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1

Study of short-lived bromine isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First experiments in the systematic study of the structure of ground states and isomeric states of Br isotopes as function of neutron number at ISOLDE, CERN are reported. The isotopes74g.74m,77,78,84g,84mBr have been implanted into iron and studied with the techniques of low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei (NMR/ON). The experiments were performed with the NICOLE on-line nuclear orientation set-up using the isotope separator ISOLDE-3. NMR/ON experiments were successful for74mBr with continuous on-line implantation and for77Br. Using as value of the hyperfine field Bhf(BrFe)=+81.3S (3) T we obtain |g (74mBr)|=0.455 (3) and |g (77Br)|=0.6492 (3). Static nuclear orientation data have been measured for all above mentioned isotopes. From these data we derive |?(78Br, I=1)|=0.13 (3) and |?(84gBr, I=2)|=1.9 (7). The results are discussed within the systematics of the bromine isotopes.

Prinz, J.; Berkes, I.; Herzog, P.; Hlimi, B.; de Jesus, M.; Massaq, M.; Romanski, I.

1992-11-01

2

Proton scattering by short lived sulfur isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic and inelastic proton scattering has been measured in inverse kinematics on the unstable nucleus 40S. A phenomenological distorted wave Born approximation analysis yields a quadrupole deformation parameter beta2=0.35+\\/-0.05 for the 2+1 state. Consistent phenomenological and microscopic proton scattering analyses have been applied to all even-even sulfur isotopes from A=32 to A=40. The second analysis used microscopic collective model densities

F. Maréchal; T. Suomijärvi; Y. Blumenfeld; A. Azhari; E. Bauge; D. Bazin; J. A. Brown; P. D. Cottle; J. P. Delaroche; M. Fauerbach; M. Girod; T. Glasmacher; S. E. Hirzebruch; J. K. Jewell; J. H. Kelley; K. W. Kemper; P. F. Mantica; D. J. Morrissey; L. A. Riley; J. A. Scarpaci; H. Scheit; M. Steiner

1999-01-01

3

Production of Short-Lived Isotopes at the ISOLDE on-Line Mass-Separator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the target and ion-source techniques used at the ISOLDE isotope separators for production of short-lived mass-separated nuclei is given. The production of high intensity beams of radioactive nuclei by bombardment of thick targets with 600 MeV ...

E. Hagebo P. Hoff O. C. Jonsson E. Kugler H. L. Ravn

1988-01-01

4

Separation efficiency of the MASHA facility for short-lived mercury isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass-separator MASHA built to identify Super Heavy Elements by their mass-to-charge ratios is described. The results of the off- and on-line measurements of its separation efficiency are presented. In the former case four calibrated leaks of noble gases were used. In the latter the efficiency was measured via 284 MeV Ar beam and with using the hot catcher. The ECR ion source was used in both cases. The -radioactive isotopes of mercury produced in the complete fusion reaction Ar+SmHg+xn were detected at the mass-separator focal plane. The half-lives and the separation efficiency for the short-lived mercury isotopes were measured. Potentialities of the MEDIPIX detector system have been demonstrated for future use at the mass-separator MASHA.

Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Itkis, M. G.; Kliman, J.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Krupa, L.; Novoselov, A. S.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Sivá?ek, I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.; Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

2014-06-01

5

Mixing and Transport of Short-lived and Stable Isotopes and Refractory Grains in Protoplanetary Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the ~6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M ?) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M ?) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within ~104 yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level (~1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level (~10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.

Boss, Alan P.

2013-08-01

6

Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

7

Nuclear Moments and Differences in Mean Square Charge Radii of Short-Lived Neon Isotopes by Collinear Laser Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear moments and charge radii of short-lived neon isotopes were measured by the use of collinear laser spectroscopy at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. After a general introduction the semiclassical theory of atomic spectra is given and the relevant properties are calculated for neon. The atomic physics section is followed by a description of the experimental setup

R W Geithner; R Neugart

2002-01-01

8

Simulation and optimization of cyclic activation Analysis of short-lived isotopes with 14MeV neutron generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of simulation and optimization is developed for the case of cyclic activation analysis of short-lived isotopes with\\u000a 14-MeV neutrons. The background line under the photopeaks of interest is simulated using Zikovsky's model. The reliability\\u000a of the program is checked on real conditions with a geological reference sample “Soil 5” provided by the IAEA. Optimum experimental\\u000a conditions (timing parameters,

R. Khelifi; Z. Idiri; S. Tobbeche

1994-01-01

9

Short-lived radium isotopes in the Hawaiian margin: Evidence for large fluid fluxes through the Puna Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured significant activities of short-lived radium isotopes, 223Ra (half-life=11 days) and 224Ra (half-life=3.7 days), around the margins of the Hawaiian Islands to water depths of 3500 m. These measurements suggest fluid inputs from the basalt to the surrounding ocean. In general 223Ra activities were considerably greater than 224Ra in spite of the expected higher production rate of 224Ra activity in basalt. The

Willard S. Moore; William Ussler III; Charles K. Paull

2008-01-01

10

Short-lived Radium Isotopes in the Hawaiian Margin: Evidence for Large Fluid Fluxes Through the Puna Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques to sample and measure short-lived radium isotopes have significantly advanced understanding of groundwater-seawater exchange in coastal areas. The established sampling protocol utilizes traditional wire-line samplers from surface vessels to recover large (200 L) seawater samples. These samples are subsequently passed through Mn-fiber columns at a slow rate (100 L per hour) to assure high radium stripping efficiency. But, sampling

W. S. Moore; C. K. Paull; W. Ussler

2001-01-01

11

Short-lived uncertainty?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived greenhouse gases and black-carbon aerosols have contributed to past climate warming. Curbing their emissions and quantifying the forcing by all short-lived components could both mitigate climate change in the short term and help to refine projections of global warming.

Penner, Joyce E.; Prather, Michael J.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Stevenson, David S.

2010-09-01

12

Isotope-shift measurements of stable and short-lived lithium isotopes for nuclear-charge-radii determination  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the mean square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8-ms-lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10 000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope {sup 11}Li at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

Noertershaeuser, W.; Sanchez, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Ewald, G.; Dax, A.; Goette, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kuehl, Th.; Wojtaszek, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Behr, J.; Bricault, P.; Dilling, J.; Dombsky, M.; Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Pearson, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bushaw, B. A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Drake, G. W. F. [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Puchalski, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Yan, Z.-C. [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

2011-01-15

13

A complementary to 14 MeV neutron generator: Automatic system for the control of the short-lived isotope analysis equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the system for both remote and automatic control of the entire process of the sample irradiation, transfer and counting is given in the paper. The system which is most frequently referred to as a sequence programmer has been found suitable for the control of the short-lived isotope analysis equipment.

Adámek, A.; Severa, F.

1970-11-01

14

Investigating carbon sources to the North Sea using short-lived radium isotope distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon cycling in the North Sea is affected by inputs of atmospheric CO2, as well as inputs of carbonate species (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT)) from various sources including adjacent seas, the sediments lining the ocean floor and from land. While the atmospheric contribution is well understood, this study intends to identify the sedimentary and lateral additions of DIC and AT, and their contributions to the North Sea carbon budget. We propose to quantify these carbon fluxes by utilizing a radium (Ra) isotope tracer technique to first quantify diffusive inputs and Ra dispersion in the North Sea. During a Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) cruise in summer, 2011, the Ra data set was collected 3-dimensionally in the water column, as well as within sediment cores, representing uniquely comprehensive spatial coverage for a single basin. This allows us to fully balance the North Sea's Ra budget under consideration of vertical and lateral sources. Combined with data from high-quality core incubations, preliminary results indicate that the Ra dataset can provide estimates of benthic fluxes of Ra, DIC and AT from the extensive shallow mudflat regions of the North Sea. Furthermore, the surface Ra distributions throughout the region can be used to assess dispersion patterns and eventually determine the contribution of DIC and AT from lateral basins. Simulations of the Ra distributions with a passive tracer hydrographic model are used to evaluate analytical results regarding fluxes of both Ra and carbonate species.

Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Pätsch, Johannes

2013-04-01

15

Isotope shifts of the 6d2D3/2-7p2P1/2 transition in trapped short-lived 209-214Ra+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radium isotopes in a linear Paul trap has been performed. The isotope shifts of the 6d2D3/2-7p2P1/2 transition in 209-214Ra+, which are sensitive to the short-range part of the atomic wave functions, were measured. The results are essential experimental input for improving the precision of atomic structure calculations. This is indispensable for parity violation in Ra+ aiming at the determination of the weak mixing angle.

Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Dammalapati, U.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Müller, S.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

2011-08-01

16

The Fall of the St. Robert Meteorite: Interpretation of Eyewitness Accounts, Satellite Data, Short-Lived Isotope Activity, and Infrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Robert meteoroid (a monomict H5 breccia) entered the Earth's atmosphere at 00:02 UT on June 15, 1994 approximately one hour before local sunset. The resulting daylight fireball was widely observed from the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and the states of New York, Vermont and New Hampshire. The fireball was first observed over New York state at an altitude of ~60 km traveling in a N-NE direction to its point of terminal burst ~60 km northeast of Montreal. At least one observer noted electrophonic sounds heard simultaneously with the passage of the fireball. Several episodes of fragmentation occurred at the end point near an altitude of ~33 km with observers reporting several clumps of dust along the trajectory. Eyewitnesses to the explosion described multi-directional debris dispersal. A prominent dust trail persisted for ~10 minutes after the passage of the fireball. The terminal burst produced loud detonations audible for more than 200 km and of sufficient strength to shake buildings throughout metropolitan Montreal. Twenty fragments of this meteorite have been recovered in a fall ellipse of 7.5 X 4 km located near the farming community of St. Robert. Total recovered mass to date is ~25.4 kg, but the shower of meteorites was sufficiently dense, in at least the uprange part of the ellipse, so that one fragment partially penetrated the roof of a farmer's shed, and two fragments were found on roads. The most productive UTM grid square of 1 km sides yielded 6 meteorites. From the searched fraction of this square km, and a search efficiency of ~0.5 due to ground conditions and subsequent ground disturbance by farming, we estimate that ~25 meteorites fell in this grid square. This concentration implies that as many as 100 fragments greater than 55 g (the smallest recovered) may have fallen. Eighteen of the recovered fragments were completely covered by dark fusion crusts with surfaces showing varying degrees of ablation in accord with the multiple fragmentation episodes observed. Most fragments were found in shallow pits up to ~50 cm deep in the soft clay and sand soils of the region. Dedicated searches by interested local residents and members of the Meteorites and Impacts Advisory Committee to the Canadian Space Agency (and friends) recovered half of the known fragments. Interpretation of the eyewitness data suggest that the fireball traveled from SSW to NNE with a moderate slope from the horizontal of 15-35 degrees. An evaluation of the probable orbits for the meteoroid suggests an entry velocity in the range 12 -15 km/s. The object moved in a low- inclination orbit with perihelion very near the Earth's orbit. The total mass estimated to have reached the ground is 50-100 kg while the pre-atmospheric mass derived from visual observations is found to be of order 1,000 kg. The fireball of the St. Robert meteorite shower was also observed from above by sensors located on satellites of the Department of Defense. In the visual the fireball reached a peak magnitude of -18 during its terminal flare and the observations suggest a lengthy period of fragmentation lasting perhaps as long as one second near the endpoint. Data reduction is proceeding on infrared observations of the fireball, and initial mass estimates will be derived for the pre-atmospheric meteoroid from infrasound considerations, short lived isotope measurements for 8 of the 20 fragments, and dynamical information from eyewitness data in addition to satellite measurements. The St. Robert meteorite shower affords the first opportunity to combine satellite and eyewitness observations of the hypervelocity entry of a natural object into the Earth's atmosphere together with "ground truth" from the surviving remnants of the object's atmospheric passage.

Brown, P.; Hildebrand, A.; Green, D.; Page, D.; Jacobs, C.; Revelle, D.; Tagliaferri, E.; Wacker, J.

1995-09-01

17

Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations and isotopic compositions of lithium, beryllium, and boron, analyzed in situ by ion microprobe in 66 spots of a type B1 Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI 3529-41) from the Allende meteorite, are reported. Large variations are observed for both the Li and the B isotopic ratios with 7Li/ 6Li ranging from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 12.22 ± 0.43 (a ?250‰ range in ?7Li values) and 10B/ 11B ranging from 0.2468 ± 0.0057 to 0.4189 ± 0.0493 (a 410‰ range in ?11B values). The very low Li concentrations (<1 ppb) observed in several anorthite and fassaite grains require that a correction for the contribution of spallogenic Li produced during irradiation of the Allende meteoroid by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) be made (after this correction 7Li/ 6Li ranges from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 13.44 ± 0.56, i.e., a ?350‰ range in ?7Li values). In 3529-41, the 10B/ 11B ratios are positively correlated with 9Be/ 11B in a manner indicating the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) with a 10Be/ 9Be ratio at the time of formation of the CAI of 8.8 ± 0.6 × 10 -4, which is in agreement with previous findings [McKeegan, K.D., Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., 2000. Incorporation of short-lived 10Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Science289, 1334-1337]. The present detailed investigation demonstrates that only minor perturbations of the 10Be- 10B system are present in 3529-41, contrary to the 26Al/ 26Mg system for which numerous examples of isotopic redistribution following crystallization were observed [Podosek, F.A., Zinner, E.K., MacPherson, G.J., Lundberg, L.L., Brannon, J.C., Fahey, A.J., 1991. Correlated study of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and Al-Mg systematics and petrologic properties in a suite of refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 1083-1110]. Petrographically based criteria were developed to identify within the 66 analyzed spots in 3529-41, those where post-magmatic perturbation of the Li and Be distributions occurred. Li and Be concentrations measured in different analytical spots are compared with those predicted by using experimentally determined partition coefficients according to a model of closed-system crystallization of the CAI melt. These criteria show that 56% of the spots in melilite, 38% in anorthite, and 8% in fassaite suffered post-crystallization perturbations of Li and/or Be distributions. In the remaining spots, which do not show obvious indication of redistribution of Li or Be, the 7Li/ 6Li isotopic variations (corrected for GCR exposure) are positively correlated with 9Be/ 6Li suggesting the in situ decay of now-extinct 7Be. The derived isochron implies that at the time of its formation, the CAI melt had a 7Be/ 9Be ratio of 0.0061 ± 0.0013 and a 7Li/ 6Li ratio of 11.49 ± 0.13. In contrast, all the spots in 3529-41, which do show evidence for post-magmatic redistribution of Li and Be, have relatively constant 7Li/ 6Li, averaging 11.72 ± 0.56, which is consistent with mass balance calculations for Li isotopic homogenization in the CAI after the decay of 7Be. The incorporation of live 7Be in 3529-41 requires, because of the very short half-life of this nuclide (53 days), that it be produced essentially contemporaneously with the formation of the CAI. Therefore, the irradiation processes responsible for production of 7Be must have occurred within the solar accretion disk. Calculations developed in the framework of the x-wind model [Gounelle, M., Shu, F.H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A.E., Rehm, E.K., Lee, T., 2004. The origin of short-lived radionuclides and early Solar System irradiation (abstract). Lunar Planet. Sci.35, 1829] reproduce the 7Be and 10Be abundances observed in 3529-41. The correlated presence of 7Be and 10Be in 3529-41 is thus a strong argument that 10Be, which is observed rather ubiquitously in CAIs, is also a product of irradiation in the early solar system, as might be a significant fraction of other short-lived radionuclides observed in early solar system materials.

Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.

2006-01-01

18

Beta-decay energies and masses of short-lived isotopes of rubidium, caesium, francium, and radium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total decay energies have been measured for a number of neutron-deficient Rb and Cs isotopes, as well as for some neutron-rich isotopes of Fr and Ra. Mass separated sources were produced at the ISOLDE on-line separator at CERN. By applying two differentß-? coincidence methods,Q values or their lower limits were determined for76–78Rb,80Rb,121–124Cs,222Fr,224–226Fr,229Ra-229Ac. For many of these nuclei, the atomic mass

L. Westgaard; K. Aleklett; G. Nyman; E. Roeckl

1975-01-01

19

Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes usingcrown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric acid media was studied using the crown ethers dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (DC24C8) as extractants. The goal was to find an extraction system that exhibits a high selectivity between the members of group 4 of the periodic table and is suitable for the study of rutherfordium. It was found that Zr and Hf are both extracted using DB18C6, DC18C6 and DC24C8. The extraction yield increases with increasing acid concentration and increasing concentration of crown ether. The extracted species most likely consists of an ion-association complex formed between a Zr or Hf chloro complex and a hydronium crown ether complex. Conditions can be found for each extractant that provide for the separation of Zr from Hf. This selective separation between Zr and Hf makes the extraction with crown ethers from HCl well suited to study the extraction behavior of Rf and compare it to the behavior of Zr and Hf. These extraction systems can be used to determine whether the extraction behavior of Rf is similar to Zr, similar to Hf or follows the trend established by the lighter homologs. The extraction kinetics are fast enough for the study of the 78-s isotope {sup 261}Rf.

Sudowe, Ralf; Calvert, Michael G.; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Farina, Lindsy M.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Gallaher, Sarah E.H.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Phillips, Diana C.; Schwantes,Jon M.; Wilson, Richard E.; Zielinski Peter M.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche Heino

2005-07-06

20

Short-lived nuclides in the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic records in meteorites provide evidence for the presence of several short-lived nuclides in the early solar system\\u000a with half-lives varying from 105 to ?8x107 years. Most of the nuclides with longer half-life (> 107 years) are considered to be products of stellar nucleosynthesis taking place over long time scales in our galaxy. However,\\u000a for the relatively shorter-lived nuclides, two

J. N. Goswami

1998-01-01

21

Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 × 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na 2O, CaO, A1 2O 3, total Fe, MgO, TiO 2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO 2, K 2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO 2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ?18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ?18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ?18O values (+4.4 to +10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ?18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ?18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ?18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ?feldspar vs. ?groundmss/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low- 18O H 2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the 18O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600 °C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was focused within the upper 750 m of intracaldera tuff. Mass balance calculations indicate fluid fluxes of ? 6 × 10 -6 molcm -2 s -1. We believe that the closest historical analogue to this Chegem hydrothermal event is the situation observed in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (Alaska, USA), where hundreds of steam fumaroles with measured temperatures as high as 645 °C persisted for 10 to 15 years in the much smaller welded ash-flow tuff sheet (? 200 m thick) produced by the 1912 Katmai eruption.

Gazis, Carey; Taylor, Hugh P.; Hon, Ken; Tsvetkov, Andrei

1996-10-01

22

Biomolecular tracing using long-lived isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was developed over the past 15 years as an essential tool for detecting long-lived, cosmogenic radio-isotopes in the earth and space sciences. We apply this technology to the measurement of chemical kinetics, primarily ...

J. S. Vogel K. W. Turteltaub C. E. Frantz G. Keating J. S. Felton

1992-01-01

23

Evaluation of shelf basin interaction in the western Arctic by use of short-lived radium isotopes: The importance of mesoscale processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelf-basin exchange in the western Arctic was evaluated by use of water-column analyses of 228Ra/ 226Ra ratios and the first measurements of the short-lived 224Ra ( T1/2=3.64 d) in the Arctic. During the 2002 shelf-basin interaction (SBI) program, excess 224Ra was detected over the shelf but was not found seaward of the shelf-break. Similarly, the 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio dropped rapidly from the shelf across the shelf-break. Consequently, the model age gradient (elapsed time since shelf residence) northward across the Chukchi Shelf increased from 1-5 years nearshore to approximately 14 years in surface waters sampled off shelf at the southern margin of the Beaufort Gyre. This steep gradient is consistent with very slow exchange between the Chukchi Shelf and the Beaufort Gyre, whereby Bering Strait inflow is constrained by the Earth's rotation to follow local isobaths and does not easily move into deeper water. The strong dynamic control inhibiting water that enters the system through Bering Strait from flowing north across isobaths also would lead to a long recirculation time of river water emptied into the Beaufort Gyre. Possible mechanisms that can generate cross-shelf currents that break the topographic constraint to follow isobaths, and thereby transport water (and associated properties) off the shelves include wind-induced upwelling/downwelling, meandering jets, and eddies. Evidence of such a process was found during the ICEX project in the Beaufort Sea in April 2003 when excess 224Ra was measured over 200 km from any shelf source. This required an NE offshore flow of ˜40 cm s -1 assuming that the source water derives from the mouth of Barrow Canyon. A weak northeastward flow was measured using an LADCP within the upper 300 m of the ocean, but was of lower speed than required by the 224Ra xs at the time of the ICEX occupation.

Kadko, David; Muench, Robin

2005-12-01

24

Skylab short-lived event alert program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

Citron, R. A.

1974-01-01

25

Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope records in UOC chondrules: Plausible stellar source of 60Fe and other short-lived nuclides in the early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived now-extinct nuclide 60Fe, present in the early Solar System, is a unique product of stellar nucleosynthesis. Even though the first hint for its presence in the early Solar System was obtained more than two decades back, a robust value for Solar System initial (SSI) 60Fe/56Fe is yet to be established. A combined study of 26Al-26Mg and 60Fe-60Ni isotope systematics in chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites of low petrologic type, Semarkona (LL3.0), LEW 86134 (L3.0), and Y 791324 (L3.1), has been conducted to infer the value of SSI 60Fe/56Fe. Seven of the analysed chondrules host resolved radiogenic excess in both 60Ni and 26Mg resulting from in situ decay of the short-lived nuclides 60Fe and 26Al, respectively. The initial 26Al/27Al values for these chondrules range from (6.9 ± 5.8) × 10-6 to (3.01 ± 1.78) × 10-5 that suggest their formation between 2.1 and 0.6 Ma after CAIs. The initial 60Fe/56Fe at the time of formation of these chondrules ranges from (3.2 ± 1.3) × 10-7 to (1.12 ± 0.39) × 10-6 and show a good correlation with their initial 26Al/27Al values suggesting co-injection of the two short-lived nuclides, 60Fe and 26Al, into the protosolar cloud from the same stellar source. Considering 26Al as a reliable early Solar System chronometer, this data set yield a SSI 60Fe/56Fe value of (7.0 ± 1.2) × 10-7, if we adopt a half-life value of 2.6 Ma for 60Fe reported in a recent study. Model stellar nucleosynthesis yields suggest that both a high mass (5-6.5 M?) Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star or a supernova (SN) could be the source of 60Fe and 26Al present in the early Solar System. A high mass (˜25 M?) SN appears more plausible because of the much higher probability of its close association with the protosolar molecular cloud than a high mass AGB star. Such a SN can also account for SSI abundance of 26Al and its correlated presence with 60Fe in chondrules.

Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.

2014-05-01

26

EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA. IX. GRADIENTS IN THE SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES {sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al AND THE STABLE OXYGEN ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radioisotopes (SLRIs) such as {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al were likely injected into the solar nebula in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous manner. Marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disks, of the type required to form gas giant planets, are capable of rapid homogenization of isotopic heterogeneity as well as of rapid radial transport of dust grains and gases throughout a protoplanetary disk. Two different types of new models of an MGU disk in orbit around a solar-mass protostar are presented. The first set has variations in the number of terms in the spherical harmonic solution for the gravitational potential, effectively studying the effect of varying the spatial resolution of the gravitational torques responsible for MGU disk evolution. The second set explores the effects of varying the initial minimum value of the Toomre Q stability parameter, from values of 1.4 to 2.5, i.e., toward increasingly less unstable disks. The new models show that the basic results are largely independent of both sets of variations. MGU disk models robustly result in rapid mixing of initially highly heterogeneous distributions of SLRIs to levels of {approx}10% in both the inner (<5 AU) and outer (>10 AU) disk regions, and to even lower levels ({approx}2%) in intermediate regions, where gravitational torques are most effective at mixing. These gradients should have cosmochemical implications for the distribution of SLRIs and stable oxygen isotopes contained in planetesimals (e.g., comets) formed in the giant planet region ({approx}5 to {approx}10 AU) compared to those formed elsewhere.

Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2011-10-01

27

Short-Lived Isomeric States of Se83 and Ge77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractions of Br from neutron irradiated SeO3= solutions and of As from irradiated GeS3= solutions revealed the presence of short-lived isotopes of Se83 and Ge77 decaying by ??-emission to 2.4-hr. Br83 and 40-hr. As77, respectively. Direct observation of the radiations from a short-lived Se, effected by measuring the activity of Se irradiated for 20 sec. through Al absorbers, led to

James R. Arnold; Nathan Sugarman

1947-01-01

28

Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,?=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,?'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

2007-06-01

29

Short Lived Radon Progeny as a Tracer for the Mixing Processes in the PBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural short lived beta radionuclides in the atmospheric boundary layer are decay products of radon isotopes emitted from the earth surface. The main source of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn into the atmosphere are soil and rock surfaces while the water reservoirs release radon to much lower degree. The source of radon in the atmosphere might be considered as continuous

Blagorodka VELEVA; Nedialko VALKOV; Ekaterina BATCHVAROVA; Maria KOLAROVA

2008-01-01

30

Alpha Decay Half-Lives for pt Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the half-lives of some Pt isotopes via the alpha-decay process and a modified barrier penetration formula different from the traditional barrier potentials. Comparison with the existing data is quite motivating.

Hassanabadi, H.; Javadimanesh, E.; Zarrinkamar, S.

2013-02-01

31

Studies of images of short lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The program to study short-lived events with the ERTS-1 satellite has evaluated 97 events reported by the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Forty-eight of these events were listed as candidates for ERTS-1 coverage and 8 of these were considered significant enough to immediately alert the ERTS operation staff by telephone. Studies of the images received from six events indicate that useful data on short-lived events can be obtained from ERTS-1 that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

32

Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey Bay, CA from two cold seeps (Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs) and from sediments ˜5 m outside of the Clam Flats seep. Clam Flats has steep ?13CDIC gradients (to <-45‰), but DIC at Extrovert Cliffs is less enriched in 12C (to approximately -22‰). Oxygen isotope values of fossil foraminifera at Clam Flats are ˜1.5‰ enriched in 18O over the living foraminifera, as well as those of both live and fossil foraminifera at Extrovert Cliffs, suggesting they may have lived during the last glacial maximum. Statistical comparisons (Student's t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) of ?13C and ?18O values indicate that live and fossil foraminifera come from different populations at both Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs. At Clam Flats, the difference appears to result from alteration enriching some fossil foraminifera in 12C over live foraminifera. At Extrovert Cliffs, the fossil foraminifera are enriched in 13C over the live foraminifera, suggesting they lived prior to the onset of venting and thus that venting began recently. The short time of venting at Extrovert Cliffs may be responsible for the less alteration there compared with Clam Flats. These results indicate that preservation of foraminifera is likely to be poor within long-lived cold seeps, but that foraminifera living in the surrounding sediment may incorporate and preserve broad basin-wide changes in isotopic compositions of the ambient water.

Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris

2004-04-01

33

?-decay half-lives around N = Z isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-decay half-lives around N = Z = 50 isotopes are calculated by using the effective liquid drop model, the generalized liquid drop model and the Royer’s formula. It is found that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, some ?-decay half-lives for the cases where the experimental values are unavailable are predicted, which are useful for future experiments.

Wang, Y. Z.; Li, Z. Y.; Yu, G. L.; Hou, Z. Y.

2014-05-01

34

Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

2009-11-01

35

Fast automated NMR spectroscopy of short-lived biological samples.  

PubMed

Faster than death: NMR techniques that make use of nonlinear sampling and hyperdimensional processing enable the recording of complete NMR data sets for the automated assignment of the backbone and side-chain resonances of short-lived protein samples of cell lysates. PMID:22492650

Tikole, Suhas; Jaravine, Victor; Rogov, Vladimir V; Rozenknop, Alexis; Schmöe, Kerstin; Löhr, Frank; Dötsch, Volker; Güntert, Peter

2012-05-01

36

Prospects for baryon instability search with long-lived isotopes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider the possibility of observation of baryon instability processes occurring inside nuclei by searching for the remnants of such processes that could have been accumulated in nature as mm long-lived isotopes. As an example, we discuss here the possible detection of traces of {sup 97}Tc, {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 99}Tc in deep-mined nonradioactive tin ores.

Efremenko, Yu. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)][Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Bugg, W.; Cohn, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Kamyshkov, Yu. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)][Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Parker, G.; Plasil, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

37

Short-Lived Radionuclides and Solar System Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence for live 26Al in Allende refractory inclusions [1] implies that no more than about 1 Myr elapsed between the nucleosynthesis of the 26Al and its incorporation into cm-sized inclusions in the solar nebula [2]. A supernova was immediately suggested as the source of the 26Al, and the supernova shock front was implicated both as a means for transporting the 26Al from the supernova to the presolar cloud, and for triggering the collapse of the cloud by the impact of the shock [3]. Evidence of other exotic stellar environments comes from isotopic anomalies in presolar grains, which suggest grain formation in novae, Wolf-Rayet stars, or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars [4]. Nucleosynthesis in the hydrogen- and helium-burning layers of an AGB star can account for the approximate abundances of several short-lived radionuclei (26Al, 60Fe, and 107Pd) found in chondritic meteorites, assuming a mass mixing ratio of about 100:1 between the presolar cloud and the AGB star ejecta [2]. The same 100:1 mixing ratio is necessary to explain the solar system abundance of 3He if the 3He was derived from the planetary nebula phase of an AGB star [5]. 3D hydrodynamical models of the interaction of stellar shock waves with dense cloud cores suggest a mixing ratio of about 100:1 between the mass of the presolar cloud and the mass of the material from the shock wave that is injected into the collapsing protostellar cloud [6]. The agreement between these three independent estimates of mixing ratios is very remarkable, especially considering the diverse techniques employed in their derivations. AGB stars are also capable of synthesizing the 41Ca [7] that has recently been inferred to have been present in the solar nebula [8]. The presence of live 41Ca in the solar nebula would shorten the time interval between synthesis and crystallization of refractory inclusions to about 0.5 to 0.7 Myr [7]. Considering that the 'standard theory' of star formation involves a 10 Myr period of quasistatic contraction prior to the onset of the rapid collapse phase [9], the 41Ca time constraint further strengthens the need for collapse to be triggered by the arrival of the stellar shock front. A supernova has been re-proposed as the source of 26Al and other short-lived radionuclei [10]; in order to achieve the proper dilution of supernova ejecta with the presolar cloud, a distance of a few to about 10 parsecs is inferred [10]. In order to learn whether AGB stars or supernovae are better suited to triggering the collapse of the presolar cloud, we have developed a 2D gravitational hydrodynamics code and used it to study the interaction of shock waves with dense cloud cores [11]. We reproduced previous simulations of the impact of an adiabatic shock wave (appropriate for a nearby supernova), showing that in this case the cloud is destroyed by small-scale instabilities [12,13]. We find that the key factor permitting cloud collapse rather than destruction is the shock thermodynamics -- isothermal shocks (appropriate for AGB star winds or distant supernovae) can lead to sustained protostellar collapse [11]. A distant (10 or more parsecs) supernova shock has just about enough momentum to induce collapse. However, planetary nebulae appear to be somewhat deficient in momentum, and require the compressive effects of warm post-shock gas to trigger collapse. References: [1] Lee T. et al. (1976) GRL, 3, 109. [2] Wasserburg G. J. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J., 424, 412. [3] Cameron A. G. W. and Truran J. W. (1977) Icarus, 30, 447. [4] Anders E. and Zinner E. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 490. [5] Palla F. (1995) Workshop on Galactic Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution, Ringberg Castle, Germany. [6] Boss A. P. (1995) Astrophys. J., 439, 224. [7] Wasserburg G. J. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J. Lett., 440, L101. [8] Srinivasan G. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J. Lett., 431, L67. [9] Shu F. H. et al. (1987) Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 25, 23. [10] Cameron A. G. W. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J., in press. [11] Foster P. N. and Boss A. P. (1995) Astrophys. J., in preparation. [12] K

Foster, P. N.; Boss, A. P.

1995-09-01

38

Conversion-electron spectroscopy of short-lived nuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for obtaining conversion-electron spectra of short-; lived activities with a Si(Li) detector is described. The method employs the ; helium-jet technique to produce sources repetitively for subsequent counting ; through a 0.90 mg\\/cm² aluminized Mylar window. The effects of the Mylar ; window on resolution and line shape were investigated and shown to give ; acceptable results

D. R. Zolnowski; T. T. Sugihara

1974-01-01

39

Study of Short-Lived Nuclear Decays by Digital Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of pulse processing electronics based on digital signal processing technology has been successfully tested on-line and applied for the first time in particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. Systems based on commercially available Digital Gamma Finder (DGF) modules [1] were used to study the decays of short-lived states in exotic nuclei. Since the DGFs incorporate a RTPU, they

C. R. Bingham; E. Badura; J. C. Batchelder; C. J. Gross; R. Grzywacz; Z. Janas; M. Karny; W. Krolas; C. Mazzocchi; J. W. McConnell; M. Momayezi; M. Pfützner; K. Rykaczewski; K. Schmidt

2001-01-01

40

Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

1982-01-01

41

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers  

PubMed Central

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04–0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-01-01

42

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.  

PubMed

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-08-27

43

Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.  

PubMed

Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping. PMID:12678386

Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

2003-01-01

44

Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

Meyer, B. S.

2004-01-01

45

Search for Short-Lived Isomers in ^180Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of recent photoexcitation and Coulomb excitation experiments suggest the existence of level(s) around 1 MeV excitation energy in ^180Ta that communicate with both the 8-hr ground state and the long-lived isomeric level at 75 keV. However, in-beam gamma-gamma coincidence experiments have failed to identify such levels. If these communicating levels were isomeric, they might have escaped previous detection. We, therefore, conducted a search for short-lived isomers in ^180Ta. We produced ^180Ta via the ^180Hf(p,n) reaction using 9.5-MeV protons from LBNL's 88" Cyclotron. A pneumatic rabbit transfer system was used to shuttle the target between the irradiation site and a shielded gamma-ray counting station. Bombarding times and counting intervals were varied in such a way as to search effectively for isomers in the half-life range of 1 second - 1 hour. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired in various length time bins using an ORTEC PC-based data acquistion system. Results of this search and their implications for the nucleosynthesis of ^180Ta will be presented.

Larimer, R.-M.; Norman, E. B.; Browne, E.; Rech, G. A.; Goldman, I. D.; Hindi, M. M.

1999-10-01

46

AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

2005-11-01

47

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

48

Short telomeres in short-lived males: what are the molecular and evolutionary causes?  

PubMed

Telomere length regulation is an important aspect of cell maintenance in eukaryotes, since shortened telomeres can lead to a number of defects, including impaired cell division. Although telomere length is correlated with lifespan in some bird species, its possible role in aging and lifespan determination is still poorly understood. Here we investigate telomere dynamics (changes in telomere length and attrition rate) and telomerase activity in the ant Lasius niger, a species in which different groups of individuals have evolved extraordinarily different lifespans. We found that somatic tissues of the short-lived males had dramatically shorter telomeres than those of the much longer-lived queens and workers. These differences were established early during larval development, most likely through faster telomere shortening in males compared with females. Workers did not, however, have shorter telomeres than the longer-lived queens. We discuss various molecular mechanisms that are likely to cause the observed sex-specific telomere dynamics in ants, including cell division, oxidative stress and telomerase activity. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary causes of such patterns in ants and in other species. PMID:17346255

Jemielity, Stephanie; Kimura, Masayuki; Parker, Karen M; Parker, Joel D; Cao, Xiaojian; Aviv, Abraham; Keller, Laurent

2007-04-01

49

Antarctic Seasonality and Living Benthic Foraminiferal Carbon Isotopes: Applications for Assessments of Paleoenvironmental Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the SEASONS project (Seasonal Ecological Analysis of Seafloor Organic Nutrient Supplies), the ecology and carbonate isotopic geochemistry of living benthic foraminifera were examined in cores collected from seven sites in late April and June 2008 from the western Antarctic Peninsula. This region experiences strong seasonality in primary productivity that results in appreciable inter-annual differences in organic flux to the sea floor. Samples were collected across a productivity gradient in the northern Gerlache-southern Bransfield Strait shortly after a surface productivity bloom (late April), and again in the winter (late June). Pore water concentrations were measured on two separate cores from each site for both cruises. Profiles of alkalinity, NH4, and Si, reflect the productivity gradient, with the greatest increase in concentration with depth in the sediment at sites below the most productive zones. At all sites, individual profiles vary slightly within and between cruises, reflecting small scale spatial heterogeneity and differences in diagenesis from high to low productivity time. Most, but not all, sites show elevated pore water concentrations following the bloom. Spatial and vertical distribution patterns of living (Rose Bengal-stained) foraminiferal assemblages (>150 microns) reveal differences in microhabitat preferences for species. These ecological differences are reflected in the carbon isotopic signatures of different species. Carbon isotopic compositions of species occurring at the same site in April and June were compared to assess any seasonal changes resulting from differences in organic input ("Mackensen Effect'). These results provide modern analog information critical to interpreting high-resolution microfossil records of paleoenvironmental change in the Antarctic and elsewhere.

