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S. [and others

    1993-10-01

    A high purity germanium detector was used to measure gamma-ray spectra following thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U for eighteen delay time intervals in the range 0.1-100,000 a following fission. A helium-jet system was used to rapidly transport fission products to a low-background counting area. The gamma-ray spectrometer employed beta-gamma coincidence as well as a Nal(Tl) annulus for background suppression. Nearly 300 gamma-ray peaks have been analyzed for delay-time intervals < 10 s after fission in the energy range 0-6 MeV. The time evolution of a peak provides information about the lifetime of the precursor nuclide as well as the ratio of its direct production in fission to its production through radioactive decay. Where decay schemes are known the measured gamma-ray intensities can be used to deduce relative yields and in some cases metastable-to-ground-state production probabilities. Results of lifetimes, yields, etc. of short-lived products will be compared with CINDER 10 calculations based on ENDF/B-IV fission-product data.

  2. Re-Os Isotopic Evidence for Long-Lived Heterogeneity and Equilibration Processes in Earth's Upper Mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Meibom; N. H. Sleep; C. Page Chamberlain; R. G. Coleman; Robert Frei; M. T. Hren; J. L. Wooden

    2002-01-01

    Compared to other incompatible lithophile isotope systems the Re-Os isotopic system is very well suited for tracing extraction and subduction of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB). During partial melting Re is mildly incompatible whereas Os is strongly compatible resulting in high Re\\/Os elemental ratios in MORB and correspondingly low Re\\/Os ratios in the depleted solid residue left behind. As 187Re decays

  3. ?-decay half-lives including first-forbidden contributions for neutron-rich Zn isotopes in the extended QRPA with neutron-proton pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2014-12-01

    The ? decays of neutron-rich Zn isotopes are investigated within the extended quasiparticle random-phase approximation, where neutron-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-proton pairing correlations are considered in the similar manner. The Brückner G-matrix obtained with the charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon force is used for the residual particle-particle and particle-hole interactions in addition to the pairing interactions. Contributions from both allowed Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions are considered, and ?-decay half-lives together with ?-delayed neutron emission probabilities are calculated. The calculated results are found to agree well with the available experimental data.

  4. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.

  5. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short-lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly levels.

  6. Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Bax, and Bak expression in short- and long-lived patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bairey, O; Zimra, Y; Shaklai, M; Okon, E; Rabizadeh, E

    1999-10-01

    Long-term cure is now possible for approximately 50% of all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Apoptosis-related proteins play an important role in the chemosensitivity or chemoresistance of tumors. We examined the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in aggressive NHL. We retrospectively selected two groups of patients by clinical outcome: 24 patients with chemoresponsive disease and long survival (median, 88 months); and 20 patients with chemoresistant disease and short survival (median, 8 months). The expression of the apoptosis-regulating proteins, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Bax, and Bak, in the initial biopsy samples was examined with immunohistochemical methods. Specimens containing >10% immunostained tumor cells were considered immunopositive. An inverse association was found between length of patient survival and expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-X, and Bax. Bcl-2 was expressed in 75% of short-lived patients but in only 42% of the long-lived ones (P = 0.026). Bcl-X expression was also higher in the short-lived patients (40% versus 12.5%; P = 0.036). Unexpectedly, Bax expression was strongly associated with short survival (60% versus 21%; P = 0.008). Several combinations of protein expression, i.e., Bcl-2 with Bax, Bcl-2 with Bcl-X, and Bcl-X with Bax, were different between the groups: a positive expression of these proteins was found in the short-lived patients. Furthermore, a strong association was found between the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X, suggesting that Bcl-X potentiates rather than replaces the effect of Bcl-2 in NHL. In diffuse large B-cell NHL, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, and Bax expression alone or in combination is associated with chemoresistance and shortterm survival. PMID:10537354

  7. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuri.kudryavtsev@fys.kuleuven.be; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)] [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented.

  8. Continuous on-line chromatography of short lived isotopes of tungsten as homolog of seaborgium (element 106)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pfrepper; R. Pfrepper; A. Kronenberg; Jens Volker Kratz; A. Nähler; W. Brüchle; M. Schädel

    2000-01-01

    Summary. We have studied the sorption of W on anion-ex- change resins from HNO3\\/HF solutions under on-line con- ditions using continuous chromatography with the multi-col- umn technique. Kd values and the charge of the W species were determined. In order to achieve an effective separation of mother (W) and daughter (Ta), also the sorption of Ta from HNO3\\/HF solutions on

  9. Development of a fast and efficient separation for short-lived plutonium isotopes produced in accelerator-based irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Laue, C.A.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1999-10-01

    A novel, fast and simple separation procedure is presented for separation of plutonium from lighter actinides and fission products. Classical methods, such as TTA-extraction and anion exchange resin techniques, were examined but failed to provide sufficient separation from lighter actinides. A successful procedure based on solid phase extraction chromatography was developed. Plutonium was effectively separated from interfering activities within 8 minutes using TEVA-resino, a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert support. Recoveries of about 70 percent were achieved for plutonium with decontamination factors of 105 to 106 from neptunium, uranium and thorium.

  10. Ni Isotopes in the Early Solar System: an Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Quitte; A. N. Halliday; A. Markowski; B. Bourdon; B. Meyer; B. Zanda; C. Latkoczy; D. Guenther

    2006-01-01

    The short-lived 60Fe-60Ni chronometer (t1\\/2=1.49 Myrs) can theoretically provide strong constraints on the exact chronology of the earliest events of the solar system, whereas the mass-dependent isotopic fractionation of Ni stable isotopes helps us to better understand the formation processes of meteorites. Nickel is also an interesting element when looking at nucleosynthetic anomalies and thus stellar sources in a close

  11. Detection of 210Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Abu-Jarad

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m3 test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m–3. Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according

  12. Short-Lived Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-?), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L?, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c? CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c?, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127? terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1? CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c? CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, short-lived, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113

  13. Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F

    2009-08-01

    Lower ROS release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (short-lived). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-lived species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate. PMID:19464314

  14. Sulfur isotope inventories of atmospheric deposition, spruce forest floor and living Sphagnum along a NW–SE transect across Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Novák; Simon H. Bottrell; Eva P?echová

    2001-01-01

    At five European sites, differing in atmospheric Sinputs by a factor of 6, and differing in S isotope signatures ofthese inputs by up to 14‰ (CDT), we investigated thedirection and magnitude of an assimilation-related d34S shiftand the relationship between atmospheric deposition and Sretention in selected ecosystem compartments. Bulk precipitationand spruce throughfall were collected between 1994 and 1996 inthe Isle of

  15. GC/MS method for determining carbon isotope enrichment and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids by direct aqueous solution injection of biogas digester samples.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Feilberg, Anders

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion of organic matter, several metabolic pathways are involved during the simultaneous production and consumption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in general and acetate in particular. Understanding the role of each pathway requires both the determination of the concentration and isotope enrichment of intermediates in conjunction with isotope labeled substrates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and simple GC/MS method for determining the isotope enrichment of acetate and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in biogas digester samples by direct liquid injection of acidified aqueous samples. Sample preparation involves only acidification, centrifugation and filtration of the aqueous solution followed by direct injection of the aqueous supernatant solution onto a polar column. With the sample preparation and GC/MS conditions employed, well-resolved and sharp peaks of underivatized SCFA were obtained in a reasonably short time. Good recovery (96.6-102.3%) as well as low detection (4-7µmol/L) and quantification limits (14-22µmol/L) were obtained for all the 6 SCFA studied. Good linearity was achieved for both concentration and isotope enrichment measurement with regression coefficients higher than 0.9978 and 0.9996, respectively. The method has a good intra- and inter-day precision with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6% for determining the tracer-to-tracee ratio (TTR) of both [2-(1)(3)C]acetate and [U-(1)(3)C]acetate. It has also a good intra- and inter-day precision with a RSD below 6% and 5% for determining the concentration of standard solution and biogas digester samples, respectively. Acidification of biogas digester samples with oxalic acid provided the low pH required for the protonation of SCFA and thus, allows the extraction of SCFA from the complex sample matrix. Moreover, oxalic acid was the source of formic acid which was produced in the injector set at high temperature. The produced formic acid prevented the adsorption of SCFA in the column, thereby eliminating peak tailing and ghost peaks. The applicability of the validated GC/MS method for determining the concentration of acetate and its (13)C isotope enrichment in anaerobic digester samples was tested and the results demonstrated the suitability of this method for identifying the metabolic pathways involved in degradation and production of acetate. PMID:26078128

  16. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.

    2007-03-26

    We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.

  17. Persistent autoantibody-production by intermediates between short-and long-lived plasma cells in inflamed lymph nodes of experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    PubMed

    Tiburzy, Benjamin; Szyska, Martin; Iwata, Hiroaki; Chrobok, Navina; Kulkarni, Upasana; Hirose, Misa; Ludwig, Ralf J; Kalies, Kathrin; Westermann, Jürgen; Wong, David; Manz, Rudolf Armin

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies are believed to be maintained by either the continuous generation of short-lived plasma cells in secondary lymphoid tissues or by long-lived plasma cells localized in bone marrow and spleen. Here, we show in a mouse model for the autoimmune blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) that chronic autoantibody production can also be maintained in inflamed lymph nodes, by plasma cells exhibiting intermediate lifetimes. After EBA induction by immunization with a mCOL7c-GST-fusion protein, antigen-specific plasma cells and CD4 T cells were analyzed. Plasma cells were maintained for months in stable numbers in the draining lymph nodes, but not in spleen and bone marrow. In contrast, localization of mCOL7c-GST -specific CD4 T cells was not restricted to lymph nodes, indicating that availability of T cell help does not limit plasma cell localization to this site. BrdU-incorporation studies indicated that pathogenic mCOL7c- and non-pathogenic GST-specific plasma cells resemble intermediates between short-and long-lived plasma cells with half-lives of about 7 weeks. Immunization with mCOL7c-GST also yielded considerable numbers of plasma cells neither specific for mCOL7c- nor GST. These bystander-activated plasma cells exhibited much shorter half-lives and higher population turnover, suggesting that plasma cell lifetimes were only partly determined by the lymph node environment but also by the mode of activation. These results indicate that inflamed lymph nodes can harbor pathogenic plasma cells exhibiting distinct properties and hence may resemble a so far neglected site for chronic autoantibody production. PMID:24386241

  18. Constraints on long-lived remnants of neutron star binary mergers from late-time radio observations of short duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star (NS) system (an `NS merger' or NSM) may in some cases produce a massive NS remnant that is long lived and, potentially, indefinitely stable to gravitational collapse. Such a remnant has been proposed as an explanation for the late-X-ray emission observed following some short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and as possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational wave chirp. A stable NS merger remnant necessarily possesses a large rotational energy ?1052 erg, the majority of which is ultimately deposited into the surrounding circumburst medium (CBM) at mildly relativistic velocities. We present Very Large Array radio observations of seven short GRBs, some of which possessed temporally extended X-ray emission, on time-scales of ˜1-3 yr following the initial burst. No radio sources were detected, with typical upper limits ˜0.3 mJy at ? = 1.4 GHz. A basic model for the synchrotron emission from the blast wave is used to constrain the presence of a long-lived NSM remnant in each system. Depending on the GRB, our non-detections translate into upper limits on the CBM density n ? 3 × 10- 2-3 cm-3 required for consistency with the remnant hypothesis. Our upper limits rule out a long-lived remnant in GRB 050724 and 060505, but cannot rule out such a remnant in other systems due to their lower inferred CMB densities based on afterglow modelling or the lack of such constraints.

  19. Investigating land-atmosphere exchange using observations of the stable isotopes in water vapour during a short term field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, S. D.; Griffiths, A.; Wang, L.; McCabe, M. F.; Chambers, S. D.; Williams, A. G.; Element, A.; Strauss, J.

    2014-12-01

    Evaporation sources and meteorological conditions at the source of evaporation are important variables affecting the stable isotopes in water vapour. Isotopes therefore provide complimentary information to more conventional techniques used in land-atmosphere exchange studies. Augmenting in-situ water vapour isotope measurements, soil and plant water isotopic analysis, and meteorological measurements collected during a 2 week field campaign to a semi-arid grassland site in NSW, Australia, the relationship between land-atmosphere exchange processes and the water vapour isotopic composition was investigated. Back-trajectory analysis was used to provide insight into the role of large scale hydrological processes on the water vapour isotopic composition. During the campaign clear dry conditions were observed leading to strong diurnal cycles for the evapotranspiration fluxes. For diurnal times, the d-excess of the water vapour showed a strong relationship with the evapotranspiration fluxes. During the morning transition period when the convective boundary layer was being established and evapotranspiration fluxes were increasing, the d-excess increased sharply. Plant and soil water samples indicated non-steady state transpiration fluxes led to these higher values. In the afternoon when the evapotranspiration fluxes decreased and the humidity approached saturation, the d-excess of water vapour declined approaching values approximately in equilibrium with the soil water. On the other hand, the diurnal cycle of the ?2H did not show a consistent trend with the local meteorology, but showed a stronger relationship with the sea surface temperature of the oceanic moisture source and dehydration pathways during transport of atmospheric moisture to the site. The interpretation from these results indicates that the d-excess variable may be a better variable for investigating local land-atmosphere exchange as the ?2H is strongly influenced by changes in the synoptic scale meteorology.

  20. Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.

    1982-01-01

    To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

  1. Discovery of Highly Excited Long-Lived Isomers in Neutron-Rich Hafnium and Tantalum Isotopes through Direct Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M. W.; Cullen, I. J.; Walker, P. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Kempley, R. S.; Swan, T. P. D. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Litvinov, Yu. A.; Winckler, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bosch, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Farinon, F.; Heil, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kuzminchuk, N.; Litvinov, S.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    A study of cooled {sup 197}Au projectile-fragmentation products has been performed with a storage ring. This has enabled metastable nuclear excitations with energies up to 3 MeV, and half-lives extending to minutes or longer, to be identified in the neutron-rich nuclides {sup 183,184,186}Hf and {sup 186,187}Ta. The results support the prediction of a strongly favored isomer region near neutron number 116.

  2. Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katariina Kiviniemi

    2008-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a “run-away-decline process” leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to

  3. The fractal nature of the surface of uranium dioxide: a resolution of the short-lived\\/stable gas release dichotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. White

    2001-01-01

    The framework for analysis of fission product release in the Halden gas flow rigs has been developed over a period of 20 years. The predominant mode of release is single gas atom diffusion to free surfaces with a small, but burn-up-dependent contribution from direct recoil. Measurements of longer-lived fission products indicated that their release appeared to be controlled by a

  4. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  5. Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    Spectroscopic detection of short-lived gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm-1 was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ˜40 mm3) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive short-lived species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ˜109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 ?) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10-8 cm-1 W/Hz1/2. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1? minimum detected absorption coefficient is ˜1.1 × 10-7 cm-1 (MDL ˜ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ˜1.1 × 10-8 cm-1 (MDL ˜ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.

  6. Seasonal variations in photosynthesis, intrinsic water-use efficiency and stable isotope composition of poplar leaves in a short-rotation plantation

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, L.S.; Fichot, R.; Verlinden, M.S.; Ceulemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and transpirational water loss play an important role in the yield and the carbon sequestration potential of bioenergy-devoted cultures of fast-growing trees. For six poplar (Populus) genotypes in a short-rotation plantation, we observed significant seasonal and genotypic variation in photosynthetic parameters, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) and leaf stable isotope composition (?13C and ?18O). The poplars maintained high photosynthetic rates (between 17.8 and 26.9??mol?m?2?s?1 depending on genotypes) until late in the season, in line with their fast-growth habit. Seasonal fluctuations were mainly explained by variations in soil water availability and by stomatal limitation upon photosynthesis. Stomatal rather than biochemical limitation was confirmed by the constant intrinsic photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) during the growing season, closely related to leaf nitrogen (N) content. Intrinsic water-use efficiency scaled negatively with carbon isotope discrimination (?13Cbl) and positively with the ratio between mesophyll diffusion conductance (gm) and stomatal conductance. The WUEi?–??13Cbl relationship was partly influenced by gm. There was a trade-off between WUEi and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, but only when soil water availability was limiting. Our results suggest that seasonal fluctuations in relation to soil water availability should be accounted for in future modelling studies assessing the carbon sequestration potential and the water-use efficiency of woody energy crops. PMID:25074859

  7. Mechanistic positron emission tomography studies: demonstration of a deuterium isotope effect in the monoamine oxidase-catalyzed binding of [11C]L-deprenyl in living baboon brain.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J S; Wolf, A P; MacGregor, R R; Dewey, S L; Logan, J; Schlyer, D J; Langstrom, B

    1988-11-01

    The application of positron emission tomography (PET) to the study of biochemical transformations in the living human and animal body requires the development of highly selective radiotracers whose concentrations in tissue provide a record of a discrete metabolic process. L-N-[11C-methyl]Deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl), a suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B, has been developed as a radiotracer for mapping MAO B in the living human and animal brain. In this investigation, [11C]L-deprenyl (1) and [11C]L-deprenyl-alpha, alpha-2H2 (2) have been compared in three different baboons by PET measurement of carbon-11 uptake and retention in the brain and the measurement of the amount of unchanged tracer in the arterial plasma over a 90-min time interval. For one baboon, N-[11C-methyl-2H3]L-deprenyl (3) was also studied. Kinetic parameters calculated using a three-compartment model revealed a deuterium isotope effect of 3.8 +/- 1.1. Comparison of the two tracers (1 and 2) in mouse brain demonstrated that deuterium substitution significantly reduced the amount of radioactivity bound to protein. HPLC and GLC analysis of the soluble radioactivity in mouse brain after injection of [11C]L-deprenyl showed the presence of [11C]methamphetamine as a major product along with unidentified labeled products. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis with carbon-14-labeled L-deprenyl showed that a protein of molecular weight 58,000 was labeled. These results establish that MAO-catalyzed cleavage of the alpha carbon-hydrogen bond on the propargyl group is the rate limiting (or a major rate contributing) step in the retention of carbon-11 in brain and that the in vivo detection of labeled products in brain after the injection of [11C]L-deprenyl provides a record of MAO activity. PMID:3139834

  8. Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

  9. Unambiguous assignment of short- and long-range structural restraints by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with segmental isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Schubeis, Tobias; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the reduction of spectral complexity in the solid-state NMR spectra of insoluble protein assemblies, without loss of signal intensity. The approach is based on segmental isotope labeling by using the split intein DnaE from Nostoc punctiforme. We show that the segmentally (13)C, (15)N-labeled prion domain of HET-s exhibits significantly reduced spectral overlap while retaining the wild-type structure and spectral quality. A large number of unambiguous distance restraints were thus collected from a single two-dimensional (13)C, (13)C cross-correlation spectrum. The observed resonances could be unambiguously identified as intramolecular without the need for preparing a dilute, less sensitive sample. PMID:25394265

  10. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown. Methods A prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children (n?=?30) aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort (n?=?108) study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC(2,1), Percentage Exact Agreement (PEA) and Percentage Close Agreement (PCA) and measures of Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. Results Thirty Aboriginal children (18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years) were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 (95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94) to 0.92 (95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96) indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability (median interval between tests being 45.5 days) for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.62 (95%CI, 0.34 – 0.80) to 0.73 (95%CI, 0.50 – 0.86) indicating fair to good reliability. The raw score MDC was 6.12. Conclusion The BOT-2 Short Form has acceptable reliability for use in remote Australian Aboriginal communities and will be useful in determining motor deficits in children exposed to alcohol prenatally. This is the first known study evaluating the reliability of the BOT-2 Short Form, either in the context of assessment for FASD or in Aboriginal children. PMID:24010634

  11. Short lived 36Cl and its decay products 36Ar and 36S in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G.; Crowther, S. A.; Burgess, R.; Gilmour, J. D.; Kelley, S. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Variable excesses of 36S have previously been reported in sodalite in the Allende and Ningqiang meteorites and used to infer the presence of 36Cl in the early solar system. Until now no unambiguous evidence of the major decay product, 36Ar (98%), has been found. Using low fluence fast neutron activation we have measured small amounts of 36Ar in the Allende sodalite Pink Angel, corresponding to 36Cl/35Cl = (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10-8. This is a factor of 200 lower than the highest value inferred from 36S excesses in sodalite. High resolution I-Xe analyses confirm that the sodalite formed between 4561 and 4558 Ma ago. The core of Pink Angel sodalite yielded a precise formation age of 4559.4 ± 0.6 Ma. Deposition of sodalite containing live 36Cl, seven million years or so after the formation of the CAI, appears to require a local production mechanism involving intense neutron irradiation within the solar nebula. The constraint imposed by the near absence of neutron induced 128Xe is most easily satisfied if the 36Cl were produced in a fluid precursor of the sodalite. The low level of 36Ar could be accounted for as a result of residual in-situ36Cl decay, up to 1-2 Ma after formation of the sodalite, and/or later diffusive loss, in line with the low activation energy for Ar diffusion in sodalite.

  12. {beta}-Decay Half-Lives of Very Neutron-Rich Kr to Tc Isotopes on the Boundary of the r-Process Path: An Indication of Fast r-Matter Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Li, Z.; Watanabe, H.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Scheit, H.; Steppenbeck, D. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sumikama, T.; Miyashita, Y.; Chiba, J.; Nakano, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Takano, S. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Tachibana, T. [4 Senior High School of Waseda University, Nerima Tokyo 177-0044 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Odahara, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    The {beta}-decay half-lives of 38 neutron-rich isotopes from {sub 36}Kr to {sub 43}Tc have been measured; the half-lives of {sup 100}Kr, {sup 103-105}Sr, {sup 106-108}Y, {sup 108-110}Zr, {sup 111,112}Nb, {sup 112-115}Mo, and {sup 116,117}Tc are reported here. The results when compared with previous standard models indicate an overestimation in the predicted half-lives by a factor of 2 or more in the A{approx_equal}110 region. A revised model based on the second generation gross theory of {beta} decay better predicts the measured half-lives and suggests a more rapid flow of the rapid neutron-capture process (r-matter flow) through this region than previously predicted.

