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1

Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination  

E-print Network

Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field

Pachucki, Krzysztof

2

First absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes have been performed at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN by determining the cyclotron frequencies of ions confined in a Penning trap. The cyclotron frequencies for77,78,85,86,88Rb and88Sr ions could be determined with a resolving power of 3×105 and an accuracy of better than 10-6, which corresponds to 100 keV for mass A=100. The shortest-lived isotope under investigation was77Rb with a half-life of 3.7 min. The resonances obtained for the isobars88Rb and88Sr were clearly resolved.

Bollen, G.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kern, F.; Schnatz, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Kluge, H.-J.; Temmer, G. M.; Ulm, G.

1987-12-01

3

Emission Channeling with Short-Lived Isotopes (EC-SLI) at CERN's ISOLDE Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an overview on the historical development and current program for lattice location studies at CERN's ISOLDE facility, where the EC-SLI (Emission Channeling with Short-Lived Isotopes) collaboration maintains several setups for this type of experiments. We illustrate that the three most decisive factors for the success of the technique are access to facilities producing radioactive isotopes, position-sensitive detectors for the emitted decay particles, and reliable simulation codes which allow for quantitative analysis.

Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Costa, A.; David-Bosne, E.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Amorim, L. M.; Augustyns, V.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; da Silva, M. R.; Silva, D. J.; Araújo, J. P.; Miranda, P.; Bharuth-Ram, K.

2015-11-01

4

Separation efficiency of the MASHA facility for short-lived mercury isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass-separator MASHA built to identify Super Heavy Elements by their mass-to-charge ratios is described. The results of the off- and on-line measurements of its separation efficiency are presented. In the former case four calibrated leaks of noble gases were used. In the latter the efficiency was measured via 284 MeV Ar beam and with using the hot catcher. The ECR ion source was used in both cases. The -radioactive isotopes of mercury produced in the complete fusion reaction Ar+SmHg+xn were detected at the mass-separator focal plane. The half-lives and the separation efficiency for the short-lived mercury isotopes were measured. Potentialities of the MEDIPIX detector system have been demonstrated for future use at the mass-separator MASHA.

Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Itkis, M. G.; Kliman, J.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Krupa, L.; Novoselov, A. S.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Sivá?ek, I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.; Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

2014-06-01

5

Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for 118-137Cs. A resolving power of over 106 and an accuracy of 1.4×10-7 have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, St.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Otto, Th.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Audi, G.; Moore, R. B.

1990-12-01

6

Simulation and optimization of cyclic activation analysis of short-lived isotopes with 14MeV neutron generator.  

PubMed

A program of simulation and optimization is developed for the case of cyclic activation analysis of short-lived isotopes with 14-MeV neutrons. The background line under the photopeaks of interest is simulated using Zikovsky's model. The reliability of the program is checked on real conditions with a geological reference sample "Soil 5" provided by the IAEA. Optimum experimental conditions (timing parameters, number of cycles) are determined, and corresponding detection limits calculated. A systematic study of short-lived isotopes with half-lives lower than 5 min is done for Soil 5, and the results are discussed. PMID:7710887

Khelifi, R; Idiri, Z; Tobbeche, S

1994-01-01

7

MIXING AND TRANSPORT OF SHORT-LIVED AND STABLE ISOTOPES AND REFRACTORY GRAINS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of primitive meteorites and cometary samples have shown that the solar nebula must have experienced a phase of large-scale outward transport of small refractory grains as well as homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous short-lived isotopes. The stable oxygen isotopes, however, were able to remain spatially heterogeneous at the {approx}6% level. One promising mechanism for achieving these disparate goals is the mixing and transport associated with a marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disk, a likely cause of FU Orionis events in young low-mass stars. Several new sets of MGU models are presented that explore mixing and transport in disks with varied masses (0.016 to 0.13 M{sub Sun }) around stars with varied masses (0.1 to 1 M{sub Sun }) and varied initial Q stability minima (1.8 to 3.1). The results show that MGU disks are able to rapidly (within {approx}10{sup 4} yr) achieve large-scale transport and homogenization of initially spatially heterogeneous distributions of disk grains or gas. In addition, the models show that while single-shot injection heterogeneity is reduced to a relatively low level ({approx}1%), as required for early solar system chronometry, continuous injection of the sort associated with the generation of stable oxygen isotope fractionations by UV photolysis leads to a sustained, relatively high level ({approx}10%) of heterogeneity, in agreement with the oxygen isotope data. These models support the suggestion that the protosun may have experienced at least one FU Orionis-like outburst, which produced several of the signatures left behind in primitive chondrites and comets.

Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2013-08-10

8

ISOLTRAP: a tandem Penning trap system for accurate on-line mass determination of short-lived isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP has been set up at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclei with T {1}/{2} ? 1 s. The mass measurement is performed via the determination of the cyclotron frequency of an ion in a magnetic field. The design of the spectrometer matches the particular requirements for on-line mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. With the ISOLTRAP spectrometer masses of more than 70 radioactive nuclei have so far been determined with resolving powers exceeding one million and an accuracy of typically 10 -7.

Bollen, G.; Becker, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; König, M.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, T.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Isolde Collaboration

1996-02-01

9

Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a penning trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient RB and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars 88Sr and 88Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in 122Cs.

Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Audi, G.; Bollen, G.

1987-12-01

10

Short-lived Radium Isotopes in the Hawaiian Margin: Evidence for Large Fluid Fluxes Through the Puna Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques to sample and measure short-lived radium isotopes have significantly advanced understanding of groundwater-seawater exchange in coastal areas. The established sampling protocol utilizes traditional wire-line samplers from surface vessels to recover large (200 L) seawater samples. These samples are subsequently passed through Mn-fiber columns at a slow rate (100 L per hour) to assure high radium stripping efficiency. But, sampling near-bottom waters in areas of complicated bathymetry represents a technical challenge for traditional wire-line water sampling equipment. For MBARI's 2001 Hawaii expedition, we built a simple sampler to extract Ra from seawater surrounding the ROV Tiburon. The system uses a variable-flow electric pump to provide 1-2 L/min flow through one of 12 Mn-fiber-filled Ra-stripping canisters mounted on the ROV Tiburon. Values allow the flow to be directed to specific canisters. A flow meter allows the operator to control the flow and compute the volume sampled. The fibers are counted shipboard shortly after vehicle recovery. The ROV proved to be an ideal platform for Ra-sampling because it is able to slowly pump considerable volumes of seawater through the Ra-stripping columns while maintaining close contact with the bottom. Because the manifold was mounted on the ROV's side arm, its interference with other research objectives was minimal. Most of our sampling in Hawaii was conducted as a piggyback effort. We were able to collect 167 radium samples on 37 ROV dives with an average of 206 liters of seawater passing through the stripping canisters. Moreover, we are confident that the sampled waters come from 1-3 above the bottom. We measured significant activities of short-lived radium isotopes, 223Ra (half-life = 11 days) and 224Ra (half-life = 3.7 days), around the margins of the Hawaiian Islands to depths of 3100 m. These measurements suggest numerous groundwater or pore fluid inputs to the surrounding ocean. In general 223Ra activities were considerably greater than 224Ra in spite of the expected higher production rate of 224Ra from basalt. 223Ra was not supported by dissolved 227Ac. The highest enrichments of 223Ra were measured over the Puna Ridge (2100 m depth) east of Hawaii. Here 223Ra activities reached 2 dpm/100L, similar to activities measured near sites of active submarine groundwater discharge in the South Atlantic Bight. The high 223Ra values were not associated with significant thermal anomalies. To explain the high activities of 223Ra unaccompanied by 224Ra, we postulate that thermally-driven circulation of sea water through the Puna Ridge deposits 231Pa on basalt surfaces. With time the 231Pa produces 227Ac and 223Ra, which desorbs into circulating fluids. These fluids then transport 223Ra into the overlying ocean. Based on the inventory of 223Ra above the Puna Ridge, we estimate the flow of fluids through the ridge to be on the order of 40cm3cm-2day-1. In less than 100 years the incoming seawater could provide enough 231Pa to basalt surfaces to balance the inventory of 223Ra above the ridge if all of the 223Ra was transported to the overlying water. These observations have significant implications for quantifying fluid fluxes from the flanks of the mid ocean ridge. By mapping 223Ra inventories in the ocean above ridge flanks and the activity of 223Ra in the emerging fluids, the fluid flux can be obtained. These measurements could help resolve the debate of the relative importance of high and low temperature venting from the ridge.

Moore, W. S.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.

2001-12-01

11

Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes usingcrown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric acid media was studied using the crown ethers dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (DC24C8) as extractants. The goal was to find an extraction system that exhibits a high selectivity between the members of group 4 of the periodic table and is suitable for the study of rutherfordium. It was found that Zr and Hf are both extracted using DB18C6, DC18C6 and DC24C8. The extraction yield increases with increasing acid concentration and increasing concentration of crown ether. The extracted species most likely consists of an ion-association complex formed between a Zr or Hf chloro complex and a hydronium crown ether complex. Conditions can be found for each extractant that provide for the separation of Zr from Hf. This selective separation between Zr and Hf makes the extraction with crown ethers from HCl well suited to study the extraction behavior of Rf and compare it to the behavior of Zr and Hf. These extraction systems can be used to determine whether the extraction behavior of Rf is similar to Zr, similar to Hf or follows the trend established by the lighter homologs. The extraction kinetics are fast enough for the study of the 78-s isotope {sup 261}Rf.

Sudowe, Ralf; Calvert, Michael G.; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Farina, Lindsy M.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Gallaher, Sarah E.H.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Phillips, Diana C.; Schwantes,Jon M.; Wilson, Richard E.; Zielinski Peter M.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche Heino

2005-07-06

12

Short-lived nuclides in the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic records in meteorites provide evidence for the presence of several short-lived nuclides in the early solar system\\u000a with half-lives varying from 105 to ?8x107 years. Most of the nuclides with longer half-life (> 107 years) are considered to be products of stellar nucleosynthesis taking place over long time scales in our galaxy. However,\\u000a for the relatively shorter-lived nuclides, two

J. N. Goswami

1998-01-01

13

Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was focused within the upper 750 m of intracaldera tuff. Mass balance calculations indicate fluid fluxes of = 6 ?? 10-6 mol cm-2 s-1. We believe that the closest historical analogue to this Chegem hydrothermal event is the situation observed in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (Alaska, USA), where hundreds of steam fumaroles with measured temperatures as high as 645??C persisted for 10 to 15 years in the much smaller welded ash-flow tuff sheet (??? 200 m thick) produced by the 1912 Katmai eruption.

Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P., Jr.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

1996-01-01

14

Short-Lived Climate Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

Pierrehumbert, R. T.

2014-05-01

15

Skylab short-lived event alert program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

Citron, R. A.

1974-01-01

16

EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA. IX. GRADIENTS IN THE SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES {sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al AND THE STABLE OXYGEN ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radioisotopes (SLRIs) such as {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al were likely injected into the solar nebula in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous manner. Marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) disks, of the type required to form gas giant planets, are capable of rapid homogenization of isotopic heterogeneity as well as of rapid radial transport of dust grains and gases throughout a protoplanetary disk. Two different types of new models of an MGU disk in orbit around a solar-mass protostar are presented. The first set has variations in the number of terms in the spherical harmonic solution for the gravitational potential, effectively studying the effect of varying the spatial resolution of the gravitational torques responsible for MGU disk evolution. The second set explores the effects of varying the initial minimum value of the Toomre Q stability parameter, from values of 1.4 to 2.5, i.e., toward increasingly less unstable disks. The new models show that the basic results are largely independent of both sets of variations. MGU disk models robustly result in rapid mixing of initially highly heterogeneous distributions of SLRIs to levels of {approx}10% in both the inner (<5 AU) and outer (>10 AU) disk regions, and to even lower levels ({approx}2%) in intermediate regions, where gravitational torques are most effective at mixing. These gradients should have cosmochemical implications for the distribution of SLRIs and stable oxygen isotopes contained in planetesimals (e.g., comets) formed in the giant planet region ({approx}5 to {approx}10 AU) compared to those formed elsewhere.

Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2011-10-01

17

Astronuclear Physics with Short-Lived Isotopes  

E-print Network

A revolution in nuclear physics is underway. If you know hadron physics you also know that it will last long, as most past developments in nuclear physics have shown. It will take many decades of dedicated efforts of theorists and experimentalists to give astronomers, cosmologists and stellar modelers what they need for the accuracy required in the description and modeling of many cosmic phenomena of interest. In this contribution I review a small number of examples of the utmost relevance for the nuclear in the astro and in particular the humongous importance of the new area of astronuclear physics studied in radioactive beam facilities.

C. A. Bertulani

2014-03-31

18

Short-lived radionuclides and early solar system chronology -- A hibonite perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the 41 Ca- 41 K, 26 Al- 26 Mg, 10 Be- 10 B, oxygen and titanium iso-topic systems in 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions extracted from the CM meteorite Murchison provide important constraints for origins of short-lived radionuclides, early solar system chronology, and chemical evolution. Magnesium isotopic compositions divide these hibonite grains into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with

Ming-Chang Liu

2008-01-01

19

Precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides for nuclear structure studies at TITAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) at TRIUMF's rare isotope beam facility ISAC is an advanced Penning trap based mass spectrometer dedicated to precise and accurate mass determinations. An overview of TITAN, the measurement technique and a highlight of recent mass measurements of the short-lived nuclides important to the nuclear structure program at TITAN are presented.

Chaudhuri, A.; Andreoiu, C.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Klawitter, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Lunney, D.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

2014-03-01

20

Short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides are radioactive elements with half-lives <= 100 Myr. They have all decayed away from their initial abundances, but their presence in the early Solar System could be inferred from radiogenic excesses of daughter products in meteoritic components. A detailed understanding of the initial abundance and distribution of short-lived radionuclides can shed light on the formation condition and immediate astrophysical environment of the early Solar System.

Liu, Ming-Chang

2012-11-01

21

Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of short-lived radioisotopes and their limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common short-lived isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of short lived thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.

Ghaleb, B.

2009-01-01

22

Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements  

SciTech Connect

This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

Miller, P.

1998-01-05

23

Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

2009-11-01

24

Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite  

PubMed

Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite. PMID:10600738

Mora; Riciputi; Cole

1999-12-17

25

Short-lived radionuclides as monitors of early crust-mantle differentiation on the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic energy from large impacts, the gravitational energy released by core formation, and the heat provided by the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes all drive extensive melting and chemical differentiation of silicate planets/planetesimals during and shortly after their formation. This early differentiation is best preserved on small objects such as the parent bodies of the eucrite and angrite meteorites where silicate melts were produced within 3 million years of solar system formation. The W isotopic composition of some iron meteorites testifies to core segregation on small planetesimals within as little as one million years or less of solar system formation. On larger objects, such as the Moon, Mars and Earth, the evidence for early differentiation provided by long-lived radioisotope systems has been variably overprinted by the continuing differentiation of these objects, but a clear signature of extensive early planet-scale differentiation is preserved in a variety of short-lived radioisotope systems, particularly, I-Pu-Xe, Hf-W and 146Sm- 142Nd. All these systems suggest that global differentiation of planetesimals and the terrestrial planets occurred during the first hundred million years of solar system history. This early processing of the Moon, Mars and Earth, may have fundamentally affected the evolution of these planets and their current internal compositional structure.

Carlson, Richard W.; Boyet, Maud

2009-03-01

26

Carbon IsotopesCarbon Isotopes A Short Course VU March, 2009  

E-print Network

2/25/2009 1 Carbon IsotopesCarbon Isotopes The Basics A Short Course VU March, 2009 Peter Swart Belemnite) V-PDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) #12;2/25/2009 2 Forms of Carbon · Primordial Carbon (324,000,000 1015 grams) ­ Methane ­ Graphite ­ Diamond ­ Other ?? · Carbonates (60,000,000 1015 grams)Ca bo ates

Miami, University of

27

Study of Short-Lived Nuclear Decays by Digital Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of pulse processing electronics based on digital signal processing technology has been successfully tested on-line and applied for the first time in particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. Systems based on commercially available Digital Gamma Finder (DGF) modules [1] were used to study the decays of short-lived states in exotic nuclei. Since the DGFs incorporate a RTPU, they

C. R. Bingham; E. Badura; J. C. Batchelder; C. J. Gross; R. Grzywacz; Z. Janas; M. Karny; W. Krolas; C. Mazzocchi; J. W. McConnell; M. Momayezi; M. Pfützner; K. Rykaczewski; K. Schmidt

2001-01-01

28

Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers  

PubMed Central

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04–0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew

2013-01-01

29

Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers  

SciTech Connect

Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

2013-08-12

30

Time-dependence in short-lived volcanic eruption plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishing relationships between source conditions and plume evolution is critical for developing accurate, predictive models of volcanic plumes. Such relationships have been derived and successfully applied to field cases for long-duration eruptions with approximately constant source conditions. Similarly useful relationships exist for instantaneous releases. However, equivalent relationships have yet to be developed for time-varying and finite source conditions that drive many short-lived volcanic plumes, despite the fact that such eruptions are frequent in nature. Short-lived plumes have been observed and documented using UV, visible, and IR imaging techniques, as well as satellite and radar measurements. However, the source conditions which generate these plumes are difficult to constrain in the field. Thus, a laboratory investigation of jets and plumes generated by short-duration time-dependent sources was undertaken. Experiments were designed specifically to examine the role of time-dependent source conditions in controlling overall morphology, flow front velocity as a function of time, internal velocity and eddy structure, and entrainment characteristics. In the experimental work presented here, neutrally-buoyant turbulent jets were generated by injecting pressurized water into a tank of still water. Velocity and discharge rate with time were Gaussian-like with durations shorter than jet rise times. Flows had vent Reynolds numbers from 103 to 105 and were documented using flow visualization and particle image velocimetry. Two different flow patterns were observed: isolated vortex rings that separated from a trailing jet and head vortices connected to a trailing stem. The latter was favored as both the vent Reynolds number and the total ejected volume increased. These flows had three main phases of development - an injection phase which occurred while the source was 'on', a transition phase immediately following injection termination, and a final phase during which the flow continued to propagate although the injection had ended. The injection phase was further subdivided into two distinct sub-phases, corresponding to acceleration and deceleration at the vent. Scaling of the results indicate that individual characteristic velocities describe each of the acceleration, deceleration, and transition phases, whereas the final phase behaves like an instantaneous release of momentum, termed a puff. As such, time-dependent source conditions appear to have dominant first-order effects on flow evolution during the injection and transition phases but have little control over the dynamics during the final phase, when instead the total volume injected dominates the dynamics. These results have a number of implications for interpreting dynamics from observations of short-lived volcanic plumes. For example, estimates of vent fluxes from plume observations should be restricted to early 'source on' phases, while later stages of development should provide information about total volume erupted.

Chojnicki, K. N.; Clarke, A. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Adrian, R. J.

2011-12-01

31

Characterizing Background Concentrations of Short-Lived Halocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some short lived halocarbons (CH3I, CH2Br2, CHBr3) are emitted to the atmosphere in large quantities from natural processes. Because these chemicals have short lifetimes (weeks to months) they supply reactive halogen to the troposphere and influence the tropospheric chemistry of ozone and mercury, for example. Additionally, the lifetimes of CH2Br2 and CHBr3 are long enough so that these chemicals contribute significant amounts of bromine to the stratosphere, which influences stratospheric ozone chemistry. The magnitudes of these contributions and their sensitivity to changes in climate are poorly quantified at present. Some of these uncertainties stem from the difficulties associated with interpreting observations of short-lived compounds at any point in space and time in terms of broader-scale mixing ratios and atmospheric impacts. We have measured these chemicals at a global network of surface stations and aircraft profiling sites for multiple years (up to 14). The results provide a unique picture of global distributions, inter-annual and seasonal variability, and vertical mixing ratio gradients at continental, marine and coastal locations. When these data are contrasted with results from the recent HIPPO campaign over the mid-Pacific Ocean basin, consistent patterns emerge over land and sea for CH2Br and CHBr3 that suggest we can quantify mean mixing ratios and their variability over large spatial scales, particularly in the free troposphere. These results provide constraints on the influence these chemicals have on atmospheric chemistry in both the troposphere and stratosphere, and they provide an important baseline for more reliably quantifying long-term concentration changes, should they occur.

Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Butler, J. H.; Atlas, E. L.; Wofsy, S. C.

2012-12-01

32

Short-lived and long-lived dust devil tracks in the coastal desert of southern Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coastal desert of southern Peru, sequential high-resolution satellite images document the presence of short-lived and long-lived dust devil tracks. Dust devil tracks in the study region remain visible for less than 6 months in one area and for more than 4 years in another area. Short-lived tracks are generally darker than the surrounding ground surface. The brightness of

Ralf Hesse

33

Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

Meyer, B. S.

2004-01-01

34

First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed ? emitter Rb74 (T1/2=65ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC value are presented.

Ettenauer, S.; Simon, M. C.; Gallant, A. T.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mané, E.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Delheij, P.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Pearson, M. R.; Ringle, R.; Ullrich, J.; Dilling, J.

2011-12-01

35

First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap  

SciTech Connect

Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brunner, T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chowdhury, U. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Simon, V. V. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Brodeur, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Andreoiu, C. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gwinner, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lapierre, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lunney, D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Ringle, R. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2011-12-30

36

Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian Margin and the Southern Australian Margin  

E-print Network

Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of live (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Aleutian October 2008 Accepted 4 November 2008 Keywords: stable isotopes benthic foraminifera 13C 18O deep sea-water geochemistry and stable isotopic values of the tests of living (stained) calcareous benthic foraminifera from

Levin, Lisa

37

Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

2013-03-01

38

Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.  