Rathburn, A. E.; Martin, J. B.; Ishman, S. E.; Miner, M. R.; Perez, M. E.; Bailey, Z.

2008-12-01

50

Short-lived Be and Be In Refractory Inclusions From 7 10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The source of 26Al [1] and other short-lived radioactive nuclides (e.g. 41Ca or 53Mn) found in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) of chondritic meteorites is still controversial between the tenants of an external seeding of the protosolar nebula (e.g. by supernova produced Al) and the tenants of an internal source of 26 26Al within the solar system (e.g. by irradiation processes occurring in the vicinity of the young Sun). The resolution of this issue is of importance for (i) early solar system chronology and for (ii) models of the formation of the solar system. Recently we showed that 10Be, which decays to B with a half-life of 1.5 My, was 10 also incorporated in CAIs during their formation [2]. The incorporation of 10 Be in CAIs is a strong hint for the existence of irradiation processes that may have occurred in the early solar system, producing 10Be and a fraction (or all) of other extinct radioactive nuclides. However, because of its long half life, 10Be could have been produced by spallation reactions taking place in supernovae envelopes and transported into the protosolar nebula. To progress in this debate we have looked for traces of another short-lived isotope of Be, Be which decays to Li 7 7 with a half life of 53 days. Large Li isotopic variations have been found in a few Allende CAIs, with 7Li excesses positively correlated to Be/Li concentration ratios. These observations are best explained by the incorporation of lived Be in 7 CAIs during their formation. The Be/10Be ratio which is deduced for CAIs is of 7 220+/-130, i.e. close within errors to the production ratio modelled for irradiation processes at low energy around the young Sun. Because of its very short half life of 53 days, the presence of Be in CAIs demonstrates that Be (and 7 7 10Be) were produced within the solar system. It is also a strong indication that the formation of CAIs was likely linked in space and time to these irradiation processes. [1] T. Lee, D. Papanastassiou and G. J. Wasserburg (1976) Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 109-112. [2] K. D. McKeegan, M. Chaussidon, F. Robert (2000) Science 289, 1334-1347.

Allende Meteorite, The

51

Yields of short-lived fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.

Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.

1998-08-01

52

Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

2013-03-01

53

Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

2014-06-01

54

First use of high charge states for mass measurements of short-lived nuclides in a Penning trap.  

PubMed

Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed ? emitter 74Rb (T(1/2)=65??ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q(EC) value are presented. PMID:22243307

Ettenauer, S; Simon, M C; Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Simon, V V; Brodeur, M; Chaudhuri, A; Mané, E; Andreoiu, C; Audi, G; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Lapierre, A; Lunney, D; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Ullrich, J; Dilling, J

2011-12-30

55

Short- and long-term outcome for living pancreas donors.  

PubMed

The advantages of living donor pancreas transplants for the recipient include good HLA matching, lower immunologic risk, less immunosuppression, lower risk of infection and of posttransplant malignancies, and shorter pancreas graft preservation time. In 2008, a total of 155 segmental pancreas transplants using living donors were reported to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry from six countries. Pancreas living donors need to undergo a thorough pretransplant endocrinologic workup in order to minimize the risk of metabolic complications. The pretransplant workup has evolved over time, after initial reports showed that up to 25% of living donors had elevated hemoglobin A(1c) levels after donation. Avoiding obesity after donation diminishes the risk of long-term metabolic complications. The risk of surgical complications for the donor (such as pancreatitis, pancreatic leak or fistula, pancreatic abscess, and pancreatic pseudocyst) is less than 5%. If both the donor and recipient operations are technically successful, the long-term graft survival rate is significantly higher for living (versus deceased) donor pancreas transplant recipients. Future long-term studies of metabolic function in living donors are warranted to determine whether living donor pancreas transplants can safely be applied more widely and whether living donors can be used for islet transplants. PMID:19652901

Reynoso, Jason F; Gruessner, Christine E; Sutherland, David E R; Gruessner, Rainer W G

2010-03-01

56

Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rodushkin, I. [Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Luleaa (Sweden); Halicz, L.; Segal, I. [Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhei Israel St., Jerusalem 95501 (Israel); Pape, A. [IPHC-UMR7178, IN2P3-CNRS/ULP, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Gentry, R. V. [Earth Science Associates, P.O. Box 12067, Knoxville, Tennessee 37912-0067 (United States); Miller, H. W. [P. O. Box 1092, Boulder, Colorado 80306-1092 (United States); Kolb, D. [Department of Physics, University GH Kassel, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Brandt, R. [Kernchemie, Philipps University, D-35041 Marburg (Germany)

2007-08-15

57

Half-lives of Au, Hg, and Pb isotopes from photoactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground state half-lives of the gold isotope 196Au, the mercury isotopes 195,197,203Hg, the lead isotope 203Pb, and the half-lives of two isomers in 199Hg and 204Pb have been measured with high precision using the photoactivation technique. The ?-ray activity was counted over several half-lives with high-purity germanium detectors. The measured half-lives are: T1/2(196Au)=6.1669+/-0.0006 d; T1/2(195Hg)=10.53+/-0.03 h; T1/2(197Hg)=64.94+/-0.07 h; T1/2(203Hg)=46.6+/-0.1 d; T1/2(204Pb)=51.95+/-0.01 h; T1/2(199mHg)=42.67+/-0.09 min; T1/2(204mPb)=1.14+/-0.04 h.

Lindenberg, K.; Neumann, F.; Galaviz, D.; Hartmann, T.; Mohr, P.; Vogt, K.; Volz, S.; Zilges, A.