  13. ?-decay half-lives of very neutron-rich Kr to Tc isotopes on the boundary of the r-process path: an indication of fast r-matter flow.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, S; Li, Z; Watanabe, H; Yoshinaga, K; Sumikama, T; Tachibana, T; Yamaguchi, K; Kurata-Nishimura, M; Lorusso, G; Miyashita, Y; Odahara, A; Baba, H; Berryman, J S; Blasi, N; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Chiba, J; Doornenbal, P; Go, S; Hashimoto, T; Hayakawa, S; Hinke, C; Ideguchi, E; Isobe, T; Ito, Y; Jenkins, D G; Kawada, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, Y; Krücken, R; Kubono, S; Nakano, T; Ong, H J; Ota, S; Podolyák, Zs; Sakurai, H; Scheit, H; Steiger, K; Steppenbeck, D; Sugimoto, K; Takano, S; Takashima, A; Tajiri, K; Teranishi, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Walker, P M; Wieland, O; Yamaguchi, H

    2011-02-01

    The ?-decay half-lives of 38 neutron-rich isotopes from (36)Kr to (43)Tc have been measured; the half-lives of (100)Kr, (103-105)Sr, (106-108)Y, (108-110)Zr, (111,112)Nb, (112-115)Mo, and (116,117)Tc are reported here. The results when compared with previous standard models indicate an overestimation in the predicted half-lives by a factor of 2 or more in the A?110 region. A revised model based on the second generation gross theory of ? decay better predicts the measured half-lives and suggests a more rapid flow of the rapid neutron-capture process (r-matter flow) through this region than previously predicted. PMID:21405387

  14. Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Evan D.; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis - yielding a dopamine movie - is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters 1-7. This aspect of the analysis – temporal-variation- is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of 5 main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique ‘HYPR’ spatial filter 8 that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model 7 to a conventional model 9. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

  15. Creating dynamic images of short-lived dopamine fluctuations with lp-ntPET: dopamine movies of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Morris, Evan D; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2013-01-01

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis--yielding a dopamine movie--is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters. This aspect of the analysis--temporal-variation--is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model to a conventional model. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

  16. PuXe, UXe, UPb chronology and isotope systematics of ancient zircons from Western Australia

    E-print Network

    Pu­Xe, U­Xe, U­Pb chronology and isotope systematics of ancient zircons from Western Australia of short-lived 244 Pu has been confirmed in a suite of 16 Hadean detrital zircons from Western Australia irradiated the zircons with thermal neutrons to generate Xe from 235 U neutron fission. 131 Xe/134 Xe and 132

  17. The short-lived signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein photoreceptor revealed by combined structural probes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pradeep L; Lovett, Janet E; Carl, Patrick J; Cammarata, Marco; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Yang Ouk; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Timmel, Christiane R; van Thor, Jasper J

    2011-06-22

    The signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) photoreceptor is transiently developed via isomerization of its blue-light-absorbing chromophore. The associated structural rearrangements have large amplitude but, due to its transient nature and chemical exchange reactions that complicate NMR detection, its accurate three-dimensional structure in solution has been elusive. Here we report on direct structural observation of the transient signaling state by combining double electron electron resonance spectroscopy (DEER), NMR, and time-resolved pump-probe X-ray solution scattering (TR-SAXS/WAXS). Measurement of distance distributions for doubly spin-labeled photoreceptor constructs using DEER spectroscopy suggests that the signaling state is well ordered and shows that interspin-label distances change reversibly up to 19 Å upon illumination. The SAXS/WAXS difference signal for the signaling state relative to the ground state indicates the transient formation of an ordered and rearranged conformation, which has an increased radius of gyration, an increased maximum dimension, and a reduced excluded volume. Dynamical annealing calculations using the DEER derived long-range distance restraints in combination with short-range distance information from (1)H-(15)N HSQC perturbation spectroscopy give strong indication for a rearrangement that places part of the N-terminal domain in contact with the exposed chromophore binding cleft while the terminal residues extend away from the core. Time-resolved global structural information from pump-probe TR-SAXS/WAXS data supports this conformation and allows subsequent structural refinement that includes the combined energy terms from DEER, NMR, and SAXS/WAXS together. The resulting ensemble simultaneously satisfies all restraints, and the inclusion of TR-SAXS/WAXS effectively reduces the uncertainty arising from the possible spin-label orientations. The observations are essentially compatible with reduced folding of the I(2)' state (also referred to as the 'pB' state) that is widely reported, but indicates it to be relatively ordered and rearranged. Furthermore, there is direct evidence for the repositioning of the N-terminal region in the I(2)' state, which is structurally modeled by dynamical annealing and refinement calculations. PMID:21627157

  18. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 4s2 1S0-4s4p 1P1 transition in calcium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Andl; K. Bekk; S. Goering; A. Hanser; G. Nowicki; H. Rebel; G. Schatz; R. C. Thompson

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure splittings of the CaI resonance line (4s2 1S0-4s4p 1P1, lambda=422.7 nm) have been measured for all calcium isotopes between 40Ca and 48Ca, including the short-lived isotope 47Ca (T12=4.54 d). Resonance fluorescence was observed in a well-collimated atomic beam of calcium excited by a narrow band tunable continuous-wave dye laser. Combining the result with muonic x-ray

  19. Isotopic signature of short term climate oscillations in the sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic Sea, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczek, Urszula; Tudyka, Konrad; Ba?dys, Piotr; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The Gulf of Gda?sk is a part of the southern Baltic Sea - an intra-continental, shallow arm of the Atlantic Ocean entirely located on continental crust. The gulf occupies the area of ca. 5000 km2. Its northern border is a conventional line between the Cape Rozewie (Poland) and the Cape Taran (Russia). The Gulf of Gda?sk is under impact of inflowing salty waters from the North Sea but also there is a great effect of the Vistula River marked. The river is one of two the most important sources of material in the gulf. Cliffs erosion is the second one. The interplay of marine and land waters is multiplied by impact of two different climates - continental and maritime. The subject of intended research is a core of muddy sediments collected within the framework of project carried by the Branch of Marine Geology of the Polish Geological Institute in Gda?sk. The core was 300 cm long and was taken using Kullenberg core sampler in 2006 from the depth of 32 m. Since 2009 the research has been led in cooperation with the Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology. In our study we use ?18O and ?13C measured in organic mater of sediments with mass spectrometer. Radiocarbon concentration was measured using gas proportional counters using organic mater . 14C dates were corrected according to isotopic fractioning with measured ?13C. We found systematic inversions of dates that were probably caused by changing of ?R (regional difference from the modeled global surface ocean reservoir age) during Baltic evolution. The attention was also paid on recognition of sedimentation process that is a very good indicator of dynamics in sedimentary environment. The grain size analysis was carried out for 300 samples using method of laser diffraction. Results showed great variability in bulk sediment composition that indicates susceptibility to changes in climatic and hydrodynamic conditions of studied area. Excluding the top ca. 30 cm of the core two clear cycles in sedimentation process may be distinguished. They are characterized by the greater contribution of thicker sediment fractions. Additionally shorter variations are also observed in both main cycles. All the results are bounded with 14C age-depth model that represents last 7500 cal BP. It covers two stages of the Baltic Sea development. According to 14C depth model two main cycles in granulation correspond to 1500 yr each. Shorter variations correspond to 550 yr each. We also noticed rapid shift in sedimentation rate that we correlate with sudden change in granulation composition occurring on ca. 30 cm of the core.

  20. The very short-lived ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2014-05-01

    CHBr3 (bromoform) is a short-lived atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of short-lived brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (?) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, ?(?,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being more pronounced as wavelength increases and temperature decreases. The source of this discrepancy is further discussed. A parameterization of the CHBr3 UV spectrum for use in atmospheric models is developed and illustrative photolysis rate calculations are presented to highlight the impact of the revised ?(?,T) values on its calculated local lifetimes. For instance, CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate in the tropical region obtained with the present spectral data was found to be 10-15% lower (longer lifetime) than that obtained using the currently recommended values. Moreover, seasonally dependent ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) for CHBr3 emitted in the Indian sub-continent were calculated using the semi-empirical relationship of Brioude et al. (Brioude et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19804, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044856, 2010) to evaluate the impact of the present results on stratospheric ozone. In conclusion, the present study reports improved UV absorption cross section data for the short-lived ozone depleting substance CHBr3, which are a result of high quality measurements and a thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error. The CHBr3 UV cross section data, from this study, combined with OH kinetic data enables more accurate model predictions of stratospheric bromine loading and its impact on stratospheric ozone.

  1. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  2. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  3. Carbon isotope compositions (?(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (?(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of ?(13) Cwood and ?(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with ?(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to ?(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher ?(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between ?(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with ?(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. PMID:24906162

  4. Operation of a high temperature ion source at the helium-jet on-line isotope separator facility HELIOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brügger; N. Hildebrand; T. Karlewski; N. Trautmann; A. K. Mazumdar; G. Herrmann

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a high temperature ion source coupled to a helium gas-jet transport system for an efficient mass separation of neutron-rich alkaline earth and lanthanide isotopes is reported and the results of overall efficiency measurements using different cluster materials in the gas-jet are given. A fast, microprocessor controlled tape transport system for gamma-spectroscopic studies on short-lived isotopes is described.

  5. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); Galer, S.J.G. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany))

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  6. SIMULATION OF RARE ISOTOPE RELEASE FROM ISOL TARGET

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yan [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Alton, Gerald D [ORNL; Liu, Zhengzheng [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Releases of short-lived species from ISOL targets are simulated with computer codes. Analytic solutions to the diffusion equation are compared with those obtained from a finite-difference code for radioactive isotope diffusion release from simple geometry targets. The Monte Carlo technique as a practical means for vapor transport system design is demonstrated by simulating the effusive-flow of neutral particles through complex target-vapor transport systems. Particle release curves involving decay losses in both diffusion and effusive-flow are computed; and a numerical procedure is proposed to measure the diffusion coefficients and the characteristic effusion times of rare isotopes in target-ion source systems.

  7. Quantification of regional ventilation in humans using a short-lived radiotracer--theoretical evaluation of the steady-state model

    SciTech Connect

    Valind, S.O.; Rhodes, C.G.; Jonson, B.

    1987-07-01

    The accuracy of the steady-state measurement of ventilation by means of a short-lived insoluble inert gas tracer rests with the validity of the steady-state flow equation. This has previously been applied to the qualitative assessment of regional ventilation using krypton-81m, but may potentially be used for the calculation of regional alveolar ventilation per unit alveolar gas volume--(VA/VA)cal--from measurements of the alveolar concentration of the tracer. The steady-state alveolar tracer concentration was calculated for the course of a breathing cycle, using a lung model featuring airways dead space and tidal gas flow. The calculations were made by computer simulations of a lung, characterized by predefined values of parameters describing the lung structure and the mode of ventilation. In the normal lung of supine man at rest (specific alveolar ventilation, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 min-1) the errors of (VA/VA)cal relative to the predefined true values range from an overestimation by some 3% in the low ventilation regions to an underestimation by 8% in the best ventilated regions. The errors mainly result from ventilation of the airways dead space, which will influence the distribution of tracer in the lung by the transfer of tracer between regions by way of the common dead space and by the decay of tracer during its transport through the bronchial tree.

  8. The impact of dietary restriction, intermittent feeding and compensatory growth on reproductive investment and lifespan in a short-lived fish

    PubMed Central

    Inness, Claire L.W; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    While dietary restriction usually increases lifespan, an intermittent feeding regime, where periods of deprivation alternate with times when food is available, has been found to reduce lifespan in some studies but prolong it in others. We suggest that these disparities arise because in some situations lifespan is reduced by the costs of catch-up growth (following the deprivation) and reproductive investment, a factor that has rarely been measured in studies of lifespan. Using three-spined sticklebacks, we show for the first time that while animals subjected to an intermittent feeding regime can grow as large as continuously fed controls that receive the same total amount of food, and can maintain reproductive investment, they have a shorter lifespan. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in lifespan is linked to rapid skeletal growth rate and is due to an increase in the instantaneous risk of mortality rather than in the rate of senescence. By contrast, dietary restriction caused a reduction in reproductive investment in females but no corresponding increase in longevity. This suggests that in short-lived species where reproduction is size dependent, selection pressures may lead to an increase in intrinsic mortality risk when resources are diverted from somatic maintenance to both growth and reproductive investment. PMID:18445563

  9. Preliminary Results of IS Plasma Focus as a Breeder of Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Elahi, M.; Adlparvar, S.; Shahhoseini, E.; Sheibani, S.; Ranjber akivaj, H.; Alhooie, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Aghaei, N.; Amini, S.; Khalaj, M. M.; Zirak, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Soleimani, J.; Torkzadeh, F.; Mousazadeh, M. M.; Moradi, K.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Talaei, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Moslehi, A.; Kashani, A.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Bagiyan, F.; Ardestani, M.; Roozbahani, A.; Pourbeigi, H.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Ahmadifaghih, M. A.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Zahedi, F.

    2011-04-01

    Modified IS (Iranian Sun) plasma focus (10 kJ,15 kV, 94 ?F, 0.1 Hz) has been used to produce the short-lived radioisotope 13N (half-life of 9.97 min) through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The filling gas was 1.5-3 torr of hydrogen (60%) deuterium (40%) mixture. The target was solid nuclear grade graphite with 5 mm thick, 9 cm width and 13 in length. The activations of the exogenous target on average of 20 shots (only one-third acceptable) through 10-13 kV produced the 511 keV gamma rays. Another peak found at the 570 keV gamma of which both was measured by a NaI portable gamma spectrometer calibrated by a 137Cs 0.25 ?Ci sealed reference source with its single line at 661.65 keV and 22Na 0.1 ?Ci at 511 keV. To measure the gamma rays, the graphite target converts to three different phases; solid graphite, powder graphite, and powder graphite in water solution. The later phase approximately has a doubled activity with respect to the solid graphite target up to 0.5 ?Ci of 511 keV and 1.1 ?Ci of 570 keV gamma lines were produced. This increment in activity was perhaps due to structural transformation of graphite powder to nano-particles characteristic in liquid water.

  10. Detection of the short-lived cation radical intermediate in the electrochemical oxidation of N,N-dimethylaniline by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fahe; Kim, Jiyeon; Bard, Allen J

    2014-12-31

    The short-lived intermediate N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) cation radical, DMA(•+), was detected during the oxidation of DMA in MeCN with 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate. The detection was accomplished at steady state by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with ultramicroelectrodes using the tip generation/substrate collection mode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a 2 mm Pt electrode indicates that DMA oxidation in acetonitrile is followed by a dimerization and two electrochemical reactions, which is consistent with previous results. The DMA(•+) intermediate is detected by SECM, where the DMA(•+) generated at the ca. 500 nm radius Pt tip is collected on a 5 ?m radius Pt substrate when the gap between the tip and the substrate is a few hundred nanometers. Almost all of the DMA(•+) is reduced at the substrate when the gap is 200 nm or less, yielding a dimerization rate constant of 2.5 × 10(8) M(-1)·s(-1) based on a simulation. This is roughly 3 orders of magnitude larger than the value estimated by fast-scan CV. We attribute this discrepancy to the effects of double-layer capacitance charging and adsorbed species in the high scan rate CV. PMID:25478724

  11. Early Effector CD8 T Cells Display Plasticity in Populating the Short-Lived Effector and Memory-Precursor Pools Following Bacterial or Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Plumlee, Courtney R.; Obar, Joshua J.; Colpitts, Sara L.; Jellison, Evan R.; Haining, W. Nicholas; Lefrancois, Leo; Khanna, Kamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Naïve antigen-specific CD8 T cells expand in response to infection and can be phenotypically separated into distinct effector populations, which include memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) and short-lived effector cells (SLECs). In the days before the peak of the T cell response, a third population called early effector cells (EECs) predominate the antigen-specific response. However, the contribution of the EEC population to the CD8 T cell differentiation program during an antimicrobial immune response is not well understood. To test if EEC populations were pre-committed to either an MPEC or SLEC fate, we purified EECs from mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes (LM) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), where the relative frequency of each population is known to be different at the peak of the response. Sorted EECs transferred into uninfected hosts revealed that EECs were pre-programmed to differentiate based on early signals received from the distinct infectious environments. Surprisingly, when these same EECs were transferred early into mismatched infected hosts, the transferred EECs could be diverted from their original fate. These results delineate a model of differentiation where EECs are programmed to form MPECs or SLECs, but remain susceptible to additional inflammatory stimuli that can alter their fate. PMID:26191658

  12. Diurnal variation climatology of short-lived at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko

    2013-04-01

    We present a diurnal variation climatology for short-lived at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf

  13. Centennial-scale surface hydrology off Portugal during marine isotope stage 3: Insights from planktonic foraminiferal fauna variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline J. Vautravers; Nicholas J. Shackleton

    2006-01-01

    The marine isotopic stage 3 (MIS3) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1060 (Gulf Stream) shows both sharp onset and end of interstadials, the existence of very short lived warm events during stadials, and points to differences in detail between the sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western North Atlantic and the atmospheric temperature record inferred from ?18O in

  14. Constraining the Time-Scale of Interaction of Sea Ice Sediments and Surface Sea Water in the Arctic Ocean Using Short-Lived Radionuclide Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Andersson, P. S.; Jweda, J.; Dahlqvist, R.; Ketterer, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    We measured the activities of short-lived radionuclides (Th-234, Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Cs-137, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228) and concentrations of several elements (Be, Pb, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on a suite of ice-rafted sediments (IRS) collected during BERINGIA-2005 in the Western Arctic Ocean. A suite of water samples were also collected and analyzed for particulate and dissolved Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228. The activities of Be-7 and Pb-210 in the IRS are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the source sediments. Presence of excess Th-234 in the IRS indicates that the removal of Th-234 from surface seawater took place on time scales comparable to the mean-life of Th-234. While the Po-210/Pb-210 activity ratios in the source sediments (1.0) and the atmospheric depositional input (~0.1) are known, varying ratios of 0.78 to 1.0 were found in the IRS. This ratio can be utilized to obtain the residence time of the IRS in sea ice. The activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in all the IRS is nearly constant (within a factor of 1.6) and are comparable to the benthic sediments in the source region. The activities of atmospherically-delivered radionuclides, Be-7 and Pb-210, in IRS varied by factors of ~4.5 and 9, respectively, and this variation is attributed to differences in the extent of interaction of surface water with IRS and differences in the mean-lives of these nuclides. While significant enrichment of Be-7 and Pb-210 has been found, there is no enrichment of stable Pb or Be. The Al-normalized enrichment factor for elements measured (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Be) indicate that there is no significant enrichment of these elements, with Al-normalized enrichment factors less than 1.3.

  15. Stepwise catalytic mechanism via short-lived intermediate inferred from combined QM/MM MERP and PES calculations on retaining glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Ko?a, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a short-lived metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117

  16. A short lived protein involved in the heat shock sensing mechanism responsible for stress-activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2/p38) activation.

    PubMed

    Dorion, S; Bérubé, J; Huot, J; Landry, J

    1999-12-31

    The stress-activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2/p38) is activated by various environmental stresses and also by a vast array of agonists including growth factors and cytokines. This implies the existence of multiple proximal signaling pathways converging to the SAPK2/p38 activation cascade. Here, we show that there is a sensing mechanism highly specific to heat shock for activation of SAPK2/p38. After mild heat shock, cells became refractory to reinduction of the SAPK2/p38 pathway by a second heat shock. This was not the result of a toxic effect because the cells remained fully responsive to reinduction by other stresses, cytokines, or growth factors. Neither the activity of SAPK2/p38 itself nor the accumulation of the heat shock proteins was essential in the desensitization process. The cells were not desensitized to heat shock by other treatments that activated SAPK2/p38. Moreover, inhibiting SAPK2/p38 activity during heat shock did not block desensitization. Also, overexpression of HSP70, HSP27, or HSP90 by gene transfection did not cause desensitization, and inhibiting their synthesis after heat shock did not prevent desensitization. Desensitization rather appeared to be linked closely to the turnover of a putative upstream activator of SAPK2/p38. Cycloheximide induced a progressive and eventually complete desensitization. The effect was specific to heat shock and minimally affected activation by other stress inducers. Inhibiting protein degradation with MG132 caused the constitutive activation of SAPK2/p38, which was blocked by a pretreatment with either cycloheximide or heat shock. The results thus indicate that there is a sensing pathway highly specific to heat shock upstream of SAPK2/p38 activation. The pathway appears to involve a short lived protein that is the target of rapid successive up- and down-regulation by heat shock. PMID:10608813

  17. Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27? Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.; Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (?guaBA, ?set, ?sen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7?days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin ?4?7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20? CD27+high CD38+high CD3?), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27? PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin ?4?7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27? PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin ?4?7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine. PMID:25191323

  18. Stepwise Catalytic Mechanism via Short-Lived Intermediate Inferred from Combined QM/MM MERP and PES Calculations on Retaining Glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Ko?a, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a short-lived metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117

  19. IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 is a key in vivo signal for CD8+ short-lived effector T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Salix; Daudelin, Jean-François; Labrecque, Nathalie

    2014-08-15

    During infection or vaccination, only a small proportion of CD8(+) T cells differentiate into memory cells. The mechanisms underlying the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) or memory precursor effector cells are poorly defined. It was recently shown in infectious models that the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) enhances the formation of SLECs. The factors controlling Blimp-1 expression leading to the in vivo formation of SLECs are still not known. However, it has been shown that cytokines such as IL-2 induce Blimp-1 expression in vitro. In this study, we took advantage of the low-inflammation model of dendritic cell immunization to study the role of the IL-2/Blimp-1 axis in SLEC differentiation as well as the importance of Blimp-1 expression in memory precursor effector cells for proper CD8(+) memory generation. Our results show that Blimp-1 deficiency affects effector differentiation and function in the absence of inflammation. Unexpectedly, memory generation was not affected in Blimp-1-deficient OT-I cells responding to vaccination. In addition, modulation of the bioavailability of IL-2 by injection either of a blocking Ab or of the cytokine, demonstrates a link between IL-2, Blimp-1 induction, and SLEC formation in wild-type cells. Conversely, injection of IL-2 had less effect on Blimp-1-deficient CD8(+) T cells, indicating that the effect of IL-2 on in vivo SLEC differentiation is mediated by Blimp-1. In conclusion, IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 expression is a key regulator of SLEC differentiation in vivo. PMID:25015830

  20. 2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.