PubMed

This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived. PMID:3490389

Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

1986-10-01

39

Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

2014-06-01

40

The origin of short-lived radionuclides and the astrophysical environment of solar system formation  

E-print Network

Based on early solar system abundances of short-lived radionuclides (SRs), such as $^{26}$Al (T$_{1/2} = 0.74$ Myr) and $^{60}$Fe (T$_{1/2} = 1.5$ Myr), it is often asserted that the Sun was born in a large stellar cluster, where a massive star contaminated the protoplanetary disk with freshly nucleosynthesized isotopes from its supernova (SN) explosion. To account for the inferred initial solar system abundances of short-lived radionuclides, this supernova had to be close ($\\sim$ 0.3 pc) to the young ($\\leqslant$ 1 Myr) protoplanetary disk. Here we show that massive star evolution timescales are too long, compared to typical timescales of star formation in embedded clusters, for them to explode as supernovae within the lifetimes of nearby disks. This is especially true in an Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC)-type of setting, where the most massive star will explode as a supernova $\\sim$ 5 Myr after the onset of star formation, when nearby disks will have already suffered substantial photoevaporation and/or formed large planetesimals. We quantify the probability for {\\it any} protoplanetary disk to receive SRs from a nearby supernova at the level observed in the early solar system. Key constraints on our estimate are: (1) SRs have to be injected into a newly formed ($\\leqslant$ 1 Myr) disk, (2) the disk has to survive UV photoevaporation, and (3) the protoplanetary disk must be situated in an enrichment zone permitting SR injection at the solar system level without disk disruption. The probability of protoplanetary disk contamination by a supernova ejecta is, in the most favorable case, 3 $\\times$ 10$^{-3}$.

Gounelle Meibom

2008-05-05

41

Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the short lived agent 178Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A short-lived generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.

Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.

1988-06-01

42

Short-Lived Radioactivities and Recent Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We follow the time evolution of isotopes in a multi-dimensional molecular cloud model. Solar systems that form with low 60Fe show 26Al well below the canonical value, as expected. Some solar systems show interesting levels of 182Hf and 129I.

Meyer, B. S.; Bojazi, M. J.

2014-09-01

43

First Demonstration of Electron Scattering Using a Novel Target Developed for Short-Lived Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstrative electron scattering experiment using a novel ion-trap target exclusively developed for short-lived highly unstable nuclei. Using stable {sup 133}Cs ion as a target, this experiment completely mimicked electron scattering off short-lived nuclei. Achieving a luminosity higher than 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with around only 10{sup 6} trapped ions on the electron beam, the angular distribution of elastic scattering was successfully measured. This experiment clearly demonstrates that electron scattering off rarely produced short-lived nuclei is practical with this target technique.

Suda, T.; Wakasugi, M.; Emoto, T.; Ito, S.; Wang, S.; Yano, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kurita, K. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Kuwajima, A.; Tamae, T. [Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 982-0826 (Japan); Noda, A.; Shirai, T.; Tongu, H. [Institute of Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2009-03-13

44

Short-lived and long-lived dust devil tracks in the coastal desert of southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal desert of southern Peru, sequential high-resolution satellite images document the presence of short-lived and long-lived dust devil tracks. Dust devil tracks in the study region remain visible for less than 6 months in one area and for more than 4 years in another area. Short-lived tracks are generally darker than the surrounding ground surface. The brightness of long-lived tracks is often equal to that of their surroundings; they become visible due to a brighter edge along their margins. Different modes of formation related to ground surface properties are suggested to explain the differences in persistence and appearance. Dark, short-lived dust devil tracks are ascribed to the removal of silt-sized material from largely sand-sized surface materials. Long-lived tracks with bright margins are ascribed to coarser surface materials and the fallout of sand-sized particles along the track edges. Locating suitable areas on Earth for the study of dust devil tracks and distinguishing between different types of dust devil tracks is expected to further promote terrestrial analogue studies for Martian dust devil streaks.

Hesse, Ralf

2012-08-01

45

Trapping of relatively short-lived radioactive {}^{146}Eu in a Paul trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique has been developed wherein one of the relatively short lived isotopes of europium ({}^{146}Eu, Half life =\\;4.61 days) has been generated by decay of parent {}^{146}Gd atoms and the ions are confined in a Paul trap for spectroscopic studies. Studies of the mass dependent ion oscillation frequencies show that the ions trapped have a mass number 146 amu and this was confirmed by similar measurements carried out on trapped barium and potassium ions. From calculations of thermal ionization probabilities based on the Langmuir-Saha equation and the number of trapped ions estimated from ion response signal, the approximate number of the different isobars (of mass number 146) trapped, has been evaluated. We also present simulations of the evolution of laser-induced fluorescence photons of the trapped {}^{146}Eu ions, wherein a pulsed laser is used to excite the resonance {}^{9}S_{4} - {}^{9}P_{5} transition, which rapidly decays to the metastable {}^{9}D_{4-6} states emitting fluorescence photons.

Joshi, M. K.; Sikdar, A. K.; Rao, Pushpa M.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Das, S. K.; Das, P.

2014-08-01

46

Geochemistry (Cosmochemistry) Irradiation in the early solar system and the origin of short-lived radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of short-lived (T ? 1 Myr) radionuclides (SRs) in the early solar system is a matter of debate. Some short-lived radionuclides had abundances in the solar protoplanetary disk in excess compared to the expected galactic background (7Be, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and possibly 53Mn and 60Fe). These SRs thus either originated from a supernova contamination, or were produced

Matthieu Gounelle; Marc Chaussidon; Thierry Montmerle

47

DEMOGRAPHY OF SHORT-TAILED SHREW POPULATIONS LIVING ON PCB CONTAMINATED SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River, Massachusetts on soils contaminated

RUDY BOONSTRA

2002-01-01

48

Multicolor Live-Cell Chemical Imaging by Isotopically Edited Alkyne Vibrational Palette  

E-print Network

Multicolor Live-Cell Chemical Imaging by Isotopically Edited Alkyne Vibrational Palette Zhixing ABSTRACT: Vibrational imaging such as Raman microscopy is a powerful technique for visualizing a variety-free modality, recent advance of coupling alkyne vibrational tags with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

Hone, James

49

Short-lived and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Pacific intraplate volcanoes have been active since the Early Cretaceous. Their HIMU-EMI-EMII mantle sources can be traced back into the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) using plate tectonic reconstructions, implying that these distinctive components are enduring features within the Earth's mantle for, at least, the last 120 Myr. These correlations are eminent on the scale of the WPSP and the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA), but the evolution of single hot spots emerges notably more complicated. Hot spots in the WPSP and SOPITA mantle regions typically display intermittent volcanic activity, longevities shorter than 40 Myr, superposition of hot spot volcanism, and motion relative to other hot spots. In this review, we use 40Ar/39Ar seamount ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures to map out Cretaceous volcanism in the WPSP and to characterize its evolution with respect to the currently active hot spots in the SOPITA region. Our plate tectonic reconstructions indicate cessation of volcanism during the Cretaceous for the Typhoon and Japanese hot spots; whereas the currently active Samoan, Society, Pitcairn and Marquesas hot spots lack long-lived counterparts in the WPSP. These hot spots may have become active during the last 20 Myr only. The other WPSP seamount trails can be only "indirectly" reconciled with hot spots in the SOPITA region. Complex age distributions in the Magellan, Anewetak, Ralik and Ratak seamount trails would necessitate the superposition of multiple volcanic trails generated by the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hot spots during the Cretaceous; whereas HIMU-type seamounts in the Southern Wake seamount trail would require 350-500 km of hot spot motion over the last 100 Myr following its origination along the Mangaia-Rurutu "hotline" in the Cook-Austral Islands. These observations, however, violate all assumptions of the classical Wilson-Morgan hot spot hypothesis, indicating that long-lived, deep and fixed mantle plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed short-lived and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct isotopic signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.

Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.

2003-10-01

50

Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer lived hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than short-lived hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-lived hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than short-lived hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-lived hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host. PMID:25494853

Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2015-02-01

51

Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the 'rapid neutron-capture process' (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) 'Terra Incognita'. With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a 'Coordinated Research Project' on a 'Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data'. This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

Dillmann, Iris [TRIUMF, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3, Canada and GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Abriola, Daniel [Laboratorio Tandar, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, B1650KINA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2014-05-02

52

Recent activities for ?-decay half-lives and ?-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-delayed neutron (?n) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the "rapid neutron-capture process" (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material ?-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) "Terra Incognita". With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure ?n-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 ?-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 ?-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a "Coordinated Research Project" on a "Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data". This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of ?-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj

2014-05-01

53

Life Extension in the Short-Lived Fish Nothobranchius furzeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genetic and pharmacological research on aging is hampered by the life span of available vertebrate models. We recently initiated\\u000a studies on Nothobranchius furzeri, a species with a maximum life expectancy in captivity of just 3 months, the shortest documented captive life span for a vertebrate.\\u000a Further research on N. furzeri has demonstrated the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Short life span correlates with

Alessandro Cellerino

54

Search for long-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium isotopes  

E-print Network

The discovery of naturally occurring long-lived isomeric states (t_1/2 > 10^8 yr) in the neutron-deficient isotopes 211,213,217,218Th [A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium isotopes and provide upper limits for their abundances.

J. Lachner; I. Dillmann; T. Faestermann; G. Korschinek; M. Poutivtsev; G. Rugel

2009-07-01

55

Search for long-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of naturally occurring long-lived isomeric states (t{sub 1/2}>10{sup 8} yr) in the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 211,213,217,218}Th[A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium isotopes and provide upper limits for their abundances.

Lachner, J.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G. [Physik Department E12 and E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-12-15

56

Search for long-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of naturally occurring long-lived isomeric states (t1/2>108 yr) in the neutron-deficient isotopes Th211,213,217,218 [A. Marinov , Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium isotopes and provide upper limits for their abundances.

Lachner, J.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G.

2008-12-01

57

Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus  

E-print Network

Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus and also explore its dynamical past and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit,...

Marcos, C de la Fuente

2013-01-01

58

Cooling of short-lived, radioactive, highly charged ions with the TITAN cooler Penning trap. Status and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TITAN is an on-line facility dedicated to precision experiments with short-lived radioactive isotopes, in particular mass measurements. The achievable resolution on mass measurement, which depends on the excitation time, is limited by the half life of the radioactive ion. One way to bypass this is by increasing the charge state of the ion of interest. TITAN has the unique capability of charge-breeding radioactive ions using an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) in combination with Penning trap mass spectrometry. However, the breeding process leads to an increase in energy spread, ? E, which in turn negatively influences the mass uncertainty. We report on the development of a cooler Penning trap which aims at reducing the energy spread of the highly charged ions prior to injection into the precision mass measurement trap. Electron and proton cooling will be tested as possible routes. Mass selective cooling techniques are also envisioned.

Simon, V. V.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ke, Z.; Shi, W.; Gwinner, G.

2011-07-01

59

An improved short-lived fluorescent protein transcriptional reporter for S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Ideal reporter genes for temporal transcription programs have short half-lives that restrict their detection to the window in which their transcripts are present and translated. In an effort to meet this criterion for reporters of transcription in individual living cells, we adapted the ubiquitin fusion strategy for programmable N-end rule degradation to generate an N-degron version of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with a half-life of ~7 min. The GFP variant we used here (designated GFP*) has excellent fluorescence brightness and maturation properties, which make the destabilized reporter well suited for tracking the induction and attenuation kinetics of gene expression in living cells. These attributes are illustrated by its ability to track galactose and pheromone induced transcription in S. cerevisiae. We further show that the fluorescence measurements using the short-lived N-degron GFP* reporter gene accurately predict the transient mRNA profile of the prototypical pheromone induced FUS1 gene. PMID:23172645

Houser, John R.; Ford, Eintou; Chatterjea, Sudeshna M.; Maleri, Seth; Elston, Timothy C.; Errede, Beverly

2012-01-01

60

[On the change in the isotopic composition of living beings during aging and evolution].  

PubMed

The article notes that the change in the isotopic composition of living beings during aging and in the evolution was predicted on the basis of the "principle of stability of matter". This principle was formulated by the author in the late 70's of the last century. New quantitative estimates were made, confirming the above prediction. To date, there are many studies that confirm those previously formulated approval by the author. These facts are a new confirmation of the thermodynamic theory of the origin of life, its evolution and aging of living beings. PMID:24640686

Gladyshev, G P

2013-01-01

61

Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short-strong hydrogen bonded cluster  

E-print Network

Isotope dependent, temperature regulated, energy repartitioning in a low-barrier, short/deuterium isotope effects, in a fundamental organic hydrogen bonded system using multiple experimental infrared the isotopically labeled systems arises from an analysis of the simulated cluster spectroscopy and leads

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

62

Time-domain magnetic resonance studies of short-lived radical pairs in liquid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance spectra of radical-ion pairs possessing lifetimes as short as 12 ns have been obtained using a new time-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance technique. Short-lived radical pairs are produced by a laser flash. The transient optical absorbance of the radical pairs or the triplet products resulting from their collapse is monitored as a function of time in the presence

Michael R. Wasielewski; James R. Norris; Michael K. Bowman

1984-01-01

63

Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.  

PubMed

Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

2014-01-01

64

Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes  

PubMed Central

Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (?11B), carbon (?13C), oxygen (?18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, ?13C and ?18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of seawater pH using boron isotopes should be uncompromised by short-term bleaching events. PMID:25396422

Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

2014-01-01

65

Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data  

SciTech Connect

A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.

2011-09-29

66

Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Comprehensive report, March 1, 1980-February 26, 1986  

SciTech Connect

New methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Among the new syntheses reported are those for /sup 123/I-labeled fatty acids and steroids, for /sup 11/C-labeled alcohols, for /sup 13/N-labeled amines, and for /sup 15/O-labeled alcohols. 33 refs.

Kabalka, G.W.

1985-09-01

67

Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 26, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Methods to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids, lipids, and amphetamine derivatives are described. New routes for the introduction of bromine-77, chlorine-34m, and carbon-11 into agents of interest are elaborated. 46 refs.

Kabalka, G.W.

1985-09-01

68

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb  

E-print Network

Aging in a very short-lived nematode Michael P. Gardnera,*, David Gemsb , Mark E. Vineya a School 17 June 2004; accepted 18 June 2004 Available online 8 August 2004 Abstract Aging has been characterised in detail in relatively few animal species. Here we describe the aging process in free

Gems, David

69

Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species  

E-print Network

1 Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species brominated peroxy radicals RO2 (with R = CH2Br, CHBr2 and CBr3) for which the most likely reaction pathways to be important. The Henry's law constants of the brominated organics products have been estimated by using

Boyer, Edmond

70

Absence of replicative senescence in cultured cells from the short-lived killifish Nothobranchius furzeri.  

PubMed

A major challenge in age research is the absence of short-lived vertebrate model organisms. The turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri has the shortest known lifespan of a vertebrate that can be bred in captivity. The short lived GRZ strain only reaches a maximum age of 3-4 months, whereas other strains (MZM) reach 6-10 months. Most importantly, the short lifespan is associated with typical signs of ageing. To find out more about possible cellular factors that might contribute to the short lifespan and to the difference in lifespan between strains, we analyzed the expression of markers for cellular senescence. Expression of Tp53, Cdkn1a and Cdkn2a/b in skin revealed no change in the short-lived GRZ but increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitors Cdkn1a and Cdkn2a/b in the long-lived MZM strain with age. This suggests that expression of distinct cell cycle inhibitors reflects rather chronological than biological age in N. furzeri. To study the relationship of organismal life span and in vitro life span of cells, we established a primary cell culture model. For both strains we demonstrate here the absence of replicative senescence as analysed by morphology, expression of Cdkn1a and Cdkn2a/b, population doubling times and ?H2AFX in long-term and short-term cultured cells. We reason this to be on account of sustained telomerase activity and maintained telomeric length. Hence, we propose that differences in maximum life span of different N. furzeri strains is not reflected by differences in proliferation speed or replicative potential of the respective cultured cells. PMID:22445733

Graf, Michael; Hartmann, Nils; Reichwald, Kathrin; Englert, Christoph

2013-01-01

71

Proteome scale turnover analysis in live animals using stable isotope metabolic labeling.  

PubMed

At present most quantitative proteomics investigations are focused on the analysis of protein expression differences between two or more sample specimens. With each analysis a static snapshot of a cellular state is captured with regard to protein expression. However, any information on protein turnover cannot be obtained using classic methodologies. Protein turnover, the result of protein synthesis and degradation, represents a dynamic process, which is of equal importance to understanding physiological processes. Methods employing isotopic tracers have been developed to measure protein turnover. However, applying these methods to live animals is often complicated by the fact that an assessment of precursor pool relative isotope abundance is required. Also, data analysis becomes difficult in case of low label incorporation, which results in a complex convolution of labeled and unlabeled peptide mass spectrometry signals. Here we present a protein turnover analysis method that circumvents this problem using a (15)N-labeled diet as an isotopic tracer. Mice were fed with the labeled diet for limited time periods and the resulting partially labeled proteins digested and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. For the interpretation of the mass spectrometry data, we have developed the ProTurnyzer software that allows the determination of protein fractional synthesis rates without the need of precursor relative isotope abundance information. We present results validating ProTurnyzer with Escherichia coli protein data and apply the method to mouse brain and plasma proteomes for automated turnover studies. PMID:21314131

Zhang, Yaoyang; Reckow, Stefan; Webhofer, Christian; Boehme, Michael; Gormanns, Philipp; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang M; Turck, Christoph W

2011-03-01

72

Stable isotope analysis reveals whether soil-living elaterid larvae move between agricultural crops  

PubMed Central

Tracking the movement of soil-living herbivores is difficult, albeit important for understanding their spatial ecology as well as for pest management. In this study the movement of Agriotes obscurus larvae between plots harbouring isotopically different plants was examined. Neither between maize and wheat nor between maize and grassland movement could be detected. These data suggest that Agriotes larvae rarely disperse between crops as long as local food supply is sufficient. Moreover, the current approach provides a new means to study the dispersal of soil invertebrates in situ. PMID:21760645

Schallhart, N.; Tusch, M.J.; Staudacher, K.; Wallinger, C.; Traugott, M.

2011-01-01

73

The short-lived MAT alpha 2 transcriptional regulator is ubiquitinated in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The substrates of ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathways include both damaged or otherwise abnormal proteins and undamaged proteins that are naturally short-lived. Few specific examples of the latter class have been identified, however. Previous work has shown that the cell type-specific MAT alpha 2 repressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extremely short-lived protein. We now demonstrate that alpha 2 is conjugated to ubiquitin in vivo. More than one lysine residue of alpha 2 can be joined to ubiquitin, and some of the ubiquitin moieties form a Lys48-linked multiubiquitin chain. Overexpression of degradation-impaired ubiquitin variants was used to show that at least a significant fraction of alpha 2 degradation is dependent on its ubiquitination. Images PMID:1647011

Hochstrasser, M; Ellison, M J; Chau, V; Varshavsky, A

1991-01-01

74

Measurements of Short-Lived Organohalogens Over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean During TORERO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived halogen compounds have the ability to affect stratospheric ozone mixing ratios as well as marine boundary layer (MBL) ozone mixing ratios. Modeling studies have shown that rapid convection of short-lived halocarbons to the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) can significantly impact ozone photochemistry. Recent measurements show that, indeed, the short-lived halocarbons such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CH3I reach the UT/LS. However, the impact of these compounds on ozone chemistry is difficult to discern due to the episodic nature of their transport to the UT/LS. Although the tropospheric budgets of these gases have been the focus of much research recently, there is still little known about the seasonal dynamics and their ambient mixing ratios. In addition, little is known about the regional distribution of sources and sinks of these compounds and their impact on MBL chemistry. TORERO (Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxygenated volatile organic compounds) provided an opportunity to investigate the distributions of several of these species over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean using the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), a fast online GC-MS instrument deployed on the NSF/NCAR G-V, and the University of York TD-GCMS, deployed on the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana and to compare these results to the CAM-chem model which has recently been extended to include tropospheric halogen chemistry.

Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Andrews, S. J.; Lamarque, J.; Carpenter, L.; Apel, E. C.

2012-12-01

75

Using stable isotopes to understand survival strategies of the living fossil, Welwitschia mirabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Namib Desert along the southwestern coast of Africa is hyper-arid in terms of rainfall (<25 mm/yr), but experiences coastal fog deposition up to 100 days each year. The Namib is also home to the biologically anomalous, very long-lived and evolutionarily ancient gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. Due to its perennial broad green leaves that apparently demand around 1 L of water per day, some have suggested that this living fossil survives on fog deposition. We have investigated this hypothesis using stable isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H) and found that W. mirabilis shows no evidence of fog uptake. Rather, its stem water looks much like that of large trees that tap into an alluvial aquifer, and nothing like the stem water of shrubs that are endemic to the fog zone and have been shown elsewhere to take up and translocate fog water. We also investigated some biogeochemical aspects of W. mirabilis through ?13C, ?15N and ?34S analysis of stem organic matter. These data revealed a large amount of variability in ?13C and ?15N among plants growing in close proximity to one another, indicating the possibility of micro-environmental control on the C and N cycles. The ?34S data provided a necessary additional constraint on the water isotope investigation.

Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

2011-12-01

76

Carbon isotopic fractionation in live benthic foraminifera—comparison with inorganic precipitate studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses have been performed on live-stained aragonitic and calcitic benthic foraminifera and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the Southern California Borderland to examine carbon isotopic fractionation in foraminifera. Temperature, salinity and pH data have also been collected to permit accurate determination of the ? 13C of bicarbonate ion and thus aragonite-HCO 3 and calcite-HCO -3 isotopic enrichment factors (? ar-b and ? cl-b, respectively). Only species which precipitate in 18O equilibrium have been considered. ? ar-b values based on Hoeglundina elegans range from 1.9%. at 2.7°C to 1.1%. at 9.5°C. Only the lower temperature values agree with a tentative carbon isotope equilibrium equation for aragonite based on the data of RUBINSON and CLAYTON (1969) and Emrich et al. (1970). The temperature dependence of ? ar-b is considerably greater than the equilibrium equation would predict and may be due to a vital effect. The calcitic foraminifera Cassidulina tortuosa, Cassidulina braziliensis, and Cassidulina limbata, Bank and Terrace dwellers, have similar ? 13C values and yield an average ? cl-b value of -0.2 ± .1%. between 8° and 10°C. Calcitic Uvigerina curticosta, Uvigerina peregrina, and megalospheric B. argentea, Slope and Basin dwellers, are -0.7 ± .1%. enriched relative to ambient bicarbonate for 3 to 9°C. No temperature dependence for ? cl-b was observed for the species in either habitat. The ? cl-b values for Cassidulina species are close (± 0.3%.) to the values given by the tentative equilibrium curve for calcite, while Uvigerina and Bolivina species give values 0.2-0.8%. less. The ? cl-b difference between the Cassidulina species and the Uvigerina and Bolivina species is attributed to the incorporation of 13C-depleted pore water DIC by the latter group rather than to taxonomic or temperature differences.

Grossman, Ethan L.

1984-07-01

77

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

78

Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.  

PubMed

In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

2003-06-01

79

182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System  

PubMed Central

Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ?5 × 10?5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10?6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ?3 × 10?6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin

2013-01-01

80

182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.  

PubMed

Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ?5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ?3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock. PMID:23671077

Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

2013-05-28

81

The Irradiation Origin of Beryllium Radioisotopes and Other Short-lived Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Two explanations exist for the short-lived radionuclides present in the solar system when the CAIs first formed. They originated either from the ejecta of a supernova or by the in situ irradiation of nebular dust by energetic particles. With a half-life of only 53 days, Beryllium-7 is then the key discriminant, since it can be made only by irradiation. We calculate the yield of Be-7. Within model uncertainties associated mainly with nuclear cross sections, we obtain agreement with the experimental value. Moreover, if Be-7 and Be-10 have the same origin, the irradiation time must be short. The x-wind model provides a natural astrophysical setting that gives the requisite conditions. The decoupling of the Al-26 and Be-10 observed in some rare CAIs receives a quantitative explanation when rare gradual events are considered. Finally, we show that the presence of supernova-produced Fe-60 in the solar accretion disk does not necessarily mean that other short-lived radionuclides have a stellar origin.

Matthieu Gounelle; Frank H. Shu; Hsien Shang; A. E. Glassgold; K. E. Rehm; Typhoon Lee

2005-12-21

82

Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

2014-12-01

83

The role of short-lived climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent high-profile publications have suggested that immediately reducing emissions of methane, black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) may contribute substantially towards the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Although this literature acknowledges that action on long-lived climate pollutants (LLCPs) such as CO2 is also required, it is not always appreciated that SLCP emissions in any given decade only have a significant impact on peak temperature under circumstances in which CO2 emissions are falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially 'buy time' for adaptation by reducing near-term warming; however early SLCP reductions, compared with reductions in a future decade, do not buy time to delay reductions in CO2.

Bowerman, Niel H. A.; Frame, David J.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Allen, Myles R.

2013-12-01

84

Measuring (n,f) cross-sections of short-lived states  

E-print Network

In order to test theories of fission cross-sections, it is desirable to measure the (n,f) cross-sections of both an isomeric state and the ground state of the same isotope of the same element. This would test the ability to calculate effects that depend only on spin and parity without the confusion of effects that depend on (Z,A). At present there is no isotope for which the (n,f) cross-section has been measured successfully at MeV energies, where theoretical predictions can be made. There have been a few measurements of the cross-section U235m at thermal and cold energies. At these energies the cross-section is expected to be dominated by incalculable resonances, so that it may not be a useful test of theoretical predictions. I suggest methods for measuring the (n,f) cross-sections to neutrons with a fission spectrum of 1/2+ (26 m) isomeric U235m and of 1- (16 h) (shorter lived than the isomer) Am242gs.

J. I. Katz

2010-03-24

85

Short-lived brominated species - observations in the source regions and the tropical tropopause layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted measurements of up to the five important short-lived brominated species in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the mid-latitudes (List/Sylt, North Sea) in June 2009 and of the tropical Western Pacific during the TransBrom ship campaign in October 2009. For the one-week time series in List mean mixing ratios of 2.0, 1.1, 0.2, 0.1 ppt were analysed for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl, with maxima of 5.8 and 1.6 ppt for the two main components CHBr3 and CH2Br2. Along the cruise track in the Western Pacific (between 41° N and 13° S) mean mixing ratios of 1.0, 0.9, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl were determined. Air samples with coastal influence showed considerably higher mixing ratios than the samples with open ocean origin. Correlation analyses of the two datasets yielded strong linear relationships between the mixing ratios of four of the five species (except for CH2BrCl). Using a combined dataset from the two campaigns, rough estimates of the molar emission ratios between the correlated substances were derived as follows: 9/1/0.3/0.3 for CHBr3/CH2Br2/CHBrCl2/CHBr2Cl. Additional measurements were made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above Teresina (Brazil, 5.07° S, 42.87° W) in June 2008, using balloon-borne cryogenic whole air sampling technique. Near the level of zero clear-sky net radiative heating (LZRH) at 14.8 km about 2.25 ppt organic bromine was bound to the five short-lived species, making up 13 % of total organic bromine (17.82 ppt). CH2Br2 (1.45 ppt) and CHBr3 (0.56 ppt) accounted for 90 % of the budget of short-lived compounds in that region. Near the tropopause (at 17.5 km) organic bromine from short-lived substances was reduced to 1.35 ppt, with 1.07 ppt and 0.12 ppt attributed to CH2Br2 and CHBr3 respectively.

Brinckmann, S.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.

2011-08-01

86

Mass Measurement of Short-lived Nuclei at HIRFL-CSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four campaigns of mass measurements for short-lived nuclei have been conducted using an isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) technique at HIRFL-CSR(Cooler Storage Ring) in Lanzhou. The radioactive nuclei were produced by projectile fragmentation and injected into the experimental storage ring CSRe. Revolution times of the ions stored in the CSRe were measured from which masses of 78Kr, 58Ni, 86Kr and 112Sn fragments have been determined with a relative uncertainty of about 10-6-10-7. The experimental results are presented and their impacts on nucleosynthesis in the rp process and nuclear structure are discussed.

Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.

2014-03-01

87

Role of a short-lived ?* resonance in formic-acid O—H bond breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review briefly the recent work on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to formic acid. Using Feshbach resonance theory we present results calculating the forces on various atoms during resonance processes that can arise at different electron impact energies. The conclusion is that DEA to formic acid happens through a short-lived ?* resonance with minimal involvement from ?-? symmetry breaking as suggested elsewhere. We conclude that rehybridization on a C atom caused by the ?-? mixing is too far from the O—H bond to detect its effect on the DEA cross section. A recent experimental confirmation is also reported.

Gallup, G. A.

2013-11-01

88

Short-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of live cell dynamics  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines short-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of live cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock. PMID:23024912

Witte, Stefan; Plau?ka, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C.; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Groot, Marie Louise

2012-01-01

89

Inducible transgenic expression in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (Gfp) containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible Gfp expression was demonstrated and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism. PMID:23639168

Allard, J B; Kamei, H; Duan, C

2013-05-01

90

Short-coherence off-axis holographic phase microscopy of live cell dynamics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a single-shot holographic phase microscope that combines short-coherence laser pulses with an off-axis geometry. By introducing a controlled pulse front tilt, ultrashort pulses are made to interfere over a large field-of-view without loss of fringe contrast. With this microscope, quantitative phase images of live cells can be recorded in a full-field geometry without moving parts. We perform phase imaging of HEK293 cells, to study the dynamics of cell volume regulation in response to an osmotic shock. PMID:23024912

Witte, Stefan; Plau?ka, Andrius; Ridder, Margreet C; van Berge, Laura; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Groot, Marie Louise

2012-09-01

91

Probing short-lived protein ligand interactions with single-molecule force spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in stabilizing biomolecular complexes. Although life time of individual bonds can be extremely short, cooperativity among many interactions increase the overall life time of the complex. To probe short-lived individual interactions, we have employed a recently developed atomic force microscopy technique that can carry out single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments on the microsecond timescale. Our loading-rate dependent measurements provide experimental evidence for an additional energy barrier in the biotin-streptavidin complex. The width of this barrier, estimated from the measurements, is both close to theoretical predictions based on steered molecular dynamics simulations and to the characteristic width of individual hydrogen bonds. We will present our experimental methodology and analysis of the results on biotin-streptavidin complex.

Sahin, Ozgur; Dong, Mingdong

2012-02-01

92

Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies  

SciTech Connect

Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

2007-09-24

93

Seeds of alpine plants are short lived: implications for long-term conservation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Alpine plants are considered one of the groups of species most sensitive to the direct and indirect threats to ecosystems caused by land use and climate change. Collecting and banking seeds of plant species is recognized as an effective tool for providing propagating material to re-establish wild plant populations and for habitat repair. However, seeds from cold wet environments have been shown to be relatively short lived in storage, and therefore successful long-term seed conservation for alpine plants may be difficult. Here, the life spans of 69 seed lots representing 63 related species from alpine and lowland locations from northern Italy are compared. Methods Seeds were placed into experimental storage at 45 °C and 60 % relative humidity (RH) and regularly sampled for germination. The time taken in storage for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) was determined using probit analysis and used as a measure of relative seed longevity between seed lots. Key Results Across species, p50 at 45 °C and 60 % RH varied from 4·7 to 95·5 d. Seed lots from alpine populations/species had significantly lower p50 values compared with those from lowland populations/species; the lowland seed lots showed a slower rate of loss of germinability, higher initial seed viability, or both. Seeds were progressively longer lived with increased temperature and decreased rainfall at the collecting site. Conclusions Seeds of alpine plants are short lived in storage compared with those from lowland populations/related taxa. The lower resistance to ageing in seeds of alpine plants may arise from low selection pressure for seed resistance to ageing and/or damage incurred during seed development due to the cool wet conditions of the alpine climate. Long-term seed conservation of several alpine species using conventional seed banking methods will be problematic. PMID:21081585

Mondoni, Andrea; Probert, Robin J.; Rossi, Graziano; Vegini, Emanuele; Hay, Fiona R.

2011-01-01

94

Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182

Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2014-11-18

95

Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182

Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2014-01-01

96

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.  

PubMed

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

2009-06-01

97

A new methodology involving stable isotope tracer to compare short- and long- term selenium mobility in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selenium is an element of environmental concern given its dual beneficial and toxic character to animal and human health. Its radioactive isotope 79Se, a fission product of 235U, is considered critical in safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories in case of leakage and hypothetical soil contamination. Therefore, Se species transformations and interactions with soil components have to be clearly understood to predict its dispersion in the biosphere (e.g., accumulation in soils, migration to waters, transfer to living organisms). While natural Se interactions with soils run over centuries to millennia time scales, transformations and partitioning are generally studied with short-term experiments (often inferior to 1 month) after Se addition. The influence of slower, long-term processes involved in Se speciation and mobility in soils is thus not properly accounted for. We tested if using ambient Se would be relevant for long-term risk assessment while added Se would be more representative of short-term contamination impact. For that purpose, we developed a new methodology to trace the differential reactivity of ambient and spiked Se at trace level (µg kg-1) in soils. It combined the use of a stable isotopically enriched tracer with our previous published analytical method based on specific extractions and HPLC-ICP-MS to determine trace Se species partition in different soil phases. Given that soil extracts contains very high concentrations of various elements interfering Se (e.g., Fe, Cl, Br), the ICP-MS parameters and mathematical corrections were optimized to cope with such interferences. Following optimization, three correct and accurate (<2%) isotope ratios were obtained with 77Se, 78Se, 80Se and 82Se. The optimized method was then applied to an arable and a forest soil submitted to an aging process (drying/wetting cycles) during three months, to which 77Se(IV) was previously added. The results showed that ambient Se was at steady state in terms of water leachability, partition between soil solid phases (exchangeable Se and Se associated to organic matter) and speciation. At the opposite, the retention strength, solid phase partition and speciation of 77Se(IV) were modified during the experiment time-course and presented different kinetics. 77Se(IV) behavior tended to be similar to the one of ambient Se but still remained less strongly retained and chemically transformed at three months. We concluded that kinetically limited processes are involved in Se retention and transformation in soils and that commonly used short-term experiments (<1 month) do not consider them properly. Otherwise, it seems more judicious to study ambient Se to infer the processes and parameters used in long-term risk assessment modeling. Since three correct and accurate Se isotope ratios were obtained, this new methodology can be further used to simultaneous monitor the reactivity of three different Se forms (e.g., added Se(IV), Se(VI) or Se(0), ambient Se), that will be useful for both soil Se contamination and supplementation contexts.

Tolu, Julie; Thiry, Yves; Potin-gautier, Martine; Le hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté

2013-04-01

98

Doubly-armed short sutures are useful for microsurgical hepatic artery reconstruction in living-related liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Although microsurgical hepatic artery reconstruction has become the essential technique in pediatric and living-related liver transplantation, it remains a technical challenge. We describe here our microsurgical hepatic artery reconstruction technique in living-related liver transplantation using a doubly-armed short suture. From August 1998 to March 1999, 8 patients underwent living-related liver transplantation at the Kyushu University. For these 8 patients, microsurgical reconstruction with doubly-armed short sutures were undertaken. After preparing the operative field for microsurgery, operative microscopy with a continuous zoom magnification is introduced. Interrupted sutures using doubly-armed short sutures are performed in a biangular stay-sutured method with a double clip. None of the 8 patients developed hepatic artery thrombosis. We conclude that the use of doubly-armed sutures allows safe and reliable in microsurgical hepatic artery reconstruction in living related liver transplantation. PMID:11020888

Ikegami, T; Nishizaki, T; Uchiyama, H; Hashimoto, K; Yanaga, K; Sugimachi, K

2000-01-01

99

Muonic hydrogen cascade time and lifetime of the short-lived $2S$ state  

E-print Network

Metastable ${2S}$ muonic-hydrogen atoms undergo collisional ${2S}$-quenching, with rates which depend strongly on whether the $\\mu p$ kinetic energy is above or below the ${2S}\\to {2P}$ energy threshold. Above threshold, collisional ${2S} \\to {2P}$ excitation followed by fast radiative ${2P} \\to {1S}$ deexcitation is allowed. The corresponding short-lived $\\mu p ({2S})$ component was measured at 0.6 hPa $\\mathrm{H}_2$ room temperature gas pressure, with lifetime $\\tau_{2S}^\\mathrm{short} = 165 ^{+38}_{-29}$ ns (i.e., $\\lambda_{2S}^\\mathrm{quench} = 7.9 ^{+1.8}_{-1.6} \\times 10^{12} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ at liquid-hydrogen density) and population $\\epsilon_{2S}^\\mathrm{short} = 1.70^{+0.80}_{-0.56}$ % (per $\\mu p$ atom). In addition, a value of the $\\mu p$ cascade time, $T_\\mathrm{cas}^{\\mu p} = (37\\pm5)$ ns, was found.

Ludhova, L; Antognini, A; Biraben, F; Cardoso, J M R; Conde, C A N; Dax, A; Dhawan, S; Dos Santos, J M F; Fernandes, L M P; Hughes, V W; Hänsch, T W; Indelicato, P J; Julien, L; Knowles, P E; Kottmann, F; Liu, Y W; Lopes, J A M; Monteiro, C M B; Mulhauser, F; Nez, F; Pohl, R; Rabinowitz, P; Schaller, L A; Schwob, C; Taqqu, D; Veloso, J F C A

2006-01-01

100

Simultaneous Triggered Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injection of Short-Lived Radioisotopes by a Supernova Shock Wave  

E-print Network

Cosmochemical evidence for the existence of short-lived radioisotopes (SLRI) such as $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe at the time of the formation of primitive meteorites requires that these isotopes were synthesized in a massive star and then incorporated into chondrites within $\\sim 10^6$ yr. A supernova shock wave has long been hypothesized to have transported the SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered cloud collapse, and injected the isotopes. Previous numerical calculations have shown that this scenario is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to be isothermal at $\\sim 10$ K, but not when compressional heating to $\\sim 1000$ K is assumed. We show here for the first time that when calculated with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code, a 20 km/sec shock wave can indeed trigger the collapse of a 1 $M_\\odot$ cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave isotopes into the collapsing cloud, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H$_2$O, CO$_2$, and H$_2$ is included. These calculations imply that the supernova trigger hypothesis is the most likely mechanism for delivering the SLRI present during the formation of the solar system.

Alan P. Boss; Sergei I. Ipatov; Sandra A. Keiser; Elizabeth A. Myhill; Harri A. T. Vanhala

2008-09-18

101

Short-lived brominated hydrocarbons - observations in the source regions and the tropical tropopause layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted measurements of the five important short-lived organic bromine species in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Measurements were made in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes (Sylt Island, North Sea) in June 2009 and in the tropical Western Pacific during the TransBrom ship campaign in October 2009. For the one-week time series on Sylt Island, mean mixing ratios of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl were 2.0, 1.1, 0.2, 0.1 ppt, respectively. We found maxima of 5.8 and 1.6 ppt for the two main components CHBr3 and CH2Br2. Along the cruise track in the Western Pacific (between 41° N and 13° S) we measured mean mixing ratios of 0.9, 0.9, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CH2BrCl. Air samples with coastal influence showed considerably higher mixing ratios than the samples with open ocean origin. Correlation analyses of the two data sets yielded strong linear relationships between the mixing ratios of four of the five species (except for CH2BrCl). Using a combined data set from the two campaigns and a comparison with the results from two former studies, rough estimates of the molar emission ratios between the correlated substances were: 9/1/0.35/0.35 for CHBr3/CH2Br2/CHBrCl2/CHBr2Cl. Additional measurements were made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above Teresina (Brazil, 5° S) in June 2008, using balloon-borne cryogenic whole air sampling technique. Near the level of zero clear-sky net radiative heating (LZRH) at 14.8 km about 2.25 ppt organic bromine was bound to the five short-lived species, making up 13% of total organic bromine (17.82 ppt). CH2Br2 (1.45 ppt) and CHBr3 (0.56 ppt) accounted for 90% of the budget of short-lived compounds in that region. Near the tropopause (at 17.5 km) organic bromine from these substances was reduced to 1.35 ppt, with 1.07 and 0.12 ppt attributed to CH2Br2 and CHBr3, respectively.

Brinckmann, S.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.

2012-02-01

102

From mantle to ash cloud: quantifying magma generation, ascent, and degassing rates at Kilauea during short-lived explosive episodes using short-lived U-series radionuclide disequilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed for 238U-series isotopes lava, scoria and ash samples erupted from Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i between 1982 and 2008, in order to investigate processes and timescales of magma generation in the mantle, magma ascent through the crust, and eruption. Timescales of degassing during steady-state lava flow activity occurring in Kilauea East Rift Zone and short-lived explosive episodes that occurred in both the East Rift Zone (Pu'u 'O'o vent opening in 1983 and episode 54 at N?pau crater in January 1997) and on the summit (Halema'uma'u crater eruptions in March 2008) are compared and contrasted. All samples were found to have small but variable 230Th and 226Ra activity excesses over 238U and 230Th, respectively, with (230Th/238U) ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.13 and (226Ra/230Th) ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.17. These two variable isotopic disequilibria may reflect local heterogeneities in the mantle underneath Kilauea, with sources in relatively primitive mantle with (238U)-(230Th)-(226Ra) in secular equilibrium and in recently (< 8000 years) depleted mantle with (230Th) and (226Ra) deficits over parent nuclides. In this model, both types of mantle melt to generate Kilauea magmas and subsequently mix in variable proportions. Samples from the brief explosive episodes span the entire composition range, suggesting that they were fed by heterogeneous magma batches which did not homogenize during ascent from the mantle. (210Pb/226Ra) ratios range from 0.75 to 1.00. The lack of correlation between (210Pb/226Ra) and (226Ra/230Th) or (230Th/238U), and the rapid return to secular equilibrium of 210Pb (< 100 years) suggest a fractionation process distinct from and subsequent to the Ra-Th-U fractionation inherited from mantle melting. We hypothesize that 210Pb deficits originate from 222Rn degassing during magma ascent, and estimate magma ascent from lower crust to surface to take place in a maximum of ~ 7 years for the lava flow samples. Products from the explosive episodes have ratios from ~ 0.75 to near equilibrium, suggesting that they comprise of a mix of young melts and degassed magmas which were stored in the shallow volcanic edifice for a few decades, in agreement with existing petrologic models.