2001-04-01

58

Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator <span class="hlt">isotope</span> and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more robust estimate of the uncertainties from temporal variations in the secondary ion signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial <span class="hlt">isotope</span> in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and <span class="hlt">isotope</span> for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21180281"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Demonstration of Electron Scattering Using a Novel Target Developed for <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We carried out a demonstrative electron scattering experiment using a novel ion-trap target exclusively developed for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> highly unstable nuclei. Using stable {sup 133}Cs ion as a target, this experiment completely mimicked electron scattering off <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei. Achieving a luminosity higher than 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with around only 10{sup 6} trapped ions on the electron beam, the angular distribution of elastic scattering was successfully measured. This experiment clearly demonstrates that electron scattering off rarely produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei is practical with this target technique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suda, T.; Wakasugi, M.; Emoto, T.; Ito, S.; Wang, S.; Yano, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kurita, K. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Kuwajima, A.; Tamae, T. [Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 982-0826 (Japan); Noda, A.; Shirai, T.; Tongu, H. [Institute of Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55597216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma Rays from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Fission-Fragment Isomers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of the energy spectra of isomeric gamma rays from the neutron fission of U235 and Pu239 at a number of time intervals between 50 and 600 musec showed six prominent gamma rays for both cases of fission. The intensities and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> for these gamma rays indicate that there are three fission-fragment isomers, each giving rise to a pair of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Sund; R. B. Walton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5159D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioactive Nuclei in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in a Super Asymptotic Giant Branch star (initial mass ~7 - 11 solar masses) candidate to have polluted the early Solar System, including for the first time radionuclides heavier than Fe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doherty, C. L.; Lugaro, M.; Lau, H.; Siess, L.; Lattanzio, J. C.; Gil-Pons, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730016646&hterms=Oil+spills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522Oil%2Bspills%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author has identified the following significant results. Of significance are the continued detection and analysis of such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events as forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2447303"> <span id="translatedtitle">TCP vs. TCP: a systematic study of adverse impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows on long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TCP flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While earlier studies have pointed out that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows (mice) may hurt long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TCP flows (elephants) in the long term, they provide insufficient insight for developing scenarios leading to drastic drop in throughputs of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TCP flows. We have systematically developed TCP adversarial scenarios where we use <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> TCP flows to adversely influence long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TCP flows. Our scenarios are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirin Ebrahimi-Taghizadeh; Ahmed Helmy; Sandeep K. S. Gupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18197896"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRIGA fuel enrichment verification based on the measurement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is developed to verify the 235U content of TRIGA fresh fuel using gamma-ray spectrometry of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products 97Zr\\/97Nb, 132I and 140La. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission-product activities can be established by irradiating the fuel in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, the 235U content can be deduced by iterative calculations. The aim of this work is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jinn-Jer Peir; Tien-Ko Wang; Chao-Chin Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhLB..715..293B"> <span id="translatedtitle">First measurement of beta decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> in neutron-rich Tl and Bi <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> around lead, beyond N=126, have been studied exploiting the fragmentation of an uranium primary beam at the FRS-RISING setup at GSI. For the first time ?-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of Bi219 and Tl211,212,213 <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have been derived. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> have been extracted using a numerical simulation developed for experiments in high-background conditions. Comparison with state of the art models used in r-process calculations is given, showing a systematic underestimation of the experimental values, at variance from close-lying nuclei.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benzoni, G.; Morales, A. I.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Gottardo, A.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Corsi, A. M.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Nicolini, R.; Wieland, O.; Gadea, A.; Lunardi, S.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruce, A. M.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Pietri, S.; Podolyak, Zs.; Pfützner, M.; Regan, P. H.; Weick, H.; Alcántara Núñez, J.; Algora, A.; Al-Dahan, N.; de Angelis, G.; Ayyad, Y.; Alkhomashi, N.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bazzacco, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bowry, M.; Bunce, M.; Casarejos, E.; Cortes, M. L.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Dombradi, Zs.; Engert, T.; Eppinger, K.; Farrelly, G. F.; Farinon, F.; Farnea, E.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gregor, E.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Janik, R.; Klupp, S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mandal, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Prokopowicz, W.; Recchia, F.; Ribas, R. V.; Reed, M. W.; Rudolph, D.; Sahin, E.; Schaffner, H.; Sharma, A.; Sitar, B.; Siwal, D.; Steiger, K.; Strmen, P.; Swan, T. P. D.; Szarka, I.; Ur, C. A.; Walker, P. M.; Wollersheim, H.-J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........25L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides and early solar system chronology -- A hibonite perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examination of the 41 Ca- 41 K, 26 Al- 26 Mg, 10 Be- 10 B, oxygen and titanium <span class="hlt">iso-topic</span> systems in 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions extracted from the CM meteorite Murchison provide important constraints for origins of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, early solar system chronology, and chemical evolution. Magnesium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions divide these hibonite grains into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with their mineralogy and morphology, as previously discovered by Ireland (1988): Spinel-HIBonite spherules (SHIBs) bear evidence of in-situ decay of 26 Al, whereas PLAty hibonite Crystals (PLACs) and Blue AGgregates (BAGs) either lack resolvable D 26 Mg* excesses or exhibit 26 Mg deficits by up to ~4[per thousand]. High precision, multiple collector SIMS analyses show that 6 of 7 SHIBs investigated fall on a single correlation line implying 26 Al/ 27 Al = (4.4±0.2) × 10 -5 (2s) at the time of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> closure, consistent with the "canonical" 26 Al abundance characteristic of internal isochrons in many calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). One SHIB sample exhibits D 26 Mg* corresponding to a "supra-canonical" 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio 6.3 × 10 -5 which is close to the highest ratios observed in solar system materials. Eight out of 11 26 Al-free PLAC hibonite grains record excesses of radiogenic 10 B which correlate with Be/B; the inferred initial 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio of (5.1 ± 1.4) × 10 -4 is substantially lower than the best-constrained 10 Be/ 9 Be of (8.8±0.6) × 10 -4 in a CV CAI. The data demonstrate that 10 Be cannot be used as a relative chronometer for these objects and that most of the 10 Be observed in CAIs must be produced by energetic particle irradiation of refractory dust precursors in the early solar system. The lack of 26 Al in PLAC hibonites containing Mg <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies and 10 Be indicates that significant amounts of 26 Al was not formed in the same spallogenic processes that made 10 Be in PLAC precursors. Except for few hibonite grains exhibiting mixing with spallogenic components (from recent cosmic ray exposure), Li <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are normal within uncertainties, probably reflecting contamination and/or post-crystallization exchange. None of the eight hibonites examined here reveal evidence for in-situ decay of 41 Ca, regardless of mineralogy or morphology. The results fail to correlate the presence of 26 Al with 41 Ca in SHIB hibonites but confirm the lack of these two <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in PLACs and BAGs at the same time. The new data partially corroborate the discovery of Sahijpal et al. (1998) and indicate the formation of PLACs and BAGs in an 26 Al- 41 Ca-free environment. Although this environment is easily expected in a late-injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides model (e.g. Sahijpal and Goswami 1998), a key for verification is to obtain an absolute age of PLACs/BAGs. In contrast, two out of 9 pyroxene points in the E44 CAI exhibit excesses of radiogenic 41 K, with one implying an inferred 41 Ca/ 49 Ca ratio ~ 1.5 × 10 -8 in good agreement with the discovery by Srinivasan et al. (1996) and the result in Ireland et al. (1999), and the other equivalent to ~ 7 × 10 -9 . All existing data suggest that the initial abundance of 41 Ca in the E44 CAI appears to be ~ 1.5 × 10 -8 ; however, it may not necessarily characterize the solar system initial due to the absence of adequate statistics for 41 Ca abundances in early solar system materials. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of SHIBs and PLACs are all highly 16 O-enriched, but are not derived from a homogeneous population with D 17 O values spanning a range from ~ -28[per thousand] to -15[per thousand]. The ranges of 16 O- enrichment in SHIBs and PLACs overlap strongly and are still significantly less "anomalous" than the most 16 O-enriched compositions found in meteorites. Both PLACs and SHIBs were formed in 16 O-rich reservoirs characterized by small scale heterogeneities in the gas phase. If such heterogeneities were generated by an admixture of relatively 16 O-poor poor gas created by self-shielding during CO photolysis and tr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036639"> <span id="translatedtitle">FISSION HALF <span class="hlt">LIVES</span> OF FERMIUM <span class="hlt">ISOTOPES</span> WITHIN SKYRME HARTREE-FOCK-BOGOLIUBOV THEORY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nuclear fission barriers, mass parameters and spontaneous fission half <span class="hlt">lives</span> of fermium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> calculated in a framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the SkM* force are discussed. Zero-point energy corrections in the ground state are determined for each nucleus using the Gaussian overlap approximation of the generator coordinate method and in the cranking formalism. Results of spontaneous fission half <span class="hlt">lives</span> are compared to experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baran, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University; Staszczak, Andrzej [ORNL; Nazarewicz, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014fpnr.conf..190B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Measurements of Magnetic Moments of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> States in Stable (30 < Z < 40 and 30 < N < 50) and Progress Toward Measurements on Radioactive Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The measurements of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclear excited states are currently challenged by both the difficulty in exciting states of interest at higher spins and energies in stable nuclei and by populating exciting excited states in radioactive nuclei. These problems have been approached by developing new technologies and are discussed in this work. New measurements of the g factors of the 21^ + ,41^ + and 22^ + states in the 70,72,74,76Ge <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benczer-Koller, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050165546&hterms=207Pb&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522207Pb%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides" with mean <span class="hlt">lives</span> of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M?. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition in the range ?17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1594..332D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent activities for ?-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the "rapid neutron-capture process" (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) "Terra Incognita". With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A <span class="hlt">short</span> overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a "Coordinated Research Project" on a "Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data". This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP32B0291L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Storm Allison (2001) Recorded in Oxygen <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Composition of Shells of <span class="hlt">Living</span> Ostracoda</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of rain from tropical cyclones is distinctly lower than that of normal rain in the tropics or subtropics (GRL, Lawrence and Gedzelman, 1996). Therefore when heavy rains fall in lowland coastal areas the surface waters show a sharp decrease in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values that persists for a few weeks (Chem. Geol., Lawrence 1998). In early June of 2001 Tropical Storm Allison dropped on the order of 600 mm of rain in the area around Houston, Texas. The oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of surface waters in east Houston dropped to -11.4 per mil and slowly returned to a more normal summertime value of -2 per mil over a three week period. Water samples were collected on June 6, 10, 13, 17 and 26. Attempts were made to collect samples of <span class="hlt">living</span> Ostracoda on these dates. On June 17 and 26 samples of <span class="hlt">living</span> Cypridopsis and Potamocypris were found and collected. The carbonate shells of these specimens were analyzed for their oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values. The distinct difference observed in the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the surface waters on the two dates was mirrored in the analyzed shells of the Ostracoda. These results suggest that in fresh water shallow lake environments sediment cores containing shells of Ostracoda may provide a record of tropical cyclone activity over the last several thousands of years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence, J. R.; Hyeong, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18440962"> <span id="translatedtitle">QA programme for radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny measuring instruments in NRPI Prague.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To subserve the institutional research and tasks coming out from the Czech National Radon Programme, a new QA programme to calibrate all the known types of devices that measure radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny was developed at the Department of Radon mobile group of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) at Prague. The programme also included calibration of instruments measuring a unique quantity of unattached and attached fractions of <span class="hlt">short</span>- <span class="hlt">lived</span> radon progeny Generally, NRPI declares estimation of radon concentration during all routine calibration measurements with an overall uncertainty <5% (one sigma) and of equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration with an overall uncertainty <10% (one sigma). The results of the comparative measurements of the unattached and attached fractions of each <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny carried out with a comparing continuous monitor Fritra 4 in the German reference radon chamber at PTB Braunschweig indicated an acceptable level of agreement, up to 10%. PMID:18440962</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jílek, K; Thomas, J; Brabec, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199424"> <span id="translatedtitle">Search for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of naturally occurring long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states (t{sub 1/2}>10{sup 8} yr) in the neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> {sup 211,213,217,218}Th[A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and provide upper limits for their abundances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lachner, J.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G. [Physik Department E12 and E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.317..789I"> <span id="translatedtitle">In situ diffusion measurements in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive tracers of 8Li and 20Na</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are developing in situ diffusion measurements in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive ion beams provided from an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator on-line (ISOL). We examined the feasibility of a new in situ nanoscale diffusion measurement method using a radioactive 8Li tracer by computer simulations. Under moderate experimental conditions, we have found that the detection limit of lithium diffusion coefficient can be improved to a low value of 1×10-12cm2/s. Also, in situ sodium diffusion measurement in Na battery materials can be applicable using a radioactive 20Na tracer. We found Na diffusion coefficients can be measured, ranging from 10-6 to 10-10cm2/s by computer simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishiyama, HIronobu; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Katayama, I.; Sataka, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Makii, H.; Nishio, K.; Sato, T. K.; Nakao, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7710819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new technique for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics. PMID:7710819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JOptB...6S.706B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of quantum jumps in the squeezing of resonance fluorescence from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> atoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phase-sensitive squeezing in the resonance fluorescence of two-level atoms, that are coherently driven by a near-resonant laser field in free space, was observed recently (Lu et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3635). This was accomplished via homodyne detection at a phase near ± 45° relative to the driving field for strong off-resonant excitation of 'long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>' atoms (where the atomic lifetime far exceeded the laser-atom interaction time, meaning that relaxation effects could be ignored). On the other hand, traditional theoretical predictions of phase-sensitive squeezing in the resonance fluorescence from two-level atoms have emphasized in- and out-of-phase (i.e., 0° and 90°) quadratures, and weak, on-resonant excitation of '<span class="hlt">short-lived</span>' atoms (where the observation time for laser-atom interaction far exceeded the natural atomic lifetime, meaning that relaxation effects dominate). Here, we calculate the probability of a delayed-coincidence detection in the interference field of a fluorescing dipole with a local oscillator (LO). We show that, despite the strikingly different conditions in which squeezing occurs in <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> atoms, squeezing in both cases can be shown to arise from a joint detection of two photons which are related by a quantum jump in the following way: the first photodetection precipitates a quantum jump of the atom to the ground state, and the second measures the mean amplitude of the fluorescent field subsequent to the quantum jump.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bali, Samir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NIMPA.483..593W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> fission products as a diagnostics tool for studying atom and ion behavior in a gas-based laser ion source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A striking difference between gamma spectra of neutron-rich Rh <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> obtained with the laser ion source at the Leuven <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Separator On-Line facility has been observed depending on the mode of operation. Although the global production rate of 112Rh g,m nuclei decreases considerably, the ratio between the productions of 112Rh g and 112Rh m increases strongly when no laser ionisation is used. This effect is caused by 112Ru atoms which decay during gas evacuation of the ion source gas cell, thereby producing 112Rh g ions. The comparison in time behaviour of reaction produced ions, ?-decay produced ions and laser produced ions makes it possible to study and characterise the different processes in the gas cell. The influence of these processes has to be considered when extracting nuclear information such as the relative feeding of different <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isomers and <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and fission cross-sections in a particular mass chain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weissman, L.; Prasad, N. V. S. V.; Bruyneel, B.; Huyse, M.; Kruglov, K.; Kudryavtsev, Y.; Muller, W. F.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Fission Product Gamma Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at <span class="hlt">short</span> times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26985783"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Automatic GLPC Apparatus for the Analysis of Organic Compounds Labeled with <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A combined gas-liquid chromatograph, effluent counter, effluent flow-meter, and automatic data collection device is described which can be used for the analysis and assay of gas mixtures containing <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life. The data are collected in a form compatible for computer correction and evaluation. An example using C-containing compounds is given. The device is useful for research with organic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. J. Welch; R. Withnell; A. P. Wolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18199594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results on the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental campaign was conducted to assess the feasibility of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a Plasma Focus (PF) device. This so-called “endogenous production” technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Until now only one research group has published</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Angeli; A. Tartari; M. Frignani; D. Mostacci; F. Rocchi; M. Sumini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sozmod.eawag.ch/pdfs/28.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waste-resource flows of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> goods in households of Santiago de Cuba</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we apply the method of material flow analysis to analyze the consumption and waste mass flows of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> goods and we provide first insights into the waste management behavior of households in Santiago de Cuba. The goods analyzed are glass, aluminum, organic material and PET. The necessary data were gathered in personal interviews with 1171 households using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudia R. Binder; Hans-Joachim Mosler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13989531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Ontology Approach for Agent\\/HLA Federated Enterprise Interoperability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims at proposing an implementation of the federation oriented enterprise interoperability concept, using the rising notion of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ontology. We give first, a review of ongoing researches on enterprise interoperability. Then, we recall on artificial agent concept and HLA standard that appear to be adequate to support execution of the studied concept. Indeed, on the one hand agent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory Zacharewicz; David Chen; Bruno Vallespir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extremely fast gas/liquid reactions in flow microreactors: carboxylation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organolithiums.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carboxylation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organolithiums bearing electrophilic functional groups such as nitro, cyano, and alkoxycarbonyl groups with CO2 to give carboxylic acids and active esters was accomplished in a flow microreactor system. The successful reactions indicate that gas/liquid mass transfer and the subsequent chemical reaction with CO2 are extremely fast. PMID:24863501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagaki, Aiichiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5046436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 26, 1986</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods for the rapid introduction of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Methods to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids, lipids, and amphetamine derivatives are described. New routes for the introduction of bromine-77, chlorine-34m, and carbon-11 into agents of interest are elaborated. 46 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kabalka, G.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0320/2003JD003477/2003JD003477.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term 18O variability with a Rayleigh-type <span class="hlt">isotope</span> circulation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stable water <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (D and 18O) in precipitation have large spatial and temporal variability and are used widely to trace the global hydrologic cycle. The two models that have been used in the past to examine the variability of precipitation <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are Rayleigh-type models and <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-atmospheric general circulation models. The causes of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (1–10 day) variability in precipitation <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, however,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Yoshimura; T. Oki; N. Ohte; S. Kanae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42004636"> <span id="translatedtitle">A quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term 18O variability with a Rayleigh-type <span class="hlt">isotope</span> circulation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stable water <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (D and 18O) in precipitation have large spatial and temporal variability and are used widely to trace the global hydrologic cycle. The two models that have been used in the past to examine the variability of precipitation <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are Rayleigh-type models and <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-atmospheric general circulation models. The causes of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (1-10 day) variability in precipitation <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, however,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Yoshimura; T. Oki; N. Ohte; S. Kanae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005622"> <span id="translatedtitle">New half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of r-process Zn and Ga <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> measured with electromagnetic separation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ? decays of neutron-rich nuclei near the doubly magic (78)Ni were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using an electromagnetic isobar separator. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of (82)Zn (228±10??ms), (83)Zn (117±20??ms), and (85)Ga (93±7??ms) were determined for the first time. These half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> were found to be very different from the predictions of the global model used in astrophysical simulations. A new calculation was developed using the density functional model, which properly reproduced the new experimental values. The robustness of the new model in the (78)Ni region allowed us to extrapolate data for more neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The revised analysis of the rapid neutron capture process in low entropy environments with our new set of measured and calculated half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> shows a significant redistribution of predicted isobaric abundances strengthening the yield of A>140 nuclei. PMID:23005622</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madurga, M; Surman, R; Borzov, I N; Grzywacz, R; Rykaczewski, K P; Gross, C J; Miller, D; Stracener, D W; Batchelder, J C; Brewer, N T; Cartegni, L; Hamilton, J H; Hwang, J K; Liu, S H; Ilyushkin, S V; Jost, C; Karny, M; Korgul, A; Królas, W; Ku?niak, A; Mazzocchi, C; Mendez, A J; Miernik, K; Padgett, S W; Paulauskas, S V; Ramayya, A V; Winger, J A; Woli?ska-Cichocka, M; Zganjar, E F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050947"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of r-process Zn and Ga <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> Measured with Electromagnetic Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The {beta} decays of neutron-rich nuclei near the doubly magic {sup 78}Ni were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using an electromagnetic isobar separator. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of {sup 82}Zn (228 {+-} 10 ms), {sup 83}Zn (117 {+-} 20 ms), and {sup 85}Ga (93 {+-} 7 ms) were determined for the first time. These half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> were found to be very different from the predictions of the global model used in astrophysical simulations. A new calculation was developed using the density functional model, which properly reproduced the new experimental values. The robustness of the new model in the {sup 78}Ni region allowed us to extrapolate data for more neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The revised analysis of the rapid neutron capture process in low entropy environments with our new set of measured and calculated half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> shows a significant redistribution of predicted isobaric abundances strengthening the yield of A > 140 nuclei.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madurga, M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Surman, Rebecca [Union College; Borzov, Ivan N [ORNL; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Miller, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Batchelder, Jon Charles [ORNL; Brewer, N.T. [Vanderbilt University; Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hamilton, J. H. [Vanderbilt University; Hwang, J. K. [Vanderbilt University; Liu, S. H. [Vanderbilt University; Ilyushkin, S. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Krolas, W. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Kuzniak, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mazzocchi, C. [University of Warsaw; Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Padgett, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Paulauskas, S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ramayya, A. V. [Vanderbilt University; Winger, J. A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena [ORNL; Zganjar, E. F. [Louisiana State University</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhST..156a4097S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooling of highly-charged, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ions for precision mass spectrometry at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN), masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are measured accurately and precisely using Penning trap mass spectrometry. The achievable precision is primarily limited by the radioactive lifetime of the nuclides. To boost the precision TITAN has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> can be charge-bred to higher charge states within 10-100 s of ms using an electron beam ion trap. The charge breeding process increases the energy spread of the ions, which in turn affects the precision and the efficiency. A novel cooler Penning trap (CPET) has been developed to trap and cool highly-charged ions using electrons prior to the precision measurement. A discussion of electron cooling and the current status of CPET will be given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultz, B. E.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23473137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel approach based on the projection of the Penning-trap ion motion onto a position-sensitive detector opens the door to very accurate mass measurements on the ppb level even for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> well below a second. In addition to the accuracy boost, the new method provides a superior resolving power by which low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be easily separated from the ground state. A measurement of the mass difference of ^{130}Xe and ^{129}Xe has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach. PMID:23473137</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Goncharov, M; Minaya Ramirez, E; Nesterenko, D A; Novikov, Yu N; Schweikhard, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9003713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient adsorption of waterborne <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products by glass fiber filters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glass fiber filters of a certain brand were found to be very efficient (retention > 95%) for adsorption of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products during filtration of water. Carrier-free samples are obtained in a convenient geometry for efficient gross beta counting. Adsorption of "hot atoms" is not disturbed by the presence of "cold" lead ions. Approximate radioactive equilibrium between radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products may or may not exist in water at the source, but does exist after 3 h in PET bottles. These bottles are shown to be gas-tight for radon. Calibration of activity concentration in Bq L(-1) (radon gas concentration approximately equilibrium equivalent radon concentration) was performed by several standard procedures. Limit of detection is 2 Bq L(-1) within 10 min (total time) or 10 Bq L(-1) within 5 min for a net signal of 5 times standard deviation. PMID:9003713</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Philipsborn, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24999456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Handwriting Without Tears—A <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Intervention for Children <span class="hlt">Living</span> in a Homeless Shelter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantitative investigation was conducted to identify handwriting deficits in first and second grade children <span class="hlt">living</span> in a homeless shelter and to determine the potential change that can be produced using a <span class="hlt">short</span> term handwriting intervention. A quasi-experimental pre-test\\/post-test design was used to assess baseline and post intervention handwriting skills with the standardized Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. The Handwriting Without Tears</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Winifred Schultz-Krohn; Amara Boener; Huy Dinh; Monica Phelan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27081635"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transfer Delay Analysis of WAP 2.0 for <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, an analytical framework for studying the transfer delay of wireless application protocol (WAP) 2.0 for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> flows is developed based on a two-state Markov chain that approximates both correlated and independent packet losses. For a given wireless link and protocol parameters, an explicit mathematical expression which yields a good estimate of the WAP 2.0 transfer delay is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Humphrey Rutagemwa; Jon W. Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23172645"> <span id="translatedtitle">An improved <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fluorescent protein transcriptional reporter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ideal reporter genes for temporal transcription programmes have <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> that restrict their detection to the window in which their transcripts are present and translated. In an effort to meet this criterion for reporters of transcription in individual <span class="hlt">living</span> cells, we adapted the ubiquitin fusion strategy for programmable N-end rule degradation to generate an N-degron version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with a half-life of ~7?min. The GFP variant we used here (designated GFP*) has excellent fluorescence brightness and maturation properties, which make the destabilized reporter well suited for tracking the induction and attenuation kinetics of gene expression in <span class="hlt">living</span> cells. These attributes are illustrated by its ability to track galactose- and pheromone-induced transcription in S. cerevisiae. We further show that the fluorescence measurements using the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> N-degron GFP* reporter gene accurately predict the transient mRNA profile of the prototypical pheromone-induced FUS1 gene. PMID:23172645</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houser, John R; Ford, Eintou; Chatterjea, Sudeshna M; Maleri, Seth; Elston, Timothy C; Errede, Beverly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3103822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis reveals whether soil-<span class="hlt">living</span> elaterid larvae move between agricultural crops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tracking the movement of soil-<span class="hlt">living</span> herbivores is difficult, albeit important for understanding their spatial ecology as well as for pest management. In this study the movement of Agriotes obscurus larvae between plots harbouring <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> different plants was examined. Neither between maize and wheat nor between maize and grassland movement could be detected. These data suggest that Agriotes larvae rarely disperse between crops as long as local food supply is sufficient. Moreover, the current approach provides a new means to study the dispersal of soil invertebrates in situ.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schallhart, N.; Tusch, M.J.; Staudacher, K.; Wallinger, C.; Traugott, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5694902"> <span id="translatedtitle">Below-regulatory-concern rulemaking in Texas: Disposal of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> wastes in municipal landfills</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In June 1986, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, with Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation, completed a technical report analyzing the impact to Texas of disposing radioactive wastes containing low concentrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in permitted municipal landfills. The report establishes concentration and annual curie limits for radionuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> <300 days such that no individual would receive a dose >1 mrem/yr. This method of disposal would result in a 50% reduction in the Texas institutional low-level waste volume and save waste generators $600,000 a year in disposal costs. In July 1986, the authority requested the Texas Department of Health to develop a rule to allow the municipal landfill disposal of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> wastes below the concentration and annual curie limits established in the technical report. The technical report was the support document for the request. Staff of the Bureau of Radiation Control, Texas Department of Health, reviewed the request for a rule change in August 1986 and revised the draft rule in response to regulatory concerns. The rule change was formally proposed on January 2, 1987, and will be a final rule in May 1987.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pollard, C.G.; McBurney, R.E.; Bryant, H.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649911"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cohort variation, climate effects and population dynamics in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lizard.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Demographic theory and empirical studies indicate that cohort variation in demographic traits has substantial effects on population dynamics of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> vertebrates but cohort effects have been poorly investigated in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. 2. Cohort effects were quantified in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin 1787), a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ectothermic vertebrate, for body size, reproductive traits and age-specific survival with mark-recapture data collected from 1989 to 2005 in two wetlands. We assessed cohort variation and covariation in demographic traits, tested the immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall), and predicted consequences for population growth. 3. Most demographic traits exhibited cohort variation, but this variation was stronger for juvenile growth and survival, sub-adult survival and breeding phenology than for other traits. 4. Cohort variation was partly explained by a web of immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions. Rainfall and temperature influenced distinct life-history traits and the periods of gestation and early juvenile life were critical stages for climate effects. 5. Cohort covariation between demographic traits was usually weak, apart from a negative correlation between juvenile and sub-adult body growth suggesting compensatory responses. An age-structured population model shows that cohort variation influences population growth mainly through direct numerical effects of survival variation early in life. 6. An understanding of cohort effects is necessary to predict critical life stages and climatic determinants of population dynamics, and therefore demographic responses to future climate warming. PMID:20649911</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Galliard, Jean François; Marquis, Olivier; Massot, Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19678459"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> with advanced cancer and <span class="hlt">short</span> life expectancy: patients' experiences with managing medication.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our aim is to explore patients' experiences of using medicines when they are <span class="hlt">living</span> with far-advanced cancer and <span class="hlt">short</span> life expectancy; our method is a qualitative interview study. At a daycare centre at a palliative clinic in Norway, we interviewed 15 patients with advanced incurable cancer with multiple metastases who had a <span class="hlt">short</span> life expectancy. We found that in taking their medications, they feared losing control, becoming addicted, or suffering harmful effects. Non-compliance was the rule, not the exception: patients juggled doses or dosage intervals, or they stopped taking the medications. They wanted to take as little medication as possible and self-manage it to gain control over their <span class="hlt">lives</span>. We concluded that patients need to discuss their medication practice. If they choose alternative medication strategies, that choice must be respected. For patients, the issue is self-management, not compliance. Patients with a <span class="hlt">short</span> life expectancy want to negotiate their medication practice with health care professionals and take an active role in tailoring it to suit their preferences. Health professionals should therefore consider a concordance rather than a compliance model for these patients. PMID:19678459</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sand, Anne Marit; Harris, Janet; Rosland, Jan Henrik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/355038"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> metabolic tracer studies of <span class="hlt">living</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> metabolic tracer studies in <span class="hlt">living</span> systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luong, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00102-5"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing <span class="hlt">short</span> and long <span class="hlt">lived</span> species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long <span class="hlt">lived</span> and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> birds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3.1021B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some recent high-profile publications have suggested that immediately reducing emissions of methane, black carbon and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) may contribute substantially towards the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Although this literature acknowledges that action on long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (LLCPs) such as CO2 is also required, it is not always appreciated that SLCP emissions in any given decade only have a significant impact on peak temperature under circumstances in which CO2 emissions are falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially 'buy time' for adaptation by reducing near-term warming; however early SLCP reductions, compared with reductions in a future decade, do not buy time to delay reductions in CO2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowerman, Niel H. A.; Frame, David J.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Allen, Myles R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-laboratory comparisons of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> shorter than 1h. The total number of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful. PMID:18378157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klemola, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A14C..04A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health co-benefits of mitigating <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. While attention to their impacts on climate is relatively new, these pollutants have been regulated under health-based standards in the US and elsewhere in the world for decades. Understanding the health benefits of reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers may help inform mitigation strategies, since health will likely continue to drive concern over air quality in the future. Several recent studies have examined the health and climate co-benefits of control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor. This talk will highlight the health benefits of 14 presently available BC and methane mitigation measures examined in the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone. Fully implementing these specific measures is estimated to avoid 1-5 million annual ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2030, >80% of which occur in Asia. BC mitigation measures are estimated to achieve ~98% of the avoided deaths from all measures, due to associated reductions of non-methane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions and stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. These substantial public health co-benefits of mitigating <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers are independent of whether CO2 measures are enacted. Further analyses are needed to improve economic valuation of the varied impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers and quantify the benefits and costs of these measures in individual countries or regions to support policy decisions made at the national level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anenberg, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..88e2705G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ?* resonance in formic-acid O—H bond breaking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We review briefly the recent work on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to formic acid. Using Feshbach resonance theory we present results calculating the forces on various atoms during resonance processes that can arise at different electron impact energies. The conclusion is that DEA to formic acid happens through a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ?* resonance with minimal involvement from ?-? symmetry breaking as suggested elsewhere. We conclude that rehybridization on a C atom caused by the ?-? mixing is too far from the O—H bond to detect its effect on the DEA cross section. A recent experimental confirmation is also reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gallup, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inducible transgenic expression in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (GFP), containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible GFP expression was demonstrated, and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ALLARD, J. B.; KAMEI, H.; DUAN, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJWC..6602107W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass Measurement of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Nuclei at HIRFL-CSR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four campaigns of mass measurements for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei have been conducted using an isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) technique at HIRFL-CSR(Cooler Storage Ring) in Lanzhou. The radioactive nuclei were produced by projectile fragmentation and injected into the experimental storage ring CSRe. Revolution times of the ions stored in the CSRe were measured from which masses of 78Kr, 58Ni, 86Kr and 112Sn fragments have been determined with a relative uncertainty of about 10-6-10-7. The experimental results are presented and their impacts on nucleosynthesis in the rp process and nuclear structure are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3447560"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of <span class="hlt">live</span> cell dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines <span class="hlt">short</span>-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of <span class="hlt">live</span> cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Witte, Stefan; Plauska, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C.; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Groot, Marie Louise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17387889"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radioactive gases for medical studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive gases for medical studies is discussed with regard to the chemical reactions in suggested targets. The chemistry of target materials was studied by using the technique of radio-gas-liquid partition chromatography to analyze the product gases. Based on the chemistry of the reactions of oxygen-15 in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures, and carbon-11 in boric oxide, targets were designed for the production of oxygen-15-labeled oxygen, oxygen- 15-labeled carbon monoxide, and carbon-11-labeled carbon monoxide in high yields and high radio-chemical purity. PMID:17387889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Welch, M J; Ter-Pogossian, M M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6309A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species into the Tropical Tropopause Layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use NAME, a trajectory model, to investigate the routes and timescales over which air parcels reach the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Our aim is to assist the planning of aircraft campaigns focussed on improving knowledge of such transport. We focus on Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific which appears to be a particularly important source of air that enters the TTL. We first study the TTL above Borneo in November 2008, under neutral El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions. Air parcels (trajectories) arriving in the lower TTL (below ~15 km) are most likely to have travelled from the boundary layer (BL; <1 km) above the West Pacific. Few air parcels found above ~16 km travelled from the BL in the previous 15 days. We then perform similar calculations for moderate El Niño (2006) and La Niña (2007) conditions and find year-to-year variability consistent with the phase of ENSO. Under El Niño conditions fewer air parcels travel from the BL to the TTL above Borneo. During the La Niña year, more air parcels travel from the BL to the mid and upper TTL (above ~15 km) than in the ENSO-neutral year, and again they do so from the BL above the West Pacific. We also find intra-month variability in all years, with day-to-day differences of up to an order of magnitude in the fraction of an idealised <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracer travelling from the BL to the TTL above Borneo. These calculations were performed as a prelude to the SHIVA field campaign, which took place in Borneo during November 2011. So finally, to validate our approach, we consider measurements made in two previous campaigns. The features of vertical profiles of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species observed in the TTL during CR-AVE and TC4 are in broad agreement with calculated vertical profiles of idealised <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers. It will require large numbers of observations to fully describe the statistical distribution of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species in the TTL. This modelling approach should prove valuable in planning flights for the long-duration aircraft now capable of making such measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ashfold, M. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Manning, A. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARV40006S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein ligand interactions with single-molecule force spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in stabilizing biomolecular complexes. Although life time of individual bonds can be extremely <span class="hlt">short</span>, cooperativity among many interactions increase the overall life time of the complex. To probe <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> individual interactions, we have employed a recently developed atomic force microscopy technique that can carry out single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments on the microsecond timescale. Our loading-rate dependent measurements provide experimental evidence for an additional energy barrier in the biotin-streptavidin complex. The width of this barrier, estimated from the measurements, is both close to theoretical predictions based on steered molecular dynamics simulations and to the characteristic width of individual hydrogen bonds. We will present our experimental methodology and analysis of the results on biotin-streptavidin complex.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahin, Ozgur; Dong, Mingdong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Natur.391..559S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stellar origin for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides in the early solar system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, early solar system nuclides could have originated from a single stellar object, such as a nearby red-giant or a supernova, observations of enhanced ion fluxes in a molecular cloud have led to other models in which they are formed by energetic particle irradiation of gas and dust in the protosolar molecular cloud. Alternatively, irradiation by energetic particles from the active early sun may have occurred within the solar nebula itself. We show that there is a correlation between the initial abundances of Ca-41 and Al-26 in samples of primitive meteorite, implying a common origin for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides. We can therefore rule out the mechanisms based on energetic particle irradiation, as they cannot produce simultaneously the inferred initial abundances of both nuclides. If, as our results suggest, a single stellar source is responsible for generating these nuclides, we can constrain to less than one million years the timescale for the collapse of the protosolar cloud to form the sun.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahijpal, S.; Goswami, J. N.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Grossman, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct detection and reactivity of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phenyloxenium ion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photolysis of protonated phenylhydroxylamine was studied using product analysis, trapping experiments, and laser flash photolysis experiments (UV-vis and TR(3) detection) ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond time scale. We find that the excited state of the photoprecursor is followed by two species: a longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> transient (150 ns) that we assign to the phenoxy radical and a shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (3-20 ns) transient that we assign to the singlet phenyloxenium ion. Product studies from photolysis of this precursor show rearranged protonated o-/p-aminophenols and solvent water adducts (catechol, hydroquinone) and ammonium ion. The former products can be largely ascribed to radical recombination or ion recombination, while the latter are ascribed to solvent water addition to the phenyloxenium ion. The phenyloxenium ion is apparently too <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> under these conditions to be trapped by external nucleophiles other than solvent, giving only trace amounts of o-/p-chloro adducts upon addition of chloride trap. Product studies upon thermolysis of this precursor give the same products as those generated from photolysis, with the difference being that the ortho adducts (o-aminophenol, hydroquinone) are formed in a higher ratio in comparison to the photolysis products. PMID:23713909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanway, Patrick J; Xue, Jiadan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Milot, Maeia J; Ruixue, Zhu; Phillips, David Lee; Winter, Arthur H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...788...20B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. III. Rotating Three-dimensional Cloud Cores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ~10–4 to ~3 × 10–4, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for 60Fe and 26Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes <span class="hlt">shortly</span> before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvC..71f7302I"> <span id="translatedtitle">?-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of new neutron-rich rare-earth <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 159Pm,162Sm, and 166Gd</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new neutron-rich rare-earth <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 159Pm, 162Sm, and 166Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified using the JAERI on-line <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of 159Pm, 162Sm, and 166Gd were determined to be 1.5 ± 0.2, 2.4 ± 0.5, and 4.8 ± 1.0 s respectively. The partial decay scheme of 166Gd was constructed from ??-coincidence data. A more accurate half-life value of 25.6 ± 2.2 s was obtained for the previously identified <span class="hlt">isotope</span> 166Tb. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> measured in the present study are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions calculated by the second generation of the gross theory with the atomic masses evaluated by Audi and Wapstra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ichikawa, S.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Haba, H.; Nagame, Y.; Shibata, M.; Sakama, M.; Kojima, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JMS....42...83G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of sediment dynamics in coastal systems via <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Neuse and Pamlico River Estuaries are shallow, dynamic systems that have been plagued with symptoms of eutrophication over the past two decades. Extensive research has been conducted over the last 5-10 years to better understand the complex nutrient dynamics of these systems. However, most of these studies have concentrated on nutrient cycling in the water column. Only recently have studies focused on the benthic environment, and most sediment studies have neglected the dynamic nature of the benthos, focusing instead on diffusion as the dominant transport process delivering nutrients to the water column. Although diffusion of nutrients across the sediment-water interface may be important during quiescent periods of sediment deposition and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term storage, wind events associated with storms throughout the year will resuspend newly deposited sediments resulting in the advective transport of sediment porewater, rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, into the water column. Sediment resuspension may increase water column nutrient concentrations, and therefore present estimates of nutrient and carbon inputs from the sediments may be too low. This study evaluated <span class="hlt">short</span>-term sediment dynamics of natural resuspension events and deposition rates in these two estuaries with the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes, 7Be, 137Cs, and 234Th. Sediment cores at nine sites in the estuaries have been collected at least bimonthly since May 2001. In general, tracers indicate a depositional environment with minimal episodes of removal. The largest sediment removal occurred in August 2001 in the Neuse River where an estimated 2.2 cm of sediment were removed over the previous 6-week period. This removal mechanism essentially advects porewater nutrients into the water column. Calculated advective fluxes of ammonium and phosphate based on this resuspension event were approximately six times greater than the average diffusive flux measured in the same general area of the river. Longer-term deposition rates, using 137Cs, ranged from 1.4 to greater than 5 mm year -1, comparable to earlier studies in the area and agree well with the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers. In addition, meteorological (wind speed and direction), turbidity, and bottom current data were collected and indicated that these resuspension events occur when passing fronts developed wind speeds in excess of 4 m s -1 with rapid shifts in direction. Currents exhibited estuarine flow reversals associated with wind events and apparently have some control over the sediment removal processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giffin, Dan; Corbett, D. Reide</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21056740"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Developments for Isochronous Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combination of the in-flight separator FRS and the storage-ring ESR at GSI offers unique possibilities for high accuracy mass and lifetime measurements of bare and few-electron fragments. Operating the ESR in the isochronous mode allows for measurements of revolution frequencies of stored ions without cooling. Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can be applied to fragments with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> as <span class="hlt">short</span> as several tens of microseconds. Newly developed magnetic rigidity tagging increases the resolving power of IMS to about 500000. IMS can be used to measure masses of nuclei with rates even lower than one ion per day, a property also needed for the purpose of the ILIMA project at the future facility FAIR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winckler, N. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Sun, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beckert, K.; Beller, P.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Montes, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1230283A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a~three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a~significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 93% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principal, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles. This effect is caused by very efficient heterogeneous reactions on ice surfaces which reduce the HBr/Bry fraction below 15% at the tropical tropopause. Under these circumstances there is no significant loss of Bry due to dehydration in the model, VSLS contribute fully to stratospheric bromine. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity calculations to test the robustness of this result. If heterogeneous chemistry is ignored, the HBr/Bry fraction exceeds 50% and about 10% of bromine from VSLS is scavenged. Dehydration plays a minor role for Bry removal under the assumption that HOBr is efficiently adsorbed on ice as well since the heterogeneous reactions alter the partitioning equilibrium of Bry in favor of HOBr. In this case, up to 12% of bromine from VSLS is removed. Even in the extreme and unrealistic case that adsorbed species on ice particles are instantaneously removed the maximum loss of bromine does not exceed 25%. In conclusion, considering the average abundance of bromine <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases in convective updrafts of 6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) we find a most likely contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine in the range of 4.5-6 pptv.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24660957"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged marital stress is associated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> responses to positive stimuli.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion-responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N?=?116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral, and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lapate, Regina C; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Greischar, Lawrence L; Norris, Catherine J; Bachhuber, David R W; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11D0068L"> <span id="translatedtitle">CARIBIC observations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EPJWC...206002A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutron-induced capture cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinides with the surrogate reaction method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determination of neutron-capture cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei is opening the way to understand and clarify the properties of many nuclei of interest for nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and particularly for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The surrogate approach is well-recognized as a potentially very useful method to extract neutron cross sections for low-energy compound-nuclear reactions and to overcome the difficulties related to the target radioactivity. In this work we will assess where we stand on these neutron-capture cross section measurements and how we can achieve the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Minor Actinides nuclei involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. The CENBG collaboration applied the surrogate method to determine the neutron-capture cross section of 233Pa (T1/2 = 27 d). The 233Pa (n,?) cross section is then deduced from the measured gamma decay probability of 234Pa compound nucleus formed via the surrogate 232Th(3He,p) reaction channel. The obtained cross section data, covering the neutron energy range 0.1 to 1 MeV, have been compared with the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The importance of establishing benchmarks is stressed for the minor actinides region. However, the lack of desired targets led us to propose recently the 174Yb (3He,p?) reaction as a surrogate reaction for the (n,?) predetermined benchmark cross section of 175Lu. An overview of the experimental setup combining gamma ray detectors such as Ge and C6D6 in coincidence with light charged particles ?E-E Telescopes will be presented and preliminary results will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aïche, M.; Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Barreau, G.; Matthieu, L.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Méot, V.; Roig, O.; Gaudefroy, L.; Taieb, J.; Pillet, N.; Faul, T.; Sérot, O.; Bauge, E.; Gunsing, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511476T"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new methodology involving stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> tracer to compare <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long- term selenium mobility in soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Selenium is an element of environmental concern given its dual beneficial and toxic character to animal and human health. Its radioactive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> 79Se, a fission product of 235U, is considered critical in safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories in case of leakage and hypothetical soil contamination. Therefore, Se species transformations and interactions with soil components have to be clearly understood to predict its dispersion in the biosphere (e.g., accumulation in soils, migration to waters, transfer to <span class="hlt">living</span> organisms). While natural Se interactions with soils run over centuries to millennia time scales, transformations and partitioning are generally studied with <span class="hlt">short</span>-term experiments (often inferior to 1 month) after Se addition. The influence of slower, long-term processes involved in Se speciation and mobility in soils is thus not properly accounted for. We tested if using ambient Se would be relevant for long-term risk assessment while added Se would be more representative of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term contamination impact. For that purpose, we developed a new methodology to trace the differential reactivity of ambient and spiked Se at trace level (µg kg-1) in soils. It combined the use of a stable <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> enriched tracer with our previous published analytical method based on specific extractions and HPLC-ICP-MS to determine trace Se species partition in different soil phases. Given that soil extracts contains very high concentrations of various elements interfering Se (e.g., Fe, Cl, Br), the ICP-MS parameters and mathematical corrections were optimized to cope with such interferences. Following optimization, three correct and accurate (<2%) <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios were obtained with 77Se, 78Se, 80Se and 82Se. The optimized method was then applied to an arable and a forest soil submitted to an aging process (drying/wetting cycles) during three months, to which 77Se(IV) was previously added. The results showed that ambient Se was at steady state in terms of water leachability, partition between soil solid phases (exchangeable Se and Se associated to organic matter) and speciation. At the opposite, the retention strength, solid phase partition and speciation of 77Se(IV) were modified during the experiment time-course and presented different kinetics. 77Se(IV) behavior tended to be similar to the one of ambient Se but still remained less strongly retained and chemically transformed at three months. We concluded that kinetically limited processes are involved in Se retention and transformation in soils and that commonly used <span class="hlt">short</span>-term experiments (<1 month) do not consider them properly. Otherwise, it seems more judicious to study ambient Se to infer the processes and parameters used in long-term risk assessment modeling. Since three correct and accurate Se <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios were obtained, this new methodology can be further used to simultaneous monitor the reactivity of three different Se forms (e.g., added Se(IV), Se(VI) or Se(0), ambient Se), that will be useful for both soil Se contamination and supplementation contexts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tolu, Julie; Thiry, Yves; Potin-gautier, Martine; Le hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........11D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supernova injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides into the presolar cloud: A feasibility study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meteorite inclusions show that the early solar system was radioactive with species of <span class="hlt">short</span> lifetimes compared to the formation time of the solar system. Transporting the radioactive material from the creation site to the formation site of the sun was expected to take enough time that these species should have decayed to nonexistence. Some special series of events seems necessary to speed the process along. Cameron & Truran (1977) suggested that the source of these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides could have been a supernova. Numerical hydrodynamic studies have shown that slow shockwaves can inject material into a small, dense cloud core. Most stars are not born in lone dense cores. Thus any core that might have become the solar system was probably shrouded with an envelope that the ejecta from supernova would have had to penetrate along with the intervening interstellar medium. We present numerical hydrodynamic studies using Zeus-2D investigating how a supernova can inject its material into a moderately dense molecular cloud. We model a self-similar explosion colliding with a spherical cloud and examine the results for injection. We have modified Zeus-2D by adding three tracking dyes and changing the effective adiabatic index of the fluid in response to the shock-cloud collision. We find that if the effective adiabatic index of the gas is less than 5/3 then injection can occur, and we describe the basics of the mechanism by which this occurs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Keith W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55230873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simone Tilmes; Doug Kinnison; Rolando Garcia; Ross Salawitch; Julia Lee-Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P"> <span id="translatedtitle">First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy ?-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3870992"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a “young-of-the-year” life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an “overwinter” life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring). We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled. We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Results Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as <span class="hlt">short</span> latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Conclusion Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as suggested by the POL theory, however, was not found. Nevertheless, correlations of traits suggest the existence of animal personalities. In conclusion, complex patterns of population dynamics, seasonal variation in life histories, and variability of behaviour due to asset-protection may cause complex seasonal behavioural dynamics in a population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........93F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone precursors on climate and air quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone precursors not only degrade air quality and health, but indirectly affect climate via chemical effects on ozone, methane, and aerosols. Some have advocated for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants in near-term climate mitigation strategies, in addition to national air quality programs, but their radiative forcing (RF) impacts are uncertain and vary based on emission location. In this work, global chemical transport modeling is combined with radiative transfer modeling to study the impacts of regional ozone precursor emissions (NOx, CO, and NMVOCs) on climate, via changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate, and on regional and global air quality. The first study evaluates NOx, CO, and NMVOC emission reductions from four regions across an ensemble of models, finding that NMVOC and CO reductions from all four regions cool climate (negative RF) by decreasing ozone and methane, while improving air quality. NOx and NMVOC global warming potentials (GWPs), a measure of the relative radiative effects of individual climate forcers, vary strongly among regions, while CO GWPs show less variability. The second and third studies investigate further the RF and air quality impacts of CO and NMVOC emission reductions from 10 world regions. The greatest benefits to RF and air quality (per unit emissions) are achieved by CO reductions from the tropics, due to more active photochemistry and convection. CO GWPs are fairly independent of the reduction region (GWP20: 3.71 to 4.37; GWP100: 1.26 to 1.44), while NMVOC GWPs are more variable (GWP 20: -1.13 to 18.9; GWP100: 0.079 to 6.05). Accounting for additional forcings from CO and NMVOC emissions would likely change RF and GWP estimates. Regionally-specific GWPs for NOx and NMVOCs and a globally-uniform GWP for CO may allow these gases to be included in a multi-gas emissions trading framework, and enable comprehensive strategies for meeting climate and air quality goals simultaneously. Future research could investigate full climate responses using coupled chemistry-climate models, and perform regional analyses of specific emission control measures to maximize climate and air quality benefits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Meridith McGee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52086173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Science and Technology of the Proposed Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator Facility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This talk will cover the present status of a proposed advanced facility for the production and acceleration of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, known as the Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator (RIA). The primary goal of RIA is to provide intense, high-quality beams of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclear species for basic research in nuclear physics. The rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are to be produced via a variety of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jerry Nolen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=exposure+sources+contribute&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dexposure%2Bsources%2Bcontribute"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities that may be sufficient to explain the observations if the time elapsed delta from the contamination of the ISM to the formation of protoplanetary bodies is not higher than delta = 5 x 10(exp 6) yr. If delta is longer, up to 10 x 10(exp 6) yr, this would require the single AGB star to experience enhanced neutron densities (n(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9)n/cu cm) in the s-processing zone in order to compensate for the branching at Fe-59. The alternative model of long-term continuous ejection of matter from many AGB stars does not appear to match the observations. We also estimate the Al-26 production from the H-shell and find that the Al-26 abundance in the early solar system may be readily explained in a self-consistent manner. Moreover, Al-26 from AGB stars may contribute substantially to the galactic Al-26 gamma-source, while no significant gamma-flux from Co-60 (deriving from Fe-60 decay) is to be expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16445924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planar chromatographic analysis and quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive metabolites from microdialysis fractions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sensitive radiochromatographic method for the quantitative determination of compounds labelled with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> beta-emitting radionuclides in microdialysates is described. The method is well suited for microdialysis (MD) samples, which have small volumes and low concentrations of compounds. An 18F-labelled (beta+; T(1/2)=109.8 min) radiopharmaceutical, (1R,2S)-4-[18F]fluorometaraminol (FMR), was injected intravenously into rats, and microdialysis fractions were then collected from the blood at 15 min intervals. Fractions were analyzed for FMR and its radioactive metabolites by planar chromatography combined with digital photostimulated luminescence autoradiography. The lowest detectable 18F-radioactivity was 0.24 Bq/application and the limit of quantification was 0.31 Bq/application with 4-16 h exposure. The method was found to be highly sensitive and linear in the range of 0.1 Bq-2 kBq. This method thus allows the quantification of beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in sequential microdialysis fractions with good time-resolution. PMID:16445924</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haaparanta, Merja; Grönroos, Tove; Eskola, Olli; Bergman, Jörgen; Solin, Olof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.295....1S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa-10-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Furukawa, T.; Iimura, H.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Nakamura, S.; Noto, T.; Schury, P.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15985375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary results on the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental campaign was conducted to assess the feasibility of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a Plasma Focus (PF) device. This so-called "endogenous production" technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Until now only one research group has published data relevant to PF endogenous production of SLR, and the data seem to confirm that the PF has the capability to breed SLR. The campaign demonstrated production of (15)O, (17)F and (13)N from the (14)N(d,n)(15)O, (12)C(d,n)(13)N and (16)O(d,n)(17)F reactions. A 7kJ, 17kV Mather-type PF was operated with natural nitrogen, oxygen, CO(2) and deuterium in the vacuum chamber. Results to date confirm that, with a PF of this type, up to 1microCi of SLRs per discharge can be obtained. PMID:15985375</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angeli, E; Tartari, A; Frignani, M; Mostacci, D; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C41D..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Saving the Cryosphere in the Arctic and the Himalayas: Mitigation of <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations reveal that the polar warming is hastened by the pole ward retreat of the extra-tropical storm track clouds and the sea-ice albedo feedback. The cloud systems associated with the storm tracks are the dominant radiative cooling cloud systems in the planet and their retreat adds more solar energy to the extra-tropical oceans. This is further amplified by the observed reduction in the arctic albedo due to the retreat of the sea-ice. Complicating this situation is the darkening of the arctic cryosphere by black carbon deposition. Over the Himalayas on the other hand, the thermo dynamical feedback involving water vapor amplifies surface warming over the elevated regions of Himalayas-Tibet by factors ranging from1 .5 to 2. This elevated warming is further amplified by black carbon in two distinctly different ways: First absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere by black carbon has been shown to warm the layers above 5 km by as much as the warming due to CO2. Next, long range transport of black carbon, leads to deposition of black carbon over the bright snow and ice darkens them and enhances the absorption of intense tropical solar radiation over the Himalayas. After summarizing recent observations over the arctic and the Himalayas, we will show how mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (methane, black carbon, ozone and HFCs) can significantly slow down the arctic warming and the large warming observed over the elevated regions of the Himalayas-Tibet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramanathan, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highlighting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited electronic states with pump-degenerate-four-wave-mixing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transient species is a major challenge in femtosecond spectroscopy, especially when third-order techniques like transient absorption are used. Higher order methods employ additional interactions between light and matter to highlight such transient species. In this work we address numerically and experimentally the detection of ultrafast species with pump-Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (pump-DFWM). In this respect, conclusive identification of ultrafast species requires the proper determination of time-zero between all four laser pulses (pump pulse and the DFWM sequence). This is addressed here under the light of experimental parameters as well as molecular properties: The role of pulse durations, amount of pulse chirp as well as excited state life time is investigated by measuring a row of natural pigments differing mainly in the number of conjugated double bonds (N = 9 to 13). A comparison of the different signals reveals a strikingly unusual behavior of spheroidene (N = 10). Complete analysis of the pump-DFWM signal illustrates the power of the method and clearly assigns the uniqueness of spheroidene to a mixing of the initially excited state with a dark excited electronic state. PMID:23968082</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marek, Marie S; Buckup, Tiago; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Motzkus, Marcus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6708V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation and modeling of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oxygenated hydrocarbons in the tropical free troposphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO (Jan/Feb 2012) probed the influence of air-sea exchange of organic carbon species and very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halogen species on the oxidative capacity of the tropical free troposphere over the full tropospheric air column above the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Organic carbon is important in the atmosphere, because it influences the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., methane, ozone, dimethyl sulfide), and because of its relevance for the formation, composition and climate impact of aerosols. This presentation summarizes unequivocal evidence for the presence of numerous oxygenated hydrocarbons (i.e., glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, MVK, MEK, aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols etc.) in the remote marine boundary layer, and in the tropical free troposphere. These species were detected by means of both Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Airborne MAX-DOAS), and online GC-MS (TOGA) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft. We employ atmospheric modeling constrained by observations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, aerosols, photolysis frequencies, and meterological parameters measured aboard the plane to elucidate the formation mechanism of this as of yet unaccounted source for oxidized organic carbon, and quantify the influence on the OVOCs on hydroxyl, bromine, chlorine and iodine radical abundances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volkamer, Rainer; Apel, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2016K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...745...11G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Star-forming Giant Clumps in Cosmological Simulations of z ? 2 Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many observed massive star-forming z ? 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with ?1 kpc, ?108-1010Modot clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M * ? 1010.5Modot galaxies in ?1012Modot halos at z ? 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f g ? 50%), and high specific star formation rates (gsim1 Gyr-1). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M clump ? (5 × 108-109)Modot) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Genel, Shy; Naab, Thorsten; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Sternberg, Amiel; Oser, Ludwig; Johansson, Peter H.; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2318L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances in the eastern Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seawater concentrations and distributions of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (BrVSLS), including bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), were measured in the upper water column (5-750 m) in the eastern Pacific. Inorganic nutrient, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton cell counts were measured to determine biogeochemical factors that affect the production and distribution of these BrVSLS. Elevated concentrations of BrVSLS were observed in coastal and tropical seawater. Concentration maxima for CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHClBr2 were observed below the mixed layer, near the subsurface chlorophyll a maxima, which suggest BrVSLS production may be related to photosynthetic biomass production. Our results also suggest that heterotrophic bacteria may also contribute to CH2Br2 and CHBrCl2 production in the water column. The maximum CHBrCl2 concentration was observed at a depth much deeper than the euphotic zone, which suggests sources other than photosynthetic biomass. Elevated CHBrCl2 concentrations in deeper waters were coincident with elevated CHCl3 concentrations, which may be an evidence for successive chlorine substitution of CHBr3 in deeper and older water masses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Yina; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Campbell, Lisa; Bianchi, Thomas S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A41A0025M"> <span id="translatedtitle">PANTHER Data from SOLVE-II Through CR-AVE: A Contrast Between Long and <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Compounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PANTHER (PAN and other Trace Hydrohalocarbons ExpeRiment) is an airborne 6-channel gas chromatograph that measures approximately 20 important atmospheric trace gases whose changing burdens impact air quality, climate change and both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. In this presentation we will contrast measurements of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> compounds against the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds. The long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> compounds tend to have well-defined troposphere boundary conditions and develop spatial gradients due to stratospheric processing. These measurements have played a major role in quantifying stratospheric transport, stratosphere- troposphere exchange, and ozone loss. In contrast the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species develop spatial and temporal gradients in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), due to variations in the surface boundary layer concentrations and the coupling of this surface boundary layer to the TTL via convective processes. Deep convection acts like a "conveyor belt" between the source region in the boundary layer and the relatively stable TTL region, often bypassing the free troposphere where scavenging of these <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> species takes place. Loss rates due to reaction with OH and thermal decomposition are reduced in the cold, dry air of the TTL, resulting in longer survival times. Isolation of the TTL region from the free troposphere can last from days to over a month. Significant amounts of these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compound and their byproducts can therefore be transported into the lower stratosphere (LS). Of particular interest are compounds that contain bromine, iodine, and sulfur, not only because of their intrinsic harmful effects in the atmosphere, but also because they have unique source and sink regions that can help to de- convolve transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B. D.; Hurst, D. F.; Nance, J. D.; Thompson, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212705H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transport and Chemistry of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Bromocarbons in the Tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a detailed chemical scheme for the degradation of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and implemented it in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3D) chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM has been used to predict the distribution of the two source gases (SGs) and 11 of their organic product gases (PGs). These first global calculations of the organic PGs show that their abundance is small. The longest <span class="hlt">lived</span> organic PGs are CBr2O and CHBrO, but their peak tropospheric abundance relative to the surface volume mixing ratio (vmr) of the SGs is less than 5%. We calculate their mean local tropospheric lifetimes in the tropics to be ~7 and ~2 days (due to photolysis), respectively. Therefore, the assumption in previous modelling studies that SG degradation leads immediately to inorganic bromine seems reasonable. We have compared observed tropical SG profiles from a number of aircraft campaigns with various model experiments. In the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) we find that the CTM run using p levels (TOMCAT) and vertical winds from analysed divergence overestimates the abundance of CH2Br2, and to a lesser extent CHBr3, although the data is sparse and comparisons are not conclusive. Better agreement in the TTL is obtained in the sensitivity run using ? levels (SLIMCAT) and vertical motion from diabatic heating rates. Trajectory estimates of residence times in the two model versions show slower vertical transport in the SLIMCAT ?-level version. In the p-level model even when we switch off convection we still find significant amounts of the SGs considered may reach the cold point tropopause; the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) is only reduced by ~16% for CHBr3 and ~2% for CH2Br2 without convection. Overall, the relative importance of the SG pathway and the PG pathway for transport of bromine to the stratospheric overworld (?>380 K) has been assessed. Assuming a 10-day washout lifetime of Bry in TOMCAT, we find the delivery of total Br from CHBr3 to be 0.72 pptv with ~53% of this coming from SGI. Similary, for CH2Br2 we find a total Br value of 1.69 pptv with ~94% coming from SGI. We infer that these species contribute ~2.4 pptv of inorganic bromine to the lower stratosphere with SGI being the dominant pathway. Slower transport to and through the TTL would decrease this estimate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Richards, Nigel; Atlas, Elliot; Blake, Donald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11021302Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal water source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons in New England</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> halocarbon tracers were used to investigate marine influences on air quality in a coastal region of New England. Atmospheric measurements made at the University of New Hampshire's Observing Station at Thompson Farm (TF) in Durham, New Hampshire, indicate that relatively large amounts of halocarbons are emitted from local estuarine and coastal oceanic regions. Bromine-containing halocarbons of interest in this work include bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The mean mixing ratios of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from 11 January to 5 March 2002 were 2.6 pptv and 1.6 pptv, and from 1 June to 31 August 2002 mean mixing ratios were 5.9 pptv and 1.4 pptv, respectively. The mean mixing ratio of CHBr3 was not only highest during summer, but both CHBr3 and CH2Br2 exhibited large variability in their atmospheric mixing ratios during this season. We attribute the greater variability to increased production combined with faster atmospheric removal rates. Other seasonal characteristics of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 in the atmosphere, as well as the impact of local meteorology on their distributions at this coastal site, are discussed. Tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4) and trichloroethene (C2HCl3) were used to identify time periods influenced by urban emissions. Additionally, measurements of CHBr3, CH2Br2, C2Cl4, methyl iodide (CH3I), and ethyl iodide (C2H5I) were made at TF and five sites throughout the nearby Great Bay estuarine area between 18 and 19 August 2003. These measurements were used to elucidate the effect of the tidal cycle on the distributions of these gases. The mean mixing ratios of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, and C2H5I were ˜82%, 46%, 14%, and 17% higher, respectively, near the coast compared to inland sites, providing evidence for a marine source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons at TF. Correlation between the tidal cycle and atmospheric concentrations of marine tracers on the night of 18 August 2003 showed that the highest values for the brominated species occurred ˜2-3 hours after high tide. Emission fluxes of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, and C2H5I on this night were estimated to be 26 ± 57, 4.7 ± 5.4, 5.9 ± 4.6, and 0.065 ± 0.20 nmol m-2 h-1, respectively. Finally, the anthropogenic source strength of CHBr3 was calculated to determine its impact on atmospheric levels observed in this region. Although our results indicate that anthropogenic contributions could potentially range from 15 to 60% of the total dissolved CHBr3 in the Great Bay, based on the observed ratio of CH2Br2/CHBr3 and surface seawater measurements in the Gulf of Maine, it appears unlikely that anthropogenic activities are a significant source of CHBr3 in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yong; Varner, Ruth K.; Russo, Rachel S.; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Haase, Karl B.; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29..273H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Limits to the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">living</span> benthic foraminifera to pore water carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies in methane vent environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">13C depletions in the carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of benthic foraminiferal tests preserved in the stratigraphic record have been interpreted as an active incorporation of methane-derived carbon. Understanding the extent to which these <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions reflect basin-wide fluxes of methane carbon to bottom waters versus a local supply of methane carbon within the sediments in which benthic foraminifera <span class="hlt">live</span>, or a postmortem diagenetic imprint is critical to the interpretation of ?13C paleoceanographic proxies. Here we evaluate the impact of chemical gradients measured in pore waters adjacent to active methane vents on carbon assimilation by <span class="hlt">living</span> benthic foraminifera and show that those <span class="hlt">living</span> near methane vents do not assimilate the distinctly 13C depleted methane-derived dissolved inorganic carbon into their tests from the pore water in which they were found. Our observations can be explained by the recently articulated physiological limits imposed on deep-sea fauna by low-oxygen and high-pCO2 environments. Understanding the importance of the different processes involved in the observed disequilibrium between the carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the benthic forams and the pore waters where they were found has important implications on the reliability of carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of benthic foraminifera for paleoceanographic reconstructions. In particular, the observation on the inhospitability of these environments for benthic foraminifera at least for reproduction and growth raises the issue on the overprint either in the late adult stages of foraminifera that grew in a different neighboring environment or during early diagenesis in these geochemically active environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herguera, J. C.; Paull, C. K.; Perez, E.; Ussler, W.; Peltzer, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005411&hterms=Volume+14&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2522Volume%2B14%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convective Transport of Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...789...86A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distributions of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Nuclei Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (l ~ 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (l ~ 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ~10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of 26Al and 60Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM ? (where 1 pM ? = 10–12 M ?). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?SLR ~ 1-5 × 10–19 s–1. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?CR ~ 10–17 s–1, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://222.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_48/issue_1/0290.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using natural distributions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to quantify groundwater discharge and recharge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radium activity in pore water of wetland sediments often differs from the amount expected from local production, decay, and exchange with solid phases. This disequilibrium results from vertical transport of radium with ground- water that flows between the underlying aquifer and surface water. In situations where groundwater recharge or discharge is significant, the rate of vertical water flow through wetland</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James M. Krest; Judson W. Harvey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48625111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical pumping of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> ?-radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and the magnetic moment of 37 K</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">21Na (T1\\/2=23 sec) and37K(T1\\/2=1.25 sec) have been produced in gas targets by (d, n) reactions and polarized by means of optical pumping or spin exchange scattering with optically pumped87Rb. An asymmetry up to 3% in the?-decay of the polarized nuclei was found, which served to detect rf transitions between hfs levels of the atomic ground states of21Na and37K.?F=0 and?F=1 resonances</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. Köpf; H. J. Besch; E. W. Otten; Ch. von Platen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54445427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical pumping of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> Beta-radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and the magnetic moment of37K</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">21Na ( T 1\\/2=23 sec) and37K( T 1\\/2=1.25 sec) have been produced in gas targets by ( d, n) reactions and polarized by means of optical pumping or spin exchange scattering with optically pumped87Rb. An asymmetry up to 3% in the Beta-decay of the polarized nuclei was found, which served to detect rf transitions between hfs levels of the atomic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. Koepf; H. J. Besch; E. W. Otten; Ch. von Platen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE90506174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beta-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of neutron rich Cu and Ni <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced by thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of very neutron rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Ni and Cu have been measured. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are produced in very asymmetric thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu at the I.L.L. high flux reactor. They are separated by means of the Lohengrin spectrom...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bernas J. L. Sida J. P. Bocquet H. Faust R. Brissot</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upper limits for the existence of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of roentgenium in natural gold</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sensitive search for <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>--even after pileup correction--unlikely.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"> <span id="translatedtitle">A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Ming-Chang [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chaussidon, Marc [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CNRS, Nancy (France); Srinivasan, Gopalan [Center for Earth Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); McKeegan, Kevin D., E-mail: mcliu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6992109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Osteosarcoma risk after simultaneous incorporation of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide sup 227 Ac and the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide sup 227 Th</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of injection of 1.85 kBq/kg of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide {sup 227}Ac on the induction of osteosarcomas in female NMRI mice by different dose levels (18.5, 74, and 185 kBq/kg) of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 227}Th was investigated. The highest absolute osteosarcoma incidence was observed with the highest doses of {sup 227}Th. Addition of {sup 227}Ac resulted in an additional osteosarcoma incidence only at the lowest dose of {sup 227}Th and did not affect the osteosarcoma incidence resulting from higher doses of {sup 227}Th. The longest times to tumor appearance were observed with {sup 227}Ac alone. The latent period in two different age groups (4 weeks and 10-12 weeks) appeared to be similar following injection with combined doses of {sup 227}Th and {sup 227}Ac but different after injection of each radionuclide alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mueller, W.A.M.; Murray, A.B.; Linzner, U.; Luz, A. (GSF-Institut fuer Pathologie, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...545A...4G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar system genealogy revealed by extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Little is known about the stellar environment and the genealogy of our solar system. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs, mean lifetime ? shorter than 100 Myr) that were present in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Gyr ago could potentially provide insight into that key aspect of our history, were their origin understood. Aims: Previous models failed to provide a reasonable explanation of the abundance of two key SLRs, 26Al (?26 = 1.1 Myr) and 60Fe (?60 = 3.7 Myr), at the birth of the solar system by requiring unlikely astrophysical conditions. Our aim is to propose a coherent and generic solution based on the most recent understanding of star-forming mechanisms. Methods: Iron-60 in the nascent solar system is shown to have been produced by a diversity of supernovae belonging to a first generation of stars in a giant molecular cloud. Aluminum-26 is delivered into a dense collected shell by a single massive star wind belonging to a second star generation. The Sun formed in the collected shell as part of a third stellar generation. Aluminum-26 yields used in our calculation are based on new rotating stellar models in which 26Al is present in stellar winds during the star main sequence rather than during the Wolf-Rayet phase alone. Our scenario eventually constrains the time sequence of the formation of the two stellar generations that just preceded the solar system formation, along with the number of stars born in these two generations. Results: We propose a generic explanation for the past presence of SLRs in the nascent solar system, based on a collect-injection-and-collapse mechanism, occurring on a diversity of spatial/temporal scales. In that model, the presence of SLRs with a diversity of mean lifetimes in the solar protoplanetary disk is simply the fossilized record of sequential star formation within a hierarchical interstellar medium. We identify the genealogy of our solar system's three star generations earlier. In particular, we show that our Sun was born together with a few hundred stars in a dense collected shell situated at a distance of 5-10 pc from a parent massive star having a mass greater than about 30 solar masses and belonging to a cluster containing ~1200 stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gounelle, M.; Meynet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.241..983I"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to determine binding energies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei we have developed a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of high mass resolving power m/? m. This spectrometer achieves a very long ion flight path by repeatedly reflecting ions between two electrostatic ion mirrors. The nuclei to be investigated are produced in heavy ion fragmentations and separated in-flight by a fragment separator. These energetic ions are thermalized in a catcher gas cell injected into an RF ion-guide and then into an ion trap to be cooled, bunched and entered into the time-of-flight spectrometer. This technique should allow to determine the masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei with high efficiency. Using stable ions, the so far achieved mass resolving power m/? m exceeded 65,000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ishida, Y.; Wada, M.; Wollnik, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of the 2010 National Radiation Protection Institute intercomparison of radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product continuous monitors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the Sixth European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in autumn 2010 in Prague, the first intercomparison of continuous radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product monitors was organised and held by the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. Eight laboratories submitted eight continuous radon monitors, two electronic monitors, three passive integral systems based on charcoal and three continuous radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay product monitors. The intercomparison included exposures to both the radon gas concentration and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration (EEC) under different ambient conditions similar to the ones in dwellings. In particular, the influence of the equilibrium factor F, unattached fraction of EEC f(p) and absolute air humidity were investigated. The results of the radon gas measurements were performed on a calibration level of about 8  kBq m(-3). The results of all monitors were compared with the reference NRPI monitor. PMID:21471124</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jílek, K; Marušiaková, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17730814"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vertical distribution and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of <span class="hlt">living</span> planktonic foraminifera in the Western north atlantic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirteen species of planktonic foraminifera collected with vertically stratified zooplankton tows in the slope water, Gulf Stream cold core ring, and northern Sargasso Sea show significant differences in their vertical distributions in the upper 200 meters of these different hydrographic regimes. Gulf Stream cold core rings may be responsible for a southern displacement of the faunal boundary associated with the Gulf Stream when reconstructed from the deep-sea sediment record. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses of seven species reveal that nonspinose species (algal symbiont-barren) apparently calcify in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium, whereas spinose species usually calcify out of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium by approximately -0.3 to -0.4 per mil in delta(18)O values. The <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data indicate that foraminifera shells calcify in depth zones that are significantly narrower than the overall vertical distribution of a species would imply. PMID:17730814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fairbanks, R G; Wiebe, P H; Bé, A W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5488140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vertical distribution and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of <span class="hlt">living</span> planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirteen species of planktonic foraminifera collected with vertically stratified zooplankton tows in the slope water, Gulf Stream cold core ring, and northern Sargasso Sea show significant differences in their vertical distributions in the upper 200 meters of these different hydrographic regimes. Gulf Stream cold core rings may be responsible for a southern displacement of the faunal boundary associated with the Gulf Stream when reconstructed from the deep-sea sediment record. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses of seven species reveal that nonspinose species (algal symbiont-barren) apparently calcify in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium, whereas spinose species usually calcify out of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium by approximately -0.3 to -0.4 per mil in delta/sup 18/O values. The <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data indicate that foraminifera shells calcify in depth zones that are significantly narrower than the overall vertical distribution of a species would imply.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fairbanks, R.G. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY); Wiebe, P.H.; Be, A.W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19182720"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of the Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Particles in a High-Resolution Streamer-Chamber Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> particles produced in association with muons have been observed in the interactions of 350-GeV\\/c protons with neon in a high-resolution streamer chamber. The characteristics of these events are consistent with the expected properties of charmed particles if the average lifetime lies between 10-13 and 2×10-12 sec. With the assumption that the observed events are mainly D+\\/- mesons with lifetimes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Sandweiss; T. Cardello; P. Cooper; S. Dhawan; R. Kellogg; D. Ljung; T. Ludlam; R. Majka; P. McBride; P. Némethy; L. Rosselet; A. J. Slaughter; H. D. Taft; L. Teig; L. Tzeng; S. Ecklund; M. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jz/v071/i006/JZ071i006p01525/JZ071i006p01525.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disequilibrium between the <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radon Daughter Products in the Lower Atmosphere Resulting from Their Washout by Rain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentration changes of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughter products of Rn ' in air due to washout have been computed according to a three-phase (gas-aerosol-raindrop) model for a wide range of values of the system parameters. It is shown that the ratio of Pb TM to Bi TM concentrations is a sensitive measure of the relative washout efficiences of free atoms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Gat; G. Assaf; A. Miko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26278018"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to determine binding energies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei we have developed a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of high mass resolving power m\\/?m. This spectrometer achieves a very long ion flight path by repeatedly reflecting ions between two electrostatic ion mirrors. The nuclei to be investigated are produced in heavy ion fragmentations and separated in-flight by a fragment separator. These energetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Ishida; M. Wada; H. Wollnik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v102/iD05/96JD02955/96JD02955.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and intercomparison of global atmospheric transport models using 222Rn and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulations of 222Rn and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tracers are used to evaluate and intercompare the representations of convective and synoptic processes in 20 global atmospheric transport models. Results show that most established three-dimensional models simulate vertical mixing in the troposphere to within the constraints offered by the observed mean 222Rn concentrations and that subgrid parameterization of convection is essential for this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel J. Jacob; Michael J. Prather; Philip J. Rasch; Run-Lie Shia; Yves J. Balkanski; Stephen R. Beagley; Daniel J. Bergmann; W. T. Blackshear; Margaret Brown; Masaru Chiba; Martyn P. Chipperfield; J. de Grandpré; Jane E. Dignon; Johann Feichter; Christophe Genthon; W. L. Grose; Prasad S. Kasibhatla; Ines Köhler; Mark A. Kritz; Kathy Law; Joyce E. Penner; Michel Ramonet; Claire E. Reeves; Douglas A. Rotman; Deianeira Z. Stockwell; Peter F. J. Van Velthoven; Gé Verver; Oliver Wild; Hu Yang; Peter Zimmermann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114707"> <span id="translatedtitle">SProtP: a web server to recognize those <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins based on sequence-derived features in human cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protein turnover metabolism plays important roles in cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and differentiation. Those proteins with <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> are involved in various regulatory processes. To better understand the regulation of cell process, it is important to study the key sequence-derived factors affecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein degradation. Until now, most of protein half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> are still unknown due to the difficulties of traditional experimental methods in measuring protein half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> in human cells. To investigate the molecular determinants that affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, a computational method was proposed in this work to recognize <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins based on sequence-derived features in human cells. In this study, we have systematically analyzed many features that perhaps correlated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein degradation. It is found that a large fraction of proteins with signal peptides and transmembrane regions in human cells are of <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>. We have constructed an SVM-based classifier to recognize <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, due to the fact that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins play pivotal roles in the control of various cellular processes. By employing the SVM model on human dataset, we achieved 80.8% average sensitivity and 79.8% average specificity, respectively, on ten testing dataset (TE1-TE10). We also obtained 89.9%, 99% and 83.9% of average accuracy on an independent validation datasets iTE1, iTE2 and iTE3 respectively. The approach proposed in this paper provides a valuable alternative for recognizing the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins in human cells, and is more accurate than the traditional N-end rule. Furthermore, the web server SProtP (http://reprod.njmu.edu.cn/sprotp) has been developed and is freely available for users. PMID:22114707</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Hao; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhang, Xiaobai; Han, Ping; Sha, Jiahao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11B2316G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trace element and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> geochemistry of Franciscan graywackes with implications for <span class="hlt">short</span> time of recycling of detritus and interaction of continental sediments with metabasites during subduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trace element concentrations and Nd-Sr-Pb-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios of graywackes from the Franciscan subduction complex appear to reflect two geochemically distinct sources. Some of the graywackes show no negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* >0.9), slightly concave up heavy REE, and generally arc-like trace element patterns. These graywackes have Western Pacific intra-oceanic arc-like Pb-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios, probably reflecting derivation from older accreted oceanic arc terranes and supra-subduction zone ophiolites that are common in the Sierra Nevada-Klamath Mountains region. Other graywackes display small but distinctly negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* <0.9) with Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) like trace element patterns and Pb-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions similar to the Sierra Nevada granitic rocks. Although the latter continental arc signature may be expected to typify the younger graywacke samples, there is no systematic separation of these two geochemical groups by age. The two youngest samples fall into the oceanic arc group. In addition, all the graywackes show distinctly gradual light REE depletions from La to Sm when normalized to PAAS. Thus the geochemical characteristics may reflect variation in location of sediment delivery and distributary systems and/or reworking of previously accreted Franciscan materials, rather than progressive unroofing of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Comparison of our data with published data on the forearc basin deposits of the Great Valley Group suggests the same sediment sources. The derivation of trench sediments (subduction complex graywacke) and forearc basin deposits from the same sources precludes a significant exotic source for Franciscan graywackes as proposed in the past by some researchers. The systematic variation of Nd and Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition with age for our Franciscan graywacke samples also mimics the trends of coeval Great Valley Group rocks, in spite of widespread evidence of significant reworking of the detritus which result in Franciscan <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions resembling older Great Valley Group rocks. Although there is much scatter in the collective dataset, these results suggest that the burial-exhumation cycles that recycled Franciscan clastic material were <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>. A comparison of the trace element and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios of the Franciscan graywackes with those of Franciscan metabasites reaffirms the conclusion in several of our recent studies that the metabasites were not chemically modified by interaction with fluids derived from continental sediments during subduction and exhumation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.; Wakabayashi, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2787427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Loci Associated With Tail Color and Sex Determination in the <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The African fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> vertebrate species that can reproduce in captivity, with a median life span of 9–11 weeks for the shortest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> strain. Natural populations of N. furzeri display differences in life span, aging biomarkers, behavior, and color, which make N. furzeri a unique vertebrate system for studying the genetic basis of these traits. We mapped regions of the genome involved in sex determination and tail color by genotyping microsatellite markers in the F2 progeny of a cross between a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, yellow-tailed strain and a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>, red-tailed strain of N. furzeri. We identified one region linked with the yellow/red tail color that maps close to melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r), a gene involved in pigmentation in several vertebrate species. Analysis of the segregation of sex-linked markers revealed that N. furzeri has a genetic sex determination system with males as the heterogametic sex and markedly reduced recombination in the male sex-determining region. Our results demonstrate that both naturally-evolved pigmentation differences and sex determination in N. furzeri are controlled by simple genetic mechanisms and set the stage for the molecular genetic dissection of factors underlying such traits. The microsatellite-based linkage map we developed for N. furzeri will also facilitate analysis of the genetic architecture of traits that characterize this group of vertebrates, including <span class="hlt">short</span> life span and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Kirschner, Jeanette; Kamber, Roarke A.; Zhang, Elisa; Weber, David; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias; Reichwald, Kathrin; Brunet, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046518&hterms=alpha&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dalpha"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> r-Process Radioactivities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41293791"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> with an ostomy and <span class="hlt">short</span> bowel syndrome: Practical aspects and impact on daily life</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Practical aspects and impact on daily life of <span class="hlt">short</span> bowel syndrome (SBS) and an ostomy were explored in people with SBS. Interest was focused on nutrition and excretion, ostomy problems, associated medical and surgical problems, socioeconomic situation, and social and leisure activities. Subjects and Setting: Six subjects (range, 38-68 years) with Crohn's disease were included from the University <span class="hlt">Short</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eva Carlsson; Barbro Berglund; Svante Nordgren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1219698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of polyamine levels on the degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biogenic polyamines have important regulatory functions in various biological processes and it has also been suggested that they could modulate intracellular protein degradation. For an overall assessment of the role of polyamines in this process, we have investigated the effect that the decrease in intracellular polyamine levels caused by inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis brings about on the degradation of the pools of <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells. Treatment of cells with 100 microM (2R,5R)-delta-methyl acetylenic putrescine (MAP), a potent enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, or with 100 microM MAP plus 50 microM N-butyl 1,3-diaminopropane, a specific inhibitor of spermine synthase, caused a similar decrease (65-70% of control) in the total intracellular levels of polyamines, although they affected the concentrations of spermidine and spermine differently. The effect of the two treatments on protein degradation was essentially the same. In polyamine-depleted cells we observed an inhibition of degradation in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> proteins of 16% (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the half-life (t12) of this pool from 100.5 to 120.1 h. This was concomitant with an increase of 26% (P<0. 05) in degradation in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins, with a significant decrease in the t12 of this pool from 0.85 to 0.67 h. Recovery of polyamine levels by the addition of 50 microM spermidine to polyamine-depleted cells resulted in a restoration of the degradation rates in both pools of proteins. The way(s) by which polyamines could modulate proteolysis are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corella, D; Guillen, M; Hernandez, J M; Hernandez-Yago, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075157"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Measurement of Carbon <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Fractionation in Plants 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Combustion-based studies of the carbon-13 content of plants give only an integrated, long-term value for the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation associated with photosynthesis. A method is described here which permits determination of this <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in 2 to 3 hours. To accomplish this, the plant is enclosed in a glass chamber, and the quantity and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> content of the CO2 remaining in the atmosphere are monitored during photosynthesis. <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> fractionation studies by this method give results consistent with what is expected from combustion studies of C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. This method will make possible a variety of new studies of environmental and species effects in carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Leary, Marion H.; Treichel, Isabel; Rooney, Melodye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10736895"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological–<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar–39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfredo Camacho; Bastiaan J. Hensen; Jean Braun; James K. W. Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56163087"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar-39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfredo Camacho; James K. W. Lee; Bastiaan J. Hensen; Jean Braun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996DSRI...43.1617R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparisons of the ecology and stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of <span class="hlt">living</span> (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Sulu and South China Seas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Significant differences are observed between <span class="hlt">living</span> (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera found in 14 box cores (510-4515 m) from the thermospheric (> 10°C) environments of the Sulu Sea and the psychrospheric (<10°C) conditions in the South Ch ina Sea. Gavelinopsis, Bolivinopsis, Astrononion, Osangularia and Ceratobulimina are common taxa in the South China Sea, but are rare to absent in the Sulu Sea; Siphonina and Valvulineria are dominant genera at certain depths in the Sulu Sea, but are rare to absent in the South China Sea. Faunal differences appear to result from large differences of the bottom-water temperatures (differences from about 6 to 8°C) between these basins. Faunal abundance patterns within each basin are suggested to be related to the organic carbon contents in the sediments, since temperatures, salinities and dissolved oxygen levels of the bottom-waters are relatively uniform. The ?18O values show a > 2‰ range and are similar to those presented by previous workers, but have no consistent relationship with microhabitat preferences. Vertical distribution patterns and carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of species, however, reflect microhabitat preferences and are consistent with previous observations from other regions. Epifaunal species (0-1 cm interval) such as Cibicidoides pachyderma, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Hoeglundina elegans and Anomalinoides colligera, have higher ?13C values than taxa which have the ability to <span class="hlt">live</span> deeper within the sediments. Infaunal taxa that <span class="hlt">live</span> in the upper 2-3 cm, including Uvigerina peregrina, Uvigerina proboscidea, and Bulimina mexicana, have lower ?13C values than epifaunal species, and the deep infaunal species, Chilostomella oolina, has the lowest ?13C. Cibicidoides bradyi and Oridorsalis umbonatus are found between 0 and ˜ 4 cm and have lower carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values (by > 1.4‰ in some cores) than epifaunal Cibicidoides species. Exceptions to this pattern include the aragonitic species, Gavelinopsis lobatulus, (0-4 cm) which produces significantly lower ?13C values than deep infaunal taxa, and the shallow infaunal species, Ceratobulimina pacifica (also aragonitic) and Bolivinopsis cubensis (deep infaunal), which yield higher carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values than epifaunal taxa. These exceptions are found primarily in only one core, and additional samples are needed to confirm the relationship between their distribution patterns and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions. Each of the species examined has a relatively consistent ?13C value throughout its distribution within the sediments that may result from heterogeneity of microhabitats within the intervals sampled. Intrageneric differences in ?13C of Cibicidoides, and possibly Uvigerina and Bulimina, are evident. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> differences between C. bradyi and many other Cibicidoides species are related to differences in microhabitat preferences between species. The ?13C results confirm the influence of microhabitat preferences on the carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of deep-sea benthic foraminifera and reaffirm the importance of assessing the microhabitat preferences of species used for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analyses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rathburn, A. E.; Corliss, B. H.; Tappa, K. D.; Lohmann, K. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing perturbation (-1.05 W m-2) indicating that the negative forcing (direct plus indirect) from aerosol changes dominates over the positive forcing due to ozone increases, thus masking nearly half of the PI to PD positive forcing from long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> greenhouse gases globally, consistent with other current generation chemistry-climate models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast-neutron activation of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in enriched Ge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured the production of {sup 57}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co in a sample of Ge enriched in <span class="hlt">isotope</span> 76 due to high-energy neutron interactions. These <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, especially {sup 68}Ge, are critical in understanding background in Ge detectors used for double {beta} decay experiments. They are produced by cosmogenic-neutron interactions in the detectors while they reside on the Earth's surface. These production rates were measured at neutron energies of a few hundred MeV. We compared the measured production to that predicted by cross-section calculations based on CEM03.02. The cross-section calculations overpredict our measurements by approximately a factor of 3 depending on <span class="hlt">isotope</span>. We then use the measured cosmic-ray neutron flux, our measurements, and the CEM03.02 cross sections to predict the cosmogenic production rate of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The uncertainty in extrapolating the cross-section model to higher energies dominates the total uncertainty in the cosmogenic production rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V. E.; LaRoque, B. H.; Johnson, R. A.; Mashnik, S. G. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle Washington, 98195 (United States); XCP Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with <span class="hlt">short</span> (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ881579.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Live</span>, Online <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Courses: A Case Study of Innovative Teacher Professional Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Teachers are searching for new venues through which they may meet stringent professional development requirements. Under competitive funding from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Office of Education and the NASA Explorer Schools Project, U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc. created a series of <span class="hlt">live</span>, online, interactive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marrero, Meghan E.; Woodruff, Karen A.; Schuster, Glen S.; Riccio, Jessica Fitzsimons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calpain-generated natural protein fragments as <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the N-end rule pathway.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases. We show here that calpain-generated natural C-terminal fragments of proteins that include G protein-coupled receptors, transmembrane ion channels, transcriptional regulators, apoptosis controllers, kinases, and phosphatases (Phe-GluN2a, Lys-Ica512, Arg-Ankrd2, Tyr-Grm1, Arg-Atp2b2, Glu-Bak, Arg-Igfbp2, Glu-I?B?, and Arg-c-Fos), are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which targets destabilizing N-terminal residues. We also found that the identity of a fragment's N-terminal residue can change during evolution, but the residue's destabilizing activity is virtually always retained, suggesting selection pressures that favor a <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life of the calpain-generated fragment. It is also shown that a self-cleavage of a calpain can result in an N-end rule substrate. Thus, the autoprocessing of calpains can control them by making active calpains <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. These and related results indicate that the Arg/N-end rule pathway mediates the remodeling of oligomeric complexes by eliminating protein fragments that are produced in these complexes through cleavages by calpains or other nonprocessive proteases. We suggest that this capability of the Arg/N-end rule pathway underlies a multitude of its previously known but mechanistically unclear functions. PMID:24550490</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piatkov, Konstantin I; Oh, Jang-Hyun; Liu, Yuan; Varshavsky, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11226688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence from the waking electroencephalogram that <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers <span class="hlt">live</span> under higher homeostatic sleep pressure than long sleepers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used the waking electroencephalogram to study the homeostatic sleep regulatory process in human <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers and long sleepers. After sleeping according to their habitual schedule, nine <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers (sleep duration < 6 h) and eight long sleepers (> 9 h) were recorded half-hourly during approximately 40 h of wakefulness in a constant routine protocol. Within the frequency range of 0.25-20.0 Hz, spectral power density in the 5.25-9.0 and 17.25-18.0 Hz ranges was higher in <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers than in long sleepers. In both groups, increasing time awake was associated with an increase of theta/low-frequency alpha activity (5.25-9.0 Hz), whose kinetics followed a saturating exponential function. The time constant did not differ between groups and was similar to the previously obtained time constant of the wake-dependent increase of slow-wave activity (0.75-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram. In addition, the time constant of the decrease of slow-wave activity during extended recovery sleep following the constant routine did not differ between groups. However, <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers showed an abiding enhancement of theta/low-frequency alpha activity during wakefulness after recovery sleep that was independent of the homeostatic process. It is concluded that, while the kinetics of the homeostatic process do not differ between the two groups, <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers <span class="hlt">live</span> under and tolerate higher homeostatic sleep pressure than long sleepers. The homeostat-independent enhancement of theta/low-frequency alpha activity in the waking electroencephalogram in the <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers may be genetically determined or be the result of long-term adaptation to chronically <span class="hlt">short</span> sleep. PMID:11226688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aeschbach, D; Postolache, T T; Sher, L; Matthews, J R; Jackson, M A; Wehr, T A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1262476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excited states of tryptophan in cod parvalbumin. Identification of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emitting triplet state at room temperature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of model indole compounds and of cod parvalbumin III, a protein containing a single tryptophan and no tyrosine, were examined in the time scale ranging from subnanoseconds to milliseconds at 25 degrees C in aqueous buffer. For both Ca- bound and Ca-free parvalbumin and for model indole compounds that contained a proton donor, a phosphorescent species emitting at 450 nm with a lifetime of approximately 20-40 ns could be identified. A longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> phosphorescence is also apparent; it has approximately the same absorption and emission spectrum as the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> triplet molecule. For Ca parvalbumin, the decay of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> triplet tryptophan is roughly exponential with a lifetime of 4.7 ms at 25 degrees C whereas for N-acetyltryptophanamide in aqueous buffer the decay lifetime was 30 microseconds. In contrast, the lifetime of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> tryptophan species is much shorter in the Ca-free protein compared with Ca parvalbumin, and the decay shows complex nonexponential kinetics over the entire time range from 100 ns to 1 ms. It is concluded that the photochemistry of tryptophan must take into account the existence of two excited triplet species and that there are quenching moieties within the protein matrix that decrease the phosphorescence yield in a dynamic manner for the Ca-depleted parvalbumin. In contrast, for Ca parvalbumin, the tryptophan site is rigid on the time scale of milliseconds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sudhakar, K; Phillips, C M; Williams, S A; Vanderkooi, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998nrao.pres....2."> <span id="translatedtitle">VLA Observations Confirm Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts in <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radio telescope studies of the fiery afterglow of a Gamma Ray Burst have provided astronomers with the best clues yet about the origins of these tremendous cosmic cataclysms since their discovery more than 30 years ago. Observations with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope confirm that a blast seen to occur on March 29 had its origin in a star-forming region in a distant galaxy. "There are two leading theories for the causes of Gamma Ray Bursts," said Dale Frail of the NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "According to one theory, the blasts occur in the death throes of pairs of old stars. The other requires them to arise from exploding, massive, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stars that still reside within the star-forming gas and dust from which they formed. The VLA studies of the burst show that at least this one almost certainly occurred within a star-forming region. This result also explains why half of the Gamma Ray Burst afterglows are not detected by optical telescopes." Frail heads a VLA observing team including Greg Taylor, also of NRAO, and Shri Kulkarni of Caltech, that reported its findings to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, CA. The March 29 burst was seen clearly by radio telescopes (the accompanying image is GRB 980329 as seen by the VLA) but only very faintly with optical instruments. "That is extremely important," said Taylor. "This burst was very faint at visible wavelengths, brighter at infrared wavelengths and brighter still at radio wavelengths. This is a clear indication that the exploding object was surrounded by dust. Dust is most commonly found in star-forming regions." This strongly favors one of the two leading theories about Gamma Ray Bursts over the other. One explanation for these tremendously energetic fireballs is that a pair of superdense neutron stars collides. The other is that a single, very massive star explodes in a "hypernova," more powerful than a supernova, at the end of its normal life. The hypernova explosion, scientists believe, would come only a few million years after the giant star was formed, while it is still within the cloud of gas and dust from which it formed. Neutron stars, on the other hand, are formed by supernova explosions that give a "kick" to the resulting neutron star, propelling it at high speeds. An orbiting pair of neutron stars, astronomers think, would collide only after hundreds of millions of years of orbital decay, by which time they would be far away from the gas and dust of their birthplace. "The observations already have provided crucial insight; we intend to continue observing the relic of the March 29 burst with the VLA, and in the coming months, we will gain new information that will help further refine our ideas about these fireballs," Frail said. "We're going to learn about the size and expansion rate of the fireball and test predictions made by the models." "These observations indicate the extraordinary importance of radio astronomy for providing information that can be gained in no other way about one of the major frontier areas of astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The March 29 burst (GRB 980329) was the second such blast to have its afterglow detected at radio wavelengths. Last year, the VLA made the first radio detection of a GRB afterglow, finding radio emission coming from the location of a Gamma Ray Burst on May 8, 1997 (GRB 970508). "Of the world's radio telescopes, only the VLA has the sensitivity and resolving power to quickly detect these radio afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts and study them in detail over extended periods of time," Taylor said. "Even so, we only see the brightest one-third of them. With upgraded capabilities at the VLA, as planned by NRAO, we will see them all." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvC..59.3060A"> <span id="translatedtitle">?-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of new neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 167,168Tb and levels in 167,168Dy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">?-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of new neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 167Tb and 168Tb produced in the 20 MeV proton-induced fission of 238U have been determined to be 19.4(27) s and 8.2(13) s, respectively, using a gas-jet coupled on-line <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator. The present half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and those of the recently identified nuclei 159Pm, 161Sm, 165Gd, 166Tb were compared with theoretical predictions. The recent calculation by the gross theory with the new one-particle strength functions shows quite good agreement with the experimental half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>. Excited states of the daughter nuclides 167Dy and 168Dy have been established for the first time. Level energies of the first 2+ states in even-even Dy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were found to show an irregular behavior at 164Dy and increasing deformation toward the neutron midshell around N~104.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asai, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Tsukada, K.; Sakama, M.; Shibata, M.; Kojima, Y.; Osa, A.; Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Kawade, K.; Tachibana, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5405656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of the production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in a high-resolution streamer-chamber experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> particles produced in association with muons have been observed in the interactions of 350-GeV/c protons with neon in a high-resolution streamer chamber. The characteristics of these events are consistent with the expected properties of charmed particles if the average lifetime lies between 10/sup -13/ and 2 x 10/sup -12/ sec. With the assumption that the observed events are mainly D/sup + -/ mesons with lieftimes of approximately 10/sup -12/ sec, the production cross section is estimated to lie between 20 and 50 ..mu..b per nucleon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandweiss, J.; Cardello, T.; Cooper, P.; Dhawan, S.; Kellogg, R.; Ljung, D.; Ludlam, T.; Majka, R.; McBride, P.; Nemethy, P.; Rosselet, L.; Slaughter, A.J.; Taft, H.D.; Teig, L.; Tzeng, L.; Ecklund, S.; Johnson, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-04-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q50w31mg7h402440.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incidence of leukaemia and other malignant diseases following injections of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ?-emitter 224 Ra into man</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed an epidemiological study on 1,471 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with repeated intravenous injections\\u000a of the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> ?-emitter 224Ra (excluding radiation therapy with X-rays) between 1948 and 1975. These patients have been followed together with a control\\u000a group of 1,324 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated neither with radioactive drugs nor with X-rays. The mean follow-up\\u000a time was 26.3 years in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roland R. Wick; M. J. Atkinson; E. A. Nekolla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main contribution of radiation dose to the human lungs from natural exposure originates from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny. In the present work, the inhalation doses from indoor <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny, i.e., (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, and (214)Po, to different age groups of members of the public were calculated. In the calculations, the age-dependent systemic biokinetic models of polonium, bismuth, and lead published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were adopted. In addition, the ICRP human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models were applied to determine the deposition fractions in different regions of the lungs during inhalation and exhalation, and the absorption fractions of radon progeny in the alimentary tract. Based on the calculated contribution of each progeny to equivalent dose and effective dose, the dose conversion factor was estimated, taking into account the unattached fraction of aerosols, attached aerosols in the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes, and the potential alpha energy concentration fraction in indoor air. It turned out that for each progeny, the equivalent doses to extrathoracic airways and the lungs are greater than those to other organs. The contribution of (214)Po to effective dose is much smaller compared to that of the other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny and can thus be neglected in the dose assessment. In fact, 90 % of the effective dose from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon progeny arises from (214)Pb and (214)Bi, while the rest is from (218)Po. The dose conversion factors obtained in the present study are 17 and 18 mSv per working level month (WLM) for adult female and male, respectively. This compares to values ranging from 6 to 20 mSv WLM(-1) calculated by other investigators. The dose coefficients of each radon progeny calculated in the present study can be used to estimate the radiation doses for the population, especially for small children and women, in specific regions of the world exposed to radon progeny by measuring their concentrations, aerosol sizes, and unattached fractions. PMID:24831865</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brudecki, K; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O; Tschiersch, J; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5546379"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rapid method for preparing undecalcified sections of bone for autoradiographic investigation with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To prepare sections of undecalcified bone suitable both for autoradiography with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides such as /sup 99m/Tc (t 1/2 . 6 hr) and for normal histology, rapid processing is necessary. By modifying the routine technique of embedding in plastic, sections can be obtained within 6 hours. The most important modification concerns the temperature used for the different steps in the process. The procedure has been used to localize /sup 99m/Tc labeled methylene diphosphonate for skeletal scintigraphy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savelkoul, T.J.; Visser, W.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Lentferink, M.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41262689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanosize radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products in the air of the Postojna Cave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">At two points in the Postojna Cave, <span class="hlt">short</span>-term monitoring in summer and in winter of air concentrations of radon and radon decay products, equilibrium factor, unattached fraction of radon decay products (fun), barometric pressure, relative air humidity in the cave and air temperature in the cave and outdoor has been carried out, with the emphasis on fun. Dose conversion factors,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janja Vaupoti?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nothobranchius.info/pages/pubs/download/free/Terzibasi_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri as a new model system for aging studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic and pharmacological research on aging is hampered by the lifespan of available vertebrate models. We recently initiated stud- ies on Nothobranchius furzeri, a species with a maximum life expectancy in captivity of just three months which represents the shortest documented captive lifespan for a vertebrate. Further research on N. furzeri has demonstrated that 1. <span class="hlt">Short</span> lifespan is tied with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eva Terzibasi; Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Alessandro Cellerino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2583440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Memory Inflation During Chronic Viral Infection is Maintained by Continuous Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Functional T Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary During persistent murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection the T cell response is maintained at extremely high levels for the life of the host. These cells closely resemble human CMV-specific cells which comprise a major component of the peripheral T cell compartment in most people. Despite a phenotype that suggests extensive antigen-driven differentiation, MCMV-specific T cells remain functional and respond vigorously to viral challenge. We hypothesized that a low rate of antigen-driven proliferation would account for the maintenance of this population. Instead, we found that most of these cells divide only sporadically in chronically infected hosts and have a <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life in circulation. The overall population is supported, at least in part, by memory cells primed early in infection as well as recruitment of naïve T cells at late times. These data show that memory inflation is maintained by a continuous replacement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, functional cells during chronic MCMV infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, Christopher M.; Cho, Kathy S.; Morrison, Elizabeth L.; Dommelen, Serani van; Shellam, Geoffrey R.; Hill, Ann B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17333459"> <span id="translatedtitle">The trophic structure of bark-<span class="hlt">living</span> oribatid mite communities analysed with stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> ((15)N, (13)C) indicates strong niche differentiation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the present study was to identify food sources of bark-<span class="hlt">living</span> oribatid mites to investigate if trophic niche differentiation contributes to the diversity of bark <span class="hlt">living</span> Oribatida. We measured the natural variation in stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios ((15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) in oribatid mites from the bark of oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees and their potential food sources, i.e., the covering vegetation of the bark (bryophytes, lichens, algae, fungi). As a baseline for calibration the stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures of the bark of the four tree species were measured and set to zero. Oribatid mite stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios spanned over a range of about 13 delta units for (15)N and about 7 delta units for (13)C suggesting that they span over about three trophic levels. Different stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures indicate that bark <span class="hlt">living</span> oribatid mites feed on different food sources, i.e., occupy distinct trophic niches. After calibration stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures of respective oribatid mite species of the four tree species were similar indicating close association of oribatid mites with the corticolous cover as food source. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that trophic niche differentiation of bark <span class="hlt">living</span> oribatid mites contributes to the high diversity of the group. PMID:17333459</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erdmann, Georgia; Otte, Volker; Langel, Reinhard; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740005943&hterms=Oil+spills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522Oil%2Bspills%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H21I..04P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life cosmogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to quantify sediment mixing and transport in karst conduits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) transport and flux in karst aquifers is poorly understood. Methods to quantify PIC flux are needed in order to account for total inorganic carbon removal (chemical plus mechanical) from karst settings. Quantifying PIC flux will allow more accurate calculations of landscape denudation and global carbon sink processes. The study concentrates on the critical processes of the suspended sediment component of mass flux - surface soil/stored sediment mixing, transport rates and distance, and sediment storage times. The primary objective of the study is to describe transport and mixing with the resolution of single storm-flow events. To quantify the transport processes, <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life cosmogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are utilized. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 7Be (t1/2 = 53d) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22y) are the primary <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> measured, and other potential <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> such as 137Cs and 241Am are investigated. The study location is at Mammoth Cave National Park within the Logsdon River watershed. The Logsdon River conduit is continuously traversable underground for two kilometers. Background levels and input concentrations of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are determined from soil samples taken at random locations in the catchment area, and suspended sediment collected from the primary sinking stream during a storm event. Suspended sediment was also collected from the downstream end of the conduit during the storm event. After the storm flow receded, fine sediment samples were taken from the cave stream at regular intervals to determine transport distances and mixing ratios along the conduit. Samples were analyzed with a Canberra Industries gamma ray spectrometer, counted for 24 hours to increase detection of low radionuclide activities. The measured activity levels of radionuclides in the samples were adjusted for decay from time of sampling using standard decay curves. The results of the study show that surface sediment mixing, transport and storage in karst conduits is a dynamic but potentially quantifiable process at the storm-event scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paylor, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21289884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comment on 'Existence of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In their article ''Existence of Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Isomeric States in Naturally-Occuring Neutron-Deficient Th <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span>''[Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303 (2007)], Marinov et al. fail to demonstrate that basic mass spectrometric protocols, such as abundance sensitivity, linearity, and freedom from possible interferences, have been met. In particular, the claim that four isomeric states of Th have been discovered, using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), with abundances from (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th, cannot be accepted, given the known abundance sensitivities of other sector field mass spectrometers. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the only mass spectrometric methodology capable of measuring relative abundances of the magnitude claimed by Marinov et al.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barber, R. C.; De Laeter, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of Stable <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> to Follow Intracellular Water Dynamics in <span class="hlt">Living</span> Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the importance of water to cell structure and function, intracellular water dynamics are poorly understood. A new method based on <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio measurements has revealed that a substantial portion of the O and H atoms in the intracellular water of rapidly-dividing cultured cells is derived from metabolic activity, and not from environmental water. These findings have led to a dynamic model of intracellular water composition: (1) Intracellular water is composed of water that diffuses in from the extracellular environment and water that is created as a result of metabolic activity. (2) The relative amounts of environmental and metabolic water inside a cell are a function of the cell's metabolic activity. (3) The oxygen and hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios of cellular metabolites are a function of those of intracellular water, and therefore reflect the metabolic activity of the cell at the time of biosynthesis. Data from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as cultured mammalian cells are consistent with the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081964"> <span id="translatedtitle">The p66Shc knocked out mice are <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> under natural condition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deletion of the p66(Shc) gene results in lean and healthy mice, retards aging, and protects from aging-associated diseases, raising the question of why p66(Shc) has been selected, and what is its physiological role. We have investigated survival and reproduction of p66(Shc)-/- mice in a population <span class="hlt">living</span> in a large outdoor enclosure for a year, subjected to food competition and exposed to winter temperatures. Under these conditions, deletion of p66(Shc) was strongly counterselected. Laboratory studies revealed that p66(Shc)-/- mice have defects in fat accumulation, thermoregulation, and reproduction, suggesting that p66(Shc) has been evolutionarily selected because of its role in energy metabolism. These findings imply that the health impact of targeting aging genes might depend on the specific energetic niche and caution should be exercised against premature conclusions regarding gene functions that have only been observed in protected laboratory conditions. PMID:22081964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giorgio, Marco; Berry, Alessandra; Berniakovich, Ina; Poletaeva, Inga; Trinei, Mirella; Stendardo, Massimo; Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J; Cortopassi, Gino; Migliaccio, Enrica; Nötzli, Sarah; Amrein, Irmgard; Lipp, Hans P; Cirulli, Francesca; Pelicci, Pier G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V33D2782B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking early Earth magma ocean crystallization and overturn with observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopic measurements in Archean rocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by the well-characterized discrepancy between measurements of 142Nd in chondrites and those in Earth rocks (e.g.,[1][2]) in addition to recent measurements of Archean rocks with anomalous 142Nd and 182W (e.g.,[3][4][5]), we model the crystallization and overturn of a terrestrial chondritic magma ocean, and track the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> reservoirs that may result. Following magma ocean solidification, solid-state overturn occurs because solidification produces a gravitationally unstable configuration where the last cumulates to solidify are densest and also enriched in incompatible elements. As suggested by [1][2], these originally shallow cumulates that, following overturn, would now reside near the core-mantle boundary are tantalizing targets for the hypothesized hidden reservoir(s) of incompatible elements. These last, dense, enriched cumulates may have evolved negative 142Nd and 182W <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies, while cumulates that form earlier and deeper in the magma ocean would likely be poor in incompatible elements and have evolved complementary positive <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Because crystal - liquid partition coefficients of Sm, Nd, Hf, and W in nucleating mantle phases are poorly constrained and vary over orders of magnitude, we use a Monte Carlo approach to cover the parameter space of reported partition coefficients. Although data are limited, Archean rocks appear to show a non-linear trend between age and 142Nd and 182W, suggesting inefficient heterogeneous mixing of some of the early enriched reservoir (EER or late stage cumulates) back into the early depleted reservoir (EDR or deeper cumulates) during or after overturn, also first suggested by [1][2]. To account for this, we model various mixing scenarios using post-overturn mantle stratigraphy. Additionally, because 142Nd and 182W are decay products of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes, the timing of magma ocean crystallization is critical to producing a modern day mantle consistent with measured compositions. We therefore iterate through time to determine the statistically most likely time of the last major mantle-melting event. Consistent with [2], we argue that the EER is not hidden but is instead the seismologically observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs), or the D'' region, and the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZs) are dense, iron-rich silicon-poor melts of the LLSVPs. Given this, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> reservoirs produced by our models must mix such that the EER remaining after mixing is the same volume as the LLSVPs, or 2% of the mantle (e.g., [6][7]). Approximately two-thirds our run results are "successful" given known partition coefficients, and so our results suggest that this model is viable: magma ocean fractional solidification can produce mantle reservoirs consistent with <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions observed in some rocks, and can produce a dense lower mantle layer consistent in longevity and volume to the LLSVPs. [1]Boyet and Carlson,2005,Science,309(5743),576-81.[2]Carlson and Boyet,2008,Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A,366(1883),4077-103. [3]Willbold et al.,2011,Nature,477(7363), 195-8. [4]Touboul et al.,2012,Science,335(6072),1065-9. [5]Rizo et al.,Nature,491(7422),96-100. [6]Burke et al.,2008,EPSL,265(1-2),49-60. [7]Hernlund and Houser,2008,EPSL,265(3-4),423-37.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walker, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24555181"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Live</span>-cell vibrational imaging of choline metabolites by stimulated Raman scattering coupled with <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-based metabolic labeling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Choline is a small molecule that occupies a key position in the biochemistry of all <span class="hlt">living</span> organisms. Recent studies have strongly implicated choline metabolites in cancer, atherosclerosis and nervous system development. To detect choline and its metabolites, existing physical methods such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography are often limited by the poor spatial resolution and substantial radiation dose. Fluorescence imaging, although with submicrometer resolution, requires introduction of bulky fluorophores and thus is difficult in labeling the small choline molecule. By combining the emerging bond-selective stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with metabolic incorporation of deuterated choline, herein we have achieved high resolution imaging of choline-containing metabolites in <span class="hlt">living</span> mammalian cell lines, primary hippocampal neurons and the multicellular organism C. elegans. Different subcellular distributions of choline metabolites are observed between cancer cells and non-cancer cells, which may reveal a functional difference in the choline metabolism and lipid-mediated signaling events. In neurons, choline incorporation is visualized within both soma and neurites, where choline metabolites are more evenly distributed compared to proteins. Furthermore, choline localization is also observed in the pharynx region of C. elegans larvae, consistent with its organogenesis mechanism. These applications demonstrate the potential of <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for future choline-related disease detection and development monitoring in vivo. PMID:24555181</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Fanghao; Wei, Lu; Zheng, Chaogu; Shen, Yihui; Min, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57542389"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">short</span> overview on linking annual tree ring carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to historical changes in atmospheric environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tree rings are datable archives of environmental changes such as atmospheric pollution as tree annual growth rings store information on the growth conditions in the year of specific ring formation. Particularly, the C <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio (C\\/C, expressed as ?C) is susceptible to atmospheric CO2 and other pollutants (SO2, NOx, O3, and acid rain). Because current increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woo-Jung Choi; Kye-Han Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with <span class="hlt">short</span> interfering DNA (Dbait) in various <span class="hlt">living</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) <span class="hlt">live</span> zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower ‘efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral oxygen demand for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and steady-state events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to importance of oxidative energetics for cerebral function, extraction of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal using multi-modal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) has become an accepted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. This approach, termed calibrated fMRI, is based on a biophysical model which describes tissue oxygen extraction at steady-state. A problem encountered for calculating dynamic CMRO2 relates to concerns whether the conventional BOLD model can be applied transiently. In particular, it is unclear whether calculation of CMRO2 differs between <span class="hlt">short</span> and long stimuli. Linearity was experimentally demonstrated between BOLD-related components and neural activity, thereby making it possible to use calibrated fMRI in a dynamic manner. We used multi-modal fMRI and electrophysiology, in ?-chloralose anesthetized rats during forepaw stimulation to show that respective transfer functions (of BOLD, CBV, CBF) generated by deconvolution with neural activity are time invariant, for events in the millisecond to minute range. These results allowed extraction of a significant component of the BOLD signal that can be ascribed to CMRO2 transients. We discuss the importance of minimizing residual signal, represented by the difference between modeled and raw signals, in convolution analysis using multi-modal signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hyder, Fahmeed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19393011"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral oxygen demand for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and steady-state events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because of the importance of oxidative energetics for cerebral function, extraction of oxygen consumption (CMR(O2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using multi-modal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) has become an accepted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. This approach, termed calibrated fMRI, is based on a biophysical model which describes tissue oxygen extraction at steady-state. A problem encountered for calculating dynamic CMR(O2) relates to concerns whether the conventional BOLD model can be applied transiently. In particular, it is unclear whether calculation of CMR(O2) differs between <span class="hlt">short</span> and long stimuli. Linearity was experimentally demonstrated between BOLD-related components and neural activity, thereby making it possible to use calibrated fMRI in a dynamic manner. We used multi-modal fMRI and electrophysiology, in alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats during forepaw stimulation to show that respective transfer functions (of BOLD, CBV, CBF) generated by deconvolution with neural activity are time invariant, for events in the millisecond to minute range. These results allowed extraction of a significant component of the BOLD signal that can be ascribed to CMR(O2) transients. We discuss the importance of minimizing residual signal, represented by the difference between modeled and raw signals, in convolution analysis of multi-modal signals. PMID:19393011</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hyder, Fahmeed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural determination of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited iron(II) complex by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural changes of the iron(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Fe(II)(bpy)(3)](2+)) complex induced by ultrashort pulse excitation and population of its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (< or =0.6 ns) quintet high spin state have been detected by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The structural relaxation from the high spin to the low spin state was followed over the entire lifetime of the excited state. A combined analysis of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy features delivers an Fe-N bond elongation of 0.2 A in the quintet state compared to the singlet ground state. PMID:17358897</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gawelda, Wojciech; Pham, Van-Thai; Benfatto, Maurizio; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Kaiser, Maik; Grolimund, Daniel; Johnson, Steven L; Abela, Rafael; Hauser, Andreas; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/up1021v2362r7164.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term changes in carbon-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> discrimination identify transitions between C 3 and C 4 carboxylation during Crassulacean acid metabolism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term measurements of instantaneous carbon-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> discrimination have been determined from mass-spectrometric analyses of CO2 collected online during gas exchange for the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia utriculata L. Using this technique, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of CO2 exchange for each phase of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has been characterised. During night-time fixation of CO2 (Phase I), discrimination (?) ranged from 4.4 to 6.6‰,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard Griffiths; Mark S. J. Broadmeadow; Anne M. Borland; Clive S. Hetherington</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JApA..tmp....8S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides Connection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an N-body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. In contrary to the conventional Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach provides a natural framework to understand the astrophysical environment related with the origin of the solar system. We deduce the nature of the two stellar clusters; the one that formed and evolved prior to the solar system formation, and the other within which the solar system that was probably formed. The former could have contributed to the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides 129I and 53Mn, whereas, the supernova associated with the most massive star in the latter contributed 26Al and 60Fe to the solar system. The analysis was performed with the revised solar metallicity of 0.014.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahijpal, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002fqml.conf..299C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Quantum Entanglement of Protons and Dissociation of C-H Bonds in Condensed Matter -- a New Effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In earlier neutron Compton scattering (NCS) experiments on H2O/D2O mixtures at T ? 298 K we observed, for the first time, a striking "anomalous" decrease of the ratio ?H/?D of the total scattering cross sections of H and D. This "anomaly" was found to depend strongly on the H/D composition of the liquid. Extending recent NCS results obtained from solid polystyrene, we present here new results concerning the quantum dynamics and dissociation of C-H bonds (at T ? 298 K) in: (a) liquid benzene and C6H6/C6D6 mixtures; (b) fully protonated and partially deuterated polystyrene; and (c) liquid mixtures of H-acetone (CH3COCH3) and D-acetone (CD3COCD3). The considered NCS effect was given a theoretical explanation based on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protonic quantum entanglement (QE) and decoherence. The variety of the new results suggests that, in the <span class="hlt">short</span>-time scale of the NCS experiment, protonic quantum dynamics is strongly correlated with that of electronic degrees of freedom participating in the various chemical bonds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.; Abdul-Redah, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"> <span id="translatedtitle">FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu [Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Chemical Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide [School of Ocean, Earth Science and Technology, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ishii, Hope A. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J., E-mail: jacobsen5@llnl.gov [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695491"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term risk of hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis in children <span class="hlt">living</span> near an aluminum smelter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few studies have measured the effect of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure to industrial emissions on the respiratory health of children. Here we estimate the risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children associated with their recent exposure to emissions from an aluminum smelter. We used a case-crossover design to assess the risk of hospitalization, February 1999-December 2008, in relation to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variation in levels of exposure among children 0-4 years old <span class="hlt">living</span> less than 7.5 km from the smelter. The percentage of hours per day that the residence of a hospitalized child was in the shadow of winds crossing the smelter was used to estimate the effect of wind-borne emissions on case and crossover days. Community-wide pollutant exposure was estimated through daily mean and daily maximum SO2 and PM2.5 concentrations measured at a fixed monitoring site near the smelter. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. The risk of same-day hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis increased with the percentage of hours in a day that a child's residence was downwind of the smelter. For children aged 2-4 years, the OR was 1.27 (95% CI=1.03-1.56; n=103 hospitalizations), for an interquartile range (IQR) of 21% of hours being downwind. In this age group, the OR with PM2.5 daily mean levels was slightly smaller than with the hours downwind (OR: 1.22 for an IQR of 15.7 ?g/m(3), 95% CI=1.03-1.44; n=94 hospitalizations). Trends were observed between hospitalizations and levels of SO2 for children 2-4 years old. Increasing <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure to emissions from a Quebec aluminum smelter was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children who <span class="hlt">live</span> nearby. Estimating exposure through records of wind direction allows for the integration of exposure to all pollutants carried from the smelter stack. PMID:23695491</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewin, Antoine; Buteau, Stéphane; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3748758"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term risk of hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis in children <span class="hlt">living</span> near an aluminum smelter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few studies have measured the effect of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure to industrial emissions on the respiratory health of children. Here we estimate the risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children associated with their recent exposure to emissions from an aluminum smelter. We used a case–crossover design to assess the risk of hospitalization, February 1999–December 2008, in relation to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variation in levels of exposure among children 0–4 years old <span class="hlt">living</span> less than 7.5?km from the smelter. The percentage of hours per day that the residence of a hospitalized child was in the shadow of winds crossing the smelter was used to estimate the effect of wind-borne emissions on case and crossover days. Community-wide pollutant exposure was estimated through daily mean and daily maximum SO2 and PM2.5 concentrations measured at a fixed monitoring site near the smelter. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. The risk of same-day hospitalization for asthma or bronchiolitis increased with the percentage of hours in a day that a child's residence was downwind of the smelter. For children aged 2–4 years, the OR was 1.27 (95% CI=1.03–1.56; n=103 hospitalizations), for an interquartile range (IQR) of 21% of hours being downwind. In this age group, the OR with PM2.5 daily mean levels was slightly smaller than with the hours downwind (OR: 1.22 for an IQR of 15.7??g/m3, 95% CI=1.03–1.44; n=94 hospitalizations). Trends were observed between hospitalizations and levels of SO2 for children 2–4 years old. Increasing <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure to emissions from a Quebec aluminum smelter was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for asthma and bronchiolitis in young children who <span class="hlt">live</span> nearby. Estimating exposure through records of wind direction allows for the integration of exposure to all pollutants carried from the smelter stack.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewin, Antoine; Buteau, Stephane; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/939033"> <span id="translatedtitle">GENERATION OF RADIOXENON <span class="hlt">ISOTOPES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the continued population of the International Monitoring System (IMS) network and the certification of radioxenon laboratory systems it has become necessary to calibrate and test these systems using as many of the radioxenon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as possible. Several very promising techniques have been explored recently that allow for convenient production of Xe-133, Xe-131m, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> Xe-135, and even the difficult to obtain Xe-133m. IMS national and international laboratories have traditionally obtained Xe-133 from medical <span class="hlt">isotope</span> suppliers. The activity of these medical dose samples is extremely high (~ 740 MBq) and requires very careful fume hood work to dilute down to appropriate levels (~ 10 Bq). By waiting for 10 or more half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> it is possible to reduce the handling regimen considerably, while also obtaining a strong Xe-131m signature due to its longer half-life (11.9 days). The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> Xe-135 (9.14 hrs) and the longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> parent nuclide Xe-133m (2.2 day half-life) are never present in these samples. To obtain these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> another source or technique is required. This paper will discuss the two techniques developed and implemented at Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) and show the results obtained from each technique. The first is an in-house method that allows for on demand production of two of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, Xe-133 and Xe-135, using HEU and a modest flux neutron source. The second method uses a research reactor at the Pullman campus of Washington State University to produce Xe-133, Xe-133m and Xe-135.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McIntyre, Justin I.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Miley, Harry S.; Ripplinger, Mike D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1043807"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> fission product measurements from >0.1 MeV neutron-induced fission using boron carbide.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A boron carbide shield was designed, custom fabricated, and used to create a fast fission energy neutron spectrum. The fissionable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu were separately placed inside of this shield and irradiated under pulsed conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. A unique set of fission product gamma spectra were collected at <span class="hlt">short</span> times (4 minutes to 1 week) post-fission. Gamma spectra were collected on single-crystal high purity germanium detectors and on Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Direct Simultaneous Measurement (DSM) system composed of HPGe detectors connected in coincidence. This work defines the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, and demonstrates the validity of the measurements. It is important to fully document this information so the data can be used with high confidence for the advancement of nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma spectra collected in these and other experiments will be made publicly available at https://spcollab.pnl.gov/sites/gammadata or via the link at http://rdnsgroup.pnl.gov. A revised version of this publication will be posted with the data to make the experimental details available to those using the data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Kephart, Jeremy D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990mfcs.rept.....K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of formation cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei by 14 MeV neutrons: Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y, In</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sixteen neutron activation cross sections for (n,2n), (n,p), (n,n(prime)p), (n,t) and (n, alpha) reactions producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> between 0.5 and 20 m have been measured in the energy range of 13.4 to 14.9 MeV for Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y and In. Five half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei produced by 14 MeV or thermal neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors for Cu-66, Zr-89m, Mo-91m, Nb-97m, and Rh-104m in the spectrum multi-scaling mode.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawade, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takashi; Katoh, Toshio; Iida, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Akito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H51A1114D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Lake(s) on the Late Wisconsin Margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Musselshell Basin, Montana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glacial Lake Musselshell is the middle link in a chain of lakes that formed along the Pleistocene Laurentide ice margin in central Montana. It was first recognized because scores of glacially-transported boulders from the Canadian Shield are found in the Musselshell River basin, yet there is no evidence that the Laurentide ice sheet advanced that far south. For a century, the ice-rafted boulders remained the only physical evidence associated with the lake. No other features typical of other large, ephemeral lakes - varved lacustrine sediment, inflow deltas, or lake shorelines - have been identified for Lake Musselshell. A sequence of nine river terraces and more than 100 previously located boulders provided the opportunity to place Lake Musselshell, and the corresponding Laurentide ice margin, in the context of regional and global chronologies. Terrace gradient and provenance, surface exposure ages of ice-rafted boulders, and identification of additional lake-related features were the most useful tools for establishing the extent and timing of Lake Musselshell. Lake Musselshell probably existed as one or more <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stage(s) that reached a maximum altitude of approximately 920 m. The absence of varves, deltas and shorelines suggests against one or more stable levels. Deposits of sheet-like silt and fine sand are interpreted as slackwater sediment from one or more <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lakes. The lake(s) drained under or in front of the ice sheet, down the modern Missouri River channel. Strong evidence was found that Lake Musselshell existed during the Late Wisconsin stage. Twenty-seven Be-10 surface exposure ages from ice-rafted boulders are all Late Wisconsin and younger (5.2-21.7 ka). Canadian Shield gravel occurs only in the lowest (probably Late Wisconsin) Pleistocene terrace. Additionally, upstream convergence of the Musselshell River terraces implies that displacement of the Missouri River by the Laurentide ice sheet occurred only recently (possibly Late Wisconsin). Pre-Late Wisconsin glacial advances into central Montana cannot be ruled out. Older deposits may be buried, removed or modified by erosion. However, the ice-rafted boulders and glacially-derived alluvium in the Musselshell basin are probably Late Wisconsin in age. Therefore, the Late Wisconsin Laurentide ice sheet may have been the most extensive Pleistocene ice sheet in central Montana.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, N. K.; Locke, W. W.; Finkel, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.420.2684C"> <span id="translatedtitle">PTF10iya: a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, luminous flare from the nuclear region of a star-forming galaxy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the discovery and characterization of PTF10iya, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (?t? 10 d, with an optical decay rate of ˜0.3 mag d-1), luminous (? mag) transient source found by the Palomar Transient Factory. The ultraviolet/optical spectral energy distribution is reasonably well fitted by a blackbody with T? (1-2) × 104 K and peak bolometric luminosity LBB? (1-5) × 1044 erg s-1 (depending on the details of the extinction correction). A comparable amount of energy is radiated in the X-ray band that appears to result from a distinct physical process. The location of PTF10iya is consistent with the nucleus of a star-forming galaxy (z= 0.224 05 ± 0.000 06) to within 350 mas (99.7 per cent confidence radius), or a projected distance of less than 1.2 kpc. At first glance, these properties appear reminiscent of the characteristic 'big blue bump' seen in the near-ultraviolet spectra of many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, emission-line diagnostics of the host galaxy, along with a historical light curve extending back to 2007, show no evidence for AGN-like activity. We therefore consider whether the tidal disruption of a star by an otherwise quiescent supermassive black hole may account for our observations. Though with limited temporal information, PTF10iya appears broadly consistent with the predictions for the early 'super-Eddington' phase of a solar-type star being disrupted by a ˜107 M? black hole. Regardless of the precise physical origin of the accreting material, the large luminosity and <span class="hlt">short</span> duration suggest that otherwise quiescent galaxies can transition extremely rapidly to radiate near the Eddington limit; many such outbursts may have been missed by previous surveys lacking sufficient cadence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Strubbe, Linda E.; Miller, Adam A.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Quataert, Eliot; Bildsten, Lars; Poznanski, Dovi; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frail, Dale A.; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Cucchiara, Antonio; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Green, Yoav; Hook, Isobel M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Lagattuta, David J.; Law, Nicholas M.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Yaron, Ofer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2441845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe <span class="hlt">Short</span> Bowel Syndrome <span class="hlt">Living</span> in the Southeastern United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of <span class="hlt">short</span> bowel syndrome (SBS) patients <span class="hlt">living</span> in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who <span class="hlt">live</span> in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients <span class="hlt">living</span> in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP13C1460L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stable Oxygen and Carbon <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Live</span> Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply, and Microhabitat Patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used <span class="hlt">live</span> (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report results from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from the most abundant taxa to oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of bottom water and carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species <span class="hlt">living</span> in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values from both <span class="hlt">living</span> and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus- effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Dullo, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113056L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stable Oxygen and Carbon <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Live</span> Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply and Microhabitat Patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used <span class="hlt">live</span> (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report data from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from the most abundant taxa to oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of bottom water and carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species <span class="hlt">living</span> in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values from both <span class="hlt">living</span> and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus-effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SolE....5...13L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over <span class="hlt">short</span> to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a <span class="hlt">short</span>-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurodegeneration-Associated Protein Fragments As <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Substrates of the N-End Rule Pathway</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Protein aggregates are a common feature of neurodegenerative syndromes. Specific protein fragments were found previously to be aggregated in disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Here we show that the natural C-terminal fragments of Tau, TDP43, and ?-synuclein are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, a processive proteolytic system that targets proteins bearing “destabilizing” N-terminal residues. Furthermore, a natural TDP43 fragment is shown to be metabolically stabilized in Ate1?/? fibroblasts that lack the arginylation branch of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, leading to accumulation and aggregation of this fragment. We also found that a fraction of A?42, the Alzheimer’s-associated fragment of APP, is N-terminally arginylated in the brains of 5xFAD mice and is degraded by the Arg/N-end rule pathway. The discovery that neurodegeneration-associated natural fragments of TDP43, Tau, ?-synuclein, and APP can be selectively destroyed by the Arg/N-end rule pathway suggests that this pathway counteracts neurodegeneration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brower, Christopher S.; Piatkov, Konstantin I.; Varshavsky, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halogens and Climate Impacts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halogens released from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2876012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarps should not be overlooked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malikova, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesova, Jitka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073082"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes. PMID:25073082</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22430197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fifteen non-CODIS autosomal <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat loci multiplex data from nine population groups <span class="hlt">living</span> in Taiwan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analysis of autosomal <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat (STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic genetics. We developed a multiplex system in which 15 non-Combined DNA Index System autosomal STRs (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 1,098 unrelated subjects of nine population groups <span class="hlt">living</span> in Taiwan, including Taiwanese Han, indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, Thais, Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Caucasians, were collected and analyzed using this system. The distributions of the allelic frequencies and the forensic parameters of each population group were presented. The combined discrimination power and the combined power of exclusion were high in all population groups tested in this study. A multidimensional scaling plot of these nine population groups based on the Reynolds' genetic distances calculated from 15 autosomal STRs was constructed, and the genetic substructure in this area was presented. In conclusion, this 15 autosomal STR multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing in different populations. PMID:22430197</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53D..06T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance and UV radiation in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of BrO from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) source species on stratospheric ozone is investigated for a hypothetical geo-engineered atmosphere in 2040, assuming the injection of sulfuric acid aerosols. An estimated amount of stratospheric halogens from VSL sources based on satellite observations, model results and previous studies, result in lower column ozone for nearly all seasons and nearly all latitudes, and up to 4% in summer mid- and high latitudes. Considering an upper limit of VSL sources, the annual increase in surface erythemal UV radiation (UV_ERY) due to the decrease in ozone as a result of geo-engineering is 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. The increase of UV_ERY due to a reduction of ozone for low and mid latitudes is balanced by the reduction of UV_ERY due to aerosol scattering, if VSL halogen sources are not considered. However, VSL halogens results in additional ozone depletion and in an increase of UV_ERY of up to 5% in spring and fall in mid- and high latitudes as a result of geo-engineering. This study demonstrates that VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....1210945T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1221923T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens on stratospheric ozone abundance and UV radiation in a geo-engineered atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halogenated source species on the ozone layer and surface erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVERY) is investigated in the context of geo-engineering of climate by stratospheric sulfur injection. For a projected 2040 model atmosphere, consideration of VSL halogens at their upper limit results in lower ozone columns and higher UVERY due to geo-engineering for nearly all seasons and latitudes, with UVERY rising by 12% and 6% in southern and northern high latitudes, respectively. When VSL halogen sources are neglected, future UVERY increases due to declines in ozone column are nearly balanced by reductions of UVERY due to scattering by the higher stratospheric aerosol burden in mid-latitudes. Consideration of VSL sources at their upper limit tips the balance, resulting in annual average increases in UVERY of up to 5% in mid and high latitudes. Therefore, VSL halogens should be considered in models that assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.; Salawitch, R.; Canty, T.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Chance, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57468042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using <span class="hlt">short</span> message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with <span class="hlt">short</span> message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtis M. Coomes; Megan A. Lewis; Jennifer D. Uhrig; Robert D. Furberg; Jennie L. Harris; Carla M. Bann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57464368"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using <span class="hlt">short</span> message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with <span class="hlt">short</span> message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtis M. Coomes; Megan A. Lewis; Jennifer D. Uhrig; Robert D. Furberg; Jennie L. Harris; Carla M. Bann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~jjgibson/mypdfs/ms_nonst.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term evaporation and water budget comparisons in shallow Arctic lakes using non-steady <span class="hlt">isotope</span> mass balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow lakes in a continental, low Arctic setting are found to undergo substantial fluctuations in heavy-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> content during the annual cycle due to extreme seasonality in water balance processes. Progressive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> enrichment during the ice-free period occurs as a consequence of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> exchange during evaporation under seasonally arid conditions, while enhanced input and flushing by heavy-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> depleted precipitation and snowmelt</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. J. Gibson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.5192"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of ?-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variation in <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead trees†</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tree-ring carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios from <span class="hlt">live</span> and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the ?13C and ?18O values of whole wood obscuring the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and ?-cellulose from <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if ?-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the ?13C or ?18O values of ?-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of ?-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the ?13C (up to 0.4‰) and ?18O (up to 1.2‰) of ?-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the ?13C and ?18O of whole wood or ?-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and ?-cellulose ?13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between ?18O of whole wood and ?-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">English, N. B.; McDowell, N. G.; Allen, C. D.; Mora, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3246080"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> immunity against pertussis, age-specific routes of transmission, and the utility of a teenage booster vaccine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Pertussis incidence has been increasing for the past two decades in Norway, as in much of the highly vaccinated world. The greatest increase is in teenagers, although the most severe cases occur in infants. A teenage booster is recommended globally, largely with the aim of reducing infant incidence. However few countries have implemented the booster, and almost no data have been published on its utility in preventing infant cases. We aim to assess the duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the possibility for a teenage-booster vaccine to protect infants in Norway. Methods and findings We used a unique data set that merged case reports with a national vaccine registry from Norway, 1996–2010, to assess age- and cohort-specific hazards of infection. We also developed and implemented a likelihood-based method for estimating the duration of immunity, taking into account age-contact data relevant for pertussis transmission. The risk of infection in thirteen-year olds increased nearly four-fold, however the hazard in infants did not significantly change. The seasonality of cases in pre-school-aged children differed from that of school-aged children. The introduction of a childhood booster vaccine provided indirect protection for unvaccinated members of the cohort, but little protection to neighboring cohorts. Additionally, we found evidence for increasingly rapid infection after three doses of vaccine, potentially caused by significant and heterogeneous loss of immunity. An estimated 15% of vaccinated individuals lost their immunity within five years after vaccination. Conclusions Immunity induced by the acellular pertussis vaccine prevents both disease and transmission, but is <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and heterogeneous. The age-mixing patterns lead to little contact between teenagers and infants. Therefore, while a teenage booster vaccine campaign would likely provide strong protection for cohorts of teenagers, it would provide little protection for infants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavine, Jennie; Bj?rnstad, Ottar; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Storsaeter, Jann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579214"> <span id="translatedtitle">ICV-Transplanted Human Glial Precursor Cells Are <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Yet Exert Immunomodulatory Effects in Mice with EAE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 105 hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5–10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KIM, HEECHUL; WALCZAK, PIOTR; MUJA, NASER; CAMPANELLI, JAMES T.; BULTE, JEFF W. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adult neurogenesis in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> teleost Nothobranchius furzeri: localization of neurogenic niches, molecular characterization and effects of aging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied adult neurogenesis in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri and quantified the effects of aging on the mitotic activity of the neuronal progenitors and the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the radial glia. The distribution of neurogenic niches is substantially similar to that of zebrafish and adult stem cells generate neurons, which persist in the adult brain. As opposed to zebrafish, however, the N. furzeri genome contains a doublecortin (DCX) gene. Doublecortin is transiently expressed by newly generated neurons in the telencephalon and optic tectum (OT). We also analyzed the expression of the microRNA miR-9 and miR-124 and found that they have complementary expression domains: miR-9 is expressed in the neurogenic niches of the telencephalon and the radial glia of the OT, while miR-124 is expressed in differentiated neurons. The main finding of this paper is the demonstration of an age-dependent decay in adult neurogenesis. Using unbiased stereological estimates of cell numbers, we detected an almost fivefold decrease in the number of mitotically active cells in the OT between young and old age. This reduced mitotic activity is paralleled by a reduction in DCX labeling. Finally, we detected a dramatic up-regulation of GFAP in the radial glia of the aged brain. This up-regulation is not paralleled by a similar up-regulation of S100B and Musashi-1, two other markers of the radial glia. In summary, the brain of N. furzeri replicates two typical hallmarks of mammalian aging: gliosis and reduced adult neurogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Baumgart, Mario; Battistoni, Giorgia; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.440.3738L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Starbursts and high-redshift galaxies are radioactive: high abundances of 26Al and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) like 26Al are synthesized by massive stars and are a byproduct of star formation. The abundances of SLRs in the gas of a star-forming galaxy are inversely proportional to the gas consumption time. The rapid evolution of specific star formation rate (SSFR) of normal galaxies implies they had mean SLR abundances ˜3-10 times higher at z = 2. During the epoch of Solar system formation, the background SLR abundances of the Galaxy were up to twice as high as at present, if SLR yields from massive stars do not depend on metallicity. If SLRs are homogenized in the gas of galaxies, the high SSFRs of normal galaxies can partly explain the elevated abundance of SLRs like 60Fe and 26Al in the early Solar system. Starburst galaxies have much higher SSFRs still, and have enormous mean abundances of 26Al (26Al/27Al ?10-3 for solar metallicity gas). The main uncertainty is whether the SLRs are mixed with the star-forming molecular gas: they could be trapped in hot gas and decay before entering the colder phases, or be blown out by starburst winds. I consider how variability in star formation rate affects the SLR abundances, and I discuss how SLR transport may differ in these galaxies. The enhanced 26Al of starbursts might maintain moderate ionization rates (10-18-10-17 s-1), possibly dominating ionization in dense clouds not penetrated by cosmic rays. Similar ionization rates would be maintained in protoplanetary discs of starbursts, if the SLRs are well mixed, and the radiogenic heating of planetesimals would likewise be much higher. In this way, galaxy evolution can affect the geological history of planetary systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacki, Brian C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.8757J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive iodocarbons and bromocarbons at Roscoff, Brittany during the RHaMBLe campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the northwest coast of France during September 2006. Comparison with other coastal studies suggests that emissions of these trace gases are strongly influenced by site topography, seaweed populations and distribution, as well as wind speed and direction and tide height. Concentrations of the very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dihalomethanes CH2IBr and CH2I2 in particular showed evidence of tidal dependence, with higher concentrations observed at low tide during maximum exposure of seaweed beds. We also present a limited number of halocarbon measurements in surface seawater and estimate sea-air fluxes based on these and simultaneous air measurements. CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were strongly correlated both in air and in seawater, with CH2Br2/CHBr3 ratios of 0.19 in air and 0.06 in water. The combined midday I atom flux from the photolabile diahlomethanes CH2I2, CH2IBr and CH2ICl of ~5×103 molecules cm-3 s-1 is several orders of magnitude lower than the estimated I atom flux from I2 based on coinciding measurements at the same site, which indicates that at Roscoff the major I atom precursor was I2 rather than reactive iodocarbons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Dunk, R. M.; Leigh, R. J.; Carpenter, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....917125J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive iodocarbons and bromocarbons at Roscoff, Brittany during the RHaMBLe campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the northwest coast of France during September 2006. Comparison with other coastal studies suggests that emissions of these trace gases are strongly influenced by site topography, seaweed populations and distribution, as well as tide height. Concentrations of the very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dihalomethanes CH2IBr and CH2I2 in particular showed evidence of tidal dependence, with higher concentrations observed at low tide during maximum exposure of seaweed beds. We also present a limited number of halocarbon concentrations in surface seawater and estimate sea-air fluxes based on simultaneous water and air measurements of these gases. CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were strongly correlated both in air and in seawater, with CH2Br2/CHBr3 ratios of 0.19 in air and 0.06 in water. The combined midday I atom flux from the photolabile diahlomethanes CH2I2, CH2IBr and CH2ICl of ~5×103 molecules cm-3 s-1 is several orders of magnitude lower than the estimated I atom flux from I2 based on coinciding measurements at the same site, which indicates that at Roscoff the major I atom precursor was I2 rather than reactive iodocarbons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Dunk, R. M.; Leigh, R. J.; Carpenter, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pd(0) -Mediated Rapid Cross-Coupling Reactions, the Rapid C-[(11) C]Methylations, Revolutionarily Advancing the Syntheses of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> PET Molecular Probes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Positron emission tomography is a noninvasive method for monitoring drug (or diagnostic) behavior and its localization on the target molecules in the <span class="hlt">living</span> systems, including the human body, using a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radionuclide. New methodologies for introducing representative <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, (11) C and (18) F, into the carbon frameworks of biologically active organic compounds have been established by developing rapid C-[(11) C]methylations and C-[(18) F]fluoromethylations using rapid Pd(0) -mediated cross-coupling reactions between [(11) C]methyl iodide (sp(3) -hybridized carbon) and an excess amount of organotributylstannane or organoboronic acid ester having sp(2) (phenyl, heteroaromatic, or alkenyl), sp(alkynyl), or sp(3) (benzyl and cinnamyl)-hybridized carbons; and [(18) F]fluoromethyl halide (iodide or bromide) and an organoboronic acid ester, respectively. These rapid reactions provide a firm foundation for an efficient and general synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (11) C- or (18) F-labeled PET molecular probes to promote in vivo molecular imaging studies. PMID:24946731</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Masaaki; Doi, Hisashi; Koyama, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhouen; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Russian policy on methane emissions in the oil and gas sector: A case study in opportunities and challenges in reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change on a ton-for-ton basis. Methane, along with other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone, could play an important role in addressing global climate change. This stems both from their overall effect on climate systems, and from their concentrated impact in the <span class="hlt">short</span> term. Because reducing emissions of such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants may have a large near-term impact in slowing climate change, the United States and other countries have come together to cooperate under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants, and other partnerships such as the Global Methane Initiative. For global impact, the success of such partnerships depends on their ability to scale up project-specific emission reductions. This paper assesses options and challenges for scaling based on a case study of Russia's oil and gas sector. We examine the challenges to achieving far-reaching emission reductions, successes of companies to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.EA137W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photonuclear Production of Medical <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Every year, more than 20 million people in the United States receive a nuclear medicine procedure. Many of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> needed for these procedures are under-produced. Suppliers of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are usually located outside the United States, which presents a problem when the desired <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>. Linear accelerators were investigated as a possible method of meeting <span class="hlt">isotope</span> demand. Linear accelerators are cheaper, safer, and have lower decommissioning costs compared to nuclear reactors. By using (?,p) reactions, the desired <span class="hlt">isotope</span> can be separated from the target material due to the different chemical nature of each <span class="hlt">isotope</span>. <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> investigated were Cu-67, In-111, and Lu-111. Using the results the photon flux Monte Carlo simulations, the expected activity of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> can be calculated. After samples were irradiated, a high purity germanium detector and signal processing apparatus were used to count the samples. The activity at the time of irradiation stop was then calculated. The uses of medical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> will also be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinandt, Nick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52473660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Measurements of Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Through Everglades' Peat Sediments Using <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radium <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peat sediments are present as a nearly continuous surface layer across large areas of the Everglades. These sediments have relatively low hydraulic conductivity, impeding water exchange between surface water and the underlying surficial aquifer. Although vertical water transport does occur across the peat layer, rates are slow enough that they are difficult to quantify. Even modest rates of vertical transport,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Krest; J. W. Harvey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ird.gov.br/pdf/radioprotection_radio_ilha_grande.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in surface waters from Ilha Grande bay, Angra dos Reis, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site is located 130km south from Rio de Janeiro city. Seawater is used as cooling water for both units; the cooling water is pumped from Itaorna Bay and discharged into Piraquara de Fora Bay, together with the liquid effluents from the two NPPs. Piraquara de Fora Bay belongs to a large bay system,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. C. Gomes; J. M. Godoy; Z. L. Carvalho; R. T. Lopes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A44E..02A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Very <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halocarbons in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean and Atmosphere using Fully Automated Sampling Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive halogen species, originating in part from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons (VSLH), play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular their reaction with ozone to form halogen oxides. Oceanic iodocarbon production is believed to be a significant source of IO. Unfortunately, VSLH datasets are sparse compared to those of other important trace gases, especially in oligotrophic oceans and the equatorial Pacific where recent satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY show elevated levels of iodine oxide in the free troposphere. A new, fully automated purge and trap- thermal desorption system coupled to a GC-MS was developed to provide continuous measurement of VSLH in water sampled from a ship's surface seawater inlet and semi-automated analysis of bottle samples from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature Depth) casts. This instrument was deployed on NOAA vessel Ka'imimoana, alongside a new system for continuous on-line air measurements (TD-GC-MS), during the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Experiment of Reactive halogen species and OVOCs (TORERO) campaign. High frequency boundary layer and surface seawater measurements are presented here with ocean depth profiling of VSLH along the 110°W TOA buoy line. Owing to the high sample throughput and continuous sampling, photolysis driven processes of iodocarbons in the ocean have been observed which have previously only been predicted in modelling and laboratory studies. Sea-air fluxes have been calculated along the cruise track using corresponding meteorological data from the ship. Extensive, open-ocean VSLH flux data is presented which, for the region of this study, is missing or sparse in the WMO ozone assessment of 2010. Inter-comparison of a standard gas used during the campaign allows the use of a single calibration scale (NOAA GMD) between research groups which adds confidence to the results and allows collation of data from the ship with simultaneous measurements taken on-board the NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft using the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA). The inter-comparison will additionally link these data sets with recent inter-comparisons in the UK and US.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, S. J.; Lidster, R.; Carpenter, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon emission rates showed almost the same general trend, however, the total iodocarbon emission rates were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of molecular iodine, demonstrating that I(2) is the major iodine containing volatile released by the investigated seaweed species. In addition, a clear dependency of iodocarbon emission from the ozone level (0-150 ppb O(3)) was found for L. digitata. PMID:22227744</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-?), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L?, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c? CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c?, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127? terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1? CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c? CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0720/2007JD008753/2007JD008753.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000–2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drew T. Shindell; Greg Faluvegi; Susanne E. Bauer; Dorothy M. Koch; Nadine Unger; Surabi Menon; Ron L. Miller; Gavin A. Schmidt; David G. Streets</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Natur.419..705M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> evidence for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth's upper mantle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geochemical composition of the Earth's upper mantle is thought to reflect 4.5 billion years of melt extraction, as well as the recycling of crustal materials. The fractionation of rhenium and osmium during partial melting in the upper mantle makes the Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> system well suited for tracing the extraction of melt and recycling of the resulting mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Here we report osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of more than 700 osmium-rich platinum-group element alloys derived from the upper mantle. The osmium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data form a wide, essentially gaussian distribution, demonstrating that, with respect to Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics, the upper mantle is extremely heterogeneous. As depleted and enriched domains can apparently remain unequilibrated on a timescale of billions of years, effective equilibration seems to require high degrees of partial melting, such as occur under mid-ocean ridges or in back-arc settings, where percolating melts enhance the mobility of both osmium and rhenium. We infer that the gaussian shape of the osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> distribution is the signature of a random mixing process between depleted and enriched domains, resulting from a `plum pudding' distribution in the upper mantle, rather than from individual melt depletion events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meibom, Anders; Sleep, Norman H.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Coleman, Robert G.; Frei, Robert; Hren, Michael T.; Wooden, Joseph L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12384694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> evidence for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> heterogeneity and equilibration processes in the Earth's upper mantle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geochemical composition of the Earth's upper mantle is thought to reflect 4.5 billion years of melt extraction, as well as the recycling of crustal materials. The fractionation of rhenium and osmium during partial melting in the upper mantle makes the Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> system well suited for tracing the extraction of melt and recycling of the resulting mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Here we report osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of more than 700 osmium-rich platinum-group element alloys derived from the upper mantle. The osmium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data form a wide, essentially gaussian distribution, demonstrating that, with respect to Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics, the upper mantle is extremely heterogeneous. As depleted and enriched domains can apparently remain unequilibrated on a timescale of billions of years, effective equilibration seems to require high degrees of partial melting, such as occur under mid-ocean ridges or in back-arc settings, where percolating melts enhance the mobility of both osmium and rhenium. We infer that the gaussian shape of the osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> distribution is the signature of a random mixing process between depleted and enriched domains, resulting from a 'plum pudding' distribution in the upper mantle, rather than from individual melt depletion events. PMID:12384694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meibom, Anders; Sleep, Norman H; Chamberlain, C Page; Coleman, Robert G; Frei, Robert; Hren, Michael T; Wooden, Joseph L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gpilsinside.umaryland.edu/Web%20files/Neuroscience/Aeschbach%20-%20Evidence%20from%20the%20waking%20electroencephalogram.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence from the waking electroencephalogram that <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers <span class="hlt">live</span> under higher homeostatic sleep pressure than long sleepers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used the waking electroencephalogram to study the homeostatic sleep regulatory process in human <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers and long sleepers. After sleeping according to their habitual schedule, nine <span class="hlt">short</span> sleepers (sleep duration <6h) and eight long sleepers (>9h) were recorded half-hourly during ?40h of wakefulness in a constant routine protocol. Within the frequency range of 0.25–20.0Hz, spectral power density in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. AESCHBACH; T. T. POSTOLACHE; L. SHER; J. R. MATTHEWS; M. A. JACKSON; T. A. WEHR</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.437.1821M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> remnants of neutron star binary mergers from late-time radio observations of <span class="hlt">short</span> duration gamma-ray bursts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coalescence of a binary neutron star (NS) system (an `NS merger' or NSM) may in some cases produce a massive NS remnant that is long <span class="hlt">lived</span> and, potentially, indefinitely stable to gravitational collapse. Such a remnant has been proposed as an explanation for the late-X-ray emission observed following some <span class="hlt">short</span>-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and as possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational wave chirp. A stable NS merger remnant necessarily possesses a large rotational energy ?1052 erg, the majority of which is ultimately deposited into the surrounding circumburst medium (CBM) at mildly relativistic velocities. We present Very Large Array radio observations of seven <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs, some of which possessed temporally extended X-ray emission, on time-scales of ˜1-3 yr following the initial burst. No radio sources were detected, with typical upper limits ˜0.3 mJy at ? = 1.4 GHz. A basic model for the synchrotron emission from the blast wave is used to constrain the presence of a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> NSM remnant in each system. Depending on the GRB, our non-detections translate into upper limits on the CBM density n ? 3 × 10- 2-3 cm-3 required for consistency with the remnant hypothesis. Our upper limits rule out a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> remnant in GRB 050724 and 060505, but cannot rule out such a remnant in other systems due to their lower inferred CMB densities based on afterglow modelling or the lack of such constraints.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metzger, Brian D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/30079/1/13010125.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SHORT</span>-PERIOD PRICING MODELS FOR FED CATTLE AND IMPACTS OF WHOLESALE CARCASS BEEF AND <span class="hlt">LIVE</span> CATTLE FUTURES MARKET PRICES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cattlemen have expressed concern about variation among transaction prices for fed cattle, wholesale beef and fed cattle pricing and have and to determine the impacts of wholesale car- antitrust lawsuits pending against supermarkets, cass beef prices and <span class="hlt">live</span> cattle futures market meatpackers, trade associations, and a meat prices on fed cattle prices. price reporting firm. Lawsuits allege manipula- tion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clement E. Ward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57797112"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Possibility of Improving the Mean Useful Life of Items by Eliminating Those with <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lives</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">When everything possible has been done to produce articles with long <span class="hlt">lives</span>, there remains the possibility that a further improvement in the articles may be obtained by running them, for some time, under realistic conditions. The fraction that does not fail may have a longer mean remaining life than the original articles. In this paper conditions on the life distribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. S. Watson; W. T. Wells</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9913M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> on the edge: The oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> record of Eocene Basins at the margin of the Cenozoic North American plateau</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Topography has a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the dynamics of mountain building processes. The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens remains one of the most important questions when discussing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Here, we focus on the spatial and temporal development of topography and relief in the western North American Cordillera and how changes in the topography may have affected precipitation patterns and vice versa. In this context, we sampled more than 20 sections in Eocene to Oligocene terrestrial (intermontane?) basins (Chumstick, Swauk, and Chuckanut) in western and central Washington (USA) to the W and E of the modern Cascades. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis of pedogenic carbonate in these sections allows us to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of ancient soilwater or groundwater, and ultimately precipitation. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements of pedogenic concretions and calcic horizons interestingly yield uniformly low ?18O values of 10 to 13‰ SMOW despite the proximity of all sections to the Pacific moisture source. These extremely low oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values can result from (1) highly 18O-depleted meteoric waters (soil- or groundwater), (2) burial diagenesis at moderate temperatures and interaction with 18O-depleted (ground)water, and (3) high burial temperatures and and exchange with basins brines. Vitrinite reflectance data and preservation of primary soil structures such as rootlets, root casts, burrows, or even preserved wood fragments clearly show that some of the low-d18O sections were not affected by high degrees of burial diagenesis. Thus, we believe that the primary <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signal of ancient soil- or groundwater is preserved at least in parts (if not in all) of these basins. Low ?18O values of pedogenic carbonate require highly 18O-depleted meteoric water, which in turn, would require high elevation either at the site or within close proximity. However, paleofloral data from e.g. the Chumstick basin to the E of the modern Cascades indicate moderate elevations and montane rain forest conditions during a warm (MAT = 14°C) and rather wet, seasonal Eocene climate. Therefore, we tentatively suggest that these basins were at moderate elevations, allowing dense vegetation and seasonal drying of soils, but were fed by <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> highly 18O-depleted runoff and groundwater from elevated catchment areas in the vicinity of the basins. This requires Eocene highlands of the North American Cordillera to be laterally extensive already during the Eocene and places important constraints on the impact of the plateau region on atmospheric circulation patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, Page</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2188497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma interferon enhances macrophage transcription of the tumor necrosis factor/cachectin, interleukin 1, and urokinase genes, which are controlled by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> repressors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure of mouse resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages to IFN-gamma leads to a marked increase in the TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor/cachectin), IL-1 and u-PA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments show that IFN-gamma acts by enhancing the transcription of these three genes. Transcription of these three genes is also rapidly and transiently induced by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, indicating that they are under the control of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> repressors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010887"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612868S"> <span id="translatedtitle">An alternative approach to comparing long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emissions in light of the 2&amp;deg;C global temperature limit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">International climate policy has defined its goal in terms of limiting global average temperature, specifically to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Emissions of several different greenhouse gases (GHGs) are currently aggregated and traded in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalent. The metric used for aggregating and trading is the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). Importantly though, the GWP100 does not measure temperature and so does clearly indicate the relative value of different emissions in the context of a global temperature limit. Recent developments in climate research have led to two different, potentially conflicting, perspectives on priorities in reducing emissions. First, a clear link has been demonstrated between cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide and peak temperature. This emphasises the need for carbon dioxide emissions to fall to near zero and provides a conceptually neat way to frame policy, but says little about the role of other GHGs. Second, other studies have shown that emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), many of which currently lie outside climate policy, have a substantial near-term effect on climate. It has been suggested that immediate SLCP reductions will therefore increase the chance of staying below 2°C and may even "buy time" for carbon dioxide reductions. This presentation summarises two recent papers which clarify the roles of SLCPs and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> GHGs in determining peak global temperature, and propose new emission metrics to reflect these. SLCP emissions reductions in a given decade have a significant impact on peak temperature only if carbon dioxide emissions are already falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially "buy time" for adaptation by reducing near-term warming, but it does not buy time to delay reductions in carbon dioxide compared with delayed SLCP reductions. Peak temperature is ultimately constrained by cumulative emissions of several long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> gases (including carbon dioxide) and sustained emission rates of a separate basket of shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species (including methane and other SLCPs). For these two baskets we develop an emissions-equivalence metric which allows trading within, but not between, each basket. The 2°C limit could therefore be met by setting a limit to cumulative long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> emissions while setting a maximum future rate for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Stephen; Bowerman, Niel; Lowe, Jason; Huntingford, Chris; Frame, Dave; Allen, Myles; Gohar, Laila; Millar, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29858764"> <span id="translatedtitle">707. Real-Time Monitoring of Single-Stranded and Duplex <span class="hlt">Short</span> Interfering RNA Integrity inside <span class="hlt">Living</span> Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span> interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are potent effectors of post- transcriptional gene silencing. To attain their full therapeutic promise it is believed that improvements, such as increased biostability, are critical. Regrettably, thus far insufficient data are on hand regarding the intracellular stability of siRNAs, mainly due to a lack of suitable non-invasive methods. Therefore, the major focus of this project is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koen Raemdonck; Katrien Remaut; Bart Lucas; Niek N. Sanders; Jo Demeester; Stefaan C. De Smedt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007QSRv...26.1975D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> vegetational and environmental change during the Preboreal in the Biebrza Upper Basin (NE Poland)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pollen diagram from the upper Biebrza basin (NE Poland) shows a conspicuous pollen fluctuation around 9650 BP, which is superimposed on a broader pollen fluctuation correlated with a more open vegetation phase during the Preboreal generally found in Europe. High-resolution pollen analyses indicate a duration of only a few years in which Pinus forests became more open. The resulting niches were partly occupied by Betula trees and partly by Betula shrubs, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae. <span class="hlt">Shortly</span> before the increased opening of the upland vegetation, reed vegetation developed in the valley, in which Sparganium and later Typha became prominent. At the end of the <span class="hlt">short</span> fluctuation, this reed vegetation diminished. The wetland vegetation development might be partly related to hydrological changes caused by a reduced evapotranspiration of the opened upland forest. The data presented here show that the open vegetation phase of the Preboreal was not of uniform character, but that within its <span class="hlt">short</span> time span of ca 150 years an even shorter fluctuation of a few years to a few decades occurred. It is unknown whether this is a regionally restricted phenomenon or whether it has an extra-regional character.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Klerk, Pim; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53531534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> in the Early Solar System: an Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 60Fe-60Ni chronometer (t1\\/2=1.49 Myrs) can theoretically provide strong constraints on the exact chronology of the earliest events of the solar system, whereas the mass-dependent <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionation of Ni stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> helps us to better understand the formation processes of meteorites. Nickel is also an interesting element when looking at nucleosynthetic anomalies and thus stellar sources in a close</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Quitte; A. N. Halliday; A. Markowski; B. Bourdon; B. Meyer; B. Zanda; C. Latkoczy; D. Guenther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24105791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic profiling identified multiple <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> members of the central proteome as the direct targets of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Oncogene addiction" is an unexplained phenomenon in the area of cancer targeted therapy. In this study, we have tested a hypothesis that rapid apoptotic response of cancer cells following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes is because of loss of multiple <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins whose activity normally maintain cell survival by blocking caspase activation directly or indirectly. It was shown that rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis could be induced in both A431 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, and quick down-regulation of 17 proteins, which were all members of the central proteome of human cells, was found to be associated with the onset of acute apoptosis. Knockdown of PSMD11 could partially promote the occurrence of acute apoptosis in both MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. These findings indicate that maintaining the stability of central proteome may be a primary mechanism for addicted oncogenes to maintain the survival of cancer cells through various signaling pathways, and quick loss of some of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> members of the central proteome may be the direct reason for the rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells. These findings we have presented can help us better understand the phenomenon of oncogene-addiction and may have important implications for the targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:24105791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qi, Tonggang; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Yun; Kong, Feng; Xu, Dawei; Cheng, Guanghui; Wang, Yunshan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21056099"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows a typical teleost aging process reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> vertebrate which can be cultured in captivity. Here, we performed a histopathological analysis of age-related lesions in this species. Post-mortem analysis revealed lesions in liver (~90%), kidney (~75%), heart (~70%) and gonads (~40%) which are similar to those previously described in the small teleost Poecilia reticulata. In addition, a high incidence of neoplasias was observed in liver (~35%) and kidney (~25%). Different laboratory strains of N. furzeri show large genetic differences in longevity. Cross-sectional analysis revealed a clear age-dependent increase in the incidence of liver neoplasias which was accelerated in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> strain. Cross-sectional analysis of gonads revealed sex-specific differences in the occurrence of lesions, with males being more severely affected than females. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that <span class="hlt">short</span> life span in N. furzeri is a consequence of a typical teleost aging process which determines systemic failure of homeostasis functions rather than of a single organ or apparatus. Unlike other teleosts, however, this scenario is reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias, making this species a promising model to analyze the molecular pathways of age-dependent spontaneous tumorigenesis. PMID:21056099</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Cicco, Emiliano; Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Rossi, Giacomo; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20542253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coronaviruses Hijack the LC3-I-positive EDEMosomes, ER-derived vesicles exporting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ERAD regulators, for replication.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coronaviruses (CoV), including SARS and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), are enveloped RNA viruses that induce formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and target their replication and transcription complexes (RTCs) on the DMV-limiting membranes. The DMV biogenesis has been connected with the early secretory pathway. CoV-induced DMVs, however, lack conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi protein markers, leaving their membrane origins in question. We show that MHV co-opts the host cell machinery for COPII-independent vesicular ER export of a <span class="hlt">short-living</span> regulator of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), EDEM1, to derive cellular membranes for replication. MHV infection causes accumulation of EDEM1 and OS-9, another <span class="hlt">short-living</span> ER chaperone, in the DMVs. DMVs are coated with the nonlipidated LC3/Atg8 autophagy marker. Downregulation of LC3, but not inactivation of host cell autophagy, protects cells from CoV infection. Our study identifies the host cellular pathway hijacked for supplying CoV replication membranes and describes an autophagy-independent role for nonlipidated LC3-I. PMID:20542253</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reggiori, Fulvio; Monastyrska, Iryna; Verheije, Monique H; Calì, Tito; Ulasli, Mustafa; Bianchi, Siro; Bernasconi, Riccardo; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Molinari, Maurizio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of highly excited long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomers in neutron-rich hafnium and tantalum <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> through direct mass measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of cooled ¹??Au projectile-fragmentation products has been performed with a storage ring. This has enabled metastable nuclear excitations with energies up to 3 MeV, and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> extending to minutes or longer, to be identified in the neutron-rich nuclides ¹?³(,)¹??(,)¹??Hf and ¹??(,)¹??Ta. The results support the prediction of a strongly favored isomer region near neutron number 116. PMID:21231037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reed, M W; Cullen, I J; Walker, P M; Litvinov, Yu A; Blaum, K; Bosch, F; Brandau, C; Carroll, J J; Cullen, D M; Deo, A Y; Detwiller, B; Dimopoulou, C; Dracoulis, G D; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Haettner, E; Heil, M; Kempley, R S; Knöbel, R; Kozhuharov, C; Kurcewicz, J; Kuzminchuk, N; Litvinov, S; Liu, Z; Mao, R; Nociforo, C; Nolden, F; Plass, W R; Prochazka, A; Scheidenberger, C; Steck, M; Stöhlker, Th; Sun, B; Swan, T P D; Trees, G; Weick, H; Winckler, N; Winkler, M; Woods, P J; Yamaguchi, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B54C..07S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical Variations in Paleoseeps Over <span class="hlt">Short</span> Time Scales: Stable <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Results From the Panoche-Tumey Hills Paleoseep (PTHP), California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluctuations in fluids compositions over varying time scales are widely recognized from modern cold seep deposits. We present results from a detailed study of carbonate mineral proxies for fluid flow from the PTHP. This cold seep deposit extends for 20 km along strike and was fed by a system of sandstone injectites during its mid- Paleocene lifespan. We sampled carbonate-bearing portions of the seep horizons both laterally and vertically over an area of approximately 5 km2. We analyzed the elemental and stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> chemistry to examine temporal variations. Carbonate occurrences include dolomite to low-Mg calcite mineralogies in matrix cements, cemented pipe structures, laminated carbonates (fossilized bacterial mats?), and carbonate veins. In all cases the direction of carbonate mineral growth can be determined. Previous work on bulk samples has yielded a range of ?13C of --54 to +3 ‰ and ?18O of --7 to +7 ‰ (all values VPDB). Our more detailed sampling shows a smaller range, but significant variation of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> results over mm's to cm's (?13C values vary in individual features from as much as --28.19 to +3.58 ‰; ?18O values from --8.68 to +4.71 ‰). Sequential sampling by micromilling of transects across carbonate infill show the greatest range in carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Individual transects show ranges in carbon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> minimum and maximum of 4.8 and 29.7 ‰, respectively. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> vary less - from 4.1 to 10.1 ‰ for different transects. The influence of meteoric diagenesis on the oxygen is difficult to constrain well. Coupled with carbonate and sulfate/sulfide mineralogy, the variations in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions can be related to fine-scale variations in microchemical environments, perhaps due to repeated changes in the chemistry of fluids fluxing through the features examined. Given the age range of the seep horizon, and the size of individual carbonate features, we estimate that total cementation times of individual features, and hence fluid flow variation time scales, is at the most on the order of a few thousands of years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sample, J. C.; Csar, A.; Schwartz, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SedG..247...58H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperate carbonate debrites and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100809"> <span id="translatedtitle">The age related markers lipofuscin and apoptosis show different genetic architecture by QTL mapping in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Nothobranchius fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius show large variations in lifespan and expression of age-related phenotypes between closely related populations. We studied N. kadleci and its sister species N. furzeri GRZ strain, and found that N.kadleci is longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> than the N. furzeri. Lipofuscin and apoptosis measured in the liver increased with age in N. kadleci with different profiles: lipofuscin increased linearly, while apoptosis declined in the oldest animals. More lipofuscin (P < 0.001) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) was observed in N. furzeri than in N. kadleci at 16w age. Lipofuscin and apoptotic cells were then quantified in hybrids from the mating of N. furzeri to N. kadleci. F1 individuals showed heterosis for lipofuscin but additive effects for apoptosis. These two age-related phenotypes were not correlated in F2 hybrids. Quantitative trait loci analysis of 287 F2 fish using 237 markers identified two QTL accounting for 10% of lipofuscin variance (P < 0.001) with overdominance effect. Apoptotic cells revealed three significant- and two suggestive QTL explaining 19% of variance (P < 0.001), showing additive and dominance effects, and two interacting loci. Our results show that lipofuscin and apoptosis are markers of different age-dependent biological processes controlled by different genetic mechanisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng'oma, Enoch; Reichwald, Kathrin; Dorn, Alexander; Wittig, Michael; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Allesandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-<span class="hlt">LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11D0084A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on the emission of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated gases from the East Tropical Pacific during the 2012 TORERO campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oceanic emissions of organic halogen species impart a significant control on tropospheric and stratospheric ozone concentrations. Quantifying very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated gases (VSLS) in the tropics is of particular importance as deep convection in this region can rapidly transport reactive halogen species into the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere. Measurements in the tropical Pacific are sparse, especially in oligotrophic oceans and the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean- an area that accounts for approximately 10% of global oceanic primary production. Factors controlling the oceanic vertical distribution of VSLS are not fully understood and essentially determine surface concentrations, fluxes and subsequent atmospheric mixing ratios. VSLS measurements are presented here from the 2012 TORERO campaign which includes simultaneous analysis of the surface ocean and atmosphere as well as ocean depth profiles from NOAA ship Ka'imimoana. We examine the biological, chemical and physical controls on VSLS with the aim to identify emission drivers which can be used to constrain modeled data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, S.; Carpenter, L.; Lidster, R.; Volkamer, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24729560"> <span id="translatedtitle">International intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughter products in the NRPI Prague.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 7th European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in the autumn of 2013 in Prague, the second intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products and the first intercomparison of radon/thoron gas discriminative passive detectors in mix field of radon/thoron were organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. In total, 14 laboratories from 11 different countries took part in the 2013 NRPI intercomparison. They submitted both continuous monitors for the measurement of radon gas and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration in a big NRPI chamber (48 m(3)) and sets of passive detectors including radon/thoron discriminative for the measurement of radon gas in the big chamber and thoron gas in a small thoron chamber (150 dm(3)). PMID:24729560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jílek, K; Hýža, M; Kotík, L; Thomas, J; Tomášek, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARJ26001C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aspects of conical intersections: Dynamics, bound states embedded in the continuum and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> electronic states</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conical intersections are omnipresent in polyatomic molecules and their presence gives rise to the most severe breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Several general aspects of conical intersections and of the dynamics through them will be addressed. Particular attention will be paid to the question what happens to the potential energy surfaces if the electronic states are metastable. In addition, it is shown that nuclear dynamics on coupled potential surface can lead to bound states embedded in the continuum. Non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are responsible for the binding of these states. Once the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is introduced, these states at best become resonances which decay via potential tunnelling. The tunnelling is completely suppressed by the coupling between the electronic states. Another important issue which will be touched upon is dynamics in the presence of conical intersections in macrosystems. Here, the number of modes is extremely large and, nevertheless, their impact close to the intersections cannot be neglected. It is shown that effective modes can be derived which reproduce exactly the <span class="hlt">short</span>-time dynamics of the whole macrosystem at low cost. Numerical examples are given. References: H. K"oppel, W. Domcke and L.S. Cederbaum, Adv.Chem.Phys. 57, 59 (1984) G.A. Worth and L.S. Cederbaum, Annu-Rev.Phys.Chem. 55, 127 (2004) L.S. Cederbaum, R.S. Friedman, V.M Ryaboy and N. Moiseyev, Phys.Rev.Lett. 90, 013001 (2003) S. Feuerbacher, T. Sommerfeld and L.S. Cederbaum, J.Chem.Phys. 120, 3201 (2004) L.S. Cederbaum, E. Gindensperger and I. Burghardt, Phys.Rev.Lett. 94, 113003 (2005)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cederbaum, Lorenz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21627157"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein photoreceptor revealed by combined structural probes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) photoreceptor is transiently developed via isomerization of its blue-light-absorbing chromophore. The associated structural rearrangements have large amplitude but, due to its transient nature and chemical exchange reactions that complicate NMR detection, its accurate three-dimensional structure in solution has been elusive. Here we report on direct structural observation of the transient signaling state by combining double electron electron resonance spectroscopy (DEER), NMR, and time-resolved pump-probe X-ray solution scattering (TR-SAXS/WAXS). Measurement of distance distributions for doubly spin-labeled photoreceptor constructs using DEER spectroscopy suggests that the signaling state is well ordered and shows that interspin-label distances change reversibly up to 19 Å upon illumination. The SAXS/WAXS difference signal for the signaling state relative to the ground state indicates the transient formation of an ordered and rearranged conformation, which has an increased radius of gyration, an increased maximum dimension, and a reduced excluded volume. Dynamical annealing calculations using the DEER derived long-range distance restraints in combination with <span class="hlt">short</span>-range distance information from (1)H-(15)N HSQC perturbation spectroscopy give strong indication for a rearrangement that places part of the N-terminal domain in contact with the exposed chromophore binding cleft while the terminal residues extend away from the core. Time-resolved global structural information from pump-probe TR-SAXS/WAXS data supports this conformation and allows subsequent structural refinement that includes the combined energy terms from DEER, NMR, and SAXS/WAXS together. The resulting ensemble simultaneously satisfies all restraints, and the inclusion of TR-SAXS/WAXS effectively reduces the uncertainty arising from the possible spin-label orientations. The observations are essentially compatible with reduced folding of the I(2)' state (also referred to as the 'pB' state) that is widely reported, but indicates it to be relatively ordered and rearranged. Furthermore, there is direct evidence for the repositioning of the N-terminal region in the I(2)' state, which is structurally modeled by dynamical annealing and refinement calculations. PMID:21627157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramachandran, Pradeep L; Lovett, Janet E; Carl, Patrick J; Cammarata, Marco; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Yang Ouk; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Timmel, Christiane R; van Thor, Jasper J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24028469"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal phenology of interactions involving <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very <span class="hlt">short</span> life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three plants were of generally high quality in terms of insect performance. We discuss ecological and evolutionary constraints on insects that must search in new habitats for different plant species over successive generations. PMID:24028469</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS31B1702D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous upwelling episodes at the western African coast: Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> SST perturbations related to synoptic atmospheric structures as derived from satellite observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite scatterometers provide continuously valuable surface wind speed and direction estimates over the global ocean on a regular grid both in space and time (Level 3 data). The gridded data derived from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), available at 1/4° spatial resolution since 2007 (hereafter AS25), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), available on 1/2° and 1/4° horizontal grids through November 2009 (QS50 and QS25 respectively), are studied at regional scales in both the Benguela and Canary upwelling systems. They are compared to the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) surface wind analysis, with insight into their intrinsic and effective spatial resolutions. In the coastal band, the finest spatial patterns are found in the QS25 winds and are O(75km). This demonstrates the sensitivity of the new high-resolution satellite-derived winds to the land-sea transition. Next, anomalous upwelling episodes (AUEs) calculated from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are defined consistently with the QS25 effective spatial resolution. These cold events refer here to local, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> perturbations that add to seasonal upwelling variability. We characterize the concomitant atmospheric synoptic conditions by constructing composite maps of prevailing wind stress, wind stress curl and heat fluxes during AUEs identified at selected latitudes. Wind mechanisms, and especially the meridional wind stress component and the wind stress curl, are shown to affect local, <span class="hlt">short</span>-term SST variability in both upwelling systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desbiolles, F.; Blanke, B.; Bentamy, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...1127421O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oceanic sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20° N-20° S) as well as constant oceanic fluxes with a 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratio for the extratropics (latitudinal bands 20°-50° and 50°-90° in both hemispheres). Top-down emission estimates of bromocarbons have been derived using available measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, while iodocarbons have been constrained with observations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Emissions of CH3I are based on a previous inventory and the longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> CH3Br is set to a lower boundary condition. The global oceanic emissions estimated for the most abundant VSL bromocarbons - 533 Gg yr-1 for CHBr3 and 67.3 Gg yr-1 for CH2Br2 - are within the range of previous estimates. Overall the latitudinal and vertical distributions of modelled bromocarbons are in good agreement with observations. Nevertheless, we identify some issues such as the reduced number of aircraft observations to validate models in the Southern Hemisphere, the overestimation of CH2Br2 in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and the underestimation of CH3I in the same region. Despite the difficulties involved in the global modelling of the most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2), modelled results are in good agreement with published observations in the MBL. Finally, sensitivity simulations show that knowledge of the diurnal emission cycle for these species, in particular for CH2I2, is key to assess their global source strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ordóñez, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Sousa Santos, G.; Brasseur, G.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CHBr3 (bromoform) is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (?) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, ?(?,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being more pronounced as wavelength increases and temperature decreases. The source of this discrepancy is further discussed. A parameterization of the CHBr3 UV spectrum for use in atmospheric models is developed and illustrative photolysis rate calculations are presented to highlight the impact of the revised ?(?,T) values on its calculated local lifetimes. For instance, CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate in the tropical region obtained with the present spectral data was found to be 10-15% lower (longer lifetime) than that obtained using the currently recommended values. Moreover, seasonally dependent ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) for CHBr3 emitted in the Indian sub-continent were calculated using the semi-empirical relationship of Brioude et al. (Brioude et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19804, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044856, 2010) to evaluate the impact of the present results on stratospheric ozone. In conclusion, the present study reports improved UV absorption cross section data for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3, which are a result of high quality measurements and a thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error. The CHBr3 UV cross section data, from this study, combined with OH kinetic data enables more accurate model predictions of stratospheric bromine loading and its impact on stratospheric ozone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"> <span id="translatedtitle">IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to alpha recoil, decay of {sup 226}Ra from the adsorbed phases also contributes a significant source of {sup 222}Rn to groundwater. It appears that the information obtained from this study provides useful testing and validation for the Yucca Mountain total system performance assessment model (TSPA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling lifespan in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri - a new vertebrate model for age research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri emerged as a new model for age research over recent years. Nothobranchius furzeri show an exceptionally <span class="hlt">short</span> lifespan, age-dependent cognitive/behavioral decline, expression of age-related biomarkers, and susceptibility to lifespan manipulation. In addition, laboratory strains differ largely in lifespan. Here, we set out to study the genetics of lifespan determination. We crossed a <span class="hlt">short</span>- to a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> strain, recorded lifespan, and established polymorphic markers. On the basis of genotypes of 411 marker loci in 404 F2 progeny, we built a genetic map comprising 355 markers at an average spacing of 5.5 cM, 22 linkage groups (LGs) and 1965 cM. By combining marker data with lifespan values, we identified one genome-wide highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on LG 9 (P < 0.01), which explained 11.3% of the F2 lifespan variance, and three suggestive QTLs on LG 11, 14, and 17. We characterized the highly significant QTL by synteny analysis, because a genome sequence of N. furzeri was not available. We located the syntenic region on medaka chromosome 5, identified candidate genes, and performed fine mapping, resulting in a c. 40% reduction of the initial 95% confidence interval. We show both that lifespan determination in N. furzeri is polygenic, and that candidate gene detection is easily feasible by cross-species analysis. Our work provides first results on the way to identify loci controlling lifespan in N. furzeri and illustrates the potential of this vertebrate species as a genetic model for age research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirschner, Jeanette; Weber, David; Neuschl, Christina; Franke, Andre; Bottger, Marco; Zielke, Lea; Powalsky, Eileen; Groth, Marco; Shagin, Dmitry; Petzold, Andreas; Hartmann, Nils; Englert, Christoph; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro; Reichwald, Kathrin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.1423O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oceanic sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20° N-20° S). Constant oceanic fluxes with 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratios are separately imposed on four different latitudinal bands in the extratropics (20°-50° and above 50° in both hemispheres). Top-down emission estimates of bromocarbons have been derived using available measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, while iodocarbons have been constrained with observations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Emissions of CH3I are based on a previous inventory and the longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> CH3Br is set to a surface mixing ratio boundary condition. The global oceanic emissions estimated for the most abundant VSL bromocarbons - 533 Gg yr-1 for CHBr3 and 67.3 Gg yr-1 for CH2Br2 - are within the range of previous estimates. Overall the latitudinal and vertical distributions of modelled bromocarbons are in good agreement with observations. Nevertheless, we identify some issues such as the reduced number of aircraft observations to validate models in the Southern Hemisphere, the overestimation of CH2Br2 in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and the underestimation of CH3I in the same region. Despite the difficulties involved in the global modelling of the shortest <span class="hlt">lived</span> iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2), modelled results are in good agreement with published observations in the MBL. Finally, sensitivity simulations show that knowledge of the diurnal emission cycle for these species, in particular for CH2I2, is key to assess their global source strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ordóñez, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Sousa Santos, G.; Brasseur, G.; Saiz-Lopez, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26682820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of routine estimation of Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for studying the Pb origin in hair of children <span class="hlt">living</span> in polluted areas. A pilot study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analysis of 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios for environmental Pb markers (leaded gasoline, air-borne particulate matter, house window dust) and hair of children was undertaken by the routine quadrupole inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). Hair samples collected from 10-year-old children <span class="hlt">living</span> in Krakow in 1995 and 35 randomly selected children, aged 11, both sexes were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Barton; Z. Zachwieja; S. D'Ilio; S. Caroli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..763T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of feeding and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term temperature stress on the content and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. ?13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27?5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28?5,22 and C28?5). The enrichment in the ?13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their <span class="hlt">isotope</span> carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214727P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> signature of <span class="hlt">short</span> term climate oscillations in the sediments of the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic Sea, Poland)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gulf of Gda?sk is a part of the southern Baltic Sea - an intra-continental, shallow arm of the Atlantic Ocean entirely located on continental crust. The gulf occupies the area of ca. 5000 km2. Its northern border is a conventional line between the Cape Rozewie (Poland) and the Cape Taran (Russia). The Gulf of Gda?sk is under impact of inflowing salty waters from the North Sea but also there is a great effect of the Vistula River marked. The river is one of two the most important sources of material in the gulf. Cliffs erosion is the second one. The interplay of marine and land waters is multiplied by impact of two different climates - continental and maritime. The subject of intended research is a core of muddy sediments collected within the framework of project carried by the Branch of Marine Geology of the Polish Geological Institute in Gda?sk. The core was 300 cm long and was taken using Kullenberg core sampler in 2006 from the depth of 32 m. Since 2009 the research has been led in cooperation with the Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology. In our study we use ?18O and ?13C measured in organic mater of sediments with mass spectrometer. Radiocarbon concentration was measured using gas proportional counters using organic mater . 14C dates were corrected according to <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractioning with measured ?13C. We found systematic inversions of dates that were probably caused by changing of ?R (regional difference from the modeled global surface ocean reservoir age) during Baltic evolution. The attention was also paid on recognition of sedimentation process that is a very good indicator of dynamics in sedimentary environment. The grain size analysis was carried out for 300 samples using method of laser diffraction. Results showed great variability in bulk sediment composition that indicates susceptibility to changes in climatic and hydrodynamic conditions of studied area. Excluding the top ca. 30 cm of the core two clear cycles in sedimentation process may be distinguished. They are characterized by the greater contribution of thicker sediment fractions. Additionally shorter variations are also observed in both main cycles. All the results are bounded with 14C age-depth model that represents last 7500 cal BP. It covers two stages of the Baltic Sea development. According to 14C depth model two main cycles in granulation correspond to 1500 yr each. Shorter variations correspond to 550 yr each. We also noticed rapid shift in sedimentation rate that we correlate with sudden change in granulation composition occurring on ca. 30 cm of the core.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paczek, Urszula; Tudyka, Konrad; Ba?dys, Piotr; Pazdur, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...708.1268B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. I. Varied Shock Speeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at ~10 K, but not when compressional heating to ~1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s-1 shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M sun core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H2O, CO, and H2 is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s-1 to 100 km s-1. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s-1 to 70 km s-1 are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M sun cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42..704Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins in eclogite from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane: Imprint of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature metamorphic stage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eclogite-hosted garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins and lenses (10-20 cm in width) are described for the first time in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane. Some of the lenses were aligned parallel to the foliation of the host eclogite, suggesting that they were the product of ductile deformation of one titanohematite layer. A vein composed of titanohematite + ilmenite + hematite + spinel + garnet + corundum + quartz + K-feldspar + albite was studied in detail. Ti-Fe oxides account for up to >80% and Al-rich phases for ˜15% of the total volume of this vein. Electron microprobe analyses show that the titanohematite solid solution was made up of 0.75 hematite + 0.25 ilmenite. The unusual mineral assemblage of garnet + spinel + corundum + quartz implies that this vein could have experienced high temperatures (>900 °C). Although the garnets showed well-defined Mg and Mn diffusion zoning in the rim as a result of the high temperature event, slight Mg and Mn growth zoning was preserved in the core. Thus, we suggest that the Sulu UHP terrane could have experienced a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature (>900 °C) stage during exhumation. Garnets in the titanohematite vein were characterized by extremely low trace-element contents. Petrological and geochemical features of the veins suggest that they could be metamorphic products of igneous cumulates composed of magnetite + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zong, Keqing; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Changgui; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196944"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term changes in carbon-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> discrimination identify transitions between C3 and C 4 carboxylation during Crassulacean acid metabolism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term measurements of instantaneous carbon-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> discrimination have been determined from mass-spectrometric analyses of CO2 collected online during gas exchange for the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia utriculata L. Using this technique, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of CO2 exchange for each phase of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has been characterised. During night-time fixation of CO2 (Phase I), discrimination (?) ranged from 4.4 to 6.6‰, equivalent to an effective carbon-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio (?(13)C) of -12.3 to -14.5‰ versus Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB). These values reflected the gross photosynthetic balance between net CO2 uptake and refixation of respiratory CO2, characteristic of CAM in the Bromeliaceae. When ? for the relative proportion of external (p a ) and internal (p i) CO2 is taken into account, calculated p i/p a decreased during the later part of the dark period from 0.68 to 0.48. Measurements of ? during Phase II, early in the light period, showed the transition between C4 and C3 pathways, with carboxylation being increasingly dominated by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) as ? increased from 10.5 to 21.2‰ During decarboxylation in the light period (Phase III), CO2 leaked out of the leaf and the inherent discrimination of Rubisco was expressed. The value of ? calculated from on-line measurements (64.4‰) showed that the CO2 lost was considerably enriched in (13)C, and this was confirmed by direct analysis of the CO2 diffusing out into a CO2-free atmosphere (? (13)C = + 51.6‰ versus PDB). Instantaneous discrimination was characteristic of the C3 pathway during Phase IV (late in the light period), but a reduction in ? showed an increasing contribution from phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The results from this non-invasive technique confirm the observations that "double carboxylation" involving both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and Rubisco occurs during the transient phases of CAM (II and IV) in the light period. PMID:24196944</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffiths, H; Broadmeadow, M S; Borland, A M; Hetherington, C S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85750646"> <span id="translatedtitle">X Alpha Method as a Tool for Structure Elucidation of <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Transients Generated by Pulse Radiolysis or Flash Photolysis. 1. The PtCl sub 63- , PtCl sub 52- , and PtCl sub 4- Cases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relativistic MS-X alpha calculations have been performed on Ptsup(III)Cl sub 63- , PtCl sub 52- and PtCl sub 4- complexes which have been proposed as models for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transients generated by pulse radiolysis or flash photolysis. Ptsup(III)Cl sub 63-...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Goursot H. Chermette E. Penigault M. Chanon W. L. Waltz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54719123"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in saline seepages, south-western Yilgarn, Western Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water samples from saline seepages in the south-western Yilgarn Block of Western Australia contain high activities of the four naturally-occurring radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Activities of up to 310 pCi \\/ l for 226 Ra and 1720 pCi \\/ l for 228 Ra were measured and the 228 Ra \\/ 226 Ra ratio averaged 6.1. Activities of the two <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. L. Dickson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53749795"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate impacts on <span class="hlt">short</span> and long timescales on water <span class="hlt">isotope</span> distribution, precipitation source, and water vapor source in a coupled general circulation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> records collectively provide some of the most extensive proxy evidence for past climate. Required for the interpretation of these records is a known or assumed relationship between water <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and climate. Climate variability on various timescales (orbital, decadal, inter-annual (ENSO), annual, etc.) impacts the hydrologic cycle and influences water <span class="hlt">isotope</span> distribution, with varying impacts on individual climate variables</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. N. Legrande; S. C. Bretherton; M. C. Kelley; G. A. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6138983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resonant coherent excitation of Mg sup 11+ : Electronic collisions of state specified <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited states in a crystal channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogenic ions passing through axial and planar channels can be excited from n = 1 to n = 2 when the frequency of perturbation by the atoms in the crystal spaced a distance d apart comes into resonance with the spacing between eigenstates i and j {Delta}E{sub ij} = hK(v{sub i}/d) where K is a harmonic 1,2,3{hor ellipsis} of the (v{sub i}/d) frequency. The degeneracy in the n = 2 levels is removed; first by the assymetry in the crystal field and second by Stark mixing of 2s with 2p{sub x} which is caused by the wake field. Thus, the resonant frequency, and hence velocity, for excitation to 2p{sub x,y} is different than that for 2p{sub x} and they can be excited selectively. In the present work we used Mg{sup 11+}, where the n = 2 ionization cross section is small enough to permit escape of some of the excited ions from the crystal without being ionized by subsequent collisions and with the subsequent emission of radiation. Since we can excite different orientations of the ion selectively by varying the velocity we can measure the separate ionization cross sections for these states by determining the yields of totally stripped ions compared to those which emit a Ly {alpha} x-ray. A comparison of the two channels shows that the probability of escape from the crystal without ionizations is greater for ions in the 2p{sub x} state than those in the 2p{sub x,y} state. These RCE data and are presented as proof of principal for experiments which measure electron bombardment ionization cross sections for <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> excited states with specific polarization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Krause, H.F.; Rosseel, T.M.; Vane, C.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Iwata, I.; Komaki, I.; Kimura, M.; Yamazaki, Y. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Fujimoto, F.; Honda, F. (Osaka Univ. (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: siipatov@hotmail.co, E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed, E-mail: HarriVanhala@ncesse.or [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24150242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia-induced and A2A adenosine receptor-independent T-cell suppression is <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> and easily reversible.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissue hypoxia plays a key role in establishing an immunosuppressive environment in vivo by, among other effects, increasing the level of extracellular adenosine, which then signals through A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) to elicit its immunosuppressive effect. Although the important role of the adenosine--A2AR interaction in limiting inflammation has been established, the current study revisited this issue by asking whether hypoxia can also exert its T-cell inhibitory effects even without A2AR. A similar degree of hypoxia-triggered inhibition was observed in wild-type and A2AR-deficient T cells both in vitro and, after exposure of mice to a hypoxic atmosphere, in vivo. This A2AR-independent hypoxic T-cell suppression was qualitatively and mechanistically different from immunosuppression by A2AR stimulation. The A2AR-independent hypoxic immunosuppression strongly reduced T-cell proliferation, while IFN-?-producing activity was more susceptible to the A2AR-dependent inhibition. In contrast to the sustained functional impairment after A2AR-mediated T-cell inhibition, the A2AR-independent inhibition under hypoxia was <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>, as evidenced by the quick recovery of IFN-?-producing activity upon re-stimulation. These data support the view that T-cell inhibition by hypoxia can be mediated by multiple mechanisms and that both A2AR and key molecules in the A2AR-independent T-cell inhibition should be targeted to overcome the hypoxia-related immunosuppression in infected tissues and tumors. PMID:24150242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohta, Akio; Madasu, Manasa; Subramanian, Meenakshi; Kini, Radhika; Jones, Graham; Choukèr, Alexander; Ohta, Akiko; Sitkovsky, Michail</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210556M"> <span id="translatedtitle">More evidence for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogen chloride (HCl) has been measured in situ for the first time in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the stratosphere (Teresina, 5.1°S-42.9°W), with the SPIRALE balloon-borne instrument, an infrared tunable diode laser spectrometer. Two series of vertical profiles obtained at three year interval (June 2005 and June 2008) are presented, from 15 to 31 km height, with very high vertical resolution (5 m). These measurements allow us to study the HCl content of the TTL and the tropical middle stratosphere as well as to estimate the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) to total stratospheric chlorine. Upper limits of HCl vmr as low as 20 pptv in June 2008 and 30 pptv in June 2005 are inferred in the upper part of the TTL, neither influenced by tropospheric nor stratospheric air according to backward trajectory calculations. Taking into account the recently reported VSL source gas measurements obtained in similar conditions (Laube et al., Atmos. Phys. Chem., 2008) and the main intermediate degradation product gas COCl2 (Fu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007), a total VSLS contribution of 85±40 pptv to stratospheric chlorine is inferred. This refines the WMO (2007) estimation of 50 to 100 pptv, which was not taking into account any HCl contribution. In addition, comparisons of HCl measurements between SPIRALE and the Aura-MLS satellite instrument in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere lead to a very good agreement. The previous agreement between MLS-deduced upper stratospheric total chlorine content and modelled values including 100 pptv of VSLS (Froidevaux et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006) is thus supported by our present result about the VSLS contribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mébarki, Yassine; Catoire, Valéry; Huret, Nathalie; Berthet, Gwenaël.; Robert, Claude; Poulet, Gilles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10..397M"> <span id="translatedtitle">More evidence for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volume mixing ratio (vmr) vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) are retrieved from in situ measurements performed by a balloon-borne infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (SPIRALE) during two balloon flights in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5.1° S-42.9° W) in June 2005 and June 2008. HCl vertical profiles obtained from 15 to 31 km are presented and analysed to estimate the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) to total stratospheric chlorine. Both retrieved vertical profiles of HCl from these flights agree very well with each other, with estimated overall uncertainties of 6% on vmr between 23 and 31 km. Upper limits of HCl vmr as low as 20 pptv in June 2008 and 30 pptv in June 2005 are inferred in the upper part of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Backward trajectory calculations and such low amounts suggest that the air masses sampled correspond to typical background conditions, i.e. neither influenced by recent tropospheric nor stratospheric air. Taking into account the recently reported VSL source gas measurements obtained in similar conditions (Laube et al., 2008) and the main intermediate degradation product gas COCl2 (Fu et al., 2007), a total VSLS contribution of 85±40 pptv to stratospheric chlorine is inferred. This refines the WMO (2007) estimation of 50 to 100 pptv, which was not taking into account any HCl contribution. In addition, comparisons of HCl measurements between SPIRALE and the Aura MLS satellite instrument in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere lead to a very good agreement. The previous agreement between MLS-deduced upper stratospheric total chlorine content and modelled values including 100 pptv of VSLS (Froidevaux et al., 2006) is thus supported by our present result about the VSLS contribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mébarki, Y.; Catoire, V.; Huret, N.; Berthet, G.; Robert, C.; Poulet, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3970264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrated fish oil (Lovaza®) extends lifespan and attenuates kidney disease in lupus-prone <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (NZBxNZW)F1 mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing number of reports indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil (FO) are beneficial against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the majority of pre-clinical studies were performed using 5–20% FO, which is higher than the clinically relevant dose for lupus patients. The present study was performed in order to determine the effective low dose of FDA-approved concentrated FO (Lovaza®) compared to the commonly used FO-18/12 (18-Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]/12-Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). We examined the dose-dependent response of Lovaza® (1% and 4%) on an SLE mouse strain (NZB×NZW)F1 and compared the same with 1% and 4% placebo, as well as 4% FO-18/12, maintaining standard chow as the control. Results show for the first time that 1% Lovaza® extends maximal lifespan (517 d) and 4% Lovaza® significantly extends both the median (502 d) and maximal (600 d) life span of (NZB×NZW)F1 mice. In contrast, FO-18/12 extends only median lifespan (410 d) compared to standard chow diet (301 d). Additionally, 4% Lovaza® significantly decreased anti-dsDNA antibodies, reduced glomerulonephritis and attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?) in splenocytes compared to placebo. 4% Lovaza® was also shown to reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, while increasing renal anti-oxidant enzymes in comparison to placebo. Notably, NF?B activation and p65 nuclear translocation were lowered by 4% Lovaza® compared to placebo. These data indicate that 1% Lovaza® is beneficial, but 4% Lovaza® is more effective in suppressing glomerulonephritis and extending life span of SLE-prone <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice, possibly via reducing inflammation signaling and modulating oxidative stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Veigas, Jyothi M; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Fernandes, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.361..258R"> <span id="translatedtitle">What does the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of rodent teeth record?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of tooth phosphate (?18Op) were measured in 107 samples defined on the basis of teeth obtained from 375 specimens of extant rodents. These rodents were sampled from pellets collected in Europe from 38°N (Portugal) to 65°N (Finland) with most samples coming from sites located in France and Spain. Large oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variability in ?18Op is observed both at the intra- and inter-species scale within pellets from a given location. This <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variability is partly explained by heterochrony in tooth formation related to the <span class="hlt">short</span> time of mineralization for all rodent species as well as the duration of mineralization that is species-dependent. Consequently, tooth phosphate of rodents records a <span class="hlt">short</span> seasonal interval in the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of meteoric waters (?18Omw). In addition, inter-species <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variability observed in the same pellets suggests behavioural differences implying distinct <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions for species <span class="hlt">living</span> in the same location. At the scale of Europe, a robust linear oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation equation was determined for Muroidea between the midrange ?18Op values and ?18Omw values: ?18Op=1.21(±0.20)?18Omw+24.76(±2.70) with R2=0.79 (n=9; p<0.0001).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Royer, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Amiot, Romain; Legendre, Serge; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Jeannet, Marcel; Martineau, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soluble maize fibre affects <span class="hlt">short</span>-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> tracers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases <span class="hlt">short</span>-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca. PMID:24848974</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24416409"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prolyl isomerase pin1 regulates mRNA levels of genes with <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> by targeting specific RNA binding proteins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is over-expressed in several cancer tissues is a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer, and Pin1 ablation can suppress tumorigenesis in breast and prostate cancers. Pin1 can co-operate with activated ErbB2 or Ras to enhance tumorigenesis. It does so by regulating the activity of proteins that are essential for gene expression and cell proliferation. Several targets of Pin1 such as c-Myc, the Androgen Receptor, Estrogen Receptor-alpha, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, p53, RAF kinase and NCOA3 are deregulated in cancer. At the posttranscriptional level, emerging evidence indicates that Pin1 also regulates mRNA decay of histone mRNAs, GM-CSF, Pth, and TGF? mRNAs by interacting with the histone mRNA specific protein SLBP, and the ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and KSRP, respectively. To understand how Pin1 may affect mRNA abundance on a genome-wide scale in mammalian cells, we used RNAi along with DNA microarrays to identify genes whose abundance is significantly altered in response to a Pin1 knockdown. Functional scoring of differentially expressed genes showed that Pin1 gene targets control cell adhesion, leukocyte migration, the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and DNA replication. Several mRNAs whose abundance was significantly altered by Pin1 knockdown contained AU-rich element (ARE) sequences in their 3' untranslated regions. We identified HuR and AUF1 as Pin1 interacting ARE-binding proteins in vivo. Pin1 was also found to stabilize all core histone mRNAs in this study, thereby validating our results from a previously published study. Statistical analysis suggests that Pin1 may target the decay of essential mRNAs that are inherently unstable and have <span class="hlt">short</span> to medium half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>. Thus, this study shows that an important biological role of Pin1 is to regulate mRNA abundance and stability by interacting with specific RNA-binding proteins that may play a role in cancer progression. PMID:24416409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnan, Nithya; Titus, Mark A; Thapar, Roopa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615141M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracing historical tropical cyclones and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> geological archives of the Ashburton Delta (NW Australia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Records of coastal geological archives are discontinuous. They store traces of both episodic and long-term processes as particular depositional landforms, deposits or erosional features. In particular the identification and interpretation of episodic high-energy coastal flooding due to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis is associated with a number of difficulties, including the spatial and temporal variability of geological records as well as the application of different dating techniques. In addition, the differentiation between tsunami and storm deposits remains challenging, notably where modern deposits and/or historical reports on the event are absent. Analysing modern (or historic) analogues for which documentation of process-specific parameters and/or geomorphic and sedimentary effects are available contributes to a better understanding of their sedimentary signatures and related depositional processes. These studies are key components to unravel the fossil record and the history of past events. The NW coast of Western Australia (WA) is highly vulnerable to extreme wave events. On average 1-2 TCs impact the W Australian coast per year, and ten historically documented tsunami events are recorded since 1858, including the tsunami following the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. However, no sedimentary evidence on this particular event has been presented yet, and little is known about the geological imprint of both (pre)historic TCs and tsunamis in NW Australia in general. Here we present new data on the sedimentology and chronostratigraphy of historical washover events found in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> geological archives of the Ashburton River delta (NW part of Western Australia), where clearly distinguishable traces of both TCs and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami are recorded. We aim at (i) establishing (at least locally valid) sedimentary criteria differentiating between TCs and tsunami deposits; (ii) presenting an OSL-based local chronostratigraphy with direct relation to historical events; and (iii) discussing the archive's overall significance for palaeoevent research. Our results show that the presented archive is discontinuous on different spatial and temporal levels, related to the episodic nature of extreme wave events and the general variability of geological archives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">May, Simon Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Pint, Anna; Wennrich, Volker; Squire, Peter; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP23A1027P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence For Three, <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span>, Geomagnetic Field Excursions Recorded In Postglacial (9-15,000 YBP) Carbonates Of The Tahitian Coral Reef</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A detailed composite record of inclinations and relative paleointensity for Late Quaternary (8-16,000 YBP) coral-reef framework rocks recovered from the island of Tahiti during IODP Expedition 310 yielded reproducible evidence for three, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> magnetic field excursions at 10,700±200 YBP, 12,900±200 YBP, and 14,200±200 YBP. Age estimates for these excursions, which are constrained by more than 250 radiocarbon dates from the same cores, make them younger than any other published well-documented and dated excursion from the continents or the continental margins. Samples for paleomagnetic analysis were recovered mainly from the abundant microbialites deposited in the interstices of the macro-coral framework. These carbonate rocks make up more than 60% of the Tahiti Coral Reef and 95% of all magnetic samples. Initial paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies showed that the microbialites carry a strong and stable natural magnetic remanence with an average value of -30.6° (?95=2.9°) that is not significantly different from Tahiti's expected axial-dipole inclination. Rock magnetic studies indicate that the NRM is carried almost entirely by detrital titanomagnetite grains (<1 ?m to ~20 ?m in grain size) that were derived from the Tahiti volcanic edifice, but the grains were locked-in by biological mediation during biogenic carbonate precipitation. To assess the spatial coherence of the paleomagnetic directions, paleointensities, and the rock magnetic variability of these young excursions, detailed re-sampling of all available material with a clear up-down direction, extending from one normal polarity interval through the recorded excursion to the following normal interval (±1m), was undertaken. In total we obtained inclination and relative paleointensity estimates (based on CHI, ARM, and SIRM) from more then 750 samples. General results of this analysis show that these young magnetic excursions are real and reproducible and often associated with paleointensity lows. NRM demagnetization reveals consistent changes in both inclination and occasionally, where we have intervals with sequential samples from unbroken core segments, declination. The duration of these young excursional events is constrained by the bulk framework rock accumulation rate (5-10 m/ky; 100-200 yrs/m) to timescales of 100's of years. These intriguing new observations have profound implications and may change our ideas about the number and frequency of magnetic excursions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Platzman, E. S.; Lund, S.; Camoin, G.; Thouveny, N.; Scientific Team IODP Expedition 310</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3887067"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Regulates mRNA Levels of Genes with <span class="hlt">Short</span> Half-<span class="hlt">Lives</span> by Targeting Specific RNA Binding Proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is over-expressed in several cancer tissues is a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer, and Pin1 ablation can suppress tumorigenesis in breast and prostate cancers. Pin1 can co-operate with activated ErbB2 or Ras to enhance tumorigenesis. It does so by regulating the activity of proteins that are essential for gene expression and cell proliferation. Several targets of Pin1 such as c-Myc, the Androgen Receptor, Estrogen Receptor-alpha, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, p53, RAF kinase and NCOA3 are deregulated in cancer. At the posttranscriptional level, emerging evidence indicates that Pin1 also regulates mRNA decay of histone mRNAs, GM-CSF, Pth, and TGF? mRNAs by interacting with the histone mRNA specific protein SLBP, and the ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and KSRP, respectively. To understand how Pin1 may affect mRNA abundance on a genome-wide scale in mammalian cells, we used RNAi along with DNA microarrays to identify genes whose abundance is significantly altered in response to a Pin1 knockdown. Functional scoring of differentially expressed genes showed that Pin1 gene targets control cell adhesion, leukocyte migration, the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and DNA replication. Several mRNAs whose abundance was significantly altered by Pin1 knockdown contained AU-rich element (ARE) sequences in their 3? untranslated regions. We identified HuR and AUF1 as Pin1 interacting ARE-binding proteins in vivo. Pin1 was also found to stabilize all core histone mRNAs in this study, thereby validating our results from a previously published study. Statistical analysis suggests that Pin1 may target the decay of essential mRNAs that are inherently unstable and have <span class="hlt">short</span> to medium half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>. Thus, this study shows that an important biological role of Pin1 is to regulate mRNA abundance and stability by interacting with specific RNA-binding proteins that may play a role in cancer progression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titus, Mark A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5299092"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of a wide-ranging <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lugmair, G.W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); Galer, S.J.G. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management. PMID:24703767</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24332411"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief background on the history and motivation of laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation is presented. Methods of molecular laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation are reviewed, and the Los Alamos process for separation of uranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as well as the general problems with this approach are covered. A <span class="hlt">short</span> summary on critical uv cross-section-enhancement results is given and the implications of infrared cross-section dependence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reed J. Jensen; J. Al Sullivan; Frank T. Finch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52945814"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monte Carlo simulation and experimental studies of the production of neutron-rich medical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> using a particle accelerator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The developments of nuclear medicine lead to an increasing demand for the production of radioisotopes with suitable nuclear and chemical properties. Furthermore, from the literature it is evident that the production of radioisotopes using charged-particle accelerators instead of nuclear reactors is gaining increasing popularity. The main advantages of producing medical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with accelerators are carrier free radionuclides of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniela Necsoiu Rosencranz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mw4552687628um1n.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current Trends and <span class="hlt">Short</span>-term Outcomes of <span class="hlt">Live</span> Donor Nephrectomy: A Population-based Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Recent United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data suggest that <span class="hlt">live</span> kidney donation is stagnant. Current practices and trends\\u000a in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) among the transplant community remain largely unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1998 to 2006, patients undergoing LDN (n = 9,437) were identified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  <span class="hlt">Live</span> kidney donation in the United States did not show an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beth Colombo; Anand Singla; YouFu Li; Jennifer F. Tseng; Reza F. Saidi; Adel Bozorgzadeh; Shimul A. Shah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/82/7/3725.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Infected Cells Support Virus Replication in Sooty Mangabeys Naturally Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sooty mangabeys (SMs) naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication. At present, the mechanisms underlying this disease resistance are poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIV-infected SMs avoid immunodeficiency as a result of virus replication occurring in infected cells that <span class="hlt">live</span> significantly longer than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shari N. Gordon; Richard M. Dunham; Jessica C. Engram; Jacob Estes; Zichun Wang; Nichole R. Klatt; Mirko Paiardini; Ivona V. Pandrea; Cristian Apetrei; Donald L. Sodora; Ha Youn Lee; Ashley T. Haase; Michael D. Miller; Amitinder Kaur; Silvija I. Staprans; Alan S. Perelson; Mark B. Feinberg; Guido Silvestri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GeCoA..56.1673L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra DOS Reis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents results of a wide-ranging <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920051231&hterms=Reis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Reis%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents results of a wide-ranging <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23H0493P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of complex carbon addition to soil CO2 efflux and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition to soils near dead and <span class="hlt">live</span> piñon pine trees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We test the hypothesis that soils collected near dead and <span class="hlt">living</span> pinus edulous (piñon pine) trees should show a difference in their capacities to decompose complex carbon compounds. Since soils near dead trees have a large amount of cellulose and other complex carbon, the soil microbial community should be selected to metabolize cellulose. We collected soils from both <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead piñon trees, added cellulose to half of the replicates, and placed them in microcosms for incubation. The microcosms were periodically sampled by a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) for CO2 concentration and ?13C and ?18O analysis. We found that CO2 evolution rates from <span class="hlt">live</span> soils were significantly higher than rates from dead soils (1.1 and 0.6 ug CO2 g-1 soil s-1 respectively); soils with added cellulose displayed higher rates (1.1 and 0.8 and ug CO2 g-1 soil s-1). We did not see any significant differences in ?13C values between treatments, but there was a difference in ?18O between soils treated with cellulose and soils with no cellulose. Soils from both dead and <span class="hlt">live</span> trees showed an increase in CO2 efflux when cellulose was added; however there was no distinguishable difference in efflux rate between <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead soils in the cellulose added treatments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Powers, H.; McDowell, N.; Breecker, D. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7055531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief background on the history and motivation of laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation is presented. Methods of molecular laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation are reviewed, and the Los Alamos process for separation of uranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as well as the general problems with this approach are covered. A <span class="hlt">short</span> summary on critical uv cross-section-enhancement results is given and the implications of infrared cross-section dependence on laser fluence is discussed. The laser requirements for the LASL process and the projected economics for this process are presented. The future prospects for molecular laser <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation as well as some speculation on general advances in photochemistry are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jensen, R.J.; Sullivan, J.A.; Finch, F.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvL.106k2501T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> A=2Z-1 Nuclides Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 and Their Impact on Nucleosynthesis in the rp Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei Ge63, As65, Se67, and Kr71 have been directly measured to be -46921(37), -46937(85), -46580(67), and -46320(141)keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)keV for As65 shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of As65 suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through Ge64 via proton capture, indicating that Ge64 is not a significant rp-process waiting point.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tu, X. L.; Xu, H. S.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sun, Y.; Schatz, H.; Zhou, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Du, C. M.; Geng, P.; Hu, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Jin, S. L.; Liu, L. X.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.; Mao, R. S.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Sun, Z. Y.; Suzuki, H.; Tang, S. W.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, S. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, X.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Ye, R. P.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhan, W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://iai.asm.org/cgi/reprint/68/3/1498.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Listeria monocytogenes as a <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Delivery System for the Induction of Type 1 Cell-Mediated Immunity against the p36\\/LACK Antigen of Leishmania major</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Listeria monocytogenes has been used as an experimental <span class="hlt">live</span> vector for the induction of CD8-mediated immune responses in various viral and tumoral experimental models. Susceptibility of BALB\\/c mice to Leishmania major infection has been correlated to the preferential development of Th2 CD4 T cells through an early production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) by a restricted population of CD4 T cells</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NEIROUZ SOUSSI; GENEVIEVE MILON; J.-H. Colle; E. Mougneau; N. Glaichenhaus; P. L. Goossens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49440087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and realization of a microfluidic device devoted to the application of ultra-<span class="hlt">short</span> pulses of electrical field to <span class="hlt">living</span> cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic system dedicated to the application of ultra <span class="hlt">short</span> pulses (i.e. nanopulses) on cells and the visualization of their effects. Cell plasma membranes can be rendered permeable by the use of nanosecond pulsed electric field. In conventional macroscopic electroporation chambers, the typical pulse duration is on the order of several hundred microseconds (micropulses),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire Dalmay; Julien Villemejane; Vanessa Joubert; Olivier Français; Lluis M. Mir; Bruno Le Pioufle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21559250"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-time intermittent preexposure of <span class="hlt">living</span> human donors to hyperoxia improves renal function in early posttransplant period: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this human study was to investigate the effect of oxygen pretreatment in <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donors on early renal function of transplanted kidney. Sixty <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donor individuals were assigned to receive either 8-10?L/min oxygen (Group I) by a non-rebreather mask with reservoir bag intermittently for one hour at four times (20, 16, 12, and 1 hours before transplantation) or air (Group II). After kidney transplantation, urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, need to additional diuretics (NTADs) in the first 24?hours after transplantation, delayed graft function (DGF), the creatinine clearance (CrCL) on 10th day, and duration of hospital stay from the first posttransplant day till normalization of renal function was recorded and compared in two groups. Mean CrCL in posttransplant day 10, NTAD after 24 hours of transplantation, and urine output during 6 hours after operation were significantly better in Group I compared with Group II (P < .05). Also, DGF during the first week after operation and duration of hospital stay was less in Group I compared with Group II. Intermittent exposure of human <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donor to hyperoxic environment may improve renal function following kidney transplantation. PMID:21559250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montazeri, Kamran; Vakily, Mohammadali; Honarmand, Azim; Kashefi, Parviz; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Taheri, Shahram; Rasoulian, Bahram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3087885"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-Time Intermittent Preexposure of <span class="hlt">Living</span> Human Donors to Hyperoxia Improves Renal Function in Early Posttransplant Period: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this human study was to investigate the effect of oxygen pretreatment in <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donors on early renal function of transplanted kidney. Sixty <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donor individuals were assigned to receive either 8–10?L/min oxygen (Group I) by a non-rebreather mask with reservoir bag intermittently for one hour at four times (20, 16, 12, and 1 hours before transplantation) or air (Group II). After kidney transplantation, urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, need to additional diuretics (NTADs) in the first 24?hours after transplantation, delayed graft function (DGF), the creatinine clearance (CrCL) on 10th day, and duration of hospital stay from the first posttransplant day till normalization of renal function was recorded and compared in two groups. Mean CrCL in posttransplant day 10, NTAD after 24 hours of transplantation, and urine output during 6 hours after operation were significantly better in Group I compared with Group II (P < .05). Also, DGF during the first week after operation and duration of hospital stay was less in Group I compared with Group II. Intermittent exposure of human <span class="hlt">living</span> kidney donor to hyperoxic environment may improve renal function following kidney transplantation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montazeri, Kamran; Vakily, Mohammadali; Honarmand, Azim; Kashefi, Parviz; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Taheri, Shahram; Rasoulian, Bahram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas. PMID:23332845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSAES..50...75C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geochronology and geochemistry of the Parashi granitoid, NE Colombia: Tectonic implication of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Early Eocene plutonism along the SE Caribbean margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Parashi granitoid of northeasternmost Colombia intrudes the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene accretionary complex formed by the collision of the Caribbean arc and the continental margin of South America. This granitoid presently separated of the continental margin includes a major quartzdiorite body with andesite to dacite dikes and mafic enclaves. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS and K-Ar geochronology on the quartzdiorite and the dikes suggest that crystallization extended from ca. 47 to 51 Ma. Major and trace elements are characterized by a medium-K, immature continental arc signature and high Al2O3, Na2O and Ba-Sr contents. Initial 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values range between 0.7050 and 0.7054, with 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51235-0.51253, ?Nd and ?Hf values from -0.81 to -4.40 and -4.4 and -5.2. Major and trace element ratios and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> modeling suggest that sedimentary and/or quartzofeldspathic crustal sources were mixed with a mafic melt input. The petrotectonic and geological constraints derived from this granitoid suggest that Parashi plutonism records an immature, oblique subduction-zone setting in which the presence of a high-temperature mantle realm and strong plate coupling associated to upper crust subduction caused the partial fusion of a previously tectonically underplated mafic crust and associated metasediments exposed in the continental margin. The limited temporal expression of this magmatism and the transition to a regional magmatic hiatus are related to a subsequent change to strongly and slow oblique tectonics in the Caribbean-South America plate interactions and the underflow of a relatively thick slab of Caribbean oceanic crust.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardona, A.; Weber, M.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; Montes, C.; Cordani, U.; Muñoz, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.133..479A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Presolar graphite from the Murchison meteorite: An <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied presolar graphite grains from four density fractions, KE3 (1.65-1.72 g/cm3), KFA1 (2.05-2.10 g/cm3), KFB1 (2.10-2.15 g/cm3), and KFC1 (2.15-2.20 g/cm3), extracted from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite, with the ion microprobe. One of the most interesting features of presolar graphite is that <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> features depend on density. There are grains with 15N and 18O excesses, Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies, high 26Al/27Al ratios (˜0.1), and Ca and Ti <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies, including the initial presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 41Ca and 44Ti. These <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> features are qualitatively explained by nucleosynthesis in core collapse supernovae. We estimate that 76%, 50%, 7% and 1% of the KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 grains, respectively, are supernova grains. We performed 3- and 4-zone supernova mixing calculations to reproduce the C, O (18O/16O) and Al <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios of the KE3 grains, using 15 M? model calculations by Rauscher et al. (2002). <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> ratios of grains with high 12C/13C ratios (>200) can be reproduced, whereas those of grains with ratios ?200 are hard to explain if we assume that graphite grains form in C-rich conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Litho..34...27G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Was a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Baffin Bay plume active prior to initiation of the present Icelandic plume? Clues from the high-Mg picrites of West Greenland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tertiary volcanism of the North Atlantic region provides one of the most extensive and best described magmatic records of interaction between a starting plume and continental lithosphere, and the rôle of plumes in continental break-up. Many authors consider the entire volcanic province, from Baffin Island in the north-west to Scotland in the south-east, to be the product of a single "proto-Icelandic" starting-plume head initially centred beneath East Greenland, whose initial eruptions were strongly influenced by the pre-break-up structure of the continental lithosphere. We demonstrate that the presence of Mesozoic-Palaeocene extensional sedimentary basins that developed within older N-S trending mobile belts influenced the location of the earliest on-shore Tertiary basalts. Even taking this into account, however, the prevalence of high-magnesium picrites among volcanics bordering the Davis Strait in the extreme north-west of the province, and their much lower abundance in East Greenland directly above the supposed plume axis, contradict the single-plume model. Best estimates of the most refractory liquid compositions erupted in the Disko area imply potential temperatures beneath West Greenland of 1540-1600°C. Such high temperatures are more consistent with the axial region of a separate, hot plume beneath West Greenland than with the periphery of the Icelandic plume head. West Greenland picrites cannot be attributed to an expanding "hot doughnut" as they are not present in other peripheral areas likely to be swept by such a doughnut. Uniformly high FeO contents and comparison with McKenzie-Bickle melting parameterisations suggest the West Greenland picrites are the product of ˜ 25% melting constrained to depths of 60-90 by a lithospheric lid. Geographical zonation in incompatible element and radiogenic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> enrichment (Holm et al., 1993) provides support for a separate, somewhat earlier plume centred beneath Baffin Bay. Picrites from Svartenhuk Halvø (north) are more enriched than equivalent picrites on Disko and Baffin Island (south). This pattern, reminiscent of trends along the Reykjanes Ridge, would be radial to a plume axis beneath Baffin Bay, but not to one centred beneath East Greenland.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gill, R. C. O.; Holm, P. M.; Nielsen, T. F. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)??keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)??keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point. PMID:21469858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Natur.331..579B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Manganese-chromium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics and the development of the early solar system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-precision measurements of the chromium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of samples from meteorites reveal anomalies in the Cr-53/Cr-52 ratio which are believed to arise from in situ decay of the extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide Mn-53. The decay of Mn-53 to Cr-53 in the early solar system provides an additional chronometer with which to constrain the formation times of the small planetary bodies from which the meteorites originated. A comparison of chromium and titanium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies shows them to be imperfectly correlated, bearing witness to the complexity of early solar system processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Birck, J.-L.; Allegre, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2009914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cytosolic targeting of hen egg lysozyme gives rise to a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> protein presented by class I but not class II major histocompatibility complex molecules.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A way to study the role of intracellular trafficking of an antigen in its presentation to T cells is to target the antigen to various cell compartments of the antigen-presenting cells (APC) and compare the nature of the complexes associating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and antigenic peptides, expressed on the cell surface. MHC class I+ and MHC class II+ mouse L fibroblasts secreting hen egg lysozyme (HELs cells) or expressing HEL in their cytosol (HELc cells) were obtained after transfection with HEL cDNA and signal sequence-deleted HEL cDNA, respectively. HEL was evidenced in both HELs- and HELc-transfected cells and the former type of transfectant secreted a large amount of HEL. However, HEL produced in the cytosol exhibited a <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life of less than 5 min. HEL-derived peptides could not be shown biochemically either in HELc- nor in HELs-transfected cells. We then studied the capacity of these cells to present HEL to HEL-specific class I- and class II-restricted T cells. Both cell types could be recognized by the HEL-specific MHC class I-restricted CTL clones. In contrast, MHC class II-HEL peptide complexes, recognized by HEL-specific helper T cell hybridomas, could be detected on MHC class II+ HELs- but not HELc-transfected cells. In vivo experiments showed, however, that HELc-transfected cells could provide host APC with HELc-derived peptides able to associate with MHC class II molecules. This was inferred from the capacity of MHC class II-HELc-transfected cells, unable by themselves to elicit any anti-HEL antibody response, to prime syngeneic and allogeneic mice against HEL. The priming was revealed by the induction of an antibody response after a boost with an amount of HEL unable itself to elicit an antibody response. PMID:2009914</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calin-Laurens, V; Forquet, F; Mottez, E; Kanellopoulos, J; Godeau, F; Kourilsky, P; Gerlier, D; Rabourdin-Combe, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V11I..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> Magma Residence Times at Mt. Rainier and the Probable Absence of a Large, Integrated, and Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Magma Reservoir System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensive, high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology have proven essential for producing modern geologic maps of volcanoes and from these determining the volcanoes' time-volume histories. If sufficiently abundant, these data can also reveal aspects of the magma supply system. For Cascade volcanoes a general result has been the demonstration that edifice growth is highly episodic. Mount Rainier grew in the last 500,000 years atop the remains of an ancestral edifice that was active in the same location 1 - 2 Myr ago. The 500,000 year history of the modern edifice falls into four stages of alternating high and low magmatic output of subequal duration, but major and trace element compositions of eruptives show no correlation with volcano growth stages. Instead, the same spectrum of magmas (andesite to low-Si dacite) erupted throughout the history of the volcano with compositions in the same relative abundances. Superimposed on this seemingly null result are at least 6 brief but pronounced excursions in magma trace-element compositions. Concentrations of Zr, Ba, or Sr can double and then return to background values passing into and out of a single flow or flow-group. Some excursions are tightly bracketed by mapping and by measured ages and have durations no more than the geochronologic measurement precision of about 10,000 years. True excursion durations are potentially much shorter. The brevity and abrupt onsets and cessations of these compositional excursions are evidence against the presence of a sizeable, long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> magma reservoir anywhere beneath the volcano, including a MASH zone in the lower crust, that would have attenuated, dampened, and homogenized compositional excursions introduced into the magmatic system. Instead, we take 10,000 years as a probable upper limit to the average residence time of magma batches transiting the crustal portion of Mount Rainier's plumbing system. A consistent scenario is that parental magmas enter the crust, differentiate, assimilate, and either erupt or solidify in less than 10,000 years. Geochronologic evidence from much larger magmatic systems (Reid and coworkers, Long Valley, Yellowstone) suggests that more productive systems can have much longer average residence times than modestly active arc stratovolcanoes like Mt. Rainier.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sisson, T. W.; Lanphere, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8533189"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Biogeochemistry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> records; <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> studies of banded iron formations; <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effects in micr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Hayes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=CEAR4951"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Separation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Separation of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> is treated in a general way, with special reference to the production of enriched uranium. Uses of separated <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are presented quickly. Then basic definitions and theoretical concepts are explained: <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> effects, non statis...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ravoire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81..403A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate <span class="hlt">short</span> and medium <span class="hlt">lived</span> elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The epithermal neutron shape factor, ? of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The ? values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by <span class="hlt">short</span> and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common sources for Co, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cr, Ni, Sn, Li and Sb and Na, V, Cl, Mn, Al, Br and K. The PCA/FA identified 3 dominant factors as responsible for the data structure, explaining 84.5% of the total variance in the dataset.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A44C..08K"> <span id="translatedtitle">WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> HFCs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092102"> <span id="translatedtitle">PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM <span class="hlt">ISOTOPIC</span> HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionations. The characterization of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" 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<div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI41B..08C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Diversity and Plume Strength</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scale and geometry of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneities in the source of plumes are poorly known but have important scientific implications for the origin of plumes, for the processes occurring during magma ascent through the mantle and for the timing of differentiation and mixing within the mantle. <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> heterogeneities occur at all scales in mantle rocks. Melt inclusions in mantle minerals have remarkably diverse <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions compared to their host lavas. At a much larger scale, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of plume magmas are significantly different from ridge volcanics. Here we address the relationship between <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity and magma productivity in mantle plumes. We compare several plumes, some very strong and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> like Hawaii and others very weak with sporadic magmatic activity. For the latter, we concentrate on the Polynesian Archipelago in the South Pacific which comprises several arrays of oceanic islands build over the past 20 Ma. We calculate, for several radiogenic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> amplitude within each island or island group and normalize these values to the total known variability in ocean island basalts worldwide. Our calculations show that <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> diversity exists in all island groups, but where extreme <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions occur, they are always accompanied by FOZO-like compositions (the mean composition of all oceanic island). For example, the largest amplitudes for Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions are found in the Austral chain where HIMU-type basalts erupt together with lavas with much lower Pb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>; and the largest amplitude for Nd <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions occurs in Pitcairn chain where EM I-type magmas coexist with lavas with much more radiogenic Nd <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Additionally, our compilation shows that the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> diversity increases drastically as magma flux diminishes. We conclude that weak plumes selectively sample the source <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> diversity through preferential low degree melting of small-scale heterogeneities. In contrast, strong plumes which produce large amounts of magma have much more homogeneous <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions as a consequence of efficient mixing of source heterogeneities during high-degree melting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chauvel, C.; Maury, R. C.; Gutscher, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....8.2403G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term natural ?13C variations in pools and fluxes in a beech forest: the transfer of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signal from recent photosynthates to soil respired CO2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of photosynthetic products within the plant-soil continuum determines how long the reduced carbon resides within the ecosystem and when it returns back to the atmosphere in the form of respiratory CO2. We have tested the possibility of measuring natural variation in ?13C to disentangle potential times needed to transfer carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis down to roots and, in general, to belowground up to its further release in the form of soil respiration into the atmosphere in a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. For these purposes we have measured the variation in stable carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions in plant material and in soil respired CO2 every three hours for three consequent days. Possible steps and different signs of post-photosynthetic fractionation during carbon translocation were also identified. A 12 h-periodicity was observed for variation in ?13C in soluble sugars in the top crown leaves and it can be explained by starch day/night dynamics in synthesis and breakdown and by stomatal limitations under elevated vapour pressure deficits. Photosynthetic products were transported down the trunk and mixed with older carbon pools, therefore causing the dampening of the ?13C signal variation. The strongest periodicity of 24 h was found in ?13C in soil respiration indicating changes in root contribution to the total CO2 efflux. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify the speed of carbon translocation through the plant-soil continuum. A period of 24 h was needed to transfer the C assimilated by photosynthesis from the top crown leaves to the tree trunk at breast height and additional 3 h for further respiration of that C by roots and soil microorganisms and its to subsequent diffusion back to the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gavrichkova, O.; Proietti, S.; Moscatello, S.; Portarena, S.; Battistelli, A.; Matteucci, G.; Brugnoli, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/assistedliving.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assisted <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values are available. Uranium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span> are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span> over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span>. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span>; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott, Mark R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eccleston, George W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bedell, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lockard, Chanelle M [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A44A..01B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass-dependent and -independent mercury stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in the atmosphere (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercury (Hg) is a geochemically unique atmospheric trace gas that has attracted considerable interest because it is globally distributed and once deposited can form the neurotoxin methylmercury. The study of Hg stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the atmosphere provides a new tool for investigating reaction pathways in the atmosphere and for tracing the sources and fate of anthropogenic Hg. The speciation of Hg in the atmosphere is generally reported as three operationally defined forms: gaseous elemental mercury [Hg(0)gas], reactive gaseous mercury [(Hg(II)gas] and particulate mercury [(Hg(II)part]. Hg(0)gas has a relatively long atmospheric residence time of ~1 year, but once it is oxidized to Hg(II)gas it becomes reactive and is rapidly deposited in precipitation or attaches to particles and is deposited as Hg(II)part. Mercury undergoes both mass-dependent <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation (MIF) of the odd <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Hg. MIF is believed to occur mainly during <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radical pair reactions due to the magnetic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effect, in which the magnetic spin of the odd <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> influences singlet to triplet and triplet to singlet intersystem crossing. As a result, reaction products can be either enriched or depleted in the odd <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Hg depending on whether singlet or triplet radical pairs are produced photochemically. Microbial and dark abiotic reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), and evaporation of Hg(0)gas lead mainly to MDF with light <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> released preferentially to the atmosphere. Photochemical reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) produces MIF with release of Hg(0) either enriched or depleted in the odd <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, depending on the ligand with which Hg(II) is associated. Photochemical reduction of Hg(II) associated with natural organic matter dissolved in water produces Hg(0)gas with odd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> depletion whereas photochemical reduction of Hg associated with halogens in snow produces odd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> enrichment. The oxidation of Hg(0) by photochemically produced radials (such as halogens or OH) in the atmosphere does not appear to produce MIF. Thus, Hg <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation can potentially add to our knowledge of atmospheric Hg reaction pathways. The Hg <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of anthropogenic sources of Hg to the atmosphere vary considerably and can be used to trace Hg sources and deposition. Most notably, Hg in many coal deposits displays MIF and has large MDF (with enrichment in light <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>), whereas Hg in ore deposits that is refined for use in industry does not display MIF or large MDF. The relatively new field of Hg <span class="hlt">isotope</span> biogeochemistry will be reviewed with specific attention to potential uses of Hg <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in atmospheric chemistry and recent measurements of atmospheric Hg species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blum, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55836416"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Radium <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> to Evaluate Cross-shelf Dispersion in the Coastal Ocean: Application to San Pedro Bay, CA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> Ra-223 (11 day half life) and Ra-224 (3.6 day half-life) are potentially useful for evaluating cross-shelf dispersion rates in the coastal ocean. A requirement for this application is that their source function and its variability in time and space must be defined. The primary mechanisms for introducing radium into coastal surface waters include: (1) wave and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. L. Colbert; D. E. Hammond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD650465"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Paleotemperatures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temperature dependence of oxygen-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in the system carbon dioxide-water-calcium carbonate was proposed by Urey as a basis for determining the temperature of precipitation of the carbonate by measuring its oxygen-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Emiliani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..APR.H4001K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Nuclear Frontier: Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Facilities for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rare <span class="hlt">isotope</span> facilities make rich opportunities available for nuclear structure research as well as for nuclear astrophysics and applied physics. These facilities drive the increasing understanding in nuclear physics research. Rare-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> accelerators play such a significant role for future research and development and provide the impetus for moving forward in many scientific disciplines. Existing ISOL and projectile fragmentation facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF, ISOLDE at CERN, and RIBF at RIKEN represent first generation facilities, where basic developments are being performed which pave the way to new facilities. Such facilities like FRIB, FAIR and EURISOL will provide unprecedented intensities of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A review of present facilities and new projects on the horizon is presented with emphasis on new designs in accelerator physics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kester, Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007710&hterms=rhenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drhenium"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rhenium-osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are investigating the Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V24B..08V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conflicting Hf and Nd <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> records of the Early Earth--But what about Pb?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systems have been valuable tools in our understanding of the differentiation and evolution of bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Linking these systems is especially important for constraining the early history of the silicate Earth as they provide independent records in rocks with long and complex tectonothermal histories. These records, however, are currently in conflict. The Hf <span class="hlt">isotope</span> record of the oldest terrestrial rocks and zircons, based on the most recent decay constants for Hf, is characterized by chondritic to negative initial ?Hf values [e.g., 1-3], indicating these rocks were derived from a source with a prior crustal history. In contrast, the Nd <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> record of the oldest rocks are characterized by positive ?Nd values [e.g., 4], indicating these materials were derived from a mantle depleted in incompatible elements by a widespread differentiation event [4], rather than from pre-existing crust. The ^{143}Nd scenario is consistent with constraints from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ^{146}Sm-^{142}Nd system [5] which indicate very early and widespread differentiation of the mantle and possibly sequestration of the enriched component to the inaccessible mantle, a view suggested nearly 20 years ago based on the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Nd <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data record [6]. An important <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> system that has been largely ignored in recent discussions is the U-Pb system. This system provides important constraints because of the two U-Pb decay paths and the shorter half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of the U <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> relative to ^{147}Sm and ^{176}Lu. If there had been widespread crust formation throughout the Hadean and early Archean, this should be recorded in the Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signature of mantle derived samples. In the 2.7 Ga Abitibi Greenstone belt initial Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions define a highly linear Pb/Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> array whose slope corresponds to an age of ~4.4 Ga, nearly coincident with the 2.7 Ga geochron. This Pb/Pb array has a range in 207Pb/204Pb as large as in modern MORB, but 206Pb/204Pb variations only one-tenth as large. The U/Pb variations that produced these Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships could only have been created very early in the Earth's history and also require that this mantle source had not been subsequently disturbed by crust extraction or additions from recycled crust from 4.4 to 2.7 Ga. In contrast, the initial Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of late Archean cratons where early Archean crust exists today (e.g., Slave, Pilbara) have Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions displaced to the right of the 2.7 Ga Geochron toward higher 206Pb/204Pb, and indicate the presence of pre-2.7 Ga crust in their genesis. The simple observation from these data is that in late Archean terranes there is Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> evidence for early Archean crust where it is known to exist today and this Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> evidence is lacking when early Archean crust is now physically absent. The Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data, therefore, support the Nd <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> records (both ^{142}Nd and ^{143}Nd) indicating early widespread mantle differentiation but scant evidence for the existence of an extensive, long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> enriched reservoir at the surface of the Earth (i.e., continental crust) in the early Archean. [1] Vervoort and Blichert-Toft, GCA, 63: 533 (1999); [2] Amelin et al., Nature, 399: 252 (1999); [3] Harrison et al., Science, 310: 1947 (2005); [4] Shirey, Min. Assoc. Can., 19: 103 (1991); [5] Boyet and Carlson, Science, 309: 576 (2005); [6] Chase and Patchett, EPSL, 91:66 (1988).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vervoort, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58416649"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weighing <span class="hlt">Lives</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are often faced with choices that involve the weighing of people's <span class="hlt">lives</span> against each other, or the weighing of <span class="hlt">lives</span> against other good things. These are choices both for individuals and for societies. A person who is terminally ill may have to choose between palliative care and more aggressive treatment, which will give her a longer life but at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Broome</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52249545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radioactive Arsenic <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous alpha-particle bombardments of Ge70, enriched electromagnetically to 90 percent, and germanium of normal <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> constituency have established the location of an arsenic activity of 76+\\/-3 days' half-life at mass number 73. Decay is by K-capture into Ge73. The energy of the gamma-ray is about 0.10 Mev. The half-life of As74, measured over 10 half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>, is 17.5+\\/-0.1 days. Simultaneous deuteron</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. A. McCown; L. L. Woodward; M. L. Pool</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1948-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:5045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Family <span class="hlt">Living</span> and Personal <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Find links for various projects for Family <span class="hlt">Living</span> and Personal <span class="hlt">Living</span> classes. FAMILY <span class="hlt">LIVING</span> Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL <span class="hlt">LIVING</span> (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultz, Ms.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS11A0181B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Geologically <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Surface Water Perturbations on the Calcareous Nannoplankton as Exemplified by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE1d</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcareous nannoplankton are obligate photoautotrophs restricted to the photic zone in the open ocean. Disruptions to the chemical and physical structure of the surface water mass constitute the most important environmental stresses forcing evolutionary changes. Surface-water environmental perturbations in ancient oceans provide opportunities to test the effects of these stresses on ancient plankton communities. Here we present data from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at 55 Ma and mid-Cretaceous (late Albian) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1d at 98 Ma, and compare changes in nannoplankton communities, including extinctions and originations (taxonomic turnover) and temporary assemblage shifts, with the extent and rate of change in environmental variables including temperature, thermal stratification, carbon export and alkalinity. In the case of the PETM, high rates of taxonomic turnover affected both oligotrophic and mesotrophic species. These taxa were relatively minor parts of the total assemblages, however, and the numerically abundant species were not affected permanently. The event is associated with a wholesale assemblage shift, including common and rare taxa, that varies from one oceanic setting to another. Highest rates of turnover and assemblage shift occurred during intervals when the rate of change of environmental variables including temperature, stratification and carbon export is highest. Relatively minor perturbations in the structure of the upper surface water mass, such as that associated with OAE1d, led to selective extinction of morphologically specialized oligotrophic taxa that were dependent upon maintaining a fixed position in a stable, stratified water column. These taxa were relatively rare components of the late Albian assemblages. In addition, the environmental changes associated with the anoxic event were coincident with originations and extinctions of less specialized clades undergoing adaptive radiation. These examples suggest that geologically brief perturbations of the upper water column affect only rare taxa permanently, while the more common calcareous nannoplankton exhibit a remarkable resilience to the effects of all but the most extreme <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> disruptions of the surface water mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bralower, T. J.; Watkins, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3522079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abrogation of SHP-1 in tumor-specific T cells improves efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy by enhancing the effector function and accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector T cells in vivo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">T cell expression of inhibitory proteins can be a critical component for the regulation of immunopathology due to self-reactivity or potentially exuberant responses to pathogens, but may also limit T cell responses to some malignancies, particularly if the tumor antigen being targeted is a self-protein. We found that the abrogation of SHP-1, in tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells improves the therapeutic outcome of adoptive immunotherapy in a mouse model of disseminated leukemia, with benefit observed in therapy employing transfer of CD8+ T cells alone or in the context of also providing supplemental IL-2. SHP-1?/? and SHP-1+/+ effector T cells were expanded in vitro for immunotherapy. Following transfer in vivo, the SHP-1?/? effector T cells exhibited enhanced <span class="hlt">short</span>-term accumulation, followed by greater contraction, and ultimately formed similar numbers of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>, functional memory cells. The increased therapeutic effectiveness of SHP-1?/? effector cells was also observed in recipients that expressed the tumor antigen as a self-antigen in the liver, without evidence of inducing autoimmune toxicity. SHP-1?/? effector CD8+ T cells expressed higher levels of Eomesodermin, which correlated with enhanced lysis of tumor cells. Furthermore, reduction of SHP-1 expression in tumor-reactive effector T cells by retroviral transduction with vectors that express SHP-1-specific siRNA, a translatable strategy, also exhibited enhanced anti-tumor activity in vivo. These studies suggest that abrogating SHP-1 in effector T cells may improve the efficacy of tumor elimination by T cell therapy without impacting the ability of the effector cells to persist and provide a long-term response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stromnes, Ingunn M.; Fowler, Carla; Casamina, Chanel C.; Georgopolos, Christina M.; McAfee, Megan S.; Schmitt, Thomas M.; Tan, Xiaoxia; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo; Blattman, Joseph N.; Greenberg, Philip D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090012288&hterms=atmospheric+isotope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bisotope"> <span id="translatedtitle">LU-HF Age and <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Systematics of ALH84001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/111212"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Live</span> work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The practice of performing maintenance on <span class="hlt">live</span> transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `<span class="hlt">Live</span> Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of <span class="hlt">live</span> working. 3 refs., 5 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garfinkel, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51A2624B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zn <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation during adsorption on birnessite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The biogeochemical cycling of zinc (Zn), an important micronutrient in the ocean, may influence primary productivity and species composition within surface waters. The chemical speciation and bioavailability of Zn is governed by diverse abiotic and biotic processes. These processes include adsorption reactions at mineral/water interfaces, as nanoparticles of oxyhydroxide minerals are known to adsorb significant amounts of Zn in surface waters (and during formation of ferromanganese crusts). Investigation of Zn <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation caused by adsorption onto birnessite, the dominant manganese oxide mineral in ferromanganese crusts, may help to explain the enrichment of heavy Zn <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in ferromanganese crusts. This will provide insight into the role of adsorption of Zn to nanoparticulate minerals in surface waters and into the overall biogeochemical cycling of Zn. This work aims to determine the mechanism and magnitude of Zn <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation during adsorption onto synthetic birnessite (KMn2O4.1.5H2O). Our simple-system experiments involve mixing solutions of 130 ppb Zn with aliquots of birnessite suspension (proportions varied to give a range of surface coverage) and a fixed pH near that of seawater at ~8.5. The mixtures react for 48 hours. The recovered dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn are then separated, purified, and analyzed <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS. Preliminary results show enrichment of light Zn <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> on the mineral surfaces (?66/64Znsorbed-aqueous = -0.3‰). A time series will reveal whether this process is governed by equilibrium or Rayleigh fractionation. Contrary to our results, previously published studies led us to hypothesize that <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> heavy Zn would adsorb compared to co-existing dissolved Zn. Maréchal et al. (2000) recorded ferromanganese crusts that were heavier than seawater with a mean ?66Zn value of 0.90‰. Dissolved Zn is octahedrally coordinated with oxygen atoms, but an EXAFS study by Manceau et al. (2002) reported a mixture of tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Zn sorbed on Mn oxides. In general, a species with lower coordination number favors heavier <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (Schauble, 2004). The potential explanations for the discrepancy between our results and our expectations include (1) a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effect favors sorption of light Zn in our <span class="hlt">short</span> experiments, but will reverse on long time scales, (2) there are structural differences between our synthetic birnessite and Mn oxides previously studied, (3) our experiments are conducted at low ionic strength, and a change in Zn speciation at high ionic strength may lead to different <span class="hlt">isotope</span> behavior. Our subsequent work will evaluate these possible explanations. Manceau et al. (2002). GCA 66, 2639-2663. Maréchal et al. (2000). G3 1, 1015. Schauble (2004). RiMG 55, 65-112.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryan, A. L.; Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/biblio/1133373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online Catalog of <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Products from DOE's National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> that are in <span class="hlt">short</span> supply for research and applications. <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Production FacilityExternal link (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> ProducerExternal link (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development CenterExternal link (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.2153W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accurate measurement of silver <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions in geological materials including low Pd/Ag meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Very precise silver (Ag) <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions have been determined for a number of terrestrial rocks, and high and low Pd/Ag meteorites by utilizing multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The meteorites include primitive chondrites, the Group IAB iron meteorites Canyon Diablo and Toluca, and the Group IIIAB iron meteorite Grant. Silver <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements are primarily of interest because 107Ag was produced by decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide 107Pd during the formation of the solar system and hence the Pd-Ag chronometer has set constraints on the timing of early planetesimal formation. A 2? precision of ±0.05‰ can be obtained for analyses of standard solutions when Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios are normalized to Pd, to correct for instrumental mass discrimination, and to bracketing standards. Caution must be exercised when making Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements because <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> artifacts can be generated in the laboratory and during mass spectrometry. The external reproducibility for geological samples based on replicate analyses of rocks is ±0.2‰ (2?). All chondrites analyzed have similar Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions that do not differ significantly (>0.3‰) from the 'terrestrial' value of the NIST SRM 978a Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> standard. Hence, they show no evidence of excess 107Ag derived from 107Pd decay or, of stable Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation associated with volatile element depletion within the accretion disk or from parent body metamorphism. The Group IAB iron meteorite samples analyzed show evidence of complex behavior and disturbance of Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics. Therefore, care must be taken when using this group of iron meteorites to obtain chronological information based on the Pd-Ag decay scheme.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woodland, S. J.; Rehkämper, M.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D.-C.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Charge radii of neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> across the sd neutron shell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. In the neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marinova, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Kowalska, M.; Keim, M. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lievens, P. [Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, K.U.Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Simon, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040065905&hterms=isotope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Disotope"> <span id="translatedtitle">More on Ru Endemic <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Anomalies in Meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reported last year on endemic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/explore/hliving/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Environmental Health Sciences Kids Pages skip navigation Home Discover & Explore What's That Word Scientific Kids Fun & Games Parents & Teachers About Contact Home » Discover & Explore » Print this page Share Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span> By ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/summer09/articles/summer09pg6.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assisted <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> facility as it does on the quality of care. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scorpion&id=EJ150692"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> Laboratories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presented is a review of various methods of keeping <span class="hlt">live</span> animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mules, B. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48268714"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> Machines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity.\\u000a In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “<span class="hlt">Living</span> Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities\\u000a – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several <span class="hlt">living</span> technological innovations – constructed wetlands,\\u000a Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yung-Tse Hung; Joseph F. Hawumba; Lawrence K. Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..839P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April-May), even if at NCO-P significantly lower levels of eqBC and aerosol particle number (ratio 7% for eqBC, 29% for accumulation and 12% for coarse particles) were observed in respect to Kathmandu. Moreover, case studies concerning simultaneous events of eqBC and O3 increases in Kathmandu and in the high Himalayas will be investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/c3310l4l2n4m71n2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of karstic submarine groundwater and associated nutrient discharge to a Mediterranean coastal area (Balearic Islands, Spain) using radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) were used to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its associated input of inorganic nitrogen (NO3\\u000a ?), phosphorus (PO4\\u000a 3?) and silica (SiO4\\u000a 4?) into the karstic Alcalfar Cove, a coastal region of Minorca Island (Western Mediterranean Sea). Cove water, seawater and\\u000a groundwater (wells and karstic springs) samples were collected in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Garcia-Solsona; J. Garcia-Orellana; P. Masqué; E. Garcés; O. Radakovitch; A. Mayer; S. Estradé; G. Basterretxea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/804861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenics for the Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With 600 meters of superconducting accelerator, the Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator (RIA) facility will have an extensive cryogenic system operating at both 2.0 K and 4.4 K. Approximately 250 4.4 K resonators, 200 2.0 K resonators, 160 4.4 K magnets, and several 4.4 K bunchers will be used in a 1.4-GV superconducting CW driver linac. Ion beams ranging from protons (up to 900 MeV) to uranium (up to 400 MeV per nucleon) at beam powers up to 400 kW will be produced. The facility will also have a superconducting linac to accelerate <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced by the driver. This post accelerator is composed of another 100 superconducting resonators and associated superconducting focusing magnets. Liquid helium will also be provided to a variety of experimental instruments including, for example, large superconducting magnetic spectrographs. Overall, the liquid helium refrigerator will need to provide approximately 8.6 kW of cooling at 2.0 K, 4.8 kW at 4.4 K, and 15.3 kW at 35 K for shield cooling. A review of the various loads, cryostats, distribution system, and refrigeration schemes will be presented along with some special needs for reliable operation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Specht; W. C. Chronis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.positivelives.org"> <span id="translatedtitle">Positive <span class="hlt">Lives</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Positive <span class="hlt">Lives</span> project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the <span class="hlt">lived</span> experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the <span class="hlt">lives</span> of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also <span class="hlt">living</span> with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/ilives/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innovative <span class="hlt">Lives</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Innovative <span class="hlt">Lives</span> Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative <span class="hlt">Lives</span> counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their <span class="hlt">lives</span> and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460060"> <span id="translatedtitle">IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE <span class="hlt">ISOTOPE</span> MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements, very <span class="hlt">short</span> time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, <span class="hlt">live</span> {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quitte, Ghylaine [Universite de Lyon (France); Markowski, Agnes [ETH Zurich, Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Latkoczy, Christopher [ETH Zurich, D-CHAB, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Wolfgang-Pauli Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas, E-mail: Ghylaine.Quitte@ens-lyon.f [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3541668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and sea level</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the time that detailed oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> records derived from foraminifera <span class="hlt">living</span> in the constant-temperature environment of the abyssal ocean became available, there has been a discrepancy between the ice volume record that these records imply, and that derived from the altitude of dated coral terraces around the world. Here, we re-examine the data and conclude that the temperature of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Chappell; N. J. Shackleton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+history&pg=5&id=EJ759501"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are <span class="hlt">living</span> symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coleman&pg=4&id=ED513296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retiring <span class="hlt">Lives</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Retiring <span class="hlt">Lives</span>" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.livingheritage.org.nz/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> Heritage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Living</span> Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About <span class="hlt">Living</span> Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About <span class="hlt">Living</span> Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who <span class="hlt">lived</span> on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53412044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Argon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as recorders of magmatic processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Argon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow <span class="hlt">short</span> time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> methods. A mineral's ability to retain \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. W. Layer; J. E. Gardner; J. C. Mora Chaparro; J. L. Arce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=803"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Living</span> and non-<span class="hlt">living</span> things</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Living</span> things often rely on non-<span class="hlt">living</span> things to accomplish daily tasks. <span class="hlt">Living</span> things have several characteristics that non-<span class="hlt">living</span> things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. <span class="hlt">Living</span> things and non-<span class="hlt">living</span> things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.estuarylive.org"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estuary <span class="hlt">Live</span>!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view <span class="hlt">live</span> video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book..727B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Paleoclimatology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleotemperature scales were calculated by H. C. Urey and others in the 1950s to assess past temperatures, and later work using the stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon employed standards such as Peedee belemnite (PDB) and Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). Subsequently, subjects as diverse as ice volume and paleotemperatures, oceanic ice and sediment cores, Pleistocene/Holocene climatic changes, and <span class="hlt">isotope</span> chronostratigraphy extending back to the Precambrian were investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowen, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" oncli