    PubMed

    Jílek, K; Timková, J

    2015-06-01

    During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ?8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators. PMID:25990114

  1. Hypoxia-induced and A2A adenosine receptor-independent T-cell suppression is short lived and easily reversible

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia plays a key role in establishing an immunosuppressive environment in vivo by, among other effects, increasing the level of extracellular adenosine, which then signals through A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) to elicit its immunosuppressive effect. Although the important role of the adenosine–A2AR interaction in limiting inflammation has been established, the current study revisited this issue by asking whether hypoxia can also exert its T-cell inhibitory effects even without A2AR. A similar degree of hypoxia-triggered inhibition was observed in wild-type and A2AR-deficient T cells both in vitro and, after exposure of mice to a hypoxic atmosphere, in vivo. This A2AR-independent hypoxic T-cell suppression was qualitatively and mechanistically different from immunosuppression by A2AR stimulation. The A2AR-independent hypoxic immunosuppression strongly reduced T-cell proliferation, while IFN-?-producing activity was more susceptible to the A2AR-dependent inhibition. In contrast to the sustained functional impairment after A2AR-mediated T-cell inhibition, the A2AR-independent inhibition under hypoxia was short lived, as evidenced by the quick recovery of IFN-?-producing activity upon re-stimulation. These data support the view that T-cell inhibition by hypoxia can be mediated by multiple mechanisms and that both A2AR and key molecules in the A2AR-independent T-cell inhibition should be targeted to overcome the hypoxia-related immunosuppression in infected tissues and tumors. PMID:24150242

  2. Hypoxia-induced and A2A adenosine receptor-independent T-cell suppression is short lived and easily reversible.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akio; Madasu, Manasa; Subramanian, Meenakshi; Kini, Radhika; Jones, Graham; Choukèr, Alexander; Ohta, Akiko; Sitkovsky, Michail

    2014-02-01

    Tissue hypoxia plays a key role in establishing an immunosuppressive environment in vivo by, among other effects, increasing the level of extracellular adenosine, which then signals through A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) to elicit its immunosuppressive effect. Although the important role of the adenosine--A2AR interaction in limiting inflammation has been established, the current study revisited this issue by asking whether hypoxia can also exert its T-cell inhibitory effects even without A2AR. A similar degree of hypoxia-triggered inhibition was observed in wild-type and A2AR-deficient T cells both in vitro and, after exposure of mice to a hypoxic atmosphere, in vivo. This A2AR-independent hypoxic T-cell suppression was qualitatively and mechanistically different from immunosuppression by A2AR stimulation. The A2AR-independent hypoxic immunosuppression strongly reduced T-cell proliferation, while IFN-?-producing activity was more susceptible to the A2AR-dependent inhibition. In contrast to the sustained functional impairment after A2AR-mediated T-cell inhibition, the A2AR-independent inhibition under hypoxia was short lived, as evidenced by the quick recovery of IFN-?-producing activity upon re-stimulation. These data support the view that T-cell inhibition by hypoxia can be mediated by multiple mechanisms and that both A2AR and key molecules in the A2AR-independent T-cell inhibition should be targeted to overcome the hypoxia-related immunosuppression in infected tissues and tumors. PMID:24150242

  3. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  4. Chemical and Isotopic Study of Lab-formed Carbonates Under Cryogenic and Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Aqueous environments on early Mars were probably relatively short-lived and localized, as evidenced by the lack of abundant secondary minerals detected by the TES instrument. In order to better understand the aqueous history of early Mars we need to be able to interpret the evidence preserved in secondary minerals formed during these aqueous events. Carbonate minerals, in particular, are important secondary minerals for interpreting past aqueous environments as illustrated by the carbonates preserved in ALH84001. Carbonates formed in short-lived, dynamic aqueous events often preserve kinetic rather than equilibrium chemical and isotopic processes, and predicting the behavior of such systems is facilitated by empirical data.

  5. Formation of short-lived radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F

    2010-11-30

    The origin of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.

  6. Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via short-lived radium isotopes and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming

    2014-05-15

    (224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management. PMID:24703767

  7. Short-lived U and Th isotope distribution in a tropical laterite derived from granite (Pitinga river basin, Amazonia, Brazil): Application to assessment of weathering rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mathieu; M. Bernat; D. Nahon

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed samples of a 15 m thick profile weathered from the Madeira granite, located in the Pitinga basin river, north of Manaus, in the state of Amazonia, Brazil. This profile consists essentially of a yellow-red saprolite covered by a soil. U and Th concentrations are particularly high in the granite (20 and 80 ?g\\/g respectively). Normalized element to

  8. New Isotopes of Einsteinium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard G. Harvey; Alfred Chetham-Strode; Albert Ghiorso; Gregory R. Choppin; Stanley G. Thompson

    1956-01-01

    The new isotopes E249, E250, E251, and E252 were produced by bombardment of Bk249 with helium ions. A recoil method was used to separate the bombardment products from the target material, so that the target could be used repeatedly. Approximate excitation functions for the formation of the einsteinium isotopes were measured as well as their half-lives, alpha-particle energies, and electron-capture

  9. Current Trends and Short-term Outcomes of Live Donor Nephrectomy: A Population-based Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Colombo; Anand Singla; YouFu Li; Jennifer F. Tseng; Reza F. Saidi; Adel Bozorgzadeh; Shimul A. Shah

    2010-01-01

    Background  Recent United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data suggest that live kidney donation is stagnant. Current practices and trends\\u000a in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) among the transplant community remain largely unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1998 to 2006, patients undergoing LDN (n = 9,437) were identified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Live kidney donation in the United States did not show an

  10. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half-lives of the isotopes specified.

    E-print Network

    Ringwald, Frederick A.

    NUCLEAR PHYSICS 38 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half), is called KREEP norite. ASSESS The age of the rock is on the same order as the age of the Earth, which-lives since the Earth formed is so large, that the number of these atoms left will be zero. The half-life of U

  11. Using short-lived nuclides of the U- and Th-series to probe the kinetics of colloid migration in forested soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihs, Sophie; Prunier, Jonathan; Thien, Bruno; Lemarchand, Damien; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Chabaux, François

    2011-12-01

    The recent chemical dynamics of a podzolic forest soil section (from the Strengbach watershed, France) was investigated using U- and Th-series nuclides. Analyses of ( 238U), ( 230Th), ( 226Ra), ( 232Th), ( 228Ra) and ( 228Th) activities in the soil particles, the seepage waters, and the mature leaves of the beech trees growing on this soil were performed by TIMS or gamma spectrometry. The simultaneous analysis of the different soil ( sl) compartments allows to demonstrate that a preferential Th leaching over Ra must be assumed to explain the ( 226Ra/ 230Th), ( 228Ra/ 232Th) and ( 228Th/ 228Ra) disequilibria recorded in the soil particles. The overall Ra- and Th- transfer schemes are entirely consistent with the prevailing acido-complexolysis weathering mechanism in podzols. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) and ( 228Ra/ 232Th) disequilibria measured in the different soil layers enable dating of the contemporary processes occurring in this soil. In this way, we have determined that a preferential Th-leaching from the shallow Ah horizon, due to a strong complexation with organic colloids, began fairly recently (18 years ago at most). The continual increase in pH recorded in precipitations over the last 20 years is assumed to be the cause of this enhanced organic complexation. A lower soil horizon (50-60 cm) is also affected by preferential Th leaching, though lasting over several centuries at least, with a much smaller leaching rate. The migration of Th isotopes through this soil section might hence be used as a tracer for the organic colloids migration and the induced radioactive disequilibria demonstrate to be useful for assessing the colloidal migration kinetics in a forested soil. Ra and Th isotopic ratios also appear to be valuable tracers of some mineral-water-plant interactions occurring in soil. The ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) ratio enables discrimination of the Ra flux originating from leaf degradation from that originating from mineral weathering in shallow -10 cm seepage soil waters. It appears that, at least in some cases, the Ra-isotopic ratio measured in forest-soil seepage waters may not be representative of the Ra-isotopic ratio released from mineral weathering, indicating that the different origins of the dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra must be taken into account.

  12. Neutron Activation Cross Section of Molybdenum Isotopes at 14.8 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu AMEMIYA; Kei-ichi ISHIBASHI; Toshio KATOH

    1982-01-01

    The neutron activation cross sections of Mo isotopes have been measured for the 14.8 MeV neutron. The cross sections have been determined with reference to the known A1 (n, ?)Na and the Al(n, p)Mg reactions. The cyclic activation method was employed for the ?-ray measurement of short-lived nuclei. A 55 cm Ge(Li) detector was used for the measurement of ?-ray

  13. Heavy-ion-induced production and preseparation of short-livedisotopes for chemistry experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dullmann, Christoph E.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Leitner, Daniela; Pang, Gregory K.; Sudowe, Ralf; Zielinski, Peter M.; Nitsche, Heino

    2005-02-24

    Physical separation of short-lived isotopes produced inheavy-ion-induced fusion reactions is a powerful and well know method andoften applied in investigations of the heaviest elements, called thetransactinides (Z>=104). By extracting these isotopes from a recoilseparator, they can be made available for transport to setups locatedoutside the heavily shielded irradiation position such as chemistrysetups. This physical preseparation technique overcomes many limitationscurrently faced in the chemical investigation of transactinides. Here wedescribe the basic principle using relatively short-lived isotopes of thelighter group 4 elements zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) that are used asanalogs of the lightest transactinide element, rutherfordium (Rf, element104). The Zr and Hf isotopes were produced at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotronusing a cocktail of 18O and 50Ti beams and the appropriate targets.Subsequently, the isotopes were physically separated in the BerkeleyGas-filled Separator (BGS) and guided to a Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC)to transfer them to chemistry setups. The magnetic rigidities of thereaction products in low-pressure helium gas were measured and theiridentities determined with gamma-pectroscopy. Using preseparated isotopeshas the advantages of low background and beam plasma free environment forchemistry experiments. The new possibilities that open up for chemicalinvestigations of transactinide elements are descr ibed. The method canreadily be applied to homologous elements within other groups in theperiodic table.

  14. Advantages of Short-Lived Positron-Emitting Radioisotopes for Intracoronary Radiation Therapy with Liquid-Filled Balloons to Prevent Restenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Stoll; Gary D. Hutchins; Wendy L. Winkle; Anne T. Nguyen; C. Robert Appledorn; Ingrid Janzen; Hermann Seifert; Christian Rube; Hermann Schieffer; Keith L. March

    Balloon catheters filled with liquid radioisotopes provide excellent dose homogeneity for intracoronary radiation therapy but are as- sociated with risk for rupture or leakage. We hypothesized that the safety of liquid-filled balloons may be improved once positron emitters with half-lives below 2 h are used instead of the high- energy b-emitters 166Ho, 186Re, or 188Re, all of which have a

  15. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  16. Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

  17. Isotopic Diversity and Plume Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, C.; Maury, R. C.; Gutscher, M.

    2012-12-01

    The scale and geometry of isotopic heterogeneities in the source of plumes are poorly known but have important scientific implications for the origin of plumes, for the processes occurring during magma ascent through the mantle and for the timing of differentiation and mixing within the mantle. Isotopic heterogeneities occur at all scales in mantle rocks. Melt inclusions in mantle minerals have remarkably diverse isotopic compositions compared to their host lavas. At a much larger scale, the isotopic compositions of plume magmas are significantly different from ridge volcanics. Here we address the relationship between isotopic heterogeneity and magma productivity in mantle plumes. We compare several plumes, some very strong and long-lived like Hawaii and others very weak with sporadic magmatic activity. For the latter, we concentrate on the Polynesian Archipelago in the South Pacific which comprises several arrays of oceanic islands build over the past 20 Ma. We calculate, for several radiogenic isotopic systems, the isotopic amplitude within each island or island group and normalize these values to the total known variability in ocean island basalts worldwide. Our calculations show that isotopic diversity exists in all island groups, but where extreme isotopic compositions occur, they are always accompanied by FOZO-like compositions (the mean composition of all oceanic island). For example, the largest amplitudes for Pb isotopic compositions are found in the Austral chain where HIMU-type basalts erupt together with lavas with much lower Pb isotopes; and the largest amplitude for Nd isotopic compositions occurs in Pitcairn chain where EM I-type magmas coexist with lavas with much more radiogenic Nd isotopes. Additionally, our compilation shows that the isotopic diversity increases drastically as magma flux diminishes. We conclude that weak plumes selectively sample the source isotopic diversity through preferential low degree melting of small-scale heterogeneities. In contrast, strong plumes which produce large amounts of magma have much more homogeneous isotopic compositions as a consequence of efficient mixing of source heterogeneities during high-degree melting.

  18. Living and Non Living Organisms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Henrie

    2009-11-18

    Core Curriculum Standard II: Students will understand that organisms depend on living and non living things within their environment. Introduction At the end of this assignment you should know the difference between a living and a non living organism and understand the effect a new environment (both living and non living things) can have on a living organism and the effect that living organism can have on the environment. ...

  19. Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

  20. A Time-Measurement System Based on Isotopic Ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc T.; Karpius, P. J. (Peter J.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.); Thron, J. L. (Jonathan L.)

    2007-01-01

    A time-measurement system can be built based on the ratio of gamma-ray peak intensities from two radioactive isotopes. The ideal system would use a parent isotope with a short half-life decaying to a long half-life daughter. The activities of the parent-daughter isotopes would be measured using a gamma-ray detector system. The time can then be determined from the ratio of the activities. The best-known candidate for such a system is the {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am parent-daughter pair. However, this {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am system would require a high-purity germanium detector system and sophisticated software to separate and distinguish between the many gamma-ray peaks produced by the decays of the two isotopes. An alternate system would use two different isotopes, again one with a short half-life and one with a half-life that is long relative to the other. The pair of isotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 241}Am (with half-lives of 22 and 432 years, respectively) appears suitable for such a system. This time-measurement system operates by measuring the change in the ratio of the 47-keV peak of {sup 210}Pb to the 60-keV peak of {sup 241}Am. For the system to work reasonably well, the resolution of the detector would need to be such that the two gamma-ray peaks are well separated so that their peak areas can be accurately determined using a simple region-of-interest (ROI) method. A variety of detectors were tested to find a suitable system for this application. The results of these tests are presented here.

  1. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  2. Formation and Preservation of the Depleted and Enriched Shergottite Isotopic Reservoirs in a Convecting Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Jones, John H.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling isotopic and crater density evidence for geologically recent volcanism on Mars, in the last 100-200 million years and possibly in the last 50 million years. This volcanism is due to adiabatic decompression melting and thus requires some type of present-day convective upwelling in the martian mantle. On the other hand, martian meteorites preserve evidence for at least 3 distinct radiogenic isotopic reservoirs. Anomalies in short-lived isotopic systems (Sm-146, Nd-142, Hf-182, W-182) require that these reservoirs must have developed in the first 50 to 100 million years of Solar System history. The long-term preservation of chemically distinct reservoirs has sometimes been interpreted as evidence for the absence of mantle convection and convective mixing on Mars for most of martian history, a conclusion which is at odds with the evidence for young volcanism. This apparent paradox can be resolved by recognizing that a variety of processes, including both inefficient mantle mixing and geographic separation of isotopic reservoirs, may preserve isotopic heterogeneity on Mars in an actively convecting mantle. Here, we focus on the formation and preservation of the depleted and enriched isotopic and trace element reservoirs in the shergottites. In particular, we explore the possible roles of processes such as chemical diffusion and metasomatism in dikes and magma chambers for creating the isotopically enriched shergottites. We also consider processes that may preserve the enriched reservoir against convective mixing for most of martian history.

  3. Direct mass measurements of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.

    PubMed

    Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L

    2011-03-18

    Mass excesses of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)??keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)??keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point. PMID:21469858

  4. Rapid increase in cosmogenic 14C in AD 775 measured in New Zealand kauri trees indicates short-lived increase in 14C production spanning both hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttler, D.; Adolphi, F.; Beer, J.; Bleicher, N.; Boswijk, G.; Christl, M.; Hogg, A.; Palmer, J.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wacker, L.; Wunder, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, Miyake et al. reported a sudden and strong increase of the atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in Japanese cedar trees of 1.2% between AD 774 and 775. While their findings were quickly confirmed by a German oak chronology for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the question remained if the effect was seen in both hemispheres. Here we present the first annually resolved Southern Hemisphere (SH) 14C record spanning the interval AD 760-787, using New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) chronology wood. An almost identical distinct increase compared to Northern Hemisphere data was observed, suggesting a cosmic event with globally uniform impact as a potential cause for the increase. Deploying a carbon cycle box model a worldwide averaged net 14C production of 2.2 ×108 14C atoms cm-2 was estimated, which is 3.7 times higher than the average annual 14C production. The immediate appearance of the event in tree rings on both hemispheres suggests a short duration event of significantly less than 1 yr.

  5. Opicapone: a short lived and very long acting novel catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor following multiple dose administration in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, José Francisco; Almeida, Luis; Falcão, Amílcar; Palma, P Nuno; Loureiro, Ana I; Pinto, Roberto; Bonifácio, Maria João; Wright, Lyndon C; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and inhibitory effect on erythrocyte soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) activity following repeated doses of opicapone. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study enrolled healthy male subjects who received either once daily placebo or opicapone 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg for 8 days. Results Opicapone was well tolerated. Its systemic exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner with an apparent terminal half-life of 1.0 to 1.4 h. Sulphation was the main metabolic pathway. Opicapone metabolites recovered in urine accounted for less than 3% of the amount of opicapone administered suggesting that bile is likely the main route of excretion. Maximum S-COMT inhibition (Emax) ranged from 69.9% to 98.0% following the last dose of opicapone. The opicapone-induced S-COMT inhibition showed a half-life in excess of 100 h, which was dose-independent and much longer than plasma drug exposure. Such a half-life translates into a putative underlying rate constant that is comparable with the estimated dissociation rate constant of the COMT–opicapone complex. Conclusion Despite its short elimination half-life, opicapone markedly and sustainably inhibited erythrocyte S-COMT activity making it suitable for a once daily regimen. PMID:23336248

  6. Soluble CD4 and CD4-mimetic compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection by induction of a short-lived activated state.

    PubMed

    Haim, Hillel; Si, Zhihai; Madani, Navid; Wang, Liping; Courter, Joel R; Princiotto, Amy; Kassa, Aemro; DeGrace, Marciella; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Mefford, Megan; Gabuzda, Dana; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Binding to the CD4 receptor induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. These changes allow gp120 to bind the coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4, and prime the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate virus-cell membrane fusion and virus entry. Soluble forms of CD4 (sCD4) and small-molecule CD4 mimics (here exemplified by JRC-II-191) also induce these conformational changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but typically inhibit HIV-1 entry into CD4-expressing cells. To investigate the mechanism of inhibition, we monitored at high temporal resolution inhibitor-induced changes in the conformation and functional competence of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins that immediately follow engagement of the soluble CD4 mimics. Both sCD4 and JRC-II-191 efficiently activated the envelope glycoproteins to mediate infection of cells lacking CD4, in a manner dependent on coreceptor affinity and density. This activated state, however, was transient and was followed by spontaneous and apparently irreversible changes of conformation and by loss of functional competence. The longevity of the activated intermediate depended on temperature and the particular HIV-1 strain, but was indistinguishable for sCD4 and JRC-II-191; by contrast, the activated intermediate induced by cell-surface CD4 was relatively long-lived. The inactivating effects of these activation-based inhibitors predominantly affected cell-free virus, whereas virus that was prebound to the target cell surface was mainly activated, infecting the cells even at high concentrations of the CD4 analogue. These results demonstrate the ability of soluble CD4 mimics to inactivate HIV-1 by prematurely triggering active but transient intermediate states of the envelope glycoproteins. This novel strategy for inhibition may be generally applicable to high-potential-energy viral entry machines that are normally activated by receptor binding. PMID:19343205

  7. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    We are investigating the Re-Os isotope systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 isotope system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os isotope system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the short-lived system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.

  8. Precision Penning trap mass measurements of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, S.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Facina, M.; Ferrer, R.; Folden, C. M., III; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A. M.; Ringle, R. J.; Savory, J.; Schury, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    The low-energy beam and ion trap facility LEBIT at NSCL/MSU is at present the only facility where precision experiments are performed with stopped rare isotope beams produced by fast-beam fragmentation. LEBIT combines high-pressure-gas stopping with advanced ion manipulation techniques to provide brilliant low-energy beams. So far these beams have mainly been used for mass measurements on short-lived rare isotopes with a 9.4T Penning trap mass spectrometer. Recent examples include 70 m Br , located at the proton dripline, 32Si and the iron isotopes 63-65Fe . While the measurement of 32Si helps to solve a long-standing dispute over the validity of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) for the A = 32 , T = 2 multiplet, the mass measurements of 65 m,g Fe marked the first time a nuclear isomeric state has been discovered by Penning trap mass spectrometry.

  9. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, ? of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The ? values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common sources for Co, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cr, Ni, Sn, Li and Sb and Na, V, Cl, Mn, Al, Br and K. The PCA/FA identified 3 dominant factors as responsible for the data structure, explaining 84.5% of the total variance in the dataset.

  10. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

  11. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Draayer, Jerry P [Louisiana State University

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  12. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  13. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  14. Lively Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliana Texley

    2002-01-01

    Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

  15. CARBON ISOTOPE EFFECTS (C\\/C) IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Ivlev

    2001-01-01

    Carbon isotope (C\\/C) fractionation (CIF) occurring in cells of organisms of different types is considered. Three metabolic points are shown to have an exceptional significance for the observed carbon isotope distribution in a living matter: 1) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation in CO2 photoassimilation; 2) glycine decarboxylation in photorespiration; and 3) pyruvate decarboxylation in respiration metabolism. Carbon isotope effects (CIE) in ribulose

  16. Where Do You Live?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Kunz

    2010-03-26

    Students will choose an animal to "become." They will then decided which biome would be the best place to live, who their neighbors are, and what they will eat. Students will successfully complete a report or short story incorporating the information they have learned. Introduction If you were an Utah animal, what would you be? A blue herring? a mule deer? a fox? TASK You will choose and pretend to be a Utah animal and decide which habitat in our state you would most likely enjoy living. You will be writing a report or ...

  17. Isotope variation in Valanginian glendonites and belemnites from Arctic Svalbard: Implications for Cretaceous ocean temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, G. D.; Nunn, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    A number of different techniques have been used to estimate seawater temperatures of the past, although stable isotope analyses of biogenic carbonates are probably the most widely used. Using oxygen isotopes as a paleotemperature proxy in any marine environment requires an estimate of the isotopic composition of seawater. Other than in hydrodynamically open and stable situations (e.g. open ocean settings), estimations of seawater oxygen isotope composition are complex because of variables such as the input of freshwater and/or evaporation. This study examines a high latitude sedimentary succession from Svalbard that contains rocks of early Cretaceous (Ryazanian to Valanginian) age. A number of studies have suggested at least the presence of limited polar ice during this period of time. In order to evaluate high latitude climates during this period, two sections were examined on Svalbard, at Festningen and Janusfjellet. The Festningen section is known for its almost vertically inclined strata where a nearly continuous succession of sediments from Permian into Cretaceous is exposed along 5 km of beach cliffs at the mouth of Isfjorden. Both sections examined also contain within the shales anomalous pebbles (? dropstones) and in their uppermost part (late Valanginian) glendonites. Together they are consistent with short-lived episodes of cool or subfreezing conditions. Isotopic and geochemical analysis of fossil material (principally belemnites) provides data indicative of some samples being well preserved and suitable for further analysis. The isotopic analysis of the glendonites provides critical data regarding the isotopic composition of Cretaceous seawater. Together these isotopic data are suggestive of cool ocean temperatures during the Valanginian, not inconsistent with the presence of polar ice. Ice during the Cretaceous could explain purportedly synchronous and rapid changes of sea level recorded from passive continental margins.

  18. Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

    2003-12-01

    A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions. PMID:14711171

  19. Isotope effects suggest a stepwise mechanism for Berberine Bridge Enzyme†

    PubMed Central

    Gaweska, Helena M.; Roberts, Kenneth M.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    The flavoprotein Berberine Bridge Enzyme (BBE) catalyzes the regioselective oxidative cyclization of (S)-reticuline to (S)-scoulerine in an alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. A series of solvent and substrate deuterium kinetic isotope effect studies were conducted in order to discriminate between a concerted mechanism in which deprotonation of the substrate phenol occurs before or during hydride transfer from the substrate to the flavin cofactor and substrate cyclization, and a stepwise mechanism, in which hydride transfer results in the formation of a methylene iminium ion intermediate that is subsequently cyclized. The substrate deuterium isotope effect of 3.5 on kred, the rate constant for flavin reduction, is pH-independent, indicating that C-H bond cleavage is rate-limiting during flavin reduction. Solvent isotope effects on kred are one for both wild-type BBE and the E417Q mutant, indicating that solvent exchangeable protons are not in flight during or before flavin reduction, thus eliminating a fully concerted mechanism as a possibility for catalysis by BBE. An intermediate was not detected by rapid chemical quench or continuous-flow mass spectrometry experiments, indicating that it must be short-lived. PMID:22931234

  20. Live work

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkel, P.

    1995-09-01

    The practice of performing maintenance on live transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `Live Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of live working. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Orca Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

  2. Healthy Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  3. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  4. Transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium isotopes, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these isotopes as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F

    2010-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

  6. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  7. Isotope simulation for 140 years with Reanalysis atmospheric and its comparison with climate proxy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Yoshimura et al. [2008] completed 30-year Reanalysis-"nudged" isotope-incorporated AGCM simulation. In their method, large scale forcing was taken from NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2, and water isotopes were fully predicted, including their sources and sinks, without utilizing any water isotope observations. Several direct comparisons between the dataset and isotope measurements revealed that the dataset is accurate enough to serve as an alternative to water isotope assimilation analysis. Thus the dataset was found to be very useful for investigating the atmospheric behavior responsible for isotope variability in precipitation and vapor. Moreover, Stott et al. [in prep] has shown that the model simulates the history of decadal variability during the late 20th century as reconstructed from d18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-lived Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California. The close match between the simulated and measured isotope records is a further validation of the model’s ability to accurately simulate regional-scale atmospheric behavior over the Southwestern US. This is particularly important because tree ring chronologies from these long-lived trees have been used previously to reconstruct recurrent decadal-length drought throughout 20th century and beyond. Using the new isotope enabled GCM allows us to investigate questions such as how isotopically distinct sources of atmospheric moisture have changed in the past and whether such changes arise from similar and recurrent ocean/atmospheric variability. The initial simulation is however, too short to investigate longer-term variability. Therefore, in the present study we begun to extend the model simulations to include AD1871 to AD2008, using the so-called "20thC Reanalyasis" atmospheric dataset [Compo et al., 2010]. One of the preliminary results includes a simulation of sea surface ?18O, which can now be compared to coral records. The preliminary results indicate the simulated surface water 18O closely matches coral-based reconstructions from the Philippine Sea. Additional details of this investigation and its potential implications will be presented at the meeting.

  8. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  9. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Isotopic Randomness and Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    Isotopic disorder in crystals can lead to suppression of thermal conductivity, mobility variations and (weak) Anderson localization on isotopic fluctuations. The latter (AAB, J.ChemPhys.1984) is akin to polaron effect (self-localization due polarization). Possibility of isotopic patterning (IP) increases near melting point (thermally activated isotopic hopping swaps). Crystal near melting threshold become “informationally sensitive” as if its IP is operated by some external Maxwell’s Demon, MD (AAB, URAM J, 2002). At this state short range (e.g. electrostatic inverse square) forces evolve into long-range interactions (due to divergence of order parameter) and information sensitivity can be further amplified by (say) a single fast electron (e.g. beta-particle from decay of 14-C or other radioactive isotope) which may result in cascade of impact ionization events and (short time-scale) enhancement of screening by impact-generated non-equilibrium (non-thermal) electrons. In this state informationally driven (MD-controlled) IP (Eccles effect) can result in decrease of positional entropy signifying emergence of physical complexity out of pure information, similar to peculiar “jinni effect” on closed time loops in relativistic cosmology (R.J.Gott, 2001) or Wheeler’s “it from bit” metaphor. By selecting special IP, MD modifies ergodicity principle in favor of info rich states.

  11. Incorporation of stable and radioactive isotopes via organoborane chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1984-06-01

    An organic synthesis involving the use of organoboranes rather than the traditional substitution reactions and Grignard reagents for the rapid preparation of physiologically active materials labelled with short-lived isotopes is discussed in detail. The iodination reaction for incorporating I-123 or I-125 into compounds was found to proceed via an electrophilic attack by the iodine molecule on the electron-rich borax complex, did not require the presence of strong base, and was complete in 60 sec. The procedure also uses radiolabeled NaI rather than the more unstable iodine monochloride usually used. A similar procedure was developed for labelling compounds with Br-77. Other direct one-pot syntheses are described for incorporation of O-17, N-13, N-15, C-11, and C-13 into compounds very rapidly.

  12. Innovative Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.

  13. Geochemical behaviour of Radium isotopes and Radon in a coastal thermal system (Balaruc-les-Bains, South of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, Michel; Gourdin, Elian; Gataniou, Delphine; Seidel, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    The behaviour of the four Ra isotopes (measured by gamma spectrometry) and 222Rn (measured with an AlphaGUARD ionisation chamber) has been investigated in NaCl-rich thermal waters of Balaruc-les-Bains on the Mediterranean coast (South of France). This study allows identification of the deep thermal water signature and reveals the influence of seawater or karst water inflows on Ra isotopes and 222Rn. The deep thermal water has 226Ra and 222Rn activities of 840 and 1900 mBq/l, respectively, a (228Ra/226Ra) activity ratio of 0.59, and low (224Ra/228Ra) and (223Ra/226Ra) ratios of 0.67 and 0.025, respectively. Several arguments suggest a dominant role of radioactive decay for short-lived Ra isotopes and Rn during the relatively rapid ascent of thermal water through wide open fractures and drains. The low (223Ra/226Ra) ratio constrains the maximum ascent velocity of thermal water to 8-10 m/h. Seawater inflow into the hydrothermal system results in an enrichment in short-lived Ra isotopes and 222Rn. The high (223Ra/226Ra) ratio (0.23) suggests that 223Ra, 224Ra and 222Rn produced by alpha-recoil in the upper-Jurassic limestone are entrained by seawater percolation through the coastal basement, due to active pumping in one of the near shore production well. This process would be enhanced by a low water/rock ratio (i.e. in a low-porosity, micro-fractured limestone). Mixing of this enriched seawater with thermal water induces barite precipitation with co-precipitation of a large fraction of Ra. Short-lived Ra isotopes may thus be useful tracers of seawater flux towards the continent. Conversely, the inflow and mixing of karst groundwater result in a general dilution of all dissolved elements, only a small enrichment in 224Ra and 223Ra, but a large enrichment in 222Rn (up to 26 Bq/l). The combination of Ra isotopes and 222Rn data provides a good way to trace the dynamics of different water masses along coastal areas.

  14. Using radium isotopes to estimate cross-shelf mixing rates: Spatial and temporal variability of radium isotopes in the surf zone and coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, S. L.; Hammond, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Evaluating the impact and fate of surface water runoff and associated contaminants requires knowledge of the rates of mixing and transport in the coastal zone. The distribution of naturally-occurring radium isotopes is being explored as a tracer to evaluate these rates. Two types of sampling have been utilized to study these processes: shore-based sampling in the surf zone and offshore sampling on transects from 0.5 to 15 km from the coast. Shoreline samples were collected every other hour for 10-12 hours at several locations between Huntington Beach and Santa Monica, California, during a range of seasons and tidal amplitudes. The 223Ra and 224Ra concentrations are related to the tides, with higher concentrations during low tide and lower concentrations at high tide. However, the 223Ra/223Ra ratio remains relatively constant. This indicates that the two isotopes co-vary and probably have a coherent source. As the tidal range while sampling increased, the average isotope concentration decreased, apparently reflecting increased offshore mixing rates. Six offshore transects have been obtained in the Huntington Beach area. Vertical profiles indicate that in most cases, the short-lived radium isotopes are primarily confined to the mixed layer. Results show that on the time scale of a few days, the system appears to be in steady state. During spring, higher concentrations in offshore surface waters were observed. This difference appears to result from confinement of the radium input to a shallower mixed layer, because integrated isotope inventories are remarkably consistent and suggest that the input does not vary greatly with time. Fits to a one-dimensional exponential function indicate that the two short-lived isotopes have quite similar horizontal scale distances. This is unexpected because a 1-D diffusion-reaction formulation predicts that scale distances should differ by a factor of 1.6. In contrast to the Huntington Beach region, three transects at Hermosa Beach indicate considerable temporal variability. Analyses of 228Ra are underway to provide further constraints on mixing.

  15. Isotope Science and Production

    E-print Network

    Isotope Science and Production 35 years of experience in isotope production, processing. Contact: Kevin John LANL Isotope Program Manager kjohn@lanl.gov 505-667-3602 Sponsored by the Department of Energy National Isotope Program http://www.nuclear.energy.gov/isotopes/nelsotopes2a.html Isotopes

  16. Living Heritage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

  17. Living Nanomachines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-F. Carlier; E. Helfer; R. Wade; F. Haraux

    2009-01-01

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication

  18. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  19. Living fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misbah, Chaouqi; Wagner, Christian

    2013-06-01

    One of the major emerging fields of research of the beginning of this century concerns living fluids. By "living fluids", we mean two major categories of complex fluids: (i) fluids which are essential to life, like blood, and (ii) active fluids made of particles that are able to propel themselves in the suspending fluid by converting a form of their energy into mechanical motion. Studies on active fluids have known a considerable interest since the last decade. Blood might be viewed as an old topic, but the progresses in experimental techniques, analytical concepts and numerics, have contributed nowadays to a dramatic renewal of the interest in this field, with a great potential towards understanding physical and mechanical factors in cardiovascular diseases. These fields have considerably strengthened interdisciplinary research. The series of reviews of this dossier focus on the tremendous recent progress achieved in research on living fluids both from the experimental and theoretical points of views. These reviews present also the major open issues, making of this dossier a unique guide for future research in these fields. This project grew up thanks to the international summer school that we organized on the topic "living fluids" at the IES (Institut d'études scientifiques) of Cargèse (Corsica) in 2012.

  20. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  1. Tritium isotope separation using resonance radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangeby, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    A method for separating hydrogen isotopes - particularly directed at tritium from deuterium is outlined. The method involves no fundamental scientific or technological developments but requires significant R & D in a number of subareas in order to establish the engineering and economic feasibility of the approach. The hardware required is of a simple, robusting long lived variety, i.e., electrical discharges, gas pumping units, etc. The system is comparatively easy to maintain. The concept is analyzed in the content of hydrogenic isotope separation.

  2. Calcium Isotopes as Tracers of Biogeochemical Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura C. Nielsen; Jennifer L. Druhan; Wenbo Yang; Shaun T. Brown; Donald J. DePaolo

    \\u000a The prevalence of calcium as a major cation in surface and oceanic environments, the necessity of calcium in the functioning\\u000a of living cells and bone growth, and the large spread in mass between calcium isotopes all suggest that calcium isotope biogeochemistry\\u000a can be an important avenue of insight into past and present biogeochemical cycling processes. In the following chapter, we

  3. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body. An alternative scenario is the potential existence of a transient high-temperature reservoir having superchondritic Cs/Ba in the early Solar System while 135Cs was extant, which enabled a radiogenic 135Ba signature to develop in some early condensates. The nucleosynthetic source of 135Cs can be determined by reconciling the predicted astrophysical 135Cs abundance with its measured abundance in meteorites. Further, the currently accepted initial 135Cs/133Cs of the Solar System, [135Cs/133Cs]0, may be underestimated because the spread of Cs/Ba among samples is small and the range of excess 135Ba is limited thus leading to inaccuracies when estimating [135Cs/133Cs]0. If the initial meteoritic abundance of 135Cs was indeed higher than is currently thought, the most probable stellar source of short-lived radioisotopes was a nearby core-collapse supernova and/or the Wolf-Rayet wind driven by its progenitor.

  4. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  5. Charge breeding rare isotopes for high precision mass measurements: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. C.; Macdonald, T. D.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eberhardt, B.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Jang, F.; Lennarz, A.; Luichtl, M.; Ma, T.; Robertson, D.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Delheij, P.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lapierre, A.; Mané, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Ringle, R.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2013-09-01

    Ion charge breeding for Penning-trap mass spectrometry has been established as providing a precision increase that scales linearly with the charge state of the ion. Fast and efficient charge breeding is a precondition for the application of this approach to rare isotopes. However, in view of low yields and short half-lives the precision boost is partly compromised by unavoidable ion losses inherent to the charge breeding process. The mass spectrometer TRIUMFs ion trap for atomic and nuclear science is pioneering this field by coupling a Penning trap and an electron beam ion trap to the rare-isotope beam facility ISAC at TRIUMF. Here we present simulations that calculate and maximize the effective precision gain of time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements with highly charged ions of short-lived nuclides. In addition we compare the characteristics of measurements with singly and highly charged ions, and we summarize recent results that explored benefits of charge breeding that go beyond the precision increase.

  6. The evolution of MORB and plume mantle volatile budgets: Constraints from fission Xe isotopes in Southwest Indian Ridge basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parai, Rita; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2015-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the fission isotopes of xenon (Xe) in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) between 16°E and 25°E. Corrections for syn- to post-eruptive atmospheric contamination yield the Xe isotopic compositions of SWIR mantle sources. We solve for the proportions of mantle Xe derived from the primordial mantle Xe budget, recycling of atmospheric Xe, decay of short-lived 129I, fission of extinct 244Pu, and fission of extant 238U. Xe isotope systematics evident in SWIR basalts and other mantle-derived samples provide new insights into the integrated history of mantle source degassing and regassing. We find that recycled atmospheric Xe dominates the Xe inventories of the SWIR Western and Eastern Orthogonal Supersegment mantle sources (˜80-90% of 132Xe is recycled in origin), consistent with results from studies of plume-influenced basalts from Iceland and the Rochambeau Rift. While significant regassing of the mantle is evident, we also find differences in the extent of degassing of the MORB and plume sources. MORB sources are consistently characterized by a lower fraction of fission Xe derived from Pu-fission, indicating a greater extent of degassing relative to the plume source. The prevalence of recycled atmospheric Xe in mantle sources indicates incorporation of depleted recycled material even into mantle sources with primitive He and Ne isotopic compositions. Consequently, depleted lithophile isotopic compositions in mantle sources with primitive He and Ne cannot be interpreted as evidence for a nonchondritic bulk silicate Earth.

  7. Oxygen isotope evidence for progressive uplift of the Cascade Range, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Fremd, Theodore J.

    2002-11-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of fossil equid teeth in the Cascade rainshadow reveal a ˜5‰ decrease in mean ? 18O since 27 Ma. Isotopic changes are inconsistent with expected effects from global climate change because: (a) the expected isotopic shift to tooth ? 18O values due to global climate change (˜1‰) is much smaller than the observed shift, (b) predicted and observed isotopic trends are opposite for Oligocene vs. Miocene samples, and (c) average compositions and ranges in compositions remained unchanged for samples from before and after major global cooling in the mid-Miocene. Accounting for a decrease in relative humidity of at least 15%, we infer a topographically driven secular shift in the ? 18O value of rainwater of 6-8‰ since the late Oligocene, which is approximately equivalent to the modern-day difference in ? 18O values of precipitation and surface waters across the central Cascades. Rise of the central Cascades apparently occurred monotonically over the last 27 Ma, with a hiatus between ˜15.4 and 7.2 Ma, possibly related to eruption of the Columbia River Basalts. Progressive volcanic accumulation over tens of millions of years best explains the data, rather than a short-lived uplift event. Paleoseasonality, as inferred from isotope zoning and intertooth variability, decreased dramatically from 7-9‰ at 15.4-7 Ma to ˜3‰ at 3 Ma, then increased to 6-8‰ today. The cause of the decrease in seasonality at 3 Ma may reflect either brief warming during the mid-Pliocene within the context of global tectonic reorganization, or consumption by equids of water from an isotopically buffered Lake Idaho.

  8. Estuary Live!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

  9. Multiple linear regression for isotopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Alonso, J. I.

    2012-04-01

    There are two typical applications of isotopic measurements: the detection of natural variations in isotopic systems and the detection man-made variations using enriched isotopes as indicators. For both type of measurements accurate and precise isotope ratio measurements are required. For the so-called non-traditional stable isotopes, multicollector ICP-MS instruments are usually applied. In many cases, chemical separation procedures are required before accurate isotope measurements can be performed. The off-line separation of Rb and Sr or Nd and Sm is the classical procedure employed to eliminate isobaric interferences before multicollector ICP-MS measurement of Sr and Nd isotope ratios. Also, this procedure allows matrix separation for precise and accurate Sr and Nd isotope ratios to be obtained. In our laboratory we have evaluated the separation of Rb-Sr and Nd-Sm isobars by liquid chromatography and on-line multicollector ICP-MS detection. The combination of this chromatographic procedure with multiple linear regression of the raw chromatographic data resulted in Sr and Nd isotope ratios with precisions and accuracies typical of off-line sample preparation procedures. On the other hand, methods for the labelling of individual organisms (such as a given plant, fish or animal) are required for population studies. We have developed a dual isotope labelling procedure which can be unique for a given individual, can be inherited in living organisms and it is stable. The detection of the isotopic signature is based also on multiple linear regression. The labelling of fish and its detection in otoliths by Laser Ablation ICP-MS will be discussed using trout and salmon as examples. As a conclusion, isotope measurement procedures based on multiple linear regression can be a viable alternative in multicollector ICP-MS measurements.

  10. Nuclear moments and isotope shifts of 135 La, and 138

    E-print Network

    Schuessler, Hans

    naturally occurring isotopes: the stable 139 La82, and the extremely long lived isotope 138 La81 T1/2 charge radius determined from the isotope shift between 139 La and 135 La is r2 135,139 =0.08 3 fm2 BCS calculation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.68.054328 PACS number(s): 21.10.Ft, 21.10.Ky, 21.60. n, 27

  11. Role of stable isotopes in life--testing isotopic resonance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Zubarev, Roman A

    2011-04-01

    Stable isotopes of most important biological elements, such as C, H, N and O, affect living organisms. In rapidly growing species, deuterium and to a lesser extent other heavy isotopes reduce the growth rate. At least for deuterium it is known that its depletion also negatively impacts the speed of biological processes. As a rule, living organisms "resist" changes in their isotopic environment, preferring natural isotopic abundances. This preference could be due to evolutionary optimization; an additional effect could be due to the presence of the "isotopic resonance". The isotopic resonance phenomenon has been linked to the choice of earliest amino acids, and thus affected the evolution of genetic code. To test the isotopic resonance hypothesis, literature data were analyzed against quantitative and qualitative predictions of the hypothesis. Four studies provided five independent datasets, each in very good quantitative agreement with the predictions. Thus, the isotopic resonance hypothesis is no longer simply plausible; it can now be deemed likely. Additional testing is needed, however, before full acceptance of this hypothesis. PMID:21641558

  12. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2003-10-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated—therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in quite different materials.

  13. Neutron capture on Pt isotopes in iron meteorites and the Hf-W chronology of core formation in planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijer, Thomas S.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten; Sprung, Peter; Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The short-lived 182Hf-182W isotope system can provide powerful constraints on the timescales of planetary core formation, but its application to iron meteorites is hampered by neutron capture reactions on W isotopes resulting from exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Here we show that Pt isotopes in magmatic iron meteorites are also affected by capture of (epi)thermal neutrons and that the Pt isotope variations are correlated with variations in 182W/184W. This makes Pt isotopes a sensitive neutron dosimeter for correcting cosmic ray-induced W isotope shifts. The pre-exposure 182W/184W derived from the Pt-W isotope correlations of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorites are higher than most previous estimates and are more radiogenic than the initial 182W/184W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI). The Hf-W model ages for core formation range from +1.6±1.0 million years (Ma; for the IVA irons) to +2.7±1.3 Ma after CAI formation (for the IID irons), indicating that there was a time gap of at least ˜1 Ma between CAI formation and metal segregation in the parent bodies of some iron meteorites. From the Hf-W ages a time limit of <1.5-2 Ma after CAI formation can be inferred for the accretion of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorite parent bodies, consistent with earlier conclusions that the accretion of differentiated planetesimals predated that of most chondrite parent bodies.

  14. Paleoceanographic Implications of the Terrestrial Carbon-Isotope Record of the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbo, S.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Duarte, L. V.

    2005-12-01

    Macrofossil wood in two European sections representing the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) have previously been shown to exhibit a large (~ -6 to -7 %) shift in d13C values which has been interpreted as a massive and geologically short-lived perturbation to the global carbon cycle. This interpretation has recently been challenged on the basis of a compilation of carbon-isotope data from belemnites collected from sections in northern Europe that exhibit carbon isotope values that are heavier than expected at the peak of the OAE. Here we present new carbon isotope measurements from wood collected from a marine record of the early Toarcian at Peniche, Portugal, a section currently under consideration as a GSSP for the base of the Toarcian. A large negative excursion (~ -7%) is confirmed for the OAE in these samples. These cannot have been severely impregnated by hydrocarbons of marine origin and the ages are well defined by ammonite biostratigraphy and by Sr-isotope stratigraphy. Carbon-isotope data is also presented for an early diagenetic silica nodule that formed within jet from the Toarcian of the Yorkshire coast, northeast England; values are indistinguishable from those of stratigraphically equivalent jet samples from which solvent extractable hydrocarbons had been removed. Thus, the early Toarcian negative carbon-isotope excursion is confirmed as a phenomenon of the global shallow-ocean, biosphere and atmosphere. It is likely that the anomalously heavy values obtained from belemnites from the OAE interval derive their isotopic signature from localized and possibly seasonal water masses characterized by dissolved inorganic carbon strongly enriched in heavy carbon by very high organic productivity.

  15. Living Clocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

  16. UNM Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

  17. Estuary Live!!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Intended for elementary, middle, and high school students, this electronic estuary excursion, Estuary Live!!!, will take place May 8-12, 2000. Free to participants (but please sign up in advance), the field trip will explore the Rachel Carson Site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve, covering four islands and salt marshes off the North Carolina coast. The site features useful educational materials, including a photo-illustrated field guide (of the "ecology, habitats and specific plants and animals found in North Carolina's estuaries"); lesson plans (covering highschool biology, estuary habitats, species interactions, and adaptations and communities); and a series of related links. The interactive field trip will require a java-enabled browser, RealVideo (to see a moving image and hear sound), and/or Chatvideo, to see a moving image, ask questions of the naturalist leading the trip, and receive responses via a chat window. Note that ChatVideo requires Netscape 4.0 or better and will not work with AOL or Internet Explorer, and pages "look best" on a screen with resolution of 800x600. The Estuary Live!!! Website is provided by the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and The Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at East Carolina University.

  18. New, heavy transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1990-10-22

    In this report, we offer our most recent results concerning the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In additions to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements from bombardments of {sup 254}Es with heavy ions. {sup 2} An exciting finding in the course of this work is a new fission phenomenon, which we have termed bidmodal fission''. This is described in a subsequent section. The final part summarizes our conclusions based on the unexpectedly long half-lives and surprising fission properties of the heaviest nuclei. 27 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Harvard@Home: Living Healthier, Living Longer: Part I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Harvard@Home, these two websites contain a collection of video presentations from an Alumni College and Harvard Medical School event titled Living Healthier, Living Longer. The video presentations feature expert doctors discussing a variety of health issues including aging, menopause, prostate cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cardiology, nutrition, stress management, and more. Presenters also address the history of the Harvard Medical School, and new cancer research. The presentations range from approximately 15 to 30 minutes in length. In addition to the video clips, the site includes accompanying slides, and short biographies of the presenters.

  20. 1. Isotope Definitions and terms a) Isotopes and isotope ratios.

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    -- The Compensation Point for C3 and C4 differ http://www.steve.gb.com/science/photosynthesis_and_respiration.html Net fractionation c) Simple illustration with the water cycle 2. CO2 isotopes in photosynthesis a) Photosynthetic discrimination in C3 plants b) C3 vs C4 photosynthesis and the distinction in isotopes c) Measuring isotopic

  1. Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Submicrometer SiC Grains from the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting

    2015-02-01

    We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 ?m) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si3N4) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si3N4 grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in 29Si and 30Si (?29Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, ?30Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge 32S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of 32S from the decay of short-lived 32Si (?1/2 = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as 29Si and 30Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial 44Ti (?1/2 = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal 32S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large 28Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.

  2. Calcium isotope fractionation in ion-exchange chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Russell; D. A. Papanastassiou

    1978-01-01

    Significant fractionation of the isotopes of calcium has been observed during elution through short ion-exchange columns packed with Dowex 50W-X8 resin. A double isotopic tracer was used to provide correction for instrumental fractionation effects. The absolute ⁴°Ca\\/⁴⁴Ca ratio is determined by this method to 0.05% and provides a measure of the fractionation of all Ca isotopes. It is found that

  3. American Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

  4. Living Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.

  5. New isotopic clues to solar system formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Typhoon Lee

    1979-01-01

    The presence of two new extinct nuclides Al-26 and Pd-107 with half lives of approximately one million years in the early solar system implies that there were nucleosynthetic activities involving a great many elements almost at the instant of solar system formation. Rate gas and oxygen isotopic abundance variations ('anomalies') relative to the 'cosmic' composition were observed in a variety

  6. EVIDENCE FOR MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE HETEROGENEITY IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Kirsten K.; Trinquier, Anne; Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Connelly, James N.; Nordlund, Ake; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark); Ivanova, Marina A. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-10

    With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the {sup 26}Al-to-{sup 26}Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical assumption that the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} recorded by the oldest dated solids, calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), represents the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al for the solar system as a whole. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope measurements of inner solar system solids, asteroids, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition ({mu}{sup 26}Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk at the time of CAI formation and/or Mg-isotope heterogeneity. By comparing the U-Pb and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of pristine solar system materials, we infer that the bulk of the {mu}{sup 26}Mg* variability reflects heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk. We conclude that the canonical value of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} represents the average initial abundance of {sup 26}Al only in the CAI-forming region, and that large-scale heterogeneity-perhaps up to 80% of the canonical value-may have existed throughout the inner solar system. If correct, our interpretation of the Mg-isotope composition of inner solar system objects precludes the use of the {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg system as an accurate early solar system chronometer.

  7. LONG TERM IMPACTS OF SHORT TERM VOLUNTEERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor Loudon

    2004-01-01

    Our lives are busy. Many people find that while they may be aware of issues such as climate change, species extinction, and cultural homogeny, they feel powerless to be of any real help. Short term volunteering can be the catalyst that shifts that view, with impacts that change people lives and change the world. Founded in the US in 1971,

  8. Ultratrace analysis of calcium with high isotopic selectivity by diodelaser resonance ionisation mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Wendt; K. Blaum; B. A. Bushaw; F. Juston; W. Nörtershäuser; N. Trautmann; B. Wiche

    1997-01-01

    A resonance ionisation mass spectrometer for the ultratrace determination of calcium isotopes is presented. It achieves high\\u000a overall efficiency, ultra-high isotopic abundance sensitivity of more than 1010 and complete suppression of isobars. The system can be used for isotope ratio studies on stable and long-lived trace isotopes\\u000a with the final goal of radiodating via 41Ca-determination. For the different applications optical

  9. SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS OF TYPE C PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE UNSTABLE ISOTOPE {sup 32}Si IN SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatari, M.; Rauscher, T.; Thielemann, F.-K. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Zinner, E. [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bertolli, M. G. [Theoretical Division (T-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Trappitsch, R. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hoppe, P. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Fryer, C. [Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Herwig, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hirschi, R. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Timmes, F. X. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-rich grains are observed to condense in the ejecta of recent core-collapse supernovae (SNe) within a year after the explosion. Silicon carbide grains of type X are C-rich grains with isotopic signatures of explosive SN nucleosynthesis have been found in primitive meteorites. Much rarer silicon carbide grains of type C are a special sub-group of SiC grains from SNe. They show peculiar abundance signatures for Si and S, isotopically heavy Si, and isotopically light S, which appear to be in disagreement with model predictions. We propose that C grains are formed mostly from C-rich stellar material exposed to lower SN shock temperatures than the more common type X grains. In this scenario, extreme {sup 32}S enrichments observed in C grains may be explained by the presence of short-lived {sup 32}Si ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 153 yr) in the ejecta, produced by neutron capture processes starting from the stable Si isotopes. No mixing from deeper Si-rich material and/or fractionation of Si from S due to molecular chemistry is needed to explain the {sup 32}S enrichments. The abundance of {sup 32}Si in the grains can provide constraints on the neutron density reached during the SN explosion in the C-rich He shell material. The impact of the large uncertainty of the neutron capture cross sections in the {sup 32}Si region is discussed.

  10. Excursions and Paleointensity: integration of magnetic and oxygen isotope stratigraphies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Although the study of magnetic excursions began 40 years ago, the documentation of magnetic excursions has gained strength in the last 10 years ago with increased and improved recovery of high sedimentation rate records from the deep sea. Artifacts of remanence acquisition and coring deformation have led to numerous spurious "excursions" being added to the excursion inventory. This is particularly true for the Arctic oceans where lack of traditional stratigraphic tools leads to a high degree of freedom in the correlation and labeling of "excursions", and new data implicate authigenic greigite as the carrier of "excursional" remanence in some Arctic cores. Nonetheless, magnetic excursions with durations of a few kyr, are characteristic of the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons with about 7 excursions now firmly established in each polarity chron. The better quality (least smoothed) excursion records exhibit close to 180 degrees of directional change, and are globally manifest, implying that excursions should be considered as short-lived polarity chrons or "microchrons". As excursions are certainly not unique to the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons, we might expect at least 5 excursions for each 1 Myr of reversal history or more than 300 during the Cenozoic, thereby putting them at odds with a Poisson distribution of chron durations, implying that excursions are not part of a continuum of geomagnetic behavior with polarity chrons. The fact that excursion duration tends to lie close to estimates for the magnetic diffusion time of the inner core favors the model of Gubbins (1999) in which outer core reversal must perpetuate long enough (the uncommon case) for diffusion through the inner core to lead to long-lived field reversal. A new stack of relative paleointensity (RPI) data for the last 1.5 Myr utilizes 11 records, mainly from the North Atlantic but also including records from the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans. IODP Site 1308 from the North Atlantic (re-drill of DSDP Site 609) is used as the correlation target as it possesses both high quality benthic oxygen isotope and RPI records over the entire 1.5 Myr interval. The stack differs from previous stacks in that it utilizes only RPI records that have accompanying oxygen isotope data. The Match protocol of Lisiecki and Lisiecki (2002) is used to simultaneous optimize the correlation of RPI and accompanying isotope records thereby reducing the degree of freedom associated with correlation of RPI (or isotope) records alone. The resulting oxygen isotope stack has comparable resolution to the LR04 stack, and the RPI stack provides a useful reference template, with improved definition of 10,000-yr scale features relative to earlier stacks. Power at orbital periods that has been detected in many RPI records is virtually absent in the stack, supporting the contention that orbital power in RPI records is due to lithologic contamination of some individual records. In this new stack, excursions and reversals occupy times of low geomagnetic paleointensity, indeed, all the more extreme RPI minima correspond to ages of adequately documented excursions or reversals implying that geomagnetic intensity has a threshold that triggers both excursions and reversals. The coupling of RPI and oxygen isotope records, and the recognition of RPI minima that feature excursions, provides a new template for global stratigraphic correlation that promises not only to improve stratigraphic resolution, into the realm of interest for the study of "abrupt" climate change, but also to liberate (benthic) oxygen isotope data from their chronological role and allow their regional environmental characteristics to be fully utilized.

  11. Using radium isotopes as tracers of transfers in the soil - water- -plant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihs, S.; Pierret, M.-C.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    Because soils form at the critical interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, characterization of the dynamics occurring through this compartment represents an important goal for several scientific fields and/or human activities. However, this issue remains a challenge because soils are complex systems, where a continuous evolution of minerals and organic soil constituents occurs in response to interactions with waters and vegetation. This study aims to investigate the relevance of short-lived nuclides of U- and Th-series to quantify the transfer times and scheme of radionuclides through a soil - water - plant ecosystem. Activities of (226Ra), (228Ra) as well as (228Th) were measured by TIMS and gamma-spectrometry in the major compartments of a forested soil section: solid soil fractions (exchangeable fraction, secondary phases and inherited primary minerals), waters (seepage soil waters and a spring further down the watershed) and vegetation (fine and coarse roots of beech trees, young and mature leaves). The matching of these nuclides half-live to bio-geochemical processes time-scale and the relatively good chemical analogy of radium with calcium make these isotopes especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. Indeed, the (228Ra/226Ra) isotopic ratios strongly differ in the range of samples, allowing quantifying the source and duration transfers. Analyses of the various solid soil fractions demonstrate a full redistribution of Ra isotopes between the inherited minerals and secondary soil phases. Moreover, the transfer of these isotopes to the seepage water or to the tree roots does not follow a simple and obvious scheme. The radium isotopic ratio in the trees roots does not match the soil exchangeable fraction, suggesting a mixed pool of radium for roots uptake. Decay of 228Ra within the various parts of the trees allows calculating a vegetation cycling duration of about 12 years for this nuclide. Finally an unexpected large amount of unsupported 228Th in the tree leaves can only be explained by a preferential migration of the 228Ac (228Th precursor). The very short life of this nuclide allows therefore assessing that such transport from roots and deposition within stem and leaves take place within 30 hours at the most.

  12. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  13. High precision measurements of non-mass-dependent effects in nickel isotopes in meteoritic metal via multicollector ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Cook, David L; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Janney, Philip E; Dauphas, Nicolas; Clayton, Robert N; Davis, Andrew M

    2006-12-15

    We measured the Ni isotopic composition of metal from a variety of meteorite groups to search for variations in the 60Ni abundance from the decay of the short-lived nuclide 60Fe (t(1/2) = 1.49 My) and for possible nucleosynthetic effects in the other stable isotopes of Ni. We developed a high-yield Ni separation procedure based on a combination of anion and cation exchange chromatography. Nickel isotopes were measured on a single-focusing, multicollector, inductively coupled mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The external precision on the mass-bias-corrected 60Ni/58Ni ratio (+/-0.15 epsilon; 2sigma) is comparable to similar studies using double-focusing MC-ICPMS. We report the first high-precision data for 64Ni, the least abundant Ni isotope, obtained via MC-ICPMS. The external precision on the mass-bias-corrected 64Ni/58Ni ratio (+/-1.5 epsilon; 2sigma) is better than previous studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. No resolvable excesses relative to a terrestrial standard in the mass-bias-corrected 60Ni/58Ni ratio were detected in any meteoritic metal samples. However, resolvable deficits in this ratio were measured in the metal from several unequilibrated chondrites, implying a 60Fe/56Fe ratio of approximately 1 x 10(-6) at the time of Fe/Ni fractionation in chondritic metal. A 60Fe/56Fe ratio of (4.6 +/- 3.3) x 10(-7) is inferred at the time of Fe/Ni fractionation on the parent bodies of magmatic iron meteorites and pallasites. No clearly resolvable non-mass-dependent anomalies were detected in the other stable isotopes of Ni in the samples investigated here, indicating that the Ni isotopic composition in the early solar system was homogeneous (at least at the level of precision reported here) at the time of meteoritic metal formation. PMID:17165842

  14. Stable isotope studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  15. Mass spectrometer for accurate hydrogen isotopic analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chastagner

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study of the mass spectrometric analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen and helium isotopes shows that mass discrimination and low ion intensity in ion sources are the principal factors that limit accuracy. A virtual-image ion source with short focal length and high brightness avoids these limitations. Suitable analyzers and accessory equipment are available. Development and construction of an

  16. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

  17. SILEC: a protocol for generating and using isotopically labeled coenzyme A mass spectrometry standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankha S Basu; Ian A Blair

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by essential nutrients in cell culture (SILEC) was recently developed to generate isotopically labeled coenzyme A (CoA) and short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters. This was accomplished by modifying the widely used technique of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture to include [13C315N]-pantothenate (vitamin B5), a CoA precursor, instead of the isotopically labeled amino acids. The lack

  18. Direct proton decay of 0.56-s147Tm and search for this decay mode among very neutron-deficient isotopes with 53?Z?67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, P. O.; Batsch, T.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Kurcewicz, W.; Roeckl, E.; Schardt, D.; Feix, W. F.; Nyman, G.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.

    1983-02-01

    The earlier preliminary assignment of a 1,055±6 keV proton line to direct proton decay of147Tm is supported by cross bombardment measurements and by a negative result from a positron-proton coincidence experiment. The half-life was remeasured to be 0.56 ±0.04s. For two types of thermal ion sources, overall efficiencies were estimated for on-line mass separation of known short-lived isotopes of promethium, europium, terbium, and holmium. Direct proton decay was searched for among very neutron-deficient isotopes of these elements, and of iodine and caesium. No evidence for direct proton decay was found. Based on estimated overall efficiencies, on calculated cross-sections, and on predictions from the gross-theory of ? decay, half-life limits for direct proton decay were deduced.

  19. Mixing in the Solar Nebula: Implications for Isotopic Heterogeneity and Large-Scale Transport of Refractory Grains

    E-print Network

    Alan P. Boss

    2008-01-10

    The discovery of refractory grains amongst the particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft (Brownlee et al. 2006) provides the ground truth for large-scale transport of materials formed in high temperature regions close to the protosun outward to the comet-forming regions of the solar nebula. While accretion disk models driven by a generic turbulent viscosity have been invoked as a means to explain such large-scale transport, the detailed physics behind such an ``alpha'' viscosity remains unclear. We present here an alternative physical mechanism for large-scale transport in the solar nebula: gravitational torques associated with the transient spiral arms in a marginally gravitationally unstable disk, of the type that appears to be necessary to form gas giant planets. Three dimensional models are presented of the time evolution of self-gravitating disks, including radiative transfer and detailed equations of state, showing that small dust grains will be transported upstream and downstream (with respect to the mean inward flow of gas and dust being accreted by the central protostar) inside the disk on time scales of less than 1000 yr inside 10 AU. These models furthermore show that any initial spatial heterogeneities present (e.g., in short-lived isotopes such as 26Al) will be homogenized by disk mixing down to a level of ~10%, preserving the use of short-lived isotopes as accurate nebular chronometers, while simultaneously allowing for the spread of stable oxygen isotope ratios. This finite level of nebular spatial heterogeneity appears to be related to the coarse mixing achieved by spiral arms, with radial widths of order 1 AU, over time scales of ~1000 yrs.

  20. [Living better or living longer].

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious organization such as the World Health Organization. Assurance of sufficient care to protect health would be a more realistic goal than the illusory "health for all". Future gains in mortality control will be made primarily in endogenous diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease that prolong life in the retirement years rather than in youth. Thorny moral and economic questions will ensue as health care for the elderly becomes more expensive and as the population ages. Contrary to a widely held belief, aging of the population is due to fertility decline rather than mortality decline. By the year 2000, health care in France may consume a larger part of household income than food. Sterilization of individuals with hereditary diseases, the influence of health care on the balance of payments, and the funding of social security systems are among the issues that will become more pressing in the future. PMID:3427520

  1. Decreases in mineralocorticoid but not glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression during the short Arctic breeding season in free-living Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    PubMed

    Krause, J S; McGuigan, M A; Bishop, V R; Wingfield, J C; Meddle, S L

    2015-01-01

    The acute stress response in vertebrates is a highly adaptive suite of physiological and behavioural mechanisms that promote survival in the face of deleterious stimuli from the environment. Facultative changes of physiology and behaviour are mediated through changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids (corticosterone, cortisol) and their subsequent binding to the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Free-living male wild Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) display annual fluctuations in the stress response with marked attenuation during the transition from the pre-parental to the parental stage. We investigated whether this rapid reduction in the stress response is mediated through changes in MR and GR mRNA expression in the brain using in situ hybridisation. MR mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the hippocampus as the male birds became parental. No changes were observed in GR mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or preoptic area (POA) at this time. No significant correlations were found between initial capture levels of corticosterone and GR or MR mRNA expression. No differences were found in basal levels of corticosterone between pre-parental and parental in birds collected for in situ hybridisation. Stress response data revealed no difference at baseline but reductions in peak levels of corticosterone as birds became parental. These data suggest that changes in MR expression may be important for the regulation of the stress response or behavioural stress sensitivity with respect to promoting parental care and investment. PMID:25411901

  2. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium

    DOEpatents

    Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-01-30

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  3. Transient carbon isotope changes in complex systems: Finding the global signal, embracing the local signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, G. J.; Schneider-Mor, A.; Filley, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    Global, transient carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in the geological record are increasingly invoked as evidence of short-lived changes in carbon fluxes to/from the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere (exogenic) system. Reconstructing the dynamics of carbon cycle perturbation and response during such events requires that the global extent, magnitude, and temporal pattern of carbon isotope change are well understood. Unfortunately, no simple, globally integrated measure of exogenic ?13C change exists in the geological record: during major global perturbations even the best-case candidates such as deep-ocean carbonate ?13C values likely respond to a complex of factors including ocean carbonate chemistry and circulation. Here we consider the utility of organic carbon isotope records from two complex depositional systems common in the geological record, fossil soils and continental margin sediments, which are of interest in terms of their relationship to organic carbon cycling and records of past ecological change. Within both systems changes in ecology, climate, carbon source, residence time, and molecular composition have clear potential to modulate the preserved record of global exogenic ?13C change, compromising 1st-order interpretations of bulk or compound-specific isotopic records. Process-explicit eco- geochemical models, ideally combined with multi-substrate data, provide one approach to the isolation of global ?13C change and identification of local or regional processes reflected in such records. Examples from both systems drawn from ongoing work on the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum illustrate the potential pitfalls, as well as opportunities, afforded by coupled data/model assessment of transient ?13C changes in complex systems.

  4. Alternative isotope enrichment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy.

  5. Electrochemical isotope effect and lithium isotope separation.

    PubMed

    Black, Jay R; Umeda, Grant; Dunn, Bruce; McDonough, William F; Kavner, Abby

    2009-07-29

    A large electrochemical isotopic effect is observed upon the electrodeposition of lithium from solutions of propylene carbonate producing isotopically light metal deposits. The magnitude of fractionation is controlled by the applied overpotential and is largest close to equilibrium. Calculated partition function ratios for tetrahedrally coordinated lithium complexes and metallic lithium predict an equilibrium fractionation close to that measured experimentally. PMID:19580315

  6. New neutron-rich isotopes of astatine and bismuth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Burke; H. Folger; H. Gabelmann; E. Hagebø; P. Hill; P. Hoff; O C Jonsson; N. Kaffrell; W. Kurcewicz; G. Løvhøiden; K. Nybø; G H Nyman; H L Ravn; K. Riisager; J. Rogowski; K. Steffensen; T. F. Thorsteinsen

    1989-01-01

    Neutron-rich isotopes of astatine have been produced through spallation reactions with 600 MeV protons on a232Th target and identified by spectroscopic techniques combined with one-line mass separation at the ISOLDE facility. The half-lives of218At and219At have been remeasured to be 1.5(3) s and 57(4) s, respectively. Four new isotopes of astatine,220-223At, have been observed for the first time, and their

  7. Search for unknown isotopes using the JAERI-ISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, S.; Tsukada, K.; Oura, Y.; Iimura, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagame, Y.; Asai, M.; Osa, A.; Kojima, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kawade, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sueki, K.

    1996-04-01

    A search for unknown neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and neutron-deficient americium isotopes was carried out using a gas-jet coupled thermal ion source installed in the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL). New isotopes b166Tb and d165Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified. The half-lives were 21+/-6 s for b166Tb and 10.3+/-1.6 s for d.165Gd. Pu KX-rays associated with EC decays of americium isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions were observed in the X/?-ray spectra for the mass separated fraction of 237 and 236.

  8. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2001-12-21

    Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

  9. Generation of Radixenon Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Reeder, Paul L.; Thomas, Charles W.

    2003-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air and can detect the following radioxenon isotopes, 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. This report details the techniques used to generate the various radioxenon isotopes that are used for the calibration of the detector as well as other isotopes that have the potential to interfere with the fission produced radioxenon isotopes. Fission production is covered first using highly enriched uranium followed by a description and results from an experiment to produce radioxenon isotopes from neutron activation of ambient xenon.

  10. Blood Banking in Living Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Song, YoungSeok; Keles, Hasan Onur; Matloff, Laura; Markel, Jordan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional cryopreservation techniques, it has not been incorporated into transfusion medicine mainly due to throughput challenges. Here, we present a scalable method that can vitrify red blood cells in microdroplets. This approach enables the vitrification of large volumes of blood in a short amount of time, and makes it a viable and scalable biotechnology tool for blood cryopreservation. PMID:21412411

  11. Combined oxygen, hydrogen, /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar isotopic evaluation of molybdenite mineralization, east Pioneer Mountains, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.T.; Snee, L.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Pear Lake molybdenite (moly) prospect is in the Eastern Pioneer Wilderness Area, 30 km south of the Cannivan Gulch moly deposit. It lies on a NW-SE trend with other prospects that are contemporaneous. Mineralized veins outcrop sporadically over a 4 square mile area, with a major concentration in the center of the study area. Previous studies have suggested potential moly-mineralization at depth. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age-spectra on hornblend (hb) from the granodiorite host rock indicate emplacement at 75.0 +/- 1 Ma, with biotite closure at 69.0 +/- .3 Ma, in the vicinity of Pear Lake. Hydrothermal muscovites from the moly-bearing veins have ages of 68.0 +/- .5 Ma. partial resetting of biotite cooling dates in the vicinity of mineralization are observed, but biotites on the outer portion of the mineralizing system are undisturbed. These relations suggest that mineralization occurred after the host pluton had cooled to below 280/sup 0/C. Quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures are 380 to 420/sup 0/C for moly-veins. These data suggest that magmatic hydrothermal fluids operated in the upper portion of this molysystem. These isotopic data, combined with geologic mapping, suggest that the Pear Lake moly prospect resulted from a weak, short-lived magmatic hydrothermal event at depth, and is unlikely to contain economic levels of molybdenum. The combined /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar-stable isotope approach should prove useful in evaluating other hydrothermal systems.

  12. Science Shorts: Plants on the Move

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Damonte

    2005-04-01

    A person gets goose bumps or shivers when they are cold. A rabbit darts down a hole at a loud noise. These two actions are examples of a living things responding to its environment. All living things respond to their environment. Although you might not think of a plant having a response, in this month's Science Shorts you will examine some of the types of responses that plants can have to their environment. This article includes a corresponding activity.

  13. The US national isotope program: current status and strategy for future success.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J; Bobek, Leo M; Butler, Ralph A; Garland, Marc A; Hill, David J; Krieger, Jeanne K; Muckerheide, James B; Patton, Brad D; Silberstein, Edward B

    2005-08-01

    Since their introduction in the 1940s, peaceful use of stable isotopes and radioisotopes in the United States has expanded continuously. Today, new isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic uses are not being developed, critical isotopes for national security are in short supply, and demand for isotopes critical to homeland security exceeds supply. While commercial suppliers, both domestic and foreign, can only meet specific needs, the nation needs a consistent, reliable supply of radioactive and stable isotopes for research, medical, security, and space power applications. The national isotope infrastructure, defined as both facilities and trained staff at national laboratories and universities, is in danger of being lost due to chronic underfunding. With the specific recommendations given herein, the US Department of Energy may realign and refocus its Isotope Program to provide a framework for a successful National Isotope Program. PMID:15935681

  14. Multi-element isotopic analyses of presolar graphite grains from Orgueil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Manavi; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Marhas, Kuljeet K.; Gallino, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    We report C, N, O, Si, Al-Mg, K, Ca, and Ti isotopic analyses of presolar graphite grains from the Orgueil CI chondrite. NanoSIMS isotopic measurements were made on 345 grains from seven density fractions, with grain sizes >1 ?m: low-density grains from OR1b, OR1c, and OR1d; and high-density grains from OR1f, OR1g, OR1h, and OR1i. In all fractions, except OR1b and OR1h, we found presolar graphite as demonstrated by the large range of 12C/13C ratios (4-2480) measured in individual grains. Some isotopic properties are dependent on density: low-density grains contain 18O, 15N, and 28Si excesses, while the majority of high-density grains contain normal N and O, and are generally enriched in 29Si and 30Si. The 15N, 18O, and 28Si excesses and very high derived isotopic ratios for the extinct radionuclides 26Al, 41Ca, and 44Ti in low-density grains indicate an origin from supernovae. In order to explain the isotopic ratios measured in these grains, we present mixing scenarios between different layers of supernovae and discuss the limitations of various theoretical models. Silicon-30 and 12C excesses in high-density grains and lower values for short-lived radionuclides (26Al and 41Ca) indicate an origin in asymptotic giant branch stars with low metallicities. Some supernova grains, with 44Ca excesses, are also present amongst the high-density grains. Grains with low 12C/13C ratios (without evidence for 44Ti) and large excesses in 42,43Ca and 46,47,49,50Ti probably originate from post-asymptotic giant branch stars, that have suffered a very late thermal pulse, and can achieve low 12C/13C ratios and large neutron capture signatures in Ca and Ti isotopes. We conclude that most low-density graphite grains originate from supernovae while high-density graphite grains have multiple stellar sources: low-metallicity and born-again asymptotic giant branch stars, Type II supernovae, and possibly, J-type stars.

  15. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  16. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce your risk of having another ... content was last reviewed on 04/30/2014. Healthy Living Resource Guide for All Seniors Any person ...

  17. Living with Grandparents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC What Is a Divorce? Being Adopted Talking About Your Feelings Living With Stepparents What Kids Say About: Parents Living With a Single Parent Welcoming a New ...

  18. Is It Living?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about living and nonliving things. The probe is designed to find out what attributes children focus on when considering if something is or was once living.

  19. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... This section of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida ...

  20. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  1. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The additional change in nutrition induces changes in physiology that are likely to bias the estimation of the isotopic turnover. We designed an experiment with lactating cows which were successively exposed to the diet's natural isotopic variation and a diet-switch. We examined whether the same turnover information can be obtained from the natural (uncontrolled, short-term) isotopic variation as from the diet-switch experiment. Statistical methods to retrieve the turnover characteristics comprised multi-pool compartmental modeling for the diet-switch experiment as well as correlation analysis to perform wiggle-matching and quantification of autocorrelation (geostatistics) for the analysis of the natural variation. All three methods yielded similar results but differed in their strengths and weaknesses that will be highlighted. Combining the strengths of the new methods can make this tool even more advantageous than diet-switch experiments in many cases. In particular, the new approach empowers studying isotope turnover under a wider range of keepings, wildlife conditions and species, yielding turnover estimates that are not biased by changes in nutrition.

  2. FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Heiser, Gernot

    FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab that will provide logistics solutions for the future. The Living Lab is a demonstration, exhibition and work space of around 200 m² located at NICTA's Australian Technology Park offices in Redfern. The lab is driven

  3. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  4. Recognizing Safety and Liveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowen Alpern

    1986-01-01

    This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a

  5. Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ang Zhou; Mitsuru Uesaka

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces an interdisciplinary subject of bioelectrodynamics in living organisms and its related research challenges and opportunities. Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms is aimed to reveal critical roles of electromagnetism and mechanics in biology, to correlate biophysical functions of living organisms with biochemical processes at the cellular level, and to introduce theoretical basis and methodology, such as modeling and simulations,

  6. Stable isotope enrichment using a plasma centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; Madden, Robert

    2012-10-01

    A primary goal of the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (Isotope Program) within the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is to produce isotopes that are in short supply in the U.S. and of which there exists no or insufficient domestic commercial production capability. A vacuum arc plasma centrifuge is a rigid rotor column of metal plasma in which centrifugal forces re-distribute ions radially according to their mass/charge ratio. Early work demonstrated rotation at 2 million rpm and separation of various stable isotopes. The spinning plasma column had a Gaussian flux profile, peaked on the rigid rotor axis. This work adopts a more efficient approach, with the plasma created as a hollow column, wherein the flux is concentrated at larger radii where the centrifugal action is highest. By tailoring the vacuum arc discharge geometry, the rotation rate can also be increased to ˜10 million rpm. Data from Cu, Al and other metal plasmas will be presented and discussed in light of enriched stable isotopes needed for research and medicine.

  7. Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor: the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (?E ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured ?(18) O of transpiration (?E ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled ?E values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational ?(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in ?E are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications. PMID:24909361

  8. Resolving the influences of climatology and topography on water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, D. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Hren, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopography records are critical to understanding geodynamic processes in ancient mountain ranges. The imprint of topography on stable isotopes of precipitation ("water isotopes") has become the most widely used method for reconstructing topography. Current approximations of how orographic lifting drives fractionation of water isotopes use 1D topography and a model based on either empirical observations or 1D Rayleigh fractionation. However, atmospheric physics tells us that the pattern and magnitude of lifting varies due to the shape of topography. We also know that the source of water isotopes and the local climatology (e.g., wind speed and direction, moist stability of the air) vary on both short and long time scales. Current approaches fail to separate the signal of topography from that of potentially large, short-term (<100 kyr) climate variations in water isotope records. We present an isotope-enabled version of the linear theory of orographic precipitation (LTOP) of Smith and Barstad (2004), which describes the response of water isotopes to topography. This model provides a first-order approximation of the water-isotope field produced by moist air flowing over complex 3D topography, which allows us to explore how the water isotope field is influenced by variations in climatology and topography. The LTOP model is attractive because of its simplicity: just 7 variables are used calculate the water isotope field, but the model still accounts for lateral flow and upwind phase tilting due to topographic barriers (to the non-linear limit). We tested this model in modern Patagonia, where there is a simple westerly pattern of atmospheric flow across a north-south mountain range. The model reproduces the strong observed fractionation and matches 166 field measurements of water isotopes in precipitation fairly well (R2 = 0.61). Sensitivity tests indicate the water isotope field is most sensitive to variations in the composition of source water (ocean), wind speed, and wind direction. Short-term climate variations are on the order of 16‰ ?D; isotope records showing less variability should be treated as unreliable. The capacity of the LTOP model to describe the observed complexity of atmospheric behavior in response to 3D topography is an important step towards future advances in paleotopography work.

  9. Heterogeneous distribution of natural zinc isotopes in mice.

    PubMed

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Shaw, Andrey S; Le Borgne, Marie

    2013-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is required for the function of more than 300 enzymes involved in many metabolic pathways, and is a vital micronutrient for living organisms. To investigate if Zn isotopes could be used to better understand metal homeostasis, as well as a biomarker for diseases, we assessed the distribution of natural Zn isotopes in various mouse tissues. We found that, with respect to Zn isotopes, most mouse organs are isotopically distinct and that the total range of variation within one mouse encompasses the variations observed in the Earth's crust. Therefore, biological activity may have a major impact on the distribution of Zn isotopes in inorganic materials. The most striking aspect of the data is that red blood cells and bones are enriched by ~0.5 per mil in (66)Zn relative to (64)Zn when compared to serum, and up to ~1 per mil when compared to the brain and liver. This fractionation is well explained by the equilibrium distribution of isotopes between different bonding environments of Zn in different organs. Differences in gender and genetic background did not appear to affect the isotopic distribution of Zn. Together, these results suggest the potential use of Zn isotopes as a tracer for dietary Zn, and for detecting disturbances in Zn metabolism due to pathological conditions. PMID:23589059

  10. Isotopes of Pennies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    This lab activity from Science Netlinks is designed to explain the weighted averages that are used in average atomic mass calculations. Students can be expected to learn that isotopes of an element have different masses; that isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons; and that atomic mass is the weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

  11. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOEpatents

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  12. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

  13. Fractionation and mixing in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer source: Implications and limitations for high-precision Nd isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2009-08-01

    We present a large dataset of normal Nd standard analyses to evaluate the adequacy of commonly used "laws" to correct for the mass dependent isotope fractionation introduced in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) source, and to assess if the assumption of homogenous sample evaporation and ionization from one sample domain on the filament can be considered valid when obtaining high precision (better than 5 ppm, 2[sigma]) 142Nd/144Nd ratios for studies in geo- and cosmochemistry. The exponential law is fully adequate to correct for the mass fractionation at the current level of obtainable precision and surprisingly performs better than the Rayleigh law. Our modelling shows that the observed correlations in the isotope ratios that remain after data have been corrected using the exponential law are a consequence of correlated uncertainties in counting statistics. These correlations are therefore not from residuals resulting from inadequate correction. Application of the exponential law, however, assumes evaporation from a single homogenous domain on the filament--a condition which was impossible to maintain even under optimal sample loading and heating conditions. While a majority of samples showed an increase in heavy/light isotope ratio with time (normal fractionation), many samples showed the reverse trend (reverse fractionation) indicating evaporation and mixing from variably depleted domains on the filament. Our modelling suggests that up to 50% of the calculated external reproducibility (=standard deviation of the population, [sigma]p of n independent measurements) can be explained by the ion emission from multiple domains of somewhat different isotopic composition on the filament. The fractionation behaviour of a sample is not necessarily a good indicator of the extent of domain mixing as mixing effects in data collected during reverse fractionation are similar to those of data collected during normal fractionation before and after periods of reverse fractionation. Domain mixing effects in 142Nd/144Nd isotope ratios can be assessed by examining variations in stable 148Nd/144Nd and 150Nd/144Nd ratios. The 148Nd and 150Nd data from recent reports of 142Nd deficits in terrestrial samples suggest that the 142Nd anomalies are likely produced from domain mixing during analysis rather than from the decay of short-lived 146Sm during the early history of the earth. It is imperative to measure all the isotopes of Nd to the utmost possible precision and to examine domain mixing effects by normalizing the data using multiple isotope pairs.

  14. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report describes progress on five projects. The first project showed a 1000 fold concentration of the cationic complex {sup 99m}Tc (MIBI) in heart cell mitochondria vs heart cell cytoplasm, as determined by high resolution electron probe microanalysis. Additional technetium-99m based complexes are being developed and tested. The second project involves evaluating technetium acetylacteonates as potential indicators of cerebral blood flow. An intermediate in the synthesis of a technetium porphyrin complex has been synthesized; an oxotechnetium(V)-2,4-pentanedione complex has been prepared and is currently being characterized. The third project involves using radio labelled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. An early discovery was that chloramine-T based iodination protocols resulted in a reversal of the charge on mouse lgGs. Immunoperoxidase-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv 18 was shown to bind specifically to the most frequent ovarian aderon carcinomas, and not to healthy tissue, making this antibody a good candidate for immunotherapy or immunodetection. Work on a specific immunotherapy protocol suffered a setback when one reagent, a {sup 125}I-biotin complex, proved to be unstable in vivo. The fourth project involves labelling antibodies with positron emitting radionuclides. Radiofluorination was accomplished through reductive alkylation of {sup 18}F-aldehyde, or pentafluorophenyl esters. Radioiodination was accomplished using alkyl-tin derivation exchange. The fifth project examined antibody modification for use in radioimmune imaging. Technetium-99m-labelled lgG was shown to be biologically equivalent to Indium-III-labelled lgG for imaging focal sites of inflamation. Also, Indium III labelling of small bioactive peptides was examined as a means of imaging important physiological processes. 44 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Probing short-lived fluctuations in hadrons and nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    We develop a picture of dipole-nucleus (namely dilute-dense) and dipole-dipole (dilute-dilute) scattering in the high-energy regime based on the analysis of the fluctuations in the quantum evolution. We emphasize the difference in the nature of the fluctuations probed in these two processes respectively, which, interestingly enough, leads to observable differences in the scattering amplitude profiles.

  16. Short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medicine - II

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, T.F.; Peng, C.T.

    1985-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied effectively in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the prognosis of stroke, and the evaluation of the efficacy of tumor therapy. In addition, PET has been applied to studies of the neuroreceptor distribution in the human brain, to studies of epilepsy and congenital disorders of the brain, and to the study of flow and metabolism of the human heart muscle. Of the many current investigations of PET, the three discussed here are now of clinical importance for patient care.

  17. Short-lived ants take greater risks during food collection.

    PubMed

    Moro?, Dawid; Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Woyciechowski, Micha?

    2012-12-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms should alter their behavior if life expectancy declines. Recent theoretical work has focused on worker life expectancy as an ultimate factor in allocating risk-related tasks among the workforce in social insects. A key prediction of this evolutionary model is that workers with shorter life expectancy should perform riskier tasks. We tested this hypothesis, using laboratory colonies of the ant Myrmica scabrinodis. We modified foraging so that it differed in level of risk by manipulating distances, temperatures, and the presence of competitors on foraging patches. The life expectancies of foragers were shortened by poisoning with carbon dioxide or by injury through removal of their propodeal spines. Both treatments significantly shortened worker life expectancy in comparison with untreated ants. We show, for the first time, that foragers with a shorter life expectancy foraged under risk more often than foragers in the control group. Thus, a worker's strategy of foraging under risky circumstances appears to be fine-tuned to its life expectancy. PMID:23149399

  18. Short-Lived Proton Entanglement in Yttrium Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, E. B.; Abdul-Redah, T.; Udovic, T. J.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    2002-10-01

    Previous experiments on NbH0.8 and PdH0.6 have shown large anomalies in the cross sections for protons, when studied by neutron Compton scattering. Here, these investigations are extended to the metallic hydrides YH2, YH3, YD2, YD3, and Y(HxD1-x)3. Considerably reduced cross sections for hydrogen are observed both in YH2 and YH3, but only minor ones for YD2 and YD3. The scattering time depends on the neutron scattering angle, which allows a time-differential analysis where the time window lies around one femtosecond. The anomalies persist longer in YH2 and YH3 than in NbH0.8 and PdHo.6 The reduced cross sections are interpreted as a result of quantum entanglement between protons, surviving for a few fs in the solids.

  19. Short-lived proton entanglement in yttrium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, E. B.; Abdul-Redah, T.; Udovic, T. J.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    Earlier experiments on NbH0.8 and PdH0.6 have shown large anomalies in the cross sections for protons, when studied by neutron Compton scattering. Here, these investigations are extended to the metallic hydrides YH2, YH3, YD2, YD3, and Y(HxD1-x)3. Strongly reduced cross sections for hydrogen are observed both in YH2 and YH3, but only minor ones for YD2 and YD3. The scattering time depends on the neutron-scattering angle, which allows a time-differential analysis where the time window lies at around one femtosecond. The anomalies persist longer in YH2 and YH3 than in NbH0.8 and PdH0.6. The reduced cross sections are interpreted as a result of quantum entanglement between protons, surviving for a few femtoseconds in the solids.

  20. Cosmic crystallography using short-lived objects - Active Galactic Nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Marecki; B. F. Roukema; Stanislaw Bajtlik

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic crystallography is based on the principle that peaks in the pair separation histogram (PSH) of objects in a catalogue should be induced by the high number of topologically lensed pairs that are separated by Clifford translations, in excess to ``random'' pairs of objects. Here we present modifications of this method that successively improve the signal-to-noise ratio by removing a

  1. Tropospheric Ozone as a Short-lived Chemical Climate Forcer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.

  2. Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Discovery of the Einsteinium Isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bury; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

    2009-01-01

    Seventeen einsteinium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Discovery of the Gold Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

    2009-03-10

    Thirty-six gold isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2009-10-22

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery of the Tin Isotopes

    E-print Network

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight tin isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes

    E-print Network

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Discovery of the Barium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Shore; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

    2009-08-13

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Discovery of the Iron Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Schuh; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of the Tungsten Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

    2009-03-25

    Thirty-five tungsten isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Discovery of the Einsteinium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Bury; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Seventeen einsteinium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes

    E-print Network

    T. Szymanski; M. Thoennessen

    2009-09-04

    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Shore; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

    2009-07-11

    Twenty-four vanadium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Gross, J L

    2010-01-01

    Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. State-to-state quantum dynamics of O + O2 isotope exchange reactions reveals nonstatistical behavior at atmospheric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhigang; Liu, Lan; Lin, Shi Ying; Schinke, Reinhard; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong H.

    2010-01-01

    The O + O2 exchange reaction is a prerequisite for the formation of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere. We report here state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for several O + O2 isotope-exchange reactions obtained by dynamically exact quantum scattering calculations at collision energies relevant to atmospheric conditions. These reactions are shown to be highly nonstatistical, evidenced by dominant forward scattering and deviation of the integral cross section from the statistical limit. Mechanistic analyses revealed that the nonstatistical channel is facilitated by short-lived osculating resonances. The theoretical results provided an in-depth interpretation of a recent molecular beam experiment of the exchange reaction and shed light on the initial step of ozone recombination. PMID:20080718

  18. State-to-state quantum dynamics of O + O2 isotope exchange reactions reveals nonstatistical behavior at atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigang; Liu, Lan; Lin, Shi Ying; Schinke, Reinhard; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong H

    2010-01-12

    The O + O(2) exchange reaction is a prerequisite for the formation of ozone in Earth's atmosphere. We report here state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for several O + O(2) isotope-exchange reactions obtained by dynamically exact quantum scattering calculations at collision energies relevant to atmospheric conditions. These reactions are shown to be highly nonstatistical, evidenced by dominant forward scattering and deviation of the integral cross section from the statistical limit. Mechanistic analyses revealed that the nonstatistical channel is facilitated by short-lived osculating resonances. The theoretical results provided an in-depth interpretation of a recent molecular beam experiment of the exchange reaction and shed light on the initial step of ozone recombination. PMID:20080718

  19. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  20. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Radioactivity of Astatine Isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Barton; A. Ghiorso; I. Perlman

    1951-01-01

    A number of new neutron deficient isotopes of astatine have been identified in the mass number range 200 to 209 following the irradiation of bismuth with high energy helium ions. Their alpha-decay properties fall in line with predictions for isotopes in this region with less than 126 neutrons; that is, the alpha-energies increase with decrease in mass number. Because of

  2. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  3. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  4. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  5. Living Wage Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glasmeier, Amy

    In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

  6. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  7. Lives, the Biography Resource

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lives, the Biography Resource, is a comprehensive guide to more than one thousand biographical information resources available on the Web. The briefly annotated guide indexes resources by individual names and also organizes resources into several collections, which collocate related resources according to subject, region, era, profession, etc. In addition, the guide includes Inside Lives, a section that features new and noteworthy sites covering biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, oral histories, personal papers, and more. Lives is updated weekly.

  8. Electrochemical Isotope Effect and Lithium Isotope Separation Jay R. Black,

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Electrochemical Isotope Effect and Lithium Isotope Separation Jay R. Black, Grant Umeda, Bruce Dunn May 19, 2009; E-mail: akavner@ucla.edu The electrochemical separation of lithium isotopes is of growing interest due to the need for pure 6 Li and 7 Li isotopes in the nuclear industry.1 Here we present

  9. Live Hope Love: Living & Loving with HIV in Jamaica

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting is the support organization behind this moving website on the HIV crisis in Jamaica. Dedicated to independent international journalism on under-reported topics, the Pulitzer Center also aims to reach a broad and diverse audience, and it does so successfully with this website. Visitors will enjoy the introductory video, as it features an appealing montage that explains the artistic focus of the site. In the "Poem Gallery" and "Featured Poems" there are poems written by those living with HIV, along with photographs inspired by the poems which visitors can find in the "Image Gallery". In the "Vital Voices" link, visitors will hear brief audio clips of people with HIV, caretakers, medical personnel, and other supporters. Visitors shouldn't miss the clip of Carla Legister, who issues a short but strong message to parents, and the clip of Lascelles Graham, who sings a few of his thoughts.

  10. Orbitally Tuned C and N Isotopic Records of Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event1a in Northeastern Mexico and Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 398, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanez, I. P.; Li, Y.; Osleger, D. A.; Bralower, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution and expanded records of early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a (120 Ma) were recovered from outer shelf and slope deposits from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeast Mexico and from hemipelagic deposits at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 398 on Vigo Seamount in the North Atlantic Ocean. OAE1a is recognized in these deposits by minor increases in organic carbon content (up to 2 wt%) and widely-recognized, characteristic ?13Corg and ?13Ccarb variations that record significant changes in global carbon cycling. Here we present continuous dm-scale records of grain size distributions, wt% TOC and carbonate, C/N ratios, and C and N isotopes for these stratigraphically-expanded sections. Our high-resolution rock magnetic study of the same stratigraphic intervals establishes orbital timescales for OAE1a at these sites. The highly expanded records reveal significantly more structure in isotopic and TOC variation throughout OAE1a than contemporaneous condensed deep-sea records. Our data define an initial prominent negative excursion followed by repeated and short-lived (103 to 104 yr) fluctuations and a final interval of near invariant ?13Ccarb and ?13Corg values. Elevated TOC, a significant increase in C/N ratios from background marine values, rapid shifts in C and N isotopic compositions and sustained decoupling of ?13Corg and ?15Norg occur throughout the interval of short- lived isotopic fluctuations. Anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) measurements were used as proxies for terrigenous influx during OAE1a. Spectral analyses of ARM depth series reveal dominant cycles with wavelength ratios resembling those of modern orbital periodicities, implying that orbital variations may have modulated depositional processes. These orbitally tuned geochemical proxy records indicate that the Aptian deposits from northeastern Mexican and Site 398 on Vigo Seamount hold promise for refining phase relationships between geochemical and isotopic proxies throughout OAE1a, and, in turn, constraining the mechanics of addition of light carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system.

  11. Living Phenomena and Living Information : Centered on Living Structure and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuno, Tomofumi

    The term ‘living’ has manifold meanings. The author interprets it in three reasonable ways : 1) sustaining one's life, 2) surviving under economic surroundings, 3) existing socially. Centered on ‘living structure’ which grasps static aspects of living and ‘living design’ which does dynamic aspects of living he investigates living phenomena and discusses their relationship to living information. The author also catches living phenomena from viewpoints as follows : 1) people, 2) corporation, 3) researcher, 4) administration, and investigates living information from the four viewpoints as above. The examples of classification for living itself as well as for living information are shown.

  12. Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms

    E-print Network

    Janzen, Fredric

    Available online 3 June 2010 Keywords: Turtle Adaptive growth Population models Long-lived organisms Human biologists. Short- lived organisms can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental hazards, but only recently have long-lived organisms been shown to adapt to human impacts. Changes in any life-history trait

  13. Stable isotope ecology in the Omo-Turkana Basin.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Levin, Naomi E; Passey, Benjamin H

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotopes provide an independent assessment of paleoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. Stable isotopes track the flow of oxygen and carbon through ecosystems and accordingly are not directly related to changes in mammalian faunal composition or sedimentology. Therefore, isotope studies give insight into the paleoenvironmental conditions in which human evolutionary trends have been recorded. The development of stable isotopes as indicators of continental environmental conditions has proceeded in parallel with questions about the conditions of human environment. What was the vegetation? How hot was it? How dry? What were the diets of animals living among early humans? And most persistently, how important were "savannas" to early hominids? In this review, we take the opportunity to provide extensive background on the use of isotopes in anthropological sites. The application of stable isotope ecology to anthropological sites in the Turkana Basin has a long history, but in many ways the Omo-Turkana Basin has been a proving ground for the development of new proxy methods for understanding tropical terrestrial environments in the Neogene and Quaternary. For that reason, we also describe some of the fundamental aspects of isotope ecology that developed outside the field of paleoanthropology. PMID:22170692

  14. Living Things and Where They Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  15. Isotope separation by solar photoionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariella

    1982-01-01

    Isotope separation, particularly separation of isotopes of lithium, is achieved by exposing a beam of atoms to radiation that selectively excites atoms of a particular isotope without exciting atoms of other isotopes of that element. The excited atoms are ionized by solar radiation and the ions attracted to an ion collector plate maintained at a negative potential. The atoms not

  16. Where You Live Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is not. Where You Live Matters Is your home, community and state well-suited for aging/long-term care? Expand Staying in Your Home ... steps can I take to stay in my home? What are my options for living in an aging-oriented facility? LTC PathFinder Long-term care is ...

  17. Empathetic living media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian David Cheok; Roger Thomas Kok; Chuen Tan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Tim Merritt; Janyn Yen Ping Sen

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new form of interactive living media used to communicate social or ecological information in the form of an empathetic ambient media. In the fast paced modern world people are generally too busy to monitor various significant social or human aspects of their lives, such as time spent with their family, their overall health, state of the ecology,

  18. Molecules in Living Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

  19. Living History of Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-01

    The APS is pleased to announce the launch of the Living History of Physiology Project. The Society encourages the membership to consider interviewing senior physiologists at their institutions to provide a living history of physiology. The videos provided to date focus on the physiologistÂ?s training and career and their professional interactions.

  20. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  1. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Diane M

    2015-07-17

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently, there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short- and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general US population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed; for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest. PMID:26048703

  2. Managing Short-Lived and Long-Lived Values in Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Van Essen; Robin Panda; Aaron Wood; Carl Ebeling; Scott Hauck

    2010-01-01

    Efficient storage in spatial processors is increasingly important as such devices get larger and support more concurrent operations. Unlike sequential processors that rely heavily on centralized storage, e.g. register files and embedded memories, spatial processors require many small storage structures to efficiently manage values that are distributed throughout the processor's fabric. The goal of this work is to determine the

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer

    E-print Network

    the effects of isotopic labeling using both deuterium substitution (dPS) and 13 C labeling (13 C-PS). ClearSHORT COMMUNICATION Carbon-13 Labeling for Improved Tracer Depth Profiling of Organic Materials Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 13 C labeling is introduced as an alternative

  4. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  5. Perchlorate isotope forensics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Sturchio, N.C.; Gu, B.; Horita, J.; Brown, G.M.; Jackson, W.A.; Batista, J.; Hatzinger, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ( 37Cl/35Cl and 18O/17O/ 16O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  6. Stable Isotope Analysis of Amphidromous Hawaiian Gobies Suggests Their Larvae Spend a Substantial Period of Time in Freshwater River Plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. Sorensen; Keith A. Hobson

    2005-01-01

    We employed stable isotope analysis (?13C, ?15N) to evaluate the sources of nutrients used by amphidromous gobiid fishes (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, Awaous guamensis) caught migrating into and living in Hakalau Stream, Hawaii. Although considerable variation amongst the stable isotope values of stream items was noted across all 4 years of our study, the relationships between the fishes were relatively constant.

  7. Endocrine Function In Naturally Long-Living Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Buffenstein, Rochelle; Pinto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The complex, highly integrative endocrine system regulates all aspects of somatic maintenance and reproduction and has been widely implicated as an important determinant of longevity in short-lived traditional model organisms of aging research. Genetic or experimental manipulation of hormone profiles in mice has been proven to definitively alter longevity. These hormonally induced lifespan extension mechanisms may not necessarily be relevant to humans and other long-lived organisms that naturally show successful slow aging. Long-lived species may have evolved novel anti-aging defenses germane to naturally retarding the aging process. Here we examine the available endocrine data associated with the vitamin D, insulin, grlucocorticoid and thyroid endocrine systems of naturally long-living small mammals. Generally, long-living rodents and bats maintain tightly regulated lower basal levels of these key pleiotropic hormones than shorter-lived rodents. Similarities with genetically manipulated suggest that evolutionarily wellconserved hormonal mechanisms are integrally involved in lifespan determination. PMID:18674586

  8. Isotope Innovations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    During a decade of discovery, the geochemical toolkit available for paleoredox reconstruction expanded dramatically. Notably, high-precision isotope analyses using multiple collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) revealed that natural variations in isotope abundances due to isotope fractionation are ubiquitous across the Periodic Table. These variations quickly drew interest as paleoredox proxies because many of these isotope fractionations are driven by redox transformations. However, this potential has not been fully exploited because of the complexities of ancient systems and the need for extensive work in experiments and modern analog environments to calibrate these proxies. To generate the large datasets needed to move beyond "proof of potential" research, technological innovations are required. Two areas should be targeted for near-term progress, in both cases borrowing inspiration from the evolution of methods used to study light stable isotope systems. First, sample preparation is often an analytical bottleneck, especially for non-specialists, and the need for complex, specialized laboratory facilities when preparing samples manually limits the adoption of isotope techniques. This challenge can be addressed by developing and adapting automated ion exchange systems that allow inline or offline sample preparation. Systems that could be a basis for this effort are now becoming commercially available. Second, high precision isotope analysis using mass spectrometry presently requires expert technical support due to the complexities and costs of the instrumentation. Novel mass spectrometer designs are one approach to this challenge. Another is the use of high-resolution laser spectroscopy rather than mass spectrometry for isotope analysis. Concepts and preliminary efforts in these areas will be discussed.

  9. Osmium isotopes in ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Luck; Claude J. Allegre

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports Re and Os concentrations and Os isotropic composition for ultramafic samples from ophiolites. Present-day Os-187\\/Os-186 for the upper mantle is found to be constrained, for the time being, around 1.05-1.06. The mantle evolution curve for osmium isotopes through time, when associated with recent Os isotopic determinations from the literature for Archaean samples, shows a 'chondritic' Re-187\\/Os-196

  10. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  11. Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Leaf-scale Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Ecosystem Respired Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in a Semi-arid Woodland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. McDowell; B. Chris; D. Hanson; S. Kern; C. Meyer; W. Pockman; H. Powers

    2005-01-01

    We present results and speculative interpretation of leaf-level carbon isotope discrimination and ecosystem respired carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from a semi-arid, C3\\/C4 woodland located in northern New Mexico, USA. Overstory leaf area index (LAI) is dominated by live juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees with an LAI value of approximately 1.0 m2 per m2 ground area, and has a seasonally dynamic

  12. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ?18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  13. Orogeny can be very short.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John F

    2005-10-25

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc-continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted approximately 18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10(-15). Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  14. Isotope dilution mass spectrometric quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins and tissues is facilitated by reduction to 3-aminotyrosine.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J R; Yarasheski, K; Leeuwenburgh, C; Turk, J; Heinecke, J W

    1998-05-15

    Oxidative damage by reactive nitrogen species has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms of tissue damage are poorly understood, however, because the toxic intermediates are short-lived. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that 3-nitrotyrosine represents a specific marker of protein oxidation by reactive nitrogen species. The detection of this nitrated aromatic amino acid may thus serve as an indicator of tissue injury by nitrogen species in vivo. Here we describe a highly sensitive and specific analytical method for quantifying free and protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine. The assay involves acid hydrolysis of proteins, isolation of 3-nitrotyrosine by ion exchange chromatography, and reduction of 3-nitrotyrosine to 3-aminotyrosine with dithionite. The reduced amino acid is then converted to its n-propyl, per-heptafluorobutyryl derivative and quantified by isotope dilution gas chromatography negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Attomole levels of 3-nitrotyrosine can be reproducibly measured in this manner. Quantifying 3-nitrotyrosine levels of tissues by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry should provide a powerful tool for exploring the impact of reactive nitrogen species on oxidative reactions in vivo. PMID:9606153

  15. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio as a new tracer of radiocesium released from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Bu, Wenting; Uchida, Shigeo; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao

    2014-05-20

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011, intensive studies of the distribution of released fission products, in particular (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the environment have been conducted. However, the release sources, that is, the damaged reactors or the spent fuel pools, have not been identified, which resulted in great variation in the estimated amounts of (137)Cs released. Here, we investigated heavily contaminated environmental samples (litter, lichen, and soil) collected from Fukushima forests for the long-lived (135)Cs (half-life of 2 × 10(6) years), which is usually difficult to measure using decay-counting techniques. Using a newly developed triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry method, we analyzed the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio of the FDNPP-released radiocesium in environmental samples. We demonstrated that radiocesium was mainly released from the Unit 2 reactor. Considering the fact that the widely used tracer for the released Fukushima accident-sourced radiocesium in the environment, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, will become unavailable in the near future because of the short half-life of (134)Cs (2.06 years), the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio can be considered as a new tracer for source identification and long-term estimation of the mobility of released radiocesium in the environment. PMID:24779957

  16. Assisted Living Community Profile

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services; Supervise person with cognitive disabilities; Social and religious activities; Arrangements for transportation; Laundry and linen service; ... NCAL Gazette Resources & Publications Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Consumer Resources Health Information Technology In-Service ...

  17. Mercury: Where You Live

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for... Businesses Consumers Health Care Providers Parents Schools Mercury can be found most anywhere. On this page, you will find resources about mercury where you live - your home and community, your ...

  18. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  19. Live Science: Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, created by Live Science, provides current information on what is happening in technology. The site features videos and textual information on broad technical topics, including electronics, robotics, energy, aeronautics and much more.

  20. Living and Nonliving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2003-09-26

    What is it that distinguishes a living organism from a nonliving object? This collection of images presents examples that aren't as clear-cut as one might think, enticing students to question the meaning of life.

  1. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating and maintaining an active lifestyle after a prostate cancer diagnosis can lower the chances of the cancer coming ... cardiovascular fitness, and depression. Physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis is linked to living longer and a reduced ...

  2. Living with Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), ... it harder for you to make lifestyle changes. Heart Attack Warning Signs If you have CHD, learn ...

  3. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> November 1, 2011 Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  4. Living with Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  5. The Living Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

  6. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  7. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  8. Living and Fossil Macrocyprididae

    E-print Network

    Maddocks, R. F.

    1990-02-27

    that resisted wetting, dirt, and cracks or other flaws, especially in the older type specimens. Adhering epidermis and uncalcified inner lamella also are visible in many photo- graphs of live specimens. These unretouched photographs were printed at standard... that resisted wetting, dirt, and cracks or other flaws, especially in the older type specimens. Adhering epidermis and uncalcified inner lamella also are visible in many photo- graphs of live specimens. These unretouched photographs were printed at standard...

  9. Boron and lithium isotopic composition in chondrules from the mokoia meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, F.; Chaussidon, M.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: Large Boron isotopic variations have been reported in individual chondrules from several meteorites [1, 2]. These variations were interpreted as resulting from the incomplete mixing of two isotopically distinct sources of Boron. Spallation is the only known nucleosynthetic process that can yield Boron in substantial amounts at the scale of the Universe. Therefore it has been proposed that the two sources observed in chondrules correspond to two different types of spallation reactions, namely at high and low energies. Indeed, in the case of Boron, the 11B/10B ratio is sensitive to the energy at which the spallation reaction takes place. Since this report of large B isotopic variations in chondrules, two observations have allowed to identify the natural conditions under which at least one of such spallation reactions may have taken place in the early solar system. First, X-ray observations of T-Tauri stars have revealed daily outbursts which mimic the present day solar activity during the emission of flares [3]. Second, the decay product (i.e. 10B) of the short lived radio-isotope 10Be was discovered in Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) [4]. This is an indication that spallation did occurr in the solar system, shortly (i.e. less than a few million years) before the formation of the CAIs. In addition the possible occurrence of 7Be in CAIs suggests that this duration can be as short as a few months [5]. Sampling and Results: In the 8 chondrules from Mokoia, the ?11B values range between -39±6.8 ppm and -0.6±7.8 ppm (2 sigma). In one Boron depleted area of one chondrule, the ?11B value was found to be as low as -68.5 ppm and -61.5 ppm (±29; 2 sigma). In one chondrule from Mokoia the ?11B values range between -33.7±5.4 ppm and -3.8±5.4 ppm. These data confirm with a resolution of ? ±6 ppm the presence of a significant Boron isotopic heterogeneity,.The ?^7Li were also measured along with the ^delta11B. They range from -53.7±2.4 and -0.15±1.6 ppm (2 sigma) in the 8 chondrules of the Mokoia meteorite. Therefore the heterogeneity in B has its counterpart for Li. Interpretation: A two end member mixing model members can be proposed : ?11B ?0 ppm and ?11B<= -70 ppm. The value of 0 ppm is still significantly different from the matrix value reported by [6] (+19.2 ppm) and thus the possible contamination of the chondrule by their surrounding matrix is highly unlikely. The second end member should have ?11B and ?^7Li values le-70 ppm and le-50 ppm, respectively, resulting from Li and B produced at high energy by spallation reactions (E >= 100 MeV/nucleon, ?11B =-375 ?^7Li = -830 ppm). References: [1] Chaussidon M., Robert F. (1995) Nature 374, 337-339. [2] Chaussidon M. and Robert F. (1998) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 164, 577-589. [3] Montmerle T. (1999) MPE Report : Astronomy with Radioactivities, 225-236. [4] McKeegan K., Chaussidon M., Robert F. (2000) Science 289, 1334-1337. [5] Chaussidon M., Robert F. McKeegan K. (2002) Abst. 33th LPSC #1563 [6] Hoppe et al., (2001) MAPS, 36, 1331-1343. [7] Zhai M et al., (1996) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 4877-4881.

  10. Assisted Living State Regulatory Review

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State Regulatory Review Webinars Assisted Living State Regulatory Review Page Content NCAL will not be publishing its ... on the NCAL website. Assisted Living State Regulatory Reviews 2013 Assisted Living State Regulatory Review 2012 Assisted ...

  11. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles. PMID:18613003

  12. Living Things and their Habitats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. D.

    2006-10-11

    Students will learn how to tell the difference between living and non-living organisms and their habitats. Our class has just learned about living things and their habitats. Use this webquest to create your own living things and their habitats. Remember a living thing: Grows Moves Reproduces A Habitat is a place (home) for living things. A habitat provides four important things: 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Space 4. Water Now you get to decide ...

  13. Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O?.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Ash, Jeanine L; Young, Edward D

    2015-04-24

    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of "clumped" isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in (18)O(18)O and (17)O(18)O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling. PMID:25908819

  14. The relation between air mass trajectories and the water isotope composition of rain in the Mediterranean Sea area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rindsberger; M. Magaritz; I. Carmi; D. Gilad

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of rainwater near Nahariya, Israel, was measured in 12 individual storms during the winter months of 1980\\/1981. Rains most depleted in the heavy stable isotopes and enriched in tritium are associated with air masses which come from North East Europe and have a short, intense interaction with the East Mediterranean Sea. Storms most enriched in 18O and

  15. [Research on the experiment of hydrogen isotope fractionation using diamond anvil cell and Raman spectra].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-xia; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2011-03-01

    Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell and Raman spectroscopy were used to measure the hydrogen isotope fractionation factor between gypsum and liquid water. Hydrogen isotopes of deuterium (D) and hydrogen (H) show the largest relative mass difference in all stable isotope systems. The exchange reaction between D and H would easily take place and the extent of exchange would be larger than others under same condition. So we selected the hydrogen isotopes for the investigation. The concept of fractionation factor is the quotient of ratios of heavy and light isotopes in different minerals, and can be expressed as alpha(A-B) = R(A)/R(B). There is a linear relationship between ratio of Raman peak intensities and ratio of corresponding amount of substances. So the fractionation factor between gypsum and heavy water can be expressed as [formula: see text] The experimental study for the isotope fractionation is based on the dissolution and recrystallization of minerals in aqueous solutions. The process can reach the total isotope fractionation equilibrium and get isotope fractionation factors with different temperatures. Compared with other methods, chemical synthesis one has following advantages: (1) short time for the experiment; (2) no problem about the equilibrium for isotope exchanges. It was proved that the new method would be more convenient and reliable for obtaining the isotopic fractionation factor compared with previous ways. PMID:21595220

  16. Discovery of the Cerium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Ginepro, J Q; Thoennessen, M

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of the 35 cerium isotopes discovered up to date is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Discovery of the Cerium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    J. Q. Ginepro; J. Snyder; M. Thoennessen

    2008-12-24

    The discovery of the 35 cerium isotopes discovered up to date is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Xenon isotope systematics, giant impacts, and mantle degassing on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Robert O.; Porcelli, Don

    2006-10-01

    The relationships between the major terrestrial volatile reservoirs are explored by resolving the different components in the Xe isotope signatures displayed by Harding County and Caroline CO 2 well gases and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). For the nonradiogenic isotopes, there is evidence for the presence of components enhanced in the light 124-128Xe/ 130Xe isotope ratios with respect to the terrestrial atmosphere. The observation of small but significant elevations of these ratios in the MORB and well gas reservoirs means that the nonradiogenic Xe in the atmosphere cannot be the primordial base composition in the mantle. The presence of solar-like components, for example U-Xe, solar wind Xe, or both, is required. For radiogenic Xe generated by decay of short-lived 129I and 244Pu, the 129Xe rad/ 136Xe 244 ratios are indistinguishable in MORB and the present atmosphere, but differ by approximately an order of magnitude between the MORB and well gas sources. Correspondence of these ratios in MORB and the atmosphere within the relatively small uncertainties found here significantly constrains possible mantle degassing scenarios. The widely held view that substantial early degassing of 129Xe rad and 136Xe 244 from the MORB reservoir to the atmosphere occurred and then ended while 129I was still alive is incompatible with equal ratios, and so is not a possible explanation for observed elevations of 129Xe/ 130Xe in MORB compared to the atmosphere. Detailed degassing chronologies constructed from the isotopic composition of MORB Xe are therefore questionable. If the present estimate for the uranium/iodine ratio in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is taken to apply to all interior volatile reservoirs, the differing 129Xe rad/ 136Xe 244 ratios in MORB and the well gases point to two episodes of major mantle degassing, presumably driven by giant impacts, respectively ˜ 20-50 Ma and ˜ 95-100 Ma after solar system origin assuming current values for initial 129I/ 127I and 244Pu/ 238U. The earlier time range, for degassing of the well gas source, spans Hf-W calculations for the timing of a moon-forming impact. The second, later impact further outgassed the upper mantle and MORB source. A single event that degassed both the MORB and gas well reservoirs at the time of the moon-forming collision would be compatible with their distinct 129Xe rad/ 136Xe 244 ratios only if the post-impact iodine abundance in the MORB reservoir was about an order of magnitude lower than current estimates. In either case, such late dates require large early losses of noble gases, so that initial inventories acquired throughout the Earth must have been substantially higher. The much larger 129Xe rad/ 136Xe 244 ratio in the well gases compared to MORB requires that these two Xe components evolve from separate interior reservoirs that have been effectively isolated from each other for most of the age of the planet, but are now seen within the upper mantle. These reservoirs have maintained distinct Xe isotope signatures despite having similar Ne isotope compositions that reflect similar degassing histories. This suggests that the light noble gas and radiogenic Xe isotopes are decoupled, with separate long-term storage of the latter. However, without data on the extent of heterogeneities within the upper mantle, this conclusion cannot be easily reconciled with geophysical observations without significant re-evaluation of present noble gas models. Nevertheless the analytic evidence that two different values of 129Xe rad/ 136Xe 244 exist in the Earth appears firm. If the uranium/iodine ratio is approximately uniform throughout the BSE, it follows that degassing events from separate reservoirs at different times are recorded in the currently available terrestrial Xe data.

  19. Independent Lens Online Shorts Festival

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since its creation a few years ago, the Independent Lens series has worked with various filmmakers and producers to create thoughtful portraits. These portraits have included subjects such as the life of Billy Strayhorn, people living with dystonia, and the world of Ethiopian coffee growers. Recently, they also embarked on yet another ambitious project: an online shorts festival. Visitors to this site can partake of all ten of these films at their leisure. Included are a film that explores a Parisian secret from 1951, a meditation of growing old, and an artist who created a monument out of mud, old paint, and adobe. After viewing the films, visitors are also welcome to leave their comments in the "Talkback" section, submit a film or find out more about the members of the jury for this online film festival.

  20. Through a temporal window, we see isotopic signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Hiroshi [Senshu Univ. of Ishinomaki, Miyagi (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Stable isotope composition of bioelements is different between diet and assimilated tissues. Furthermore, the apparent fractionation factors from diet to tissues seem to differ among different tissues: each tissue of an organism reflects the isotope abundances of diet in a different manner. The turnover rate of a tissue, its biochemical composition, its immediate source, and distribution of available resources within an individuals body are among the possible factors that would affect the fractionation factor. Stable isotope composition of an animal tissue or particular biochemical molecules would give a glimpse of the animal itself and its environments only through a particular window, whose width and height are dependent on many factors including animal age. Some tissues that form in a relatively short period during which material exchanges in an animal body can be considered nearly in a steady state would give a clearly defined window frame. One example is feathers of adult birds: the change in the isotope composition from diet to the tissue has been shown stable with time. Tissues formed during a rapid growth of animal body or during a metamorphosis would be an example of another extreme, the window frame being subject to a rapid change with time in its shape. Isotopic knowledge on characteristics of the window is needed to extend the applicability of stable isotope study into researches in ecogeochemistry and environmental chemistry.

  1. Living in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

  2. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  3. Two new isotopes of einsteinium ²⁴³Es and ²⁴⁴Es

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Eskola; K. Eskola; M. Nurmia; A. Ghiorso

    1973-01-01

    Two isotopes of einsteinium, ²⁴³Es and ²⁴⁴Es, were studied ; by means of alpha -particle spectroscopy. The isotopes were produced by ; bombarding a ²³³U target with ¹⁵N ions accelerated by the Berkeley ; HILAC. The half-lives and the alpha -particle energies of the two nuclides were ; observed to be: ²⁴³Es 21 plus or minus 2 s, 7.89 plus

  4. Alpha-decay widths of neutron-deficient francium and astatine isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hornshoej; P. G. Hansen; B. Jonson

    1974-01-01

    The use of mass-separated samples of neutron-deficient francium isotopes, produced at the ISOLDE on-line mass-separator facility at the CERN 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron, has permitted precise determinations through genetic relationships of alpha\\/(EC+beta+) branching ratios for a range of light francium and astatine isotopes. The experiments verify previous mass assignments and provide improved values for the half-lives. The systematics of alpha-widths and

  5. Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy, the Baby and the Bathwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Secular variations in the carbon isotopic values of carbonate sediments and rocks and their individual components have been applied successfully to problems of stratigraphic correlation and for interpretation of past changes in the global carbon cycle. However, this methodology is not without problems. A major tenet of stable isotope chemostratigraphy involves sampling and analyzing multiple, widely separated sequences, and, if possible, multiple carbon-bearing components (e.g., carbonate and organic carbon) in order to demonstrate a global signal. In some cases, this methodology has been short-circuited in the zeal to reveal a new event or excursion, particularly for time intervals for which adequate sequences are somewhat rare. Likewise, although most carbonate researchers are quite aware of the possible importance of diagenesis, particularly in organic-carbon rich sequences or in shoal-water carbonate sequences with longer-term subaerial exposure events, such overprints commonly go unrecognized or are considered of minor impact. Studies of stable isotope variations in carbonate sequences should always employ textural and geochemical methodologies for detecting and even quantifying diagenesis, if possible. Although some diagenetically overprinted or misinterpreted geochemical data have undoubtedly appeared in the literature, there are many excellent examples of global carbon isotope variations in records expressed in pelagic biogenic carbonate, marine organic carbon, platform carbonates, and terrestrial organic matter. Arguably, one of the best-documented examples is the Cenomanian-Turonian (ca. 93 Ma) positive carbon isotope excursion. The amplitude of the Cenomanian-Turonian carbon isotope excursion is similar among all types of records, but there are subtle pattern differences that arise from differences in sedimentation rate among and within sequences. Organic carbon and carbonate carbon isotope signals also may differ in phasing and amplitude for certain events, which may provide information regarding changes in atmospheric- oceanic carbon isotope variations versus changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The early Aptian carbon isotope excursions serve as a key example of this. The platform-basin carbonate carbon isotope correspondence undoubtedly works best during times of "calcite seas," such as during the Cretaceous when the complication of greater dominance of more 13-C enriched aragonite in platform settings, such as during the late Neogene, is generally absent. The baby remains robust. Indeed, carbon isotopes still have great utility for reconstructing water-column isotope gradients, global changes in carbon cycling, and for pattern-based long-distance correlation. However, we do need to be judicious in our choice of samples and to temper our enthusiasm for seeking out and interpreting extreme signals.

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Isotope Coding Proteomics

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Quantitative Proteomics Isotope Coding Proteomics ­ In-vitro labeling » ICAT » Acid cleavable ICAT quantitation Increased isotope spacing ­ 9 Daltons rather than 8 Daltons ­ Less interference from oxidation;Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture, SILAC, as a Simple and Accurate Approach

  7. 1, 393412, 2004 Carbon isotope

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 1, 393­412, 2004 Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool F. Keppler et al. Title Page Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Carbon isotope anomaly.keppler@qub.ac.uk) 393 #12;BGD 1, 393­412, 2004 Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool F. Keppler et al. Title

  8. Isotope Production Facility FOCUSAugust 2011

    E-print Network

    Isotope Production Facility FOCUSAugust 2011 #12;The Pulse FOCUS--Special topics newsletter this special issue of the AOT & LANSCE Pulse focusing on the Isotope Production Facility (IPF). I find. Meiring Nortier performs early experiments on actinium-225, a promising isotope for cancer treatment

  9. Colorado Plateau Stable Isotope Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colorado Plateau Stable Isotope Laboratory (CPSIL)

    This website, hosted by Northern Arizona University, describes stable isotopes. The site defines stable isotopes and how to measure them, and lists their research applications. Many of the advances in ecology and environmental sciences in the past decade have relied on stable isotopes.

  10. Modeling Chemical and Isotopic Variations in Lab Formed Hydrothermal Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Golden, D. C.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical data (e.g. [1]) from Mars suggest that the history of liquid water on the planet was more sporadic in nature than long-lived. The non-equilibrium chemical and isotopic compositions of the carbonates preserved in the martian meteorite ALH84001 are direct evidence of ancient secondary minerals that have not undergone significant diagenesis or stabilization processes typical of long-lived aqueous systems on Earth. Thus secondary minerals and sediments on Mars may primarily record the characteristics of the aqueous environment in which they formed without being significantly overprinted by subsequent diagenetic processes during burial.

  11. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  12. Calit2: Live Webcasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) conducts research on the scientific and technological components needed to "extend the reach of the Internet throughout the physical world." (See also report on Mathematics, Engineering and Technology, March 15, 2002) This section of the Institute website features live webcasts and video footage of guest speakers who visited the Institute. Topics range from robot design to Internet plagues, and from Telematics to the Internet marketplace. Upcoming live webcasts for May 2005 will address Non-Magnetic Data Storage Principles, Potential and Problems; Quantum Codes: Constructions and Parameters; and Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.

  13. Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nardoto, G.B.; Silva, S.; Kendall, C.; Ehleringer, J.R.; Chesson, L.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Moreira, M.Z.; Ometto, J.P.H.B.; Martinelli, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of human fingernails were measured in 490 individuals in the western US and 273 individuals in southeastern Brazil living in urban areas, and 53 individuals living in a moderately isolated area in the central Amazon region of Brazil and consuming mostly locally grown foods. In addition, we measured the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of common food items to assess the extent to which these isotopic signatures remain distinct for people eating both omnivorous and vegetarian diets and living in different parts of the world, and the extent to which dietary information can be interpreted from these analyses. Fingernail ??13C values (mean ?? standard deviation) were -15.4 ?? 1.0 and -18.8 ?? 0.8??? and ??15N values were 10.4 ?? 0.7 and 9.4 ?? 0.6??? for southeastern Brazil and western US populations, respectively. Despite opportunities for a "global supermarket" effect to swamp out carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in these two urbanized regions of the world, differences in the fingernail isotope ratios between southeastern Brazil and western US populations persisted, and appeared to be more associated with regional agricultural and animal production practices. Omnivores and vegetarians from Brazil and the US were isotopically distinct, both within and between regions. In a comparison of fingernails of individuals from an urban city and isolated communities in the Amazonian region, the urban region was similar to southeastern Brazil, whereas individuals from isolated nonurban communities showed distinctive isotopic values consistent with their diets and with the isotopic values of local foods. Although there is a tendency for a "global supermarket" diet, carbon and nitrogen isotopes of human fingernails hold dietary information directly related to both food sources and dietary practices in a region. ?? 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Rates of carbonate soil evolution from carbon, U- and Th-series isotope studies: Example of the Astian sands (SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbecot, Florent; Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2015-04-01

    In carbonate rich soils, C-isotopes (14C, 13C) and carbonate mass budget may inform on centennial to millennial time scale dissolution/precipitation processes and weathering rates, whereas disequilibria between in the U- and Th-decay series provide tools to document high- (228Ra-228Th-210Pb) to low- (234U, 230Th, 231Pa, 226Ra) geochemical processes rate, covering annual to ~ 1Ma time scales, governing both carbonate and silicate soil fractions. Because lithology constitutes a boundary condition, we intend to illustrate the behavior of such isotopes in soils developed over Astian sands formation (up to ~ 30% carbonate) from the Béziers area (SE France). A >20 m thick unsaturated zone was sampled firstly along a naturally exposed section, then in a cored sequence. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses, including stable isotopes and 14C-measurements, were complemented with 228U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Th, 232Th measurements. Whereas the upper 7 m depict geochemical and isotopic features forced by dissolution/precipitation processes leading to variable radioactive disequilibria, but overall deficits in more soluble elements of the decay series, the lower part of the sequence shows strong excesses in 234U and 230Th over parent isotopes (i.e., 238U and 234U, respectively). These features might have been interpreted as the result of successive phases of U-loss and gains. However, 226Ra and 230Th are in near-equilibrium, thus leading to conclude at a more likely slow enrichment process in both 234Th(234U) and 230Th, which we link to dissolved U-decay during groundwater recharge events. In addition, 210Pb deficits (vs parent 226Ra) are observed down to 12 m along the natural outcropping section and below the top-soil 210Pb-excess in the cored sequence, due to gaseous 222Rn-diffusion over the cliff outcrop. Based on C-isotope and chemical analysis, reaction rates at 14C-time scale are distinct from those estimates at the short- or long-lived U-series isotopes, but provide a specific insight into carbonate budgets when confronted with data on dissolved and gaseous phases as well as on solid matter, and possibly best integrate the overall soil behavior through time. It is concluded from this example that if first order estimates of long-term geochemical fluxes in soils can be obtained from disequilibria in the 238U-234U-230Th sequence or from C-isotope data. While insights into recent to "Anthropocene" processes require information on the shorter-lived isotopes of the U and Th series, adding specific information on physical and chemical erosion budgets from 232Th data. As also illustrated in the present example, a robust assessment of overall chemical and physical erosion rates must be based on measurements in cored sequences away from natural or recent man-made cuts.

  15. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  16. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  17. Clumped Isotope Composition of Cold-Water Corals: A Role for Vital Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, P.; Guo, W.; Robinson, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements on a set of cold-water corals (mainly Desmophyllum dianthus) have suggested that their clumped isotope composition could serve as a promising proxy for reconstructing paleocean temperatures. Such measurements have also offered support for certain isotope models of coral calcification. However, there are differences in the clumped isotope compositions between warm-water and cold-water corals, suggesting that different kinds of corals could have differences in their biocalcification processes. In order to understand the systematics of clumped isotope variations in cold-water corals more fully, we present clumped isotope data from a range of cold-water coral species from the tropical Atlantic and the Southern Ocean.Our samples were either collected live or recently dead (14C ages < 1,000 yrs) with associated temperature data. They include a total of 11 solitary corals and 1 colonial coral from the Atlantic, and 8 solitary corals from the Southern Ocean. The data indicate that coral clumped isotope systematics may be more complicated than previously thought. For example, for the genus Caryophyllia we observe significant variations in clumped isotope compositions for corals which grew at the same temperature with an apparent negative correlation between ?47 and ?18O, different to patterns previously observed in Desmophyllum. These results indicate that existing isotope models of biocalcification may not apply equally well to all corals. Clumped isotope vital effects may be present in certain cold-water corals as they are in warm-water corals, complicating the use of this paleoclimate proxy.

  18. H/D isotope effects in hydrogen bonded systems.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Lucjan; Obrzud, Monika; Filarowski, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of ?d (¹H,²H) on d (¹H). This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ?pKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals. PMID:23591926

  19. Isotopic Investigations of Nebular and Parent Body Processes with a High Sensitivity Ion Microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA supported the development of the CAMECA ims 1270 ion microprobe at UCLA for applications in cosmochemistry. The primary investigations centered on measuring the microscopic distributions of key isotopic abundances in primitive meteoritic materials as a means of constraining the nature of important thermal and chemical processes in the solar nebula and the timescales associated with those processes. Our prior work on oxygen isotope anomalies in a wide variety of meteoritic materials had led us to a view of a spatially heterogeneous nebula, and in particular, a restricted region for CAI formation that is characterized by O-16-rich gas. Because of its production of CAIs in the energetic local environment near the protosun, the existence of a natural transport mechanism via bipolar outflows, and a general astrophysical plausibility, we were attracted to the fluctuating X-wind model which had been put forward by Frank Shu, Typhoon Lee, and colleagues. With our collaborators, we undertook a series of investigations to test the viability of this hypothesis; this work led directly to the discovery of live Be in CAIs and a clear demonstration of the existence of 160-rich condensates, which necessarily implies an O-16-rich gaseous reservoir in the nebula. Both of these observations fit well within the context of X-wind type models, i.e. formation of CAIs (or condensation of their precursors) in the reconnection ring sunward of the inner edge of the accretion disk, however much work remains to be done to test whether the physical parameters of the model can quantitatively predict not only the thermal histories of CAIs but also their radioactivity. The issue of spatial heterogeneity in the nebula, central to the X-wind model, is also at the heart of any chronology based on short-lived radioisotopes. In this work, we followed up on strong hints for presence of exireme:j: (53 day) short-lived Be-7, and have prepared a manuscript (in revision). We also measured A1-Mg systematics by a combined approach of high-precision multiple-collector SIMS analyses, traditional analyses on the UCLA ims 1270, and high-spatial resolution analyses using a NanoSIMS instrument. The data help to deconvolve effects due to partial resetting of the A1-Mg system by multiple thermal events. Finally, we initiated investigations related to nebular heterogeneity with a new initiative of in situ high-precision sulfur isotope analyses of sulfides from a wide variety of components of chondrites. The ultimate goal of all this work is to help develop a better understanding of the relationships between CAIs and chondrules, the astrophysical environments in which they formed, and the timescales of nebular processes. As detailed in Table 1, for the project period, 14 manuscripts were published and 17 abstracts were presented describing the work.

  20. Measurement for isotopic abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    Review was made on the determination of isotopic abundance ratio by the ; mass spectroscopic method, relation between the abundance ratio and atomic ; weight, problems in the relative measurement of the ratio, standard materials for ; the determination of the abundance ratio and extraterrestrial materials, and ; specific topics on varlous elements. Use of mass spectrographs is classified ;

  1. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus G. Heumann

    1992-01-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g.

  2. What Lives Here

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1980-01-01

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore an aquatic site such as a pond, lake, stream, river or seashore to find and investigate plants and animals that live in water. Learners use dip nets to scoop up as many different organisms as they can for observation. This is a great introduction to the life of aquatic systems.

  3. Live Science: Robots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Live Science looks at developments in robotics. The site includes interactive features, images, multimedia and news items. Teachers interested in beginning a unit on robotics will find many useful resources on the site to use as a starting point.

  4. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  5. Living in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2007-12-12

    NASA's Living in Space Web site allows kids of all ages the opportunity to learn how astronauts cope with zero gravity conditions in space. Everything from eating, dressing, working, and having fun is explained through descriptions, photographs, movies, audio files, and more.

  6. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

  7. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  8. Living with Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Living With Cancer Day to Day The impact of kidney cancer on your life is complex. Here are suggestions on what to expect — from employment matters and ... least one half hour of exercise every other day. Vigorous walking, jogging, swimming, or other aerobic exercise ...

  9. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  10. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  11. Living with Vasculitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with vasculitis. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  12. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with Marfan syndrome. You ... it. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  13. Living with ARDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with ARDS. You can ... them. Talk to your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  14. Living with Thalassemias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with thalassemia. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  15. Living with Hemochromatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with hemochromatosis. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area ... and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  16. Solar System Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, John

    The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

  17. Live Science: Hot Topics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Live Science looks at a multitude of topics and the latest news and/or inventions in the topic. Topics include: Nanotechnolgy, Science, Robots, Biotechnology, Inventions, Technology and more. Each page includes a collection of resources on each topic.

  18. Choice of Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, R. J.; Lakin, K. C.; Larson, S.; Engler, J.; Taub, S.; Fortune, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rights to choose where and with whom to live are widely endorsed but commonly denied to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The current study provides a contemporary benchmark on the degree of choice exercised by adult service users in the USA. Method: Data came from the National Core Indicators programme. Participants were…

  19. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  20. Isotopic dependence of nuclear temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Fengshou [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A systematic study of isotope temperatures has been presented for heavy-ion collisions at 600 MeV/nucleon via the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the statistical decay model (GEMINI). We find that the isospin dependence of the isotope temperatures in multifragmentation is weak; however, this effect is still visible over a wide isotopic range. The isotope temperatures for the neutron-rich projectiles are larger than those for the neutron-poor projectiles. We also find that the isotope temperatures calculated by the model decrease with increasing nuclear mass.