Girard, G.; Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.; Thornber, C. R.

2012-12-01

103

Are baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses in free-living amphibians repeatable?  

PubMed

Amphibians respond to environmental stressors by secreting corticosterone, a stress hormone which promotes physiological and behavioral responses. Capture handling can be used to stimulate physiological stress response in amphibians. The use of single blood sampling and presentation of mean data often limits the quantification of within and between individual variation in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses in amphibians. It is important for studies of amphibian physiological ecology to determine whether baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses are consistent or not. We quantified repeatability (r), a statistical measure of consistency, in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses to a standard capture and handling stress protocol in free-living adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina). Corticosterone metabolite concentrations were measured entirely non-invasively in male toad urine samples via an enzyme-immunoassay. During the first sampling occasion, urine samples were collected manually from individual male toads (n=20) immediately upon field capture. Toads were handled for 5min then transferred to plastic bags (constituting a mild stressor), and urine samples were collected hourly over 8h in the field. The toads were resampled for baseline (0h) urine corticosterone with hourly urine sampling over 8h (for quantification of the stress induced corticosterone) at 14 day intervals on three consecutive occasions. Within and between sample variations in urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations were also quantified. All toads expressed a corticosterone stress response over 8h to our standard capture and handling stress protocol. Variations both within and between toads was higher for corrected integrated corticosterone concentrations than corticosterone concentrations at baseline, 3 or 6h. Baseline urinary corticosterone metabolite concentration of the male toads was highly repeatable (r=0.877) together with high statistical repeatabilities for 3h (r=0.695), 6h (r=0.428) and 8h (r=0.775) corticosterone metabolite concentrations, and for the total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses (r=0.807; r=0.743 respectively). This study highlights that baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses are repeatable in free-living amphibians. Future studies should utilize this non-invasive tool to explore repeatability among seasons and across years, and determine its functional significance in relation to behavioral ecology and reproduction in amphibians generally. PMID:23047053

Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-01-01

104

New Developments for Isochronous Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The combination of the in-flight separator FRS and the storage-ring ESR at GSI offers unique possibilities for high accuracy mass and lifetime measurements of bare and few-electron fragments. Operating the ESR in the isochronous mode allows for measurements of revolution frequencies of stored ions without cooling. Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can be applied to fragments with half-lives as short as several tens of microseconds. Newly developed magnetic rigidity tagging increases the resolving power of IMS to about 500000. IMS can be used to measure masses of nuclei with rates even lower than one ion per day, a property also needed for the purpose of the ILIMA project at the future facility FAIR.

Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winckler, N. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Sun, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beckert, K.; Beller, P.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Montes, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)

2007-02-26

105

A Massive AGB Star as Source of Short-Lived Nuclei in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of short-lived radioactive nuclei at the time of the formation of the Sun is a much debated mystery in modern astronomy. We show that abundance predictions for massive AGB stars (roughly 6 Msolar) of solar metallicity can self-consistently match the abundances of 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd in the early Solar System, as derived from meteorite analysis. On the other hand our models do not produce 182Hf, thus confirming previous results. Recent measurements of excesses in 62Ni and 96Zr, correlated to 60Fe, can be accounted for by a massive AGB source. Moreover, these stars could be an important source of 87Rb, as recently observed, and thus induce the fluctuations in the Rb/Sr ratio observed in primitive chondritic materials. Finally, we discuss recent observations of decoupling between the presence of 26Al and 60Fe in differentiated planetesimals and their implications on candidate stellar sources.

Lugaro, M.; Karakas, A. I.; van Raai, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.

2008-04-01

106

CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

2013-12-01

107

A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument  

PubMed Central

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

2015-01-01

108

A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.  

PubMed

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

2014-12-01

109

Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs

1995-02-01

110

Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating among Near-Earth Stellar Explosion Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 105-108 yr that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the 60Fe and 26Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include 244Pu and 53Mn. We discuss interpretations of the 60Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (1) the 60Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (2) the 60Fe signals highly constrain SAGB interpretations but do not completely them rule out, (3) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (4) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radioisotope deposition over time, and we use the Sedov blast wave solution to illustrate possible time-resolved profiles. Measuring such profiles would independently probe the blast properties including distance, and would provide additional constraints for the nature of the explosion.

Fry, Brian J.; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John R.

2015-02-01

111

Mass spectrometric detection of short-lived drug metabolites generated in an electrochemical microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

The costs of drug development have been rising exponentially over the last six decades, making it essential to select drug candidates in the early drug discovery phases before proceeding to expensive clinical trials. Here, we present novel screening methods using an electrochemical chip coupled online to mass spectrometry (MS) or liquid chromatography (LC) and MS, to generate phase I and phase II drug metabolites and to demonstrate protein modification by reactive metabolites. The short transit time (?4.5 s) between electrochemical oxidation and mass spectrometric detection, enabled by an integrated electrospray emitter, allows us to detect a short-lived radical metabolite of chlorpromazine which is too unstable to be detected using established test routines. In addition, a fast way to screen candidate drugs is established by recording real-time mass voltammograms, which allows one to identify the drug metabolites that are expected to be formed upon oxidation by applying a linear potential sweep and simultaneously detect oxidation products. Furthermore, detoxification of electrochemically generated reactive metabolites of paracetamol was mimicked by their adduct formation with the antioxidant glutathione. Finally, the potential toxicity of reactive metabolites can be investigated by the modification of proteins, which was demonstrated by modification of carbonic anhydrase I with electrochemically generated reactive metabolites of paracetamol. With this series of experiments, we demonstrate the potential of this electrochemical chip as a complementary tool for a variety of drug metabolism studies in the early stages of drug discovery. PMID:25531627

van den Brink, Floris T G; Büter, Lars; Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; Karst, Uwe; van den Berg, Albert

2015-02-01

112

First Results Using a New Technology for Measuring Masses of Very Short-Lived Nuclides with Very High Accuracy: the MISTRAL Program at ISOLDE  

SciTech Connect

MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very short-lived nuclides (T{sub 1/2} down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10{sup -7}). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na{clubsuit}, Mg, Al{clubsuit}, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8x10{sup -7}, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced {sup 30}Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7x10{sup -7}.

C. Monsanglant; C. Toader; G. Audi; G. Bollen; C. Borcea; G. Conreur; R. Cousin; H. Doubre; M. Duma; M. Jacotin; S. Henry; J.-F. Kepinski; H.-J. Kluge; G. Lebee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; M. de Saint Simon; C. Scheidenberger; C. Thibault

1999-12-31

113

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have bee...

Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

2015-01-01

114

Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities that may be sufficient to explain the observations if the time elapsed delta from the contamination of the ISM to the formation of protoplanetary bodies is not higher than delta = 5 x 106 yr. If delta is longer, up to 10 x 106 yr, this would require the single AGB star to experience enhanced neutron densities (nn approximately 3 x 109n/cu cm) in the s-processing zone in order to compensate for the branching at Fe-59. The alternative model of long-term continuous ejection of matter from many AGB stars does not appear to match the observations. We also estimate the Al-26 production from the H-shell and find that the Al-26 abundance in the early solar system may be readily explained in a self-consistent manner. Moreover, Al-26 from AGB stars may contribute substantially to the galactic Al-26 gamma-source, while no significant gamma-flux from Co-60 (deriving from Fe-60 decay) is to be expected.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

1994-03-01

115

Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a short-lived rodent  

PubMed Central

Background Short lived, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a “young-of-the-year” life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an “overwinter” life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring). We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-lived OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled. We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Results Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as short latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Conclusion Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as suggested by the POL theory, however, was not found. Nevertheless, correlations of traits suggest the existence of animal personalities. In conclusion, complex patterns of population dynamics, seasonal variation in life histories, and variability of behaviour due to asset-protection may cause complex seasonal behavioural dynamics in a population. PMID:24238069

2013-01-01

116

Metrics for comparing climate impacts of short- and long-lived climate forcing agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities emit a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with different characteristics that influence both air quality and climate. The emissions affect climate both directly and indirectly and operate on both short and long timescales. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on a common scale in terms of climate impact, i.e. metrics, have a number of applications (e.g. agreements and emission trading schemes, when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions). The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Global Warming Potential (GWP) over a 100 year time-horizon. The IPCC First Assessment Report states the GWP was presented to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. There have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed, but there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. Furthermore, the capability to compare components with very different lifetimes and temporal behaviour needs consideration. The temperature based metrics (e.g. the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)) require a model for the temperature response, and additional uncertainty is thus introduced. Short-lived forcers may also give more spatially heterogeneous responses, and the possibilities to capture these spatial variations by using other indicators than global mean RF or temperature change in metrics will be discussed. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) should, however, depend on the objectives of climate policy. Alternatives to the current 'multi-gas and single-basket' approach will also be explored and discussed (e.g. how a two-target approach may be implemented using a two-basket approach). One example is measures to reduce near-term rate of warming and long-term stabilization which can be implemented through two separate targets and two baskets with separate set of metrics for each target, but still keeping all components in both baskets.

Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.

2013-12-01

117

Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. Short-lived positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The short-lived radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing short-lived positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may be introduced to plants as biologically active molecules such as 11CO2, N13O-3, 18F--[H2O], and H152O . Plants for these studies are grown in controlled-environment chambers at the Phytotron. The chambers offer an array of control for temperature, humidity, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and light intensity. Additionally, the Phytotron houses one large reach-in growth chamber that is dedicated to this project for radioisotope labeling measurements. There are several important properties of short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers that make them well suited for use in investigating metabolite transport in plants. First, because the molecular mass of a radioisotope-tagged compound is only minutely different from the corresponding stable compound, radiotracer substances should be metabolized and transported in plants the same as their non-radioactive counterparts. Second, because the relatively high energy gamma rays emitted from electron-positron annihilation are attenuated very little by plant tissue, the real-time distribution of a radiotracer can be measured in vivo in plants. Finally, the short radioactive half-lives of these isotopes allow for repeat measurements on the same plant in a short period of time. For example, in studies of short-term environmental changes on plant metabolite dynamics, a single plant can be labeled multiple times to measure its responses to different, environmental conditions. Also, different short-lived radiotracers can be applied to the same plant over a short period of time to investigate the transport and allocation of various metabolites. This newly developed system provides the capabilities for production of 11CO2 at TUNL, transfer of the 11CO 2 gas from the target area at TUNL to a radiation-shielded cryogenic trap at the Phytotron, labeling of photoassimilates with 11C, and in vivo gamma-ray detection for real-time measurements of the radiotracer distribution in small plants. The experimental techniques and instrumentation that enabled the quantitative biological studies reported in this thesis were developed through a

Kiser, Matthew R.

118

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory - one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

2015-02-03

119

Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Lewis, D.A.

1981-02-01

120

A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

121

Multiple, short-lived ``stellar prominences'' on O stars: the supergiant ? Cephei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many OB stars show unexplained cyclical variability in their winds and in many optical lines, which are formed at the base of the wind. For these stars no dipolar magnetic fields have been detected. We propose that these cyclical variations are caused by the presence of multiple, transient, short-lived, corotating magnetic loops, which we call ``stellar prominences''. We present a simplified model representing these prominences as corotating spherical blobs and fit the rapid variability in the Heii ?4686 line of the O supergiant ? Cep for time-resolved spectra obtained in 1989. Our conclusions are: (1) From model fits we find that the life time of the prominences varies, and is between 2-7 h. (2) The adopted inclination angle is 68° with a rotation period of ~ 4.1 d (but not well constrained). (3) The contribution of non-radial pulsations is negligible (4) Similar behavior is observed in at least 4 other O stars. We propose that prominences are a common phenomenon among O stars.

Henrichs, H. F.; Sudnik, N.

2015-01-01

122

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

E-print Network

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

T. Sonoda; M. Wada; H. Tomita; C. Sakamoto; T. Takatsuka; T. Furukawa; H. Iimura; Y. Ito; T. Kubo; Y. Matsuo; H. Mita; S. Naimi; S. Nakamura; T. Noto; P. Schury; T. Shinozuka; T. Wakui; H. Miyatake; S. Jeong; H. Ishiyama; Y. X. Watanabe; Y. Hirayama; K. Okada; A. Takamine

2012-10-24

123

Observation and modeling of short-lived oxygenated hydrocarbons in the tropical free troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO (Jan/Feb 2012) probed the influence of air-sea exchange of organic carbon species and very short lived halogen species on the oxidative capacity of the tropical free troposphere over the full tropospheric air column above the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Organic carbon is important in the atmosphere, because it influences the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., methane, ozone, dimethyl sulfide), and because of its relevance for the formation, composition and climate impact of aerosols. This presentation summarizes unequivocal evidence for the presence of numerous oxygenated hydrocarbons (i.e., glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, MVK, MEK, aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols etc.) in the remote marine boundary layer, and in the tropical free troposphere. These species were detected by means of both Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Airborne MAX-DOAS), and online GC-MS (TOGA) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft. We employ atmospheric modeling constrained by observations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, aerosols, photolysis frequencies, and meterological parameters measured aboard the plane to elucidate the formation mechanism of this as of yet unaccounted source for oxidized organic carbon, and quantify the influence on the OVOCs on hydroxyl, bromine, chlorine and iodine radical abundances.

Volkamer, Rainer; Apel, Eric

2013-04-01

124

Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

2014-05-01

125

Spatial distribution of brominated very short-lived substances in the eastern Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater concentrations and distributions of brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), including bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), were measured in the upper water column (5-750 m) in the eastern Pacific. Inorganic nutrient, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton cell counts were measured to determine biogeochemical factors that affect the production and distribution of these BrVSLS. Elevated concentrations of BrVSLS were observed in coastal and tropical seawater. Concentration maxima for CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHClBr2 were observed below the mixed layer, near the subsurface chlorophyll a maxima, which suggest BrVSLS production may be related to photosynthetic biomass production. Our results also suggest that heterotrophic bacteria may also contribute to CH2Br2 and CHBrCl2 production in the water column. The maximum CHBrCl2 concentration was observed at a depth much deeper than the euphotic zone, which suggests sources other than photosynthetic biomass. Elevated CHBrCl2 concentrations in deeper waters were coincident with elevated CHCl3 concentrations, which may be an evidence for successive chlorine substitution of CHBr3 in deeper and older water masses.

Liu, Yina; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Campbell, Lisa; Bianchi, Thomas S.

2013-05-01

126

Creating a Live, Public Short Message Service Corpus: The NUS SMS Corpus  

E-print Network

Short Message Service (SMS) messages are largely sent directly from one person to another from their mobile phones. They represent a means of personal communication that is an important communicative artifact in our current digital era. As most existing studies have used private access to SMS corpora, comparative studies using the same raw SMS data has not been possible up to now. We describe our efforts to collect a public SMS corpus to address this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy issues to address contributorsâ?? concerns. Our live project collects new SMS message submissions, checks their quality and adds the valid messages, releasing the resultant corpus as XML and as SQL dumps, along with corpus statistics, every month. We opportunistically collect as much metadata about the messages and their sender as possible, so as to enable different types of analyses. To date, we have collected about 60,000 messages, focusing on English and...

Chen, Tao

2011-01-01

127

Short-Lived HF Molecules in Superionic Hydrogen Fluoride at Extreme Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first principles molecular dynamics study enables us to elucidate the existence of short-lived HF molecules in the superionic hydrogen fluoride at an extreme high pressure and a temperature. Three fourth of the immobile fluorines constructs the molecules with lifetime of 8 fs. The ionized fluorines form weak HF bond with the proton in the nearest HF molecule of which the lifetime is 3 fs. The covalent and the Coulomb bonds between the fluorines and the protons form indirect covalent and indirect Coulomb attractions between the di-interstitial protons on the mid-fluorines. The attractions reduce the Haven's ratio of the protons. The absence of the proton dimers indicates a failure of the caterpillar diffusion model or the Frenkel–Kontorova chain model for the superionic diffusion of the protons. The incompletely ionized cations and anions reduce their Coulomb attractions which induce the sublattice melting of smaller size and smaller mass of the protons than the fluorines. The electronic states of the fluoride are intermediate between the ionic crystals and the covalent bonded molecular crystals. The superionic conductors are classified into three groups: they are molecular type, covalent metalloid type, and metallic type conductors.

Tsumuraya, Kazuo; Ohde, Yoshiyuki; Oshimi, Tadaaki

2015-02-01

128

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa-10-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Furukawa, T.; Iimura, H.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Nakamura, S.; Noto, T.; Schury, P.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.

2013-01-01

129

Spin relaxation of a short-lived radical in zero magnetic field.  

PubMed

A short-lived radical containing only one I = 1/2 nucleus, the muoniated 1,2-dicarboxyvinyl radical dianion, was produced in an aqueous solution by the reaction of muonium with the dicarboxyacetylene dianion. The identity of the radical was confirmed by measuring the muon hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) by transverse field muon spin rotation spectroscopy and comparing this value with the hfcc obtained from DFT calculations. The muon spin relaxation rate of this radical was measured as a function of temperature in zero magnetic field by the zero field muon spin relaxation technique. The results have been interpreted using the theoretical model of Fedin et al. (J. Chem. Phys., 2003, 118, 192). The muon spin polarization decreases exponentially with time after muon implantation and the temperature dependence of the spin relaxation rate indicates that the dominant relaxation mechanism is the modulation of the anisotropic hyperfine interaction due to molecular rotation. The effective radius of the radical in solution was determined to be 1.12 ± 0.04 nm from the dependence of the muon spin relaxation rate on the temperature and viscosity of the solution, and is approximately 3.6 times larger than the value obtained from DFT calculations. PMID:21079834

McKenzie, Iain

2011-01-21

130

Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four short-lived air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of short-lived air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in short-lived air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in short-lived species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from short-lived species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.

Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.

2008-03-01

131

Stable isotope cellular imaging reveals that both live and degenerating fungal pelotons transfer carbon and nitrogen to orchid protocorms.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to elucidate the transfer of nutrient elements in orchid symbiotic protocorms at the cellular level by imaging of stable isotope tracers. We address the long-standing question of whether nutrients move by transport across the symbiotic interface or solely by lysis of fungal pelotons. [U-(13) C]glucose and (15) NH4 (15) NO3 were added to Ceratobasidium sp. hyphae extending from symbiotic protocorms of Spiranthes sinensis. Isotope images were taken from resin-embedded sections of protocorms using ultra-high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses of regions of interest were conducted on isotope ratio images for fungal and host structures. Amyloplasts adjacent to young pelotons showed elevated (13) C/(12) C, which indicated that fungal carbon (C) was transferred from live hyphae. Senescent pelotons and their surrounding host cytoplasm showed significantly higher isotope ratios than young pelotons and surrounding host cytoplasm. These results indicate an inflow of C to senescent hyphae, which was then transferred to the host. The findings of this study provide some support for each of the two contradictory hypotheses concerning nutrient exchange in the symbiotic protocorm: the interface between the symbionts is involved before fungal senescence, and peloton degradation also releases a significant amount of C and nitrogen to host cells. PMID:24494717

Kuga, Yukari; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

2014-04-01

132

Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes Rg261 and Rg265, abundance limits in gold of 3×10-16 were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov [Int. J. Mod. Phys. EIMPEER0218-301310.1142/S021830130901280X 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)×10-10 abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, ARg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10-16 abundance range. For Rg291 and Rg294 we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10-15 range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes—even after pileup correction—unlikely.

Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G.

2011-01-01

133

Short-lived radionuclide production by non-exploding Wolf-Rayet stars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an extension and update of previous calculations of the production by non-exploding Wolf-Rayet stars of radionuclides that could be responsible for certain isotopic anomalies discovered in meteoritic inclusions, or in meteoritic grains of probable circumstellar origin. Quantitative predictions of the time dependence of the radionuclide composition of the wind of Wolf-Rayet stars with initial masses in the wide 25<=M_i_<=120Msun_ range and for metallicities 0.001<=Z<=0.04 are obtained from a set of revised stellar evolution models. Special emphasis is put on the radionuclides with half-lives between about 10^5^ and 10^8^yr that could be produced by neutron captures during central helium burning and ejected during the WC-WO evolutionary phases. We stress that the radionuclide yield predictions are much more secure for Wolf-Rayet stars than for any other potential source of these species that has been contemplated up to now. This relates directly to the simplicity of these stars compared to highly difficult to model objects like Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, novae or supernovae. Our abundance predictions are confronted with existing observational data, or are hoped to help unravelling cases of potential interest for further laboratory quest when observations are lacking. The case of ^26^Al, of special interest for ?-ray line astronomy as well as for cosmochemistry, is also briefly revisited. In contrast to the other considered radionuclides, ^26^Al is produced during hydrogen burning, and is ejected at the WN evolutionary phase of the Wolf-Rayet stars. Our computed yields are also used as the basis for a qualitative discussion of the astrophysical plausibility of the contamination of the protosolar nebula with the radionuclides loading the Wolf-Rayet winds. Our calculations indicate that ^26^Al, ^41^Ca and ^107^Pd can be produced at a level compatible with the observations from a large variety of Wolf-Rayet stars with different masses and initial compositions. Wolf-Rayet stars could also account for the very uncertain limits set on (^36^Cl)_0_ and (^205^Pb)_0_. In addition, ^93^Zr, ^97^Tc, ^99^Tc and ^135^Cs are predicted to be produced in more or less large amounts, but the lack of secure experimental data prevents any meaningful confrontation with the observations. In contrast, the considered stars cannot explain the limits set recently on the amount (^60^Fe)_0_ of ^60^Fe that was live at the start of the condensation sequence in the solar system. Other radionuclides of interest (^53^Mn, ^92^Nb, ^129^I, ^146^Sm, ^182^Hf, ^244^Pu) cannot be produced either during the non-explosive evolution of the Wolf-Rayet stars, but could be synthesized during their eventual supernova explosion.

Arnould, M.; Paulus, G.; Meynet, G.

1997-05-01

134

Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at the site.

Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

2007-05-01

135

Longitudinal analysis of Plantago: adaptive benefits of iteroparity in a short-lived, herbaceous perennial.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that iteroparity may confer greater fitness than semelparity in situations in which temporal environmental variation is high and unpredictable. Variable age-specific mortality, density dependence, and other factors may also favor iteroparity over semelparity. Here, we empirically test the adaptive benefits of greater numbers of reproductive years in a study of reproductive schedules in an experimental population of a short-lived polycarpic perennial, Plantago lanceolata. A large experimental population was established that included four cohorts with similar genetic structure. Individuals were censused for mortality, size, and reproduction for seven years. Plants experienced variable numbers of reproductive years, but one or two years were most common (approximately 46.7% of the population reproduced only once). The probability of flowering at least once prior to death was determined strongly by extrinsic, environmental or intrinsic but environmentally influenced variables, including early-life size, cohort, and block, but also varied with a number of interactions involving paternal lineage. Maternal effects explained small but significant components of the variance in the number of reproductive years among individuals in each cohort, while paternal effects were significant in only two cohorts. Number of reproductive years contributed significantly to fitness in this system, more so than all other variables tested, although most of the variation in relative fitness may be attributed ultimately to environmental influences. We suggest that the high proportion of each cohort composed of plants reproducing only once may be due to environmental constraints on either growth or size. Such environmental influences, particularly on early life size, may result in small but important indirect effects on fitness. PMID:20392009

Shefferson, Richard P; Roach, Deborah A

2010-02-01

136

Organized cell swimming motions in Bacillus subtilis colonies: patterns of short-lived whirls and jets.  

PubMed

The swimming motions of cells within Bacillus subtilis colonies, as well as the associated fluid flows, were analyzed from video films produced during colony growth and expansion on wet agar surfaces. Individual cells in very wet dense populations moved at rates between 76 and 116 microm/s. Swimming cells were organized into patterns of whirls, each approximately 1,000 microm2, and jets of about 95 by 12 microm. Whirls and jets were short-lived, lasting only about 0.25 s. Patterns within given areas constantly repeated with a periodicity of approximately 1 s. Whirls of a given direction became disorganized and then re-formed, usually into whirls moving in the opposite direction. Pattern elements were also organized with respect to one another in the colony. Neighboring whirls usually turned in opposite directions. This correlation decreased as a function of distance between whirls. Fluid flows associated with whirls and jets were measured by observing the movement of marker latex spheres added to colonies. The average velocity of markers traveling in whirls was 19 microm/s, whereas those traveling in jets moved at 27 microm/s. The paths followed by markers were aligned with the direction of cell motion, suggesting that cells create flows moving with them into whirls and along jets. When colonies became dry, swimming motions ceased except in regions close to the periphery and in isolated islands where cells traveled in slow whirls at about 4 microm/s. The addition of water resulted in immediate though transient rapid swimming (> 80 microm/s) in characteristic whirl and jet patterns. The rate of swimming decreased to 13 microm/s within 2 min, however, as the water diffused into the agar. Organized swimming patterns were nevertheless preserved throughout this period. These findings show that cell swimming in colonies is highly organized. PMID:9882676

Mendelson, N H; Bourque, A; Wilkening, K; Anderson, K R; Watkins, J C

1999-01-01

137

A shallow, short-lived meso-? cyclone over the Gulf of Antalya, eastern Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical mechanisms of a shallow short-lived meso-? scale cyclone over the Gulf of antalya, eastern Mediterranean, are studied, with the PSU/NCAR MM4 and MM5 meso-scale models. Although the thin stratus clouds within this cyclone as observed from satellites are not resolved even by the 3 km nesting, the dynamical evolution and the 3-D structure are well captured. The small cyclone or eddy develops before sunrise following convergenceof the strong katabatic winds from the nearby steep Anatolya mountains slopes with 2 km peaks. The eddy's lifetime is of the order of 5 7 h and it quickly dissipates before noon. Based on the simulated vertical winds, vorticity, humidity as well as the IR top cloud temperatures, the depth of the eddy is estimated to be 500 800 m. It is shown that the divergence term in the vorticity equation is dominant during the eddy's generation. Lagrangian analysis for the trajectories of several air-masses that were identified as crucial for the eddy's development, reveals a sharp increase both in the PV (by 7 8 units), and in the specific humidity, 3.5 7 g/kg, as the air-parcels descend from about 840 980 hpa. This air-parcel analysis also shows that the diabatic contribution is quite important. Factor separation experiments confirm that pure topography is the major factor and the synergistic effect of sea-fluxes and topography contributes about 20% of the total vorticity. The Antalya cyclone is common during July to September morning hours and its frequency of occurrence was estimated from satellite pictures to be about 20%.

Alpert, P.; Tsidulko, M.; Itzigsohn, D.

1999-03-01

138

Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

2014-01-01

139

Polyhalogenated Very Short Live Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very short lived substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.

Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.

2011-12-01

140

Longitudinal analysis of Plantago: adaptive benefits of iteroparity in a short-lived, herbaceous perennial  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that iteroparity may confer greater fitness than semelparity in situations in which temporal environmental variation is high and unpredictable. Variable age-specific mortality, density dependence, and other factors may also favor iteroparity over semelparity. Here, we empirically test the adaptive benefits of greater numbers of reproductive years in a study of reproductive schedules in an experimental population of a short-lived polycarpic perennial, Plantago lanceolata. A large experimental population was established that included four cohorts with similar genetic structure. Individuals were censused for mortality, size, and reproduction for seven years. Plants experienced variable numbers of reproductive years, but one or two years were most common (~46.7% of the population reproduced only once). The probability of flowering at least once prior to death was determined strongly by extrinsic, environmental or intrinsic but environmentally influenced variables, including early-life size, cohort, and block, but also varied with a number of interactions involving paternal lineage. Maternal effects explained small but significant components of the variance in the number of reproductive years among individuals in each cohort, while paternal effects were significant in only two cohorts. Number of reproductive years contributed significantly to fitness in this system, more so than all other variables tested, although most of the variation in relative fitness may be attributed ultimately to environmental influences. We suggest that the high proportion of each cohort composed of plants reproducing only once may be due to environmental constraints on either growth or size. Such environmental influences, particularly on early life size, may result in small but important indirect effects on fitness. PMID:20392009

Shefferson, Richard P.; Roach, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

141

Telomeres shorten more slowly in long-lived birds and mammals than in short-lived ones.  

PubMed Central

We know very little about physiological constraints on the evolution of life-history traits in general, and, in particular, about physiological and molecular adjustments that accompany the evolution of variation in lifespan. Identifying mechanisms that underlie adaptive variation in lifespan should provide insight into the evolution of trade-offs between lifespan and other life-history traits. Telomeres, the DNA caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, usually shorten as animals age, but whether telomere rate of change is associated with lifespan is unknown. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes from five bird species with markedly different lifespans. Species with shorter lifespans lost more telomeric repeats with age than species with longer lifespans. A similar correlation is seen in mammals. Furthermore, telomeres did not shorten with age in Leach's storm-petrels, an extremely long-lived bird, but actually lengthened. This novel finding suggests that regulation of telomere length is associated not only with cellular replicative lifespan, but also with organismal lifespan, and that very long-lived organisms have escaped entirely any telomeric constraint on cellular replicative lifespan. PMID:12965030

Haussmann, Mark F; Winkler, David W; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Huntington, Charles E; Nisbet, Ian C T; Vleck, Carol M

2003-01-01

142

SProtP: A Web Server to Recognize Those Short-Lived Proteins Based on Sequence-Derived Features in Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein turnover metabolism plays important roles in cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and differentiation. Those proteins with short half-lives are involved in various regulatory processes. To better understand the regulation of cell process, it is important to study the key sequence-derived factors affecting short-lived protein degradation. Until now, most of protein half-lives are still unknown due to the difficulties of

Xiaofeng Song; Tao Zhou; Hao Jia; Xuejiang Guo; Xiaobai Zhang; Ping Han; Jiahao Sha

2011-01-01

143

On the ecology of short-lived forbs in chalk grasslands: micro-site tolerances in relation to vegetation structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of vegetation structure in two chalk grasslands were studied throughout the year in relation to the occurrence of some short-lived plant species per life-cycle stage. Whereas the main growth period is in May–June, there is another relatively important growth period in less productive stands in August. When the species are arranged in the order of their tolerance for

H. J. Verkaar; A. J. Schenkeveld; J. M. Brand

1983-01-01

144

Hyperfine structure of the 6dD2 level in trapped short-lived 211,?209Ra+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperfine structure of short-lived trapped 211,209Ra + ions was investigated by means of laser spectroscopy. The hyperfine structure constants A and B of the 6d D2 level were determined. There is a 2.2 standard deviation difference between the theoretical and the more accurate experimental value for the B coefficient of 211Ra +. These measurements provide a test for the atomic theory required for upcoming experiments on atomic parity violation and atomic clocks.

Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Dammalapati, U.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Müller, S.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

2011-08-01

145

Unusual Four-Bond Secondary H/D Isotope Effect Supports a Short-Strong Hydrogen Bond between Phospholipase A2 and a Transition State Analogue  

E-print Network

Unusual Four-Bond Secondary H/D Isotope Effect Supports a Short-Strong Hydrogen Bond between, The Ohio State UniVersity, Columbus, Ohio 43214, Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan-bond hydrogen/deuterium isotope effect was observed from proton NMR at the active site histidine imidazole ring

Gelb, Michael

146

Incorporation of Short-Lived Be in a Calcium-Aluminum  

E-print Network

nucleosynthetic sources for these el- ements. Spallation reactions occurring at rela- tively low energy ( 100 Me environments (3), or they may be the prod- ucts of nuclear reactions induced by the col- lisions of energetic B isotopic variations in chondrules (10) have been interpreted as the result of such low-energy

147

Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

2002-01-01

148

ISOTOPES  

E-print Network

over ammonia-hydrogen exchange include higher separationAmmonia-hydrogen Exchange This reaction has both a larger separationammonia) fraction with which it is in isotopic equilibrium, necessitating the separation

Lederer, C. Michael

2013-01-01

149

Detailed modeling of the atmospheric degradation mechanism of very-short lived brominated species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed chemical reaction schemes for the atmospheric degradations of the very short-lived species (VSLS) bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) have been established. These degradation schemes have been implemented in the meteorological/tracer transport model CATT-BRAMS used in the present case as pseudo one-dimensional model with chemistry of CH4, CO, HOx, NOx, NOy and Ox. They include the main possible reactions of the intermediate brominated peroxy radicals RO2 (with R = CH2Br, CHBr2 and CBr3) for which the most likely reaction pathways with HO2 have been found using ab initio computational calculations. The full degradation schemes have been run for two well-defined realistic scenarios, “clean” atmosphere and “moderately” NOy-polluted atmosphere, as representative of a tropical coastal region where these VSLS natural emissions are expected to be important. The Henry's law constants of the brominated organics products have been estimated by using the Bond Contribution Method (BCM; Meylan and Howard, 1991) or the Molecular Connectivity Index (MCI; Nirmalakhandan and Speece, 1988). Using these constants, the least soluble species formed from the VSLS degradation are found to be CBr2O, CHBrO, CBr3O2NO2, CHBr2O2NO2, BrO, BrONO2 and HOBr, which leads those to be potentially transported into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in case of deep convection and contribute to stratospheric bromine additionally to the original substances. For bromoform and dibromomethane degradation, the moderate NOy pollution increases the production of the least soluble species and thus approximately doubles the bromine quantity potentially able to reach the TTL (from 22.5% to 43% for CHBr3 and from 8.8% to 20.2% for CH2Br2). The influence of the reactions of the RO2 radicals with HO2, CH3O2 and NO2 on the nature and abundance of the stable intermediate and end-products has been tested for CHBr3 degradation. As a result, the reactions of the RO2 radicals with NO2 have no impact. Taking into account the reaction between RO2 and CH3O2 and modifying the branching ratios of the reaction between RO2 and HO2 lead to a small impact on the bromoform degradation by slightly decreasing (by 10%) the bromine quantity potentially able to reach the TTL. As a final point, in contrast to CHBr3, CH2Br2 degradation produces negligible quantities of organics species and the effects of pollution increase only the inorganic species production. By taking into account the results of these tests, new simplified degradation schemes for CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are proposed.

Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Poulet, G.; Marécal, V.; Pirre, M.; Louis, F.; Canneaux, S.; Josse, B.

2012-11-01

150

Use of short half-life cosmogenic isotopes to quantify sediment mixing and transport in karst conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) transport and flux in karst aquifers is poorly understood. Methods to quantify PIC flux are needed in order to account for total inorganic carbon removal (chemical plus mechanical) from karst settings. Quantifying PIC flux will allow more accurate calculations of landscape denudation and global carbon sink processes. The study concentrates on the critical processes of the suspended sediment component of mass flux - surface soil/stored sediment mixing, transport rates and distance, and sediment storage times. The primary objective of the study is to describe transport and mixing with the resolution of single storm-flow events. To quantify the transport processes, short half-life cosmogenic isotopes are utilized. The isotopes 7Be (t1/2 = 53d) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22y) are the primary isotopes measured, and other potential isotopes such as 137Cs and 241Am are investigated. The study location is at Mammoth Cave National Park within the Logsdon River watershed. The Logsdon River conduit is continuously traversable underground for two kilometers. Background levels and input concentrations of isotopes are determined from soil samples taken at random locations in the catchment area, and suspended sediment collected from the primary sinking stream during a storm event. Suspended sediment was also collected from the downstream end of the conduit during the storm event. After the storm flow receded, fine sediment samples were taken from the cave stream at regular intervals to determine transport distances and mixing ratios along the conduit. Samples were analyzed with a Canberra Industries gamma ray spectrometer, counted for 24 hours to increase detection of low radionuclide activities. The measured activity levels of radionuclides in the samples were adjusted for decay from time of sampling using standard decay curves. The results of the study show that surface sediment mixing, transport and storage in karst conduits is a dynamic but potentially quantifiable process at the storm-event scale.

Paylor, R.

2011-12-01

151

Evaluation of Uncertainties in Decay Constants of ``Short-Lived'' Radionuclides: A Meta-Analysis Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a meta-analysis of half-lives for cosmochemically relevant radionuclides. We show that there is a range of behavior from well (e.g., 10Be) to poorly constrained (e.g., 53Mn or 129I).

Boehnke, P.; Steele, R. C. J.

2014-09-01

152

Comment on ``Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their article “Existence of Long-Lived Isomeric States in Naturally-Occuring Neutron-Deficient Th Isotopes” [Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303 (2007)], Marinov fail to demonstrate that basic mass spectrometric protocols, such as abundance sensitivity, linearity, and freedom from possible interferences, have been met. In particular, the claim that four isomeric states of Th have been discovered, using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), with abundances from (1-10)×10-11 relative to Th232, cannot be accepted, given the known abundance sensitivities of other sector field mass spectrometers. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the only mass spectrometric methodology capable of measuring relative abundances of the magnitude claimed by Marinov

Barber, R. C.; de Laeter, J. R.

2009-04-01

153

Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

Deutschman, W. A. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

154

Production of Short-lived Radionuclides by Protons and Neutrons in Fe and Ni Targets: Cross Sections Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New neutron and proton cross sections for short-lived radionuclides produced in Fe and Ni are presented. These cross sections are essential to understand cosmic ray interactions with meteorites and the lunar surface.

Sisterson, J. M.; Vincent, J.; Jones, D. T. L.; Binns, P. J.; Langen, K.; Schroeder, I.; Buthelezi, Z.; Brooks, F. D.; Buffler, A.; Allie, M. S.

2000-01-01

155

Vibronic emission from short-lived core-hole states: Theory and applications for the water molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibronic cross sections for x-ray and Auger decay from short-lived core-hole states in molecules are derived starting from Åberg's description of atomic x-ray and Auger decay as multichannel-scattering processes [Åberg, Phys. Scr. 21, 495 (1980)]. The derivation includes a scattering-matrix formulation in which intra- and interchannel interactions as well as nonadiabatic corrections are introduced. Computable expressions for x-ray and Auger vibronic spectra are derived assuming the harmonic approximation for multidimensional nuclear motions. Applications for water are carried out using truly ab initio values for all energy and lifetime-related parameters.

Cesar, Amary; Ågren, Hans; Carravetta, Vincenzo

1989-07-01

156

Age-dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor short-lived radon progeny.  

PubMed

The main contribution of radiation dose to the human lungs from natural exposure originates from short-lived radon progeny. In the present work, the inhalation doses from indoor short-lived radon progeny, i.e., (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, and (214)Po, to different age groups of members of the public were calculated. In the calculations, the age-dependent systemic biokinetic models of polonium, bismuth, and lead published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were adopted. In addition, the ICRP human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models were applied to determine the deposition fractions in different regions of the lungs during inhalation and exhalation, and the absorption fractions of radon progeny in the alimentary tract. Based on the calculated contribution of each progeny to equivalent dose and effective dose, the dose conversion factor was estimated, taking into account the unattached fraction of aerosols, attached aerosols in the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes, and the potential alpha energy concentration fraction in indoor air. It turned out that for each progeny, the equivalent doses to extrathoracic airways and the lungs are greater than those to other organs. The contribution of (214)Po to effective dose is much smaller compared to that of the other short-lived radon progeny and can thus be neglected in the dose assessment. In fact, 90 % of the effective dose from short-lived radon progeny arises from (214)Pb and (214)Bi, while the rest is from (218)Po. The dose conversion factors obtained in the present study are 17 and 18 mSv per working level month (WLM) for adult female and male, respectively. This compares to values ranging from 6 to 20 mSv WLM(-1) calculated by other investigators. The dose coefficients of each radon progeny calculated in the present study can be used to estimate the radiation doses for the population, especially for small children and women, in specific regions of the world exposed to radon progeny by measuring their concentrations, aerosol sizes, and unattached fractions. PMID:24831865

Brudecki, K; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O; Tschiersch, J; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U

2014-08-01

157

Incidence of leukaemia and other malignant diseases following injections of the short-lived ?-emitter 224 Ra into man  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an epidemiological study on 1,471 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with repeated intravenous injections\\u000a of the short lived ?-emitter 224Ra (excluding radiation therapy with X-rays) between 1948 and 1975. These patients have been followed together with a control\\u000a group of 1,324 ankylosing spondylitis patients treated neither with radioactive drugs nor with X-rays. The mean follow-up\\u000a time was 26.3 years in

Roland R. Wick; M. J. Atkinson; E. A. Nekolla

2009-01-01

158

VLA Observations Confirm Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts in Short-Lived Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio telescope studies of the fiery afterglow of a Gamma Ray Burst have provided astronomers with the best clues yet about the origins of these tremendous cosmic cataclysms since their discovery more than 30 years ago. Observations with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope confirm that a blast seen to occur on March 29 had its origin in a star-forming region in a distant galaxy. "There are two leading theories for the causes of Gamma Ray Bursts," said Dale Frail of the NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "According to one theory, the blasts occur in the death throes of pairs of old stars. The other requires them to arise from exploding, massive, short-lived stars that still reside within the star-forming gas and dust from which they formed. The VLA studies of the burst show that at least this one almost certainly occurred within a star-forming region. This result also explains why half of the Gamma Ray Burst afterglows are not detected by optical telescopes." Frail heads a VLA observing team including Greg Taylor, also of NRAO, and Shri Kulkarni of Caltech, that reported its findings to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, CA. The March 29 burst was seen clearly by radio telescopes (the accompanying image is GRB 980329 as seen by the VLA) but only very faintly with optical instruments. "That is extremely important," said Taylor. "This burst was very faint at visible wavelengths, brighter at infrared wavelengths and brighter still at radio wavelengths. This is a clear indication that the exploding object was surrounded by dust. Dust is most commonly found in star-forming regions." This strongly favors one of the two leading theories about Gamma Ray Bursts over the other. One explanation for these tremendously energetic fireballs is that a pair of superdense neutron stars collides. The other is that a single, very massive star explodes in a "hypernova," more powerful than a supernova, at the end of its normal life. The hypernova explosion, scientists believe, would come only a few million years after the giant star was formed, while it is still within the cloud of gas and dust from which it formed. Neutron stars, on the other hand, are formed by supernova explosions that give a "kick" to the resulting neutron star, propelling it at high speeds. An orbiting pair of neutron stars, astronomers think, would collide only after hundreds of millions of years of orbital decay, by which time they would be far away from the gas and dust of their birthplace. "The observations already have provided crucial insight; we intend to continue observing the relic of the March 29 burst with the VLA, and in the coming months, we will gain new information that will help further refine our ideas about these fireballs," Frail said. "We're going to learn about the size and expansion rate of the fireball and test predictions made by the models." "These observations indicate the extraordinary importance of radio astronomy for providing information that can be gained in no other way about one of the major frontier areas of astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The March 29 burst (GRB 980329) was the second such blast to have its afterglow detected at radio wavelengths. Last year, the VLA made the first radio detection of a GRB afterglow, finding radio emission coming from the location of a Gamma Ray Burst on May 8, 1997 (GRB 970508). "Of the world's radio telescopes, only the VLA has the sensitivity and resolving power to quickly detect these radio afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts and study them in detail over extended periods of time," Taylor said. "Even so, we only see the brightest one-third of them. With upgraded capabilities at the VLA, as planned by NRAO, we will see them all." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agr

1998-06-01

159

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: test report for the radiator long and short panels. 77-KIPS-112  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test procedure and results of testing conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Radiator Panels by Teledyne Energy Systems are presented. The results of the thermal vacuum, heat rejection capability, temperature profile and pressure drop characteristics testing are presented. These results show that the radiator panels can satisfy the test requirements of Teledyne Energy Systems Test Procedure number

Brainard

1978-01-01

160

A Short History of the Discovery of Isotopes (and Some of Their Uses)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at the events that led to the discovery of isotopes in the early part of the 20th century. It is difficult to claim that the discovery was a single event. A number of famous scientists worked independently to provide the evidence, and the understanding of the need to think differently about atoms gradually emerged. Four varied…

Scott, Dave

2013-01-01

161

Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.  

PubMed

Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID:11541324

Ireland, T R

1996-03-01

162

COPING WITH LIVING, DYING, AND WHAT’S IN-BETWEEN: SHORT STORIES  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Larry C. Heinemann Paul N. Christensen Committee Member, David A. Donkor Head of Department, M. Jimmie... Dr. Paul N. Christensen My thesis includes a collection of short stories that showcases my growth and potential as a fiction writer. The thesis also includes a critical introduction that highlights my aims and the influences on my work. My...

Elliott, Elise M.

2010-07-14

163

Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile\\/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda

Allyson G. Hindle; John M. Lawler; Kevin L. Campbell; Markus Horning

2009-01-01

164

Linking early Earth magma ocean crystallization and overturn with observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and short-lived radioisotopic measurements in Archean rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the well-characterized discrepancy between measurements of 142Nd in chondrites and those in Earth rocks (e.g.,[1][2]) in addition to recent measurements of Archean rocks with anomalous 142Nd and 182W (e.g.,[3][4][5]), we model the crystallization and overturn of a terrestrial chondritic magma ocean, and track the isotopic reservoirs that may result. Following magma ocean solidification, solid-state overturn occurs because solidification produces a gravitationally unstable configuration where the last cumulates to solidify are densest and also enriched in incompatible elements. As suggested by [1][2], these originally shallow cumulates that, following overturn, would now reside near the core-mantle boundary are tantalizing targets for the hypothesized hidden reservoir(s) of incompatible elements. These last, dense, enriched cumulates may have evolved negative 142Nd and 182W isotopic anomalies, while cumulates that form earlier and deeper in the magma ocean would likely be poor in incompatible elements and have evolved complementary positive isotopic anomalies. Because crystal - liquid partition coefficients of Sm, Nd, Hf, and W in nucleating mantle phases are poorly constrained and vary over orders of magnitude, we use a Monte Carlo approach to cover the parameter space of reported partition coefficients. Although data are limited, Archean rocks appear to show a non-linear trend between age and 142Nd and 182W, suggesting inefficient heterogeneous mixing of some of the early enriched reservoir (EER or late stage cumulates) back into the early depleted reservoir (EDR or deeper cumulates) during or after overturn, also first suggested by [1][2]. To account for this, we model various mixing scenarios using post-overturn mantle stratigraphy. Additionally, because 142Nd and 182W are decay products of short-lived radioisotopes, the timing of magma ocean crystallization is critical to producing a modern day mantle consistent with measured compositions. We therefore iterate through time to determine the statistically most likely time of the last major mantle-melting event. Consistent with [2], we argue that the EER is not hidden but is instead the seismologically observed large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs), or the D'' region, and the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZs) are dense, iron-rich silicon-poor melts of the LLSVPs. Given this, the isotopic reservoirs produced by our models must mix such that the EER remaining after mixing is the same volume as the LLSVPs, or 2% of the mantle (e.g., [6][7]). Approximately two-thirds our run results are "successful" given known partition coefficients, and so our results suggest that this model is viable: magma ocean fractional solidification can produce mantle reservoirs consistent with isotopic compositions observed in some rocks, and can produce a dense lower mantle layer consistent in longevity and volume to the LLSVPs. [1]Boyet and Carlson,2005,Science,309(5743),576-81.[2]Carlson and Boyet,2008,Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A,366(1883),4077-103. [3]Willbold et al.,2011,Nature,477(7363), 195-8. [4]Touboul et al.,2012,Science,335(6072),1065-9. [5]Rizo et al.,Nature,491(7422),96-100. [6]Burke et al.,2008,EPSL,265(1-2),49-60. [7]Hernlund and Houser,2008,EPSL,265(3-4),423-37.

Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walker, R. J.

2013-12-01

165

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a "run-away-decline process" leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to semi-natural grassland fragmentation, four short-lived grassland species were studied. During three years, data on population sizes were gathered for Carum carvi, Rhinanthus minor, Trifolium arvense and Viola tricolor in Swedish semi-natural grasslands varying in size and degree of isolation. A seed-sowing experiment was conducted to assess dispersal and seed limitation at a local and regional scale, respectively. Overall, the presence/absence of species was not related to fragment size and isolation (connectivity). However, for the fragments where the species were present, positive relationships between grassland size and population size were detected for three species. No significant relationships between isolation and population size were detected for any species. This study thus demonstrates that short-lived plant species, confined to semi-natural grasslands, respond to decreases in fragment size by forming smaller populations. Seed sowing indicated that the species are both dispersal and seed limited in the study area, and that disturbances are important for establishment. In order to maintain characteristic grassland species in fragmented (isolated) semi-natural grasslands, it may therefore be of interest to preserve large intact fragments instead of several small ones.

Kiviniemi, Katariina

2008-01-01

166

Short-term variations of vapor isotope ratios reveal the influence of atmospheric processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes of atmospheric water vapor reveal rich information on water movement and phase changes in the atmosphere.\\u000a Here we presented two nearly continuous time-series of ?D and ?\\u000a 18O of atmospheric water vapor (?\\u000a v) measured at hourly intervals in surface air in Beijing and above a winter wheat canopy in Shijiazhuang using in-situ measurement\\u000a technique. During the precipitation

Shichun Zhang; Xiaomin Sun; Jianlin Wang; Guirui Yu; Xuefa Wen

2011-01-01

167

Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense short lived when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).

Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

2013-12-01

168

The likely presence of nuclides with short half-lives in HD965 and HD101065 (Przybylski's Star)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two chemical elements lighter than bismuth have no isotopes with half-lives longer than 5 million years: the 4d-element technetium and the lanthanide promethium. While 98Tc has a half-life of 4.2 106 years, the longest-lived isotope of Pm, 145Pm, has a half-life of only 17.7 years. The presence of either of these elements in upper main sequence stars would pose a serious problem for our understanding of the chemistry of these stars. It is now generally accepted that the chemical anomalies of numerous subtypes of peculiar B, A, and F stars is a superficial phenomenon caused by chemical separation under the competing influences of radiation pressure and gravity. This theory would have to be supplemented should the presence of these unstable species be confirmed. There is substantial evidence to support the presence of PmI and/or II, and TcI, in HD101065, and PmI and/or II in HD965. HD101065 is a notorious object, well known for the strength of its rare-earth spectra relative to the iron group (see url below for data and references). Hubrig, et al. (ASP Conf. Ser. 279, ed. C. A. Tout and W. Van Hamme, p. 365) noted the similarity of HD965 toPrzybylski's star. Identifications of Tc and Pm in these stars are based on wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS Cowley and Hensberge, ApJ 244. 252. 1081)and traditional line-by-line examinations taking into account laboratory intensities, excitation potentials, and wavelength agreement. Wavelength measurements are available at http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/users/cowley/. The highest significances are obtained for HD965 and a list of strong PmI and II from the NIST site (Sansonetti and Martin http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/index.html). We found 14 of 39 lines within ± 0.02Å, which is a 99.9% confident result. Various tests for PmI and II in HD101065 lead to 99% confidence or better. WCS yields 95-99% confidence for TcI in HD101065.

Cowley, C. R.; Bidelman, W. P.; Hubrig, S.; Mathys, G.; Bord, D. J.

2003-12-01

169

Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides  

E-print Network

High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide 27Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides 26Al and 38,39Ca have been performed by use of radiofrequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of 26,27Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed beta-emitter 38Ca as well as of the groundstate of the beta-emitter 26Al m confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

S. George; G. Audi; B. Blank; K. Blaum; M. Breitenfeldt; U. Hager; F. Herfurth; A. Herlert; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; M. Kretzschmar; D. Lunney; R. Savreux; S. Schwarz; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian

2008-01-17

170

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials  

SciTech Connect

Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

2008-02-13

171

Identifying and quantifying short-lived fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors  

SciTech Connect

Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify short-lived fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.

Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.

2013-03-01

172

Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

1985-01-01

173

Formation of the Short-lived Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 ?m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (? 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.

2011-04-01

174

TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2013-06-10

175

Injection of Short-Lived Radionuclides into the Early Solar System from a Faint Supernova with Mixing-Fallback  

E-print Network

Several short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) were present in the early solar system, some of which should have formed just prior to or soon after the solar system formation. Stellar nucleosynthesis has been proposed as the mechanism for production of SLRs in the solar system, but no appropriate stellar source has been found to explain the abundances of all solar system SLRs. In this study, we propose a faint supernova with mixing and fallback as a stellar source of SLRs with mean lives of solar system. In such a supernova, the inner region of the exploding star experiences mixing, a small fraction of mixed materials is ejected, and the rest undergoes fallback onto the core. The modeled SLR abundances agree well with their solar system abundances if mixing-fallback occurs within the C/O-burning layer. In some cases, the initial solar system abundances of the SLRs can be reproduced within a factor of 2. The dilution factor of supernova ejecta to the solar system materials is ~10E-4 and the time interval between the supernova explosion and the formation of oldest solid materials in the solar system is ~1 Myr. If the dilution occurred due to spherically symmetric expansion, a faint supernova should have occurred nearby the solar system forming region in a star cluster.

A. Takigawa; J. Miki; S. Tachibana; G. R. Huss; N. Tominaga; H. Umeda; K. Nomoto

2008-08-11

176

Iodine-131: a potential short-lived, wastewater-specific particle tracer in an urbanized estuarine system.  

PubMed

The short-lived, fission-produced radioisotope, 131I (t1/2 = 8.04 days), was detected in wastewater, surficial sediment, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected from New York Harbor (NYH) between 2001 and 2002. lodine-131 is used as a radiopharmaceutical for medical imaging, diagnostics, and treatments for conditions of the thyroid. It is introduced into the municipal waste stream by medical facilities and patients and is subsequently released into the estuary via wastewater effluent. Measured 131I activities in surface sediments were correlated with those of 7Be (t1/2 = 53.2 days), a naturally occurring radioisotope that is widely used to quantify particle dynamics, sediment focusing, and short-term sediment deposition and accumulation in aquatic systems. Surficial sediment 131I activities were also compared with measured trace metal (Cu, Pb) and organic carbon (OC(sed)) concentrations which can be linked to wastewater inputs. These preliminary results from NYH introduce 131I as a potentially valuable source-specific, shortlived biogeochemical tracer (timescales < 1 month) for particles, sediments, and wastewater-sourced contaminants in urbanized aquatic systems. PMID:18754457

Smith, Joseph P; Oktay, Sarah I; Kada, John; Olsen, Curtis R

2008-08-01

177

Comparison of two methods to identify live benthic foraminifera: A test between Rose Bengal and CellTracker Green with implications for stable isotope paleoreconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional method to distinguish live from dead benthic foraminifers uses Rose Bengal, a stain that reacts with both live and dead cytoplasm. CellTracker Green CMFDA is a fluorogenic probe causing live cells to fluoresce after proper incubation. To determine the more accurate viability method, we conducted a direct comparison of Rose Bengal staining with CellTracker Green labeling. Eight multicore tops were analyzed from Florida Margin (SE United States; 248-751 m water depths), near Great Bahama Bank (259-766 m), and off the Carolinas (SE United States; 220 and 920 m). On average, less than half the Rose Bengal-stained foraminifera were actually living when collected. Thus, while Rose Bengal can significantly overestimate abundance, combined analyses of CellTracker Green and Rose Bengal can provide insights on population dynamics and effects of episodic events. Initial stable isotope analyses indicate that the CellTracker Green method does not significantly affect these important paleoceanographic proxies.

Bernhard, Joan M.; Ostermann, Dorinda R.; Williams, David S.; Blanks, Jessica K.

2006-12-01

178

Short-lived charge-transfer-to-solvent-states and multiple electronic relaxations following femtosecond excitation of aqueous chloride ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early charge transfer processes triggered by the photoexcitation of an aqueous sodium chloride solution (molar ratio H 2O/NaCl = 55) at 294 K have been investigated by using femtosecond absorption UV-IR spectroscopy. The initial UV energy deposition proceeding by one- (4 eV) and/or two-photon (2 × 4 eV) absorption results in the formation of multiple short-lived electronic states which have been discriminated within the spectral range 360-1250 nm (3.44-0.99 eV). Two well-separated spectral signatures involving UV and infrared transitions have been discriminated and assigned to different excited CTTS states (charge transfer to solvent) as recently suggested by quantum simulations of an aqueous halide I - [Sheu and Rossky, Chem. Phys. Letters 202 (1993) 186; 213 (1993) 233]. A short-lived ultraviolet component appearing within the UV pump pulse and exhibiting a monoexponential relaxation time of 190 ± 20 fs would correspond to a lo excited CTTS state of the chloride ion (CTTS ?). The other ultrashort-lived band peaking above 0.99 eV (1250 nm) and characterized by a high deactivation rate (?2 × 10 13s -1) is tentatively assigned to a high excited CTTS state (CTTS ??) triggered by a two-photon absorption process (8 eV). This transient state precedes the ap pearance of a well-defined infrared component peaking around 1250 nm and due to the (p-like) excited hydrated electron (e prehyd-). The relaxation of this infrared electron occurs with a time constant of 300 fs and leads to the formation of the ground state of the hydrated electron (e hyd-). Near-infrared spectroscopic investigations performed in the energy range 1.51-1.24 eV (820-1000 nm) have permitted to clearly identify the existence of additional absorption bands peaking around 880 nm. It is the first time that near-infrared bands are directly observed in an aqueous solution of halide ions. These spectral contributions are assigned to inhomogeneous populations of electron-atom pairs ({e -:Cl nH 2O A,B}). The involved photochemical channel can compete wit electron hydration channel for which a pre-hydrated state (e prehyd-) has been identified. The existence of these near-infrared states would be due to local solvent effects which assist or impede an electron localization outside the first hydration shells of the atomic core (Cl). The electronic population absorbing in the near infrared exhibits a dual behavior whose characteristic times are 330 fs ({e -:Cl nH 2O A}) and 750 fs (e -: Cl nH 2O B) respectivley. The faster relaxation channel due to contribute to the early geminate recombination between the ground state of the hydrated electron and the chlorine atom. The slower deactivation channel (1.29 × 10 12s -1) would be due to an electronic state ({e -:Cl nH f2 0 B}) whose interconversion with a ground state of a hydrated electron has been identified in the present study. This electron photodetachment pathway leads to a delayed formation of hydrated electrons (e hyd-') and can be seen as a specific solvent cage effect in the vicinity of the counterion (Na +). The direct characterization of short-lived semi-ionized states by near-infrared spectroscopy provides new informations on solvent cage effects during ultrafast electron transfer reactions in ionic solutions. These complex photochemical data obtained with aqueous sodium chloride are discussed at the microscopic level considering recent quantum theories on semi-ionized or metastable states in ionic solutions.

Gauduel, Y.; Gelabert, H.; Ashokkumar, M.

1995-08-01

179

Effects of East Asian Short-lived Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA short-lived anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian short-lived anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from local anthropogenic sources. In terms of long-range transport, anthropogenic pollutants from EA generally account for 2-5ppbv surface ozone from east to west mid-latitude North Pacific, but with distinct seasonal variability. During spring, EA anthropogenic emissions enhance nearly 2ppbV ozone over the west coast of California, USA, which increases the number of days when MADA8 exceeds 75ppbV by 2~5days/season in JJA. We find that the high aerosol loadings over EA significantly elevate aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Eastern China (0.2-0.4 in DJF and 0.3-0.5 in JJA), which warms up the atmosphere (15~20 Watts/m2) at the expense of cooling the surface (-30~-20 Watts/m2), potentially reducing the local surface temperature by -0.5K ~ -2K. Moreover, our model results also show that EA anthropogenic pollutants significantly depress local precipitation rate (up to 1.5 mm/day) and rain frequency (4-10 days/season), particularly over South and Southwestern China. This may partly explain the change of seasonal precipitation patterns over EA during the past decades.

Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.

2012-12-01

180

Oxygen isotope content of CO2 in nocturnal ecosystem respiration: 2. Short-term dynamics of foliar and soil component fluxes in an  

E-print Network

Oxygen isotope content of CO2 in nocturnal ecosystem respiration: 2. Short-term dynamics of foliar, xylem, and leaf water and ecosystem respiration were studied in a ponderosa pine forest during summer of soil and foliar respiration to total nocturnal ecosystem respiration. The d18 O in leaf and soil water

Ehleringer, Jim

181

Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients. PMID:18328409

Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

182

The effects of ?-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees.  

PubMed

Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the ?(13)C and ?(18)O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and ?-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if ?-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the ?(13)C or ?(18)O values of ?-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of ?-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the ?(13)C (up to 0.4‰) and ?(18) O (up to 1.2‰) of ?-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the ?(13)C and ?(18)O of whole wood or ?-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and ?-cellulose ?(13)C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between ?(18)O of whole wood and ?-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States. PMID:21953963

English, Nathan B; McDowell, Nate G; Allen, Craig D; Mora, Claudia

2011-10-30

183

The effects of ?-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees†  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the ?13C and ?18O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and ?-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if ?-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the ?13C or ?18O values of ?-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of ?-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the ?13C (up to 0.4‰) and ?18O (up to 1.2‰) of ?-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the ?13C and ?18O of whole wood or ?-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and ?-cellulose ?13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between ?18O of whole wood and ?-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.

English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, C.D.; Mora, C.

2011-01-01

184

Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilization by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five actual mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all, but one, the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. Our hypothesis suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes will be followed closely by seismic swarms, inflation, and other indications of a rising magma source.

Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

2013-06-01

185

Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after subduction mega-thrust earthquakes. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilisation by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five recent mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all but one the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. We suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes may be followed closely by indications of rising magma to shallower depths, e.g. surface inflation and seismic swarms.

Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

2014-01-01

186

Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from Short-Lived Halogens and Climate Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogens released from very short-lived substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.

Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

2014-05-01

187

Reaction dynamics. Extremely short-lived reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) ? DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.  

PubMed

The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) ? DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very short-lived dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules. PMID:25554783

Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H

2015-01-01

188

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes.

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H.; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R.; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-07-01

189

Attached and unattached fractions of short-lived radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.  

PubMed

The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction fj for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon short-lived progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. PMID:24390974

Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A

2014-12-01

190

Very Short-lived Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.

Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

2013-04-01

191

Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb.  

PubMed

Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse several factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived perennial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field conditions. We collected data on plant mortality of the effect of biotic agents (moth larvae and mycoplasma-like organisms, MLOs) and environmental variables. We also estimated density-dependent relationships affecting the fate of seedlings and adults. Results show that cohorts differed in their survival curves and ageing significantly increased mortality risk. Seedling mortality was density-dependent whereas adult mortality was not affected by density. MLO infection led to higher plant mortality whereas moth larvae attack did not affect plant mortality. In general, seedlings and adult plants experienced the highest mortality events in summer. We found, however, weak relationships between weather records and plant mortality. Age and size structures were not correlated. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive review of age-specific, density-dependent and density-independent factors that account for mortality of L. maritima plants throughout their life cycle in field conditions, highlighting the fact that age is an important factor in determining plant population dynamics. PMID:18426484

Picó, F X; Retana, J

2008-05-01

192

Isotopically-coded short-range hetero-bifunctional photo-reactive crosslinkers for studying protein structure.  

PubMed

The resolution and the fidelity of a protein structural model, constructed using crosslinking data, is dependent on the crosslinking distance constraints. Most of the popular amine-reactive NHS-ester crosslinkers are limited in their capacity to provide short distance constraints because of the rarity of lysine residues occurring in close proximity in the protein structure. To solve this problem, hetero-bifunctional crosslinkers containing both a photo-reactive functional group and an NHS-ester group can be used to enable non-specific crosslinking within the proximity of these lysine residues. Here we develop three such isotopically-coded hetero-bifunctional photo-reactive crosslinkers, bearing azido, diazirine or benzophenone photo-reactive groups (azido-benzoic-acid-succinimide (ABAS)-(12)C6/(13)C6, succinimidyl-diazirine (SDA)-(12)C5/(13)C5, and carboxy-benzophenone-succinimide (CBS)-(12)C6/(13)C6, respectively). These crosslinkers were validated using several model proteins/peptides and were then applied to study the structure of the native ?-synuclein protein. In that case the ABAS crosslinker proved to be the most suitable, with 10 crosslinks being found in the native ?-synuclein structure. PMID:25192908

Brodie, Nicholas I; Makepeace, Karl A T; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

2014-09-01

193

Fowl play and the price of petrel: long-living Procellariiformes have peroxidation-resistant membrane composition compared with short-living Galliformes.  

PubMed

The membrane pacemaker hypothesis predicts that long-living species will have more peroxidation-resistant membrane lipids than shorter living species. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the fatty acid composition of heart phospholipids from long-living Procellariiformes (petrels and albatrosses) to those of shorter living Galliformes (fowl). The seabirds were obtained from by-catch of commercial fishing operations and the fowl values from published data. The 3.8-fold greater predicted longevity of the seabirds was associated with elevated content of peroxidation-resistant monounsaturates and reduced content of peroxidation-prone polyunsaturates and, consequently, a significantly reduced peroxidation index in heart membrane lipids, compared with fowl. Peroxidation-resistant membrane composition may be an important physiological trait for longevous species. PMID:18492647

Buttemer, William A; Battam, Harry; Hulbert, A J

2008-08-23

194

How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short lived bromocarbons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.

Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

2014-04-01

195

Similarities and differences between heliosphere-geosphere couplings associated with the short and long lived subauroral ionospheric storms: November 2004, F2 region, North East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed ground and in situ data collected on 9-10 November 2004 during the first day of the long-lived ionospheric storm which consequences were observed in the ionosphere till 13 November and compared the results with those obtained from the short-lived 7-8 November ionospheric storm study. During the first day of each storm we observed a positive nocturnal phase associated with a movement of the plasma sheet inner edge towards the Earth and westward auroral electrojet amplification. In both cases morning-midday negative phases of the storms evolved over the north-west electrojet in the compressed magnetosphere. The short-lived negative phase of 7-8 November storm evolved with the south-west interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind velocity V_{SW} about 600 km/s and was associated with irregular geomagnetic pulsations. The long-lived negative phase of 9-13 November storm started with the north-west IMF, solar wind velocity about 800 km/s, and was associated with continuous Pc5 pulsations. We suppose that the high-latitude reconnection and Pc5 provided an additional energy input to the subauroral ionosphere and thereby contributed to formation of the long-lived neutral composition disturbance zone.

Chelpanov, M. A.; Zolotukhina, N. A.

2012-03-01

196

Folate bioavailability from foods rich in folates assessed in a short term human study using stable isotope dilution assays.  

PubMed

Different sources of folate may have different bioavailability and hence may impact the standard definition of folate equivalents. In order to examine this, a short term human study was undertaken to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from spinach, Camembert cheese and wheat germs compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. The study had a single-centre, randomised, four-treatment, four-period, four-sequence, cross-over design, i.e. the four (food) items to be tested (referred to as treatments) were administered in sequences according to the Latin square, so that each experimental treatment occurred only once within each sequence and once within each study period. Each of the 24 subjects received the four experimental items separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase and received a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement for 14 days before the first testing and between the testings for saturation of body pools. Folates in test foods, plasma and urine samples were determined by stable isotope dilution assays, and in urine and plasma, the concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were evaluated. Standard non-compartmental methods were applied to determine the biokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax and AUC from baseline corrected 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations within the interval from 0 to 12 hours. The variability of AUC and Cmax was moderate for spinach and oral solution of pteroylmonoglutamic acid but high for Camembert cheese and very high for wheat germs. The median tmax was lowest for spinach, though tmax showed a high variability among all treatments. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and Cmax for the different test foods, highest bioavailability was found for spinach followed by that for wheat germs and Camembert cheese. The results underline the dependence of folate bioavailability on the type of food ingested. Therefore, the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents has to be questioned and requires further investigation. PMID:25407846

Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

2015-01-24

197

Continuous on-line chromatography of short lived isotopes of tungsten as homolog of seaborgium (element 106)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We have studied the sorption of W on anion-ex- change resins from HNO3\\/HF solutions under on-line con- ditions using continuous chromatography with the multi-col- umn technique. Kd values and the charge of the W species were determined. In order to achieve an effective separation of mother (W) and daughter (Ta), also the sorption of Ta from HNO3\\/HF solutions on

G. Pfrepper; R. Pfrepper; A. Kronenberg; Jens Volker Kratz; A. Nähler; W. Brüchle; M. Schädel

2000-01-01

198

ESTIMATION OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF SHORT-LIVED RADIOIODINES TO THE THYROID DOSE FOR THE PUBLIC IN CASE OF INHALATION INTAKE FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present (1) the method of assessing the contribution of short-lived radioiodines to the thyroid for members of the public in Fukushima and neighbouring prefectures based on available data and (2) the results of a realistic assessment of such a contribution. The estimates of that contribution for the inhalation intake that occurred on the day of the main fallout (15 March 2011) are within 15 % of the dose to the thyroid from (131)I. The contribution to the thyroid dose from intake of (132)Te is higher than that from the intake of (133)I by a factor of ?3. The contribution of short-lived radioiodines to the thyroid dose for the public in the case of inhalation intake occurring as early as March 12 might be as great as 30-40 %. PMID:25394649

Shinkarev, S M; Kotenko, K V; Granovskaya, E O; Yatsenko, V N; Imanaka, T; Hoshi, M

2014-11-13

199

Changes in oxidative stress parameters in relation to age, growth and reproduction in the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus reared in its natural environment.  

PubMed

Increase in oxidative damage and decrease in cellular maintenance is often associated with aging, but, in marine ectotherms, both processes are also strongly influenced by somatic growth, maturation and reproduction. In this study, we used a single cohort of the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus, to investigate the effects of somatic growth, reproduction and aging on oxidative damage parameters (protein carbonyls, TBARS and lipofuscin) and cellular maintenance mechanisms (antioxidant activity and apoptosis) in scallops, caged in their natural environment. The concentrations of protein carbonyls and TBARS increased steeply during the early period of fast growth and during reproduction in one-year-old scallops. However, oxidative damage was transient, and apoptotic cell death played a pivotal role in eliminating damage in gill, mantle and muscle tissues of young scallops. Animals were able to reproduce again in the second year, but the reduced intensity of apoptosis impaired subsequent removal of damaged cells. In late survivors low antioxidant capacity and apoptotic activity together with a fast accumulation of the age pigment lipofuscin was observed. Rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress markers were strongly dependent on somatic growth and reproductive state but not on temperature. Compared to longer-lived bivalves, A. ventricosus seems more susceptible to oxidative stress with higher tissue-specific protein carbonyl levels and fast accumulation of lipofuscin in animals surviving the second spawning. Superoxide dismutase activity and apoptotic cell death intensity were however higher in this short-lived scallop than in longer-lived bivalves. The life strategy of this short-lived and intensely predated scallop supports rapid somatic growth and fitness as well as early maturation at young age at the cost of fast cellular degradation in second year scallops. PMID:22561662

Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Philipp, E E R; Abele, D

2012-08-01

200

Short-Lived Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c  

PubMed Central

Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-?), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L?, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c? CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c?, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127? terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1? CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c? CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, short-lived, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113

Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

2013-01-01

201

On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Short-Lived Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the tropopause. This paper illustrates the mechanism by using results from a two-dimensional chemistry-transport model. However, in view of the importance of tropospheric transport on stratospheric loading the detailed values should be further evaluated using a three-dimensional model with appropriate treatment of convective transport.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

1997-01-01

202

Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (Mus musculus).  

PubMed

Lower ROS release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (short-lived). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-lived species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate. PMID:19464314

Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F

2009-08-01

203

Short-Lived Infected Cells Support Virus Replication in Sooty Mangabeys Naturally Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

Sooty mangabeys (SMs) naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication. At present, the mechanisms underlying this disease resistance are poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIV-infected SMs avoid immunodeficiency as a result of virus replication occurring in infected cells that live significantly longer than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected human cells. To this end, we treated six SIV-infected SMs with potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) and longitudinally measured the decline in plasma viremia. We applied the same mathematical models used in HIV-infected individuals and observed that SMs naturally infected with SIV also present a two-phase decay of viremia following ART, with the bulk (92 to 99%) of virus replication sustained by short-lived cells (average life span, 1.06 days), and only 1 to 8% occurring in longer-lived cells. In addition, we observed that ART had a limited impact on CD4+ T cells and the prevailing level of T-cell activation and proliferation in SIV-infected SMs. Collectively, these results suggest that in SIV-infected SMs, similar to HIV type 1-infected humans, short-lived activated CD4+ T cells, rather than macrophages, are the main source of virus production. These findings indicate that a short in vivo life span of infected cells is a common feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic primate lentivirus infections and support a model for AIDS pathogenesis whereby the direct killing of infected cells by HIV is not the main determinant of disease progression. PMID:18216113

Gordon, Shari N.; Dunham, Richard M.; Engram, Jessica C.; Estes, Jacob; Wang, Zichun; Klatt, Nichole R.; Paiardini, Mirko; Pandrea, Ivona V.; Apetrei, Cristian; Sodora, Donald L.; Lee, Ha Youn; Haase, Ashley T.; Miller, Michael D.; Kaur, Amitinder; Staprans, Silvija I.; Perelson, Alan S.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Silvestri, Guido

2008-01-01

204

An empirical evaluation of live cattle futures and options for short hedging slaughter cattle in the Texas Panhandle  

E-print Network

Futures And Options For Short Hedging Slaughter Cattle In The Texas Panhandle (August 1985) Jim R. Winder, B. S, New Mexico State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas L. Sporleder This study evaluates performance of short futures... 8. Comparison of Net Returns and Variability of Returns From Heifers Hedged With At-The-Money Put Options and Futures Con- tracts, 1980-84. 49 9. Comparison of Net Returns and Variability of Returns From Steers Hedged With BEP Put Options...

Winder, Jim R.

2012-06-07

205

Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells  

SciTech Connect

To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.

1982-01-01

206

An alternative approach to comparing long- and short-lived emissions in light of the 2&amp;deg;C global temperature limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International climate policy has defined its goal in terms of limiting global average temperature, specifically to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Emissions of several different greenhouse gases (GHGs) are currently aggregated and traded in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalent. The metric used for aggregating and trading is the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). Importantly though, the GWP100 does not measure temperature and so does clearly indicate the relative value of different emissions in the context of a global temperature limit. Recent developments in climate research have led to two different, potentially conflicting, perspectives on priorities in reducing emissions. First, a clear link has been demonstrated between cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide and peak temperature. This emphasises the need for carbon dioxide emissions to fall to near zero and provides a conceptually neat way to frame policy, but says little about the role of other GHGs. Second, other studies have shown that emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), many of which currently lie outside climate policy, have a substantial near-term effect on climate. It has been suggested that immediate SLCP reductions will therefore increase the chance of staying below 2°C and may even "buy time" for carbon dioxide reductions. This presentation summarises two recent papers which clarify the roles of SLCPs and long-lived GHGs in determining peak global temperature, and propose new emission metrics to reflect these. SLCP emissions reductions in a given decade have a significant impact on peak temperature only if carbon dioxide emissions are already falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially "buy time" for adaptation by reducing near-term warming, but it does not buy time to delay reductions in carbon dioxide compared with delayed SLCP reductions. Peak temperature is ultimately constrained by cumulative emissions of several long-lived gases (including carbon dioxide) and sustained emission rates of a separate basket of shorter-lived species (including methane and other SLCPs). For these two baskets we develop an emissions-equivalence metric which allows trading within, but not between, each basket. The 2°C limit could therefore be met by setting a limit to cumulative long-lived emissions while setting a maximum future rate for short-lived emissions.

Smith, Stephen; Bowerman, Niel; Lowe, Jason; Huntingford, Chris; Frame, Dave; Allen, Myles; Gohar, Laila; Millar, Richard

2014-05-01

207

Mineral Chemistry of Angrite NWA 4590, and Its Potential Use for Inter-Calibration of Isotopic Chronometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA-ICPMS analysis of trace elements in olivine, plagioclase, Fe-rich and Mg-rich pyroxene, ulvöspinel, merrillite, and silico-apatite from angrite NWA 4590 shows how these minerals can be used for short-lived and long-lived isotope chronometry.

Amelin, Y.; Iizuka, T.; Huyskens, M.

2011-03-01

208

Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

1976-01-01

209

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a “run-away-decline process” leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to

Katariina Kiviniemi

2008-01-01

210

Discovery of Highly Excited Long-Lived Isomers in Neutron-Rich Hafnium and Tantalum Isotopes through Direct Mass Measurements  

SciTech Connect

A study of cooled {sup 197}Au projectile-fragmentation products has been performed with a storage ring. This has enabled metastable nuclear excitations with energies up to 3 MeV, and half-lives extending to minutes or longer, to be identified in the neutron-rich nuclides {sup 183,184,186}Hf and {sup 186,187}Ta. The results support the prediction of a strongly favored isomer region near neutron number 116.

Reed, M. W.; Cullen, I. J.; Walker, P. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Kempley, R. S.; Swan, T. P. D. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Litvinov, Yu. A.; Winckler, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bosch, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Farinon, F.; Heil, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kuzminchuk, N.; Litvinov, S.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-10-22

211

Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice  

PubMed Central

Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. PMID:23832075

Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Rakoczy, Sharlene

2013-01-01

212

Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.  

PubMed

Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. PMID:23832075

Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

2013-09-01

213

The majority of "natural" immunoglobulin-secreting cells are short-lived and the progeny of cycling lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Treatment of mice with hydroxyurea to selectively kill all cycling cells has been used to study population dynamics and life expectancy of "natural" immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the bone marrow and spleen of nonimmunized animals. The results show that 50 to 90% of those cells are eliminated 2 to 3 days after one cycle of hydroxyurea administration, demonstrating their recent origin from cycling precursors. Using a protocol of long-term hydroxyurea treatment which abrogates cell production from the cycling precursors compartments, it was shown that "natural" immunoglobulin-secreting cells have a very short half renewal time, in the range of 15-60 h. PMID:3297735

Lévy, M; Vieira, P; Coutinho, A; Freitas, A

1987-06-01

214

Universal Slow RI-Beam Facility at RIKEN RIBF for Laser Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A universal slow RI-beam facility (SLOWRI) for precision atomic spectroscopy is being built at the RIKEN RI-beam factory. The facility will provide a wide variety of low-energy nuclear ions of all elements produced by projectile fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams and thermalized by an RF-carpet ion guide. At prototype SLOWRI, radioactive Be isotope ions produced at 1 GeV were decelerated and cooled in an ion trap down to 1 {mu}eV by employing laser cooling. The ground state hyperfine structures of {sup 7}Be{sup +} and {sup 11}Be{sup +} were measured accurately by laser microwave double resonance spectroscopy. Measurements of the S{sub 1/2}{yields}P{sub 1/2}, P{sub 3/2} transition frequencies of {sup 7,9,10,11}Be{sup +} ions are also in progress aiming at the study of the nuclear charge radii. Other possible experiment at SLOWRI, such as mass spectroscopy, are also discussed.

Wada, M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Takamine, A. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Okada, K. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Schury, P.; Kanai, Y.; Kojima, T. M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Lioubimov, V. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Yamazaki, Y. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Arts and Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Iimura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Katayama, I. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chohugaoka, Chohu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessem, Giessen (Germany); Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2009-03-17

215

Precision Mass Measurements of Short-Lived, Neutron-Rich, R-Process Nuclei About the N=82 Waiting Point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis details the precision mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich ground-state nuclei and isomeric states that approach or lie on the proposed rapid neutron capture process (r-process) path. For many of the nuclei measured the work presented here will be the rst direct mass measurements of these nuclei, including 130In, 137Sb, 133I, and 134I. The measurements were made using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer (CPT), located at the ATLAS heavy ion-linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Ground states and isomers have been measured with the CPT at fractional precisions (?m/m) between 10-7, and 10-8. The nuclei were produced at the new CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to ATLAS. Because nuclear masses are required for measuring neutron separation energies, and neutron separation energies are important inputs in r-process network calculations, precision mass measurements are critical for advancing our knowledge of the r-process. This thesis will give the astrophysical motivation for making these mass measurements, the theoretical background behind ion trapping and mass measurements using ion traps, an explanation of the CPT apparatus, the mass measurements themselves, and the results of those measurements as they pertain to r-process network calculations. Results of these mass measurements show significant shifts in the r-process path over a range of temperatures and neutron densities.

Lascar, Daniel David

216

Site-specific responses to short-term environmental variation are reflected in leaf and phloem-sap carbon isotopic abundance of field grown Eucalyptus globulus.  

PubMed

The carbon isotopic composition (?(13) C) of plant material has been used extensively as an indirect measure of carbon fixation per volume of water used. More recently, the ?(13) C of phloem sap (?(13) C(phl) ) has been used as a surrogate measure of short-term, canopy scale ?(13) C. Using a combination of ?(13) C physiological, structural and chemical indices from leaves and phloem sap of Eucalyptus globulus at sites of contrasting water availability, we sought to identify short-term, canopy scale resource limitations. Results illustrate that ?(13) C(phl) offers valid reflections of short-term, canopy scale values of leaf ?(13) C and tree water status. Under conditions limited by water, leaf and phloem sap photoassimilates differ in (13) C abundance of a magnitude large enough to significantly influence predictions of water use efficiency. This pattern was not detected among trees with adequate water supply indicating fractionation into heterotrophic tissues that may be sensitive to plant water status. Trees employed a range of physiological, biochemical and structural adaptations to acclimate to resource limitation that differed among sites providing a useful context upon which to interpret patterns in ?(13) C. Our results highlight that such easily characterized properties are ideal for use as minimally invasive tools to monitor growth and resilience of plants to variations in resource availability. PMID:22568657

Merchant, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas N; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Samsa, Glen A; Adams, Mark A

2012-12-01

217

Utilization of short- and medium-lived nuclides for the trace-element characterization of food samples  

SciTech Connect

Food has long been known to play a key role not only in the health status of human beings but also in their social lives. Relationships between food and physical as well as spiritual well-beings have been cited in ancient Chinese, Greek, and Indian literatures. Modern medicine, curative as well as preventive, values the nutritional aspects of food. In this regard, there exists an increasing interest in estimating the average daily intake of biologically important elements through food. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is particularly well suited for the simultaneous determinations of major, minor, and trace elements in both individual food items and composite diets. In the present study, emphasis is placed on the development of reliable and rapid INAA methods for measuring concentrations of ten elements of nutritional interest in food samples.

Chatt, A.; McDowell, L.S.; Pegg, D.L.

1986-01-01

218

DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL SHORT-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.

Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.

2003-02-27

219

Isotope-periodic multilayer method for short self-diffusion paths - a comparative neutron and synchrotron Mössbauer reflectometric study of FePd alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd in equilibrium exhibit the L10 structure with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy making them attractive candidates for high-density magnetic recording. Magnetic properties of these films depend on the distribution and orientation of the L10 fraction controlled by diffusion on atomic scale. Epitaxial isotope-periodic natFePd/57FePd alloy films were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and heat treated at 500°C for various retention times. Isotope-sensitive non-destructive methods, neutron reflectometry and synchrotron Mössbauer reflectometry were applied to follow very short diffusion paths normal to the film plane. Squared diffusion lengths and diffusion profiles were obtained from the fitting of experimental reflectivity curves for each annealing treatment steps. The somewhat different diffusion lengths obtained for the neutron and synchrotronMössbauer reflectograms of the same samples are explained by the larger footprint of the sample in the neutron experiment for which interface inhomogeneities are to be averaged. Diffusion in the microscopically different local environments were modelled by piecewise constant diffusion coefficients in the regions identified as different species by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Merkel, D. G.; Sajti, S.; Fetzer, C.; Major, J.; Major, M.; Rüffer, R.; Rühm, A.; Stankov, S.; Tanczikó, F.; Bottyán, L.

2010-02-01

220

The age related markers lipofuscin and apoptosis show different genetic architecture by QTL mapping in short-lived Nothobranchius fish  

PubMed Central

Annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius show large variations in lifespan and expression of age-related phenotypes between closely related populations. We studied N. kadleci and its sister species N. furzeri GRZ strain, and found that N.kadleci is longer-lived than the N. furzeri. Lipofuscin and apoptosis measured in the liver increased with age in N. kadleci with different profiles: lipofuscin increased linearly, while apoptosis declined in the oldest animals. More lipofuscin (P < 0.001) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) was observed in N. furzeri than in N. kadleci at 16w age. Lipofuscin and apoptotic cells were then quantified in hybrids from the mating of N. furzeri to N. kadleci. F1 individuals showed heterosis for lipofuscin but additive effects for apoptosis. These two age-related phenotypes were not correlated in F2 hybrids. Quantitative trait loci analysis of 287 F2 fish using 237 markers identified two QTL accounting for 10% of lipofuscin variance (P < 0.001) with overdominance effect. Apoptotic cells revealed three significant- and two suggestive QTL explaining 19% of variance (P < 0.001), showing additive and dominance effects, and two interacting loci. Our results show that lipofuscin and apoptosis are markers of different age-dependent biological processes controlled by different genetic mechanisms. PMID:25093339

Ng'oma, Enoch; Reichwald, Kathrin; Dorn, Alexander; Wittig, Michael; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Allesandro

2014-01-01

221

Charge and frequency resolved isochronous mass spectrometry in storage rings: First direct mass measurement of the short-lived neutron-deficient $^{51}$Co nuclide  

E-print Network

Revolution frequency measurements of individual ions in storage rings require sophisticated timing detectors. One of common approaches for such detectors is the detection of secondary electrons released from a thin foil due to penetration of the stored ions. A new method based on the analysis of intensities of secondary electrons was developed which enables determination of the charge of each ion simultaneously with the measurement of its revolution frequency. Although the mass-over-charge ratios of $^{51}$Co$^{27+}$ and $^{34}$Ar$^{18+}$ ions are almost identical, and therefore, the ions can not be resolved in a storage ring, by applying the new method the mass excess of the short-lived $^{51}$Co is determined for the first time to be ME($^{51}$Co)=-27342(48) keV. Shell-model calculations in the $fp$-shell nuclei compared to the new data indicate the need to include isospin-nonconserving forces.

P. Shuai; H. S. Xu; X. L. Tu; Y. H. Zhang; B. H. Sun; Yu. A. Litvinov; X. L. Yan; K. Blaum; M. Wang; X. H. Zhou; J. J. He; Y. Sun; K. Kaneko; Y. J. Yuan; J. W. Xia; J. C. Yang; G. Audi; X. C. Chen; G. B. Jia; Z. G. Hu; X. W. Ma; R. S. Mao; B. Mei; Z. Y. Sun; S. T. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; X. Xu; T. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamaguchi; Y. D. Zang; H. W. Zhao; T. C. Zhao; W. Zhang; W. L. Zhan

2014-04-08

222

Unambiguous assignment of short- and long-range structural restraints by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with segmental isotope labeling.  

PubMed

We present an efficient method for the reduction of spectral complexity in the solid-state NMR spectra of insoluble protein assemblies, without loss of signal intensity. The approach is based on segmental isotope labeling by using the split intein DnaE from Nostoc punctiforme. We show that the segmentally (13) C,(15) N-labeled prion domain of HET-s exhibits significantly reduced spectral overlap while retaining the wild-type structure and spectral quality. A large number of unambiguous distance restraints were thus collected from a single two-dimensional (13) C,(13) C cross-correlation spectrum. The observed resonances could be unambiguously identified as intramolecular without the need for preparing a dilute, less sensitive sample. PMID:25394265

Schubeis, Tobias; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

2015-01-01

223

Seasonal and Short-term Variation of Water Vapor Isotope ratios in Surface Air in Sapporo, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes of atmospheric water vapor provide information about movement of water and its phase changes in the atmosphere. Surface water vapor's ?D and ?18O measurement was conducted in Sapporo (43.1N, 141.3E), a humid continental site characterized by a warm but not humid summer and a quite cold and snowy winter, in Hokkaido, Japan with a Los Gatos Research's (LGR) Water-Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA, model DLT-100). The observation in Sapporo was carried out in four phases: (I) 28 April 2009 - 25 June 2009; (II) 15 September 2009 - 29 November 2009; (III) 1 April 2010 - 21 May 2010 and (IV) 17 December 2010 - 30 May 2011. In addition, auxiliary data (air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed & direction, etc.) were obtained with an automatic weather station (AWS). Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of ?D and ?18O of atmospheric water vapor near the ground in Sapporo and to explore the meteorological processes that influence ?D and ?18O of atmospheric water vapor at the surface. In general, ?D and ?18O were higher in warm season (PHASES I & III) than in cold season (PHASES II & IV) with almost equal day-to-day ?D variability in both seasons. The lightest ?D (-239.7%) occurs in the month of March/April despite not being the coldest month in Sapporo. This is thought to be due to "rigorous" evaporation due to snow-melting. In addition, over periods of about 1-7days, considerable variations occurred, sometimes exceeding 100% for ?D. These considerable variations were attributable to weather phenomena such as sea-breeze and cold frontal passages. The former causes ?D to increase abruptly while the latter causes an abrupt decrease.

Sunmonu, L. A.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Muramoto, K.; Kurita, N.

2011-12-01

224

Half-lives and branchings for ?-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL ?-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for ?-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for Co74 (18±15%) and Ni75-77 (10±2.8%, 14±3.6%, and 30±24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of Cu77-79, Zn79,81, and Ga82. For Cu77-79 and for Zn81 we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of Co75 (30±11 ms) and Cu80 (170-50+110 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

Hosmer, P.; Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Clement, R. R. C.; Estrade, A.; Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Liddick, S. N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Mantica, P. F.; Möller, P.; Mueller, W. F.; Montes, F.; Morton, A. C.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Pereira, J.; Pfeiffer, B.; Reeder, P.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Tomlin, B. E.; Walters, W. B.; Wöhr, A.

2010-08-01

225

Half-lives and branchings for ?-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process  

E-print Network

The {\\beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {\\beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for 74Co (18 +/- 15%) and 75-77Ni (10 +/- 2.8%, 14 +/- 3.6%, and 30 +/- 24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of 77-79Cu, 79,81Zn, and 82Ga. For 77-79Cu and for 81Zn we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of 75Co (30 +/- 11 ms) and 80Cu (170+110 -50 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A = 78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

P. Hosmer; H. Schatz; A. Aprahamian; O. Arndt; R. R. C. Clement; A. Estrade; K. Farouqi; K. -L. Kratz; S. N. Liddick; A. F. Lisetskiy; P. F. Mantica; P. Möller; W. F. Mueller; F. Montes; A. C. Morton; M. Ouellette; E. Pellegrini; J. Pereira; B. Pfeiffer; P. Reeder; P. Santi; M. Steiner; A. Stolz; B. E. Tomlin; W. B. Walters; A. Wöhr

2010-11-23

226

Climate Impacts of Short-Lived Climate Forcers versus CO2 from Biodiesel: A Case of the EU on-Road Sector.  

PubMed

Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel. PMID:25405926

Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

2014-12-16

227

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. I. Age-associated early decline in immune activities of cultured spleen cells.  

PubMed Central

Using a cell culture system, age-associated changes in immune activities were investigated in newly developed, short-lived mouse strains. These SAM-P strains of mice (H-2k), which have a remarkably short life span (around 9 months) under conventional breeding conditions, showed an age-associated early decline in several immune functions, as compared to ordinary strains of AKR/J (H-2k) and C3H/He (H-2k) mice. Their antibody-forming capacity to T-independent antigen, DNP-Ficoll, and natural killer (NK) cell activity showed a markedly early onset of regression and a sharp decline from the level of control mice at 2 months of age. SAM-P strains of mice have a profound defect in antibody response to a T-dependent (TD) antigen, such as sheep red blood cells (SRBC), thus there was only a feeble antibody response to SRBC as early as the age of 2 months, and a negligible response at a later age. In contrast, the allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response of the mice was as high as that of control mouse strains at 2 months of age and declined little until at least 6 months of age. The early age-related functional decline in the immune system of SAM-P mice suggests that these new inbred strains are appropriate models for investigating the age-related appearance of immune dysfunctions. PMID:3499380

Hosokawa, T; Hosono, M; Higuchi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Takeda, T

1987-01-01

228

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. I. Age-associated early decline in immune activities of cultured spleen cells.  

PubMed

Using a cell culture system, age-associated changes in immune activities were investigated in newly developed, short-lived mouse strains. These SAM-P strains of mice (H-2k), which have a remarkably short life span (around 9 months) under conventional breeding conditions, showed an age-associated early decline in several immune functions, as compared to ordinary strains of AKR/J (H-2k) and C3H/He (H-2k) mice. Their antibody-forming capacity to T-independent antigen, DNP-Ficoll, and natural killer (NK) cell activity showed a markedly early onset of regression and a sharp decline from the level of control mice at 2 months of age. SAM-P strains of mice have a profound defect in antibody response to a T-dependent (TD) antigen, such as sheep red blood cells (SRBC), thus there was only a feeble antibody response to SRBC as early as the age of 2 months, and a negligible response at a later age. In contrast, the allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response of the mice was as high as that of control mouse strains at 2 months of age and declined little until at least 6 months of age. The early age-related functional decline in the immune system of SAM-P mice suggests that these new inbred strains are appropriate models for investigating the age-related appearance of immune dysfunctions. PMID:3499380

Hosokawa, T; Hosono, M; Higuchi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Takeda, T

1987-11-01

229

Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.  

PubMed

Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three plants were of generally high quality in terms of insect performance. We discuss ecological and evolutionary constraints on insects that must search in new habitats for different plant species over successive generations. PMID:24028469

Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

230

The short-lived signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein photoreceptor revealed by combined structural probes.  

PubMed

The signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) photoreceptor is transiently developed via isomerization of its blue-light-absorbing chromophore. The associated structural rearrangements have large amplitude but, due to its transient nature and chemical exchange reactions that complicate NMR detection, its accurate three-dimensional structure in solution has been elusive. Here we report on direct structural observation of the transient signaling state by combining double electron electron resonance spectroscopy (DEER), NMR, and time-resolved pump-probe X-ray solution scattering (TR-SAXS/WAXS). Measurement of distance distributions for doubly spin-labeled photoreceptor constructs using DEER spectroscopy suggests that the signaling state is well ordered and shows that interspin-label distances change reversibly up to 19 Å upon illumination. The SAXS/WAXS difference signal for the signaling state relative to the ground state indicates the transient formation of an ordered and rearranged conformation, which has an increased radius of gyration, an increased maximum dimension, and a reduced excluded volume. Dynamical annealing calculations using the DEER derived long-range distance restraints in combination with short-range distance information from (1)H-(15)N HSQC perturbation spectroscopy give strong indication for a rearrangement that places part of the N-terminal domain in contact with the exposed chromophore binding cleft while the terminal residues extend away from the core. Time-resolved global structural information from pump-probe TR-SAXS/WAXS data supports this conformation and allows subsequent structural refinement that includes the combined energy terms from DEER, NMR, and SAXS/WAXS together. The resulting ensemble simultaneously satisfies all restraints, and the inclusion of TR-SAXS/WAXS effectively reduces the uncertainty arising from the possible spin-label orientations. The observations are essentially compatible with reduced folding of the I(2)' state (also referred to as the 'pB' state) that is widely reported, but indicates it to be relatively ordered and rearranged. Furthermore, there is direct evidence for the repositioning of the N-terminal region in the I(2)' state, which is structurally modeled by dynamical annealing and refinement calculations. PMID:21627157

Ramachandran, Pradeep L; Lovett, Janet E; Carl, Patrick J; Cammarata, Marco; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Yang Ouk; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Timmel, Christiane R; van Thor, Jasper J

2011-06-22

231

Chronic Parasitic Infection Maintains High Frequencies of Short-Lived Ly6C+CD4+ Effector T Cells That Are Required for Protection against Re-infection  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the ability of long-lived CD8+ memory T cells to mediate protection against systemic viral infections, the relationship between CD4+ T cell memory and acquired resistance against infectious pathogens remains poorly defined. This is especially true for T helper 1 (Th1) concomitant immunity, in which protection against reinfection coincides with a persisting primary infection. In these situations, pre-existing effector CD4 T cells generated by ongoing chronic infection, not memory cells, may be essential for protection against reinfection. We present a systematic study of the tissue homing properties, functionality, and life span of subsets of memory and effector CD4 T cells activated in the setting of chronic Leishmania major infection in resistant C57Bl/6 mice. We found that pre-existing, CD44+CD62L?T-bet+Ly6C+ effector (TEFF) cells that are short-lived in the absence of infection and are not derived from memory cells reactivated by secondary challenge, mediate concomitant immunity. Upon adoptive transfer and challenge, non-dividing Ly6C+ TEFF cells preferentially homed to the skin, released IFN-?, and conferred protection as compared to CD44+CD62L?Ly6C? effector memory or CD44+CD62L+Ly6C? central memory cells. During chronic infection, Ly6C+ TEFF cells were maintained at high frequencies via reactivation of TCM and the TEFF themselves. The lack of effective vaccines for many chronic diseases may be because protection against infectious challenge requires the maintenance of pre-existing TEFF cells, and is therefore not amenable to conventional, memory inducing, vaccination strategies. PMID:25473946

Peters, Nathan C.; Pagán, Antonio J.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Hand, Timothy W.; Henrique Roma, Eric; Stamper, Lisa W.; Romano, Audrey; Sacks, David L.

2014-01-01

232

Half-lives and branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process  

SciTech Connect

The {beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission (P{sub n} values) for {sup 74}Co (18{+-}15%) and {sup 75-77}Ni (10{+-}2.8%, 14{+-}3.6%, and 30{+-}24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the P{sub n} values of {sup 77-79}Cu, {sup 79,81}Zn, and {sup 82}Ga. For {sup 77-79}Cu and for {sup 81}Zn we obtain significantly larger P{sub n} values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of {sup 75}Co (30{+-}11 ms) and {sup 80}Cu (170{sub -50}{sup +110} ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.

Hosmer, P.; Estrade, A.; Montes, F.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Aprahamian, A. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Arndt, O.; Pfeiffer, B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); HGF Virtuelles Institut fuer Kernstruktur und Nukleare Astrophysik (Germany); Clement, R. R. C.; Mueller, W. F.; Morton, A. C.; Pereira, J.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Farouqi, K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kratz, K.-L. [HGF Virtuelles Institut fuer Kernstruktur und Nukleare Astrophysik (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), J.-J.-Becherweg 27, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Liddick, S. N.; Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2010-08-15

233

Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2013-11-01

234

Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2014-04-01

235

Composition and Trends of Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS over Europe Observed by the CARIBIC Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from aboard a commercial airliner, and has operated since 2005 from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 . Measurements from the container include in-situ trace gas and aerosol analyses and the collection of aerosol and whole air samples for post-flight laboratory analysis. Measurements made from the sampling flasks include greenhouse gas (GHG), halocarbon and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis. CARIBIC flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany with routes to India, East Asia, South America, North America and Africa, and typical aircraft cruising altitudes of 10-12km allow for the monitoring of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) along these routes. Data collected during the aircraft’s departure from and return to Frankfurt provide a 4 year time series of near-monthly measurements of the composition of the UT/LS above Europe. Here we present a discussion of the composition of short-lived trace gases in the whole air samples collected above Europe during CARIBIC flights. Over 150 air samples were collected between May 2005 and July 2009, or about 4 samples per month. Of the whole air samples collected, about 45% showed influence by stratospheric air (i.e. very low values of GHG, NMHC and halocarbons, elevated O3, high potential vorticity). The remaining samples were representative of the upper troposphere; back trajectories for these samples indicate that a little over half were collected in air masses that had been in the boundary layer within the previous 8 days. The predominant source regions for these samples were the Gulf of Mexico and continental North America. Owing to their wide range of chemical lifetimes and the varying composition of emissions, short-lived trace gases transported to the UT/LS can be useful indicators of source region, photochemical processing and transport timescales of an air mass. Seasonal and longer-term trends in trace gases and trace gas composition are discussed, as well as composition of air masses having different origins. Additionally, we apply relationships between the different species, particularly the NMHC, to gain a qualitative understanding of photochemical processes occurring during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere over Europe.

Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Oram, D. E.; O'Sullivan, D. A.; Slemr, F.; Schuck, T. J.

2009-12-01

236

Precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS.  

PubMed

The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is important for quite different application fields (e.g. for isotope ratio measurements of stable isotopes in nature, especially for the investigation of isotope variation in nature or age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, quality assurance of fuel material, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control, for tracer experiments using stable isotopes or long-lived radionuclides in biological or medical studies). Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which used to be the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements, is being increasingly replaced for isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS due to its excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy. Instrumental progress in ICP-MS was achieved by the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate many disturbing argon-based molecular ions, thermalize the ions and neutralize the disturbing argon ions of plasma gas (Ar+). The application of the collision cell in ICP-QMS results in a higher ion transmission, improved sensitivity and better precision of isotope ratio measurements compared to quadrupole ICP-MS without the collision cell [e.g., for 235U/238U approximately 1 (10 microg x L(-1) uranium) 0.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs. 0.2% RSD in short-term measurements (n = 5)]. A significant instrumental improvement for ICP-MS is the multicollector device (MC-ICP-MS) in order to obtain a better precision of isotope ratio measurements (with a precision of up to 0.002%, RSD). CE- and HPLC-ICP-MS are used for the separation of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes by determination of spallation nuclide abundances in an irradiated tantalum target. PMID:11220826

Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

2000-09-01

237

Triptolide is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I and II-dependent transcription leading predominantly to down-regulation of short-lived mRNA.  

PubMed

Triptolide, a natural product extracted from the Chinese plant Tripterygium wilfordii, possesses antitumor properties. Despite numerous reports showing the proapoptotic capacity and the inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription by triptolide, the identity of its cellular target is still unknown. To clarify its mechanism of action, we further investigated the effect of triptolide on RNA synthesis in the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. Triptolide inhibited both total RNA and mRNA de novo synthesis, with the primary action being on the latter pool. We used 44K human pan-genomic DNA microarrays and identified the genes primarily affected by a short treatment with triptolide. Among the modulated genes, up to 98% are down-regulated, encompassing a large array of oncogenes including transcription factors and cell cycle regulators. We next observed that triptolide induced a rapid depletion of RPB1, the RNA polymerase II main subunit that is considered a hallmark of a transcription elongation blockage. However, we also show that triptolide does not directly interact with the RNA polymerase II complex nor does it damage DNA. We thus conclude that triptolide is an original pharmacologic inhibitor of RNA polymerase activity, affecting indirectly the transcription machinery, leading to a rapid depletion of short-lived mRNA, including transcription factors, cell cycle regulators such as CDC25A, and the oncogenes MYC and Src. Overall, the data shed light on the effect of triptolide on transcription, along with its novel potential applications in cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, which is in part driven by the aforementioned oncogenic factors. PMID:19808979

Vispé, Stéphane; DeVries, Luc; Créancier, Laurent; Besse, Jérome; Bréand, Sophie; Hobson, David J; Svejstrup, Jesper Q; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Cussac, Didier; Dumontet, Charles; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Barret, Jean-Marc; Bailly, Christian

2009-10-01

238

Detection of the short-lived cation radical intermediate in the electrochemical oxidation of n,n-dimethylaniline by scanning electrochemical microscopy.  

PubMed

The short-lived intermediate N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) cation radical, DMA(•+), was detected during the oxidation of DMA in MeCN with 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate. The detection was accomplished at steady state by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with ultramicroelectrodes using the tip generation/substrate collection mode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a 2 mm Pt electrode indicates that DMA oxidation in acetonitrile is followed by a dimerization and two electrochemical reactions, which is consistent with previous results. The DMA(•+) intermediate is detected by SECM, where the DMA(•+) generated at the ca. 500 nm radius Pt tip is collected on a 5 ?m radius Pt substrate when the gap between the tip and the substrate is a few hundred nanometers. Almost all of the DMA(•+) is reduced at the substrate when the gap is 200 nm or less, yielding a dimerization rate constant of 2.5 × 10(8) M(-1)·s(-1) based on a simulation. This is roughly 3 orders of magnitude larger than the value estimated by fast-scan CV. We attribute this discrepancy to the effects of double-layer capacitance charging and adsorbed species in the high scan rate CV. PMID:25478724

Cao, Fahe; Kim, Jiyeon; Bard, Allen J

2014-12-31

239

Naturally acquired inhibitory antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein are short-lived and allele-specific following a single malaria infection  

PubMed Central

The Duffy binding protein of Plasmodium vivax (DBP) is a critical adhesion ligand that participates in merozoite invasion of human Duffy-positive erythrocytes. A small outbreak of P. vivax malaria, in a village located in a non-malarious area of Brazil, offered us an opportunity to investigate the DBP immune responses among individuals who had their first and brief exposure to malaria. Thirty-three individuals participated in the five cross-sectional surveys, 15 with confirmed P. vivax infection while residing in the outbreak area (cases) and 18 who had not experienced malaria (non-cases). In the present study, we found that only 20% (three of 15) of the individuals who experienced their first P. vivax infection developed an antibody response to DBP; a secondary boosting can be achieved with a recurrent P. vivax infection. DNA sequences from primary/recurrent P. vivax samples identified a single dbp allele among the samples from the outbreak area. To investigate inhibitory antibodies to the ligand domain of the DBP (cysteine-rich region II, DBPII), we performed in vitro assays with mammalian cells expressing DBPII sequences which were homologous or not to those from the outbreak isolate. In non-immune individuals, the results of a 12-month follow-up period provided evidence that naturally acquired inhibitory antibodies to DBPII are short-lived and biased towards a specific allele. PMID:19438604

Ceravolo, I P; Sanchez, B A M; Sousa, T N; Guerra, B M; Soares, I S; Braga, E M; McHenry, A M; Adams, J H; Brito, C F A; Carvalho, L H

2009-01-01

240

Transport of short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P) to the Himalayas during the South Asian summer monsoon onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of six years (2006-2011), equivalent black carbon (eqBC), coarse aerosol mass (PM1-10), and surface ozone (O3), observed during the monsoon onset period at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid WMO/GAW Global Station (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.), were analyzed to investigate events characterized by a significant increase in these short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P). These events occurred during periods characterized by low (or nearly absent) rain precipitation in the central Himalayas, and they appeared to be related to weakening stages (or ‘breaking’) of the South Asian summer monsoon system. As revealed by the combined analysis of atmospheric circulation, air-mass three-dimensional back trajectories, and satellite measurements of atmospheric aerosol loading, surface open fire, and tropospheric NO x , the large amount of SLCF/P reaching the NCO-P appeared to be related to natural (mineral dust) and anthropogenic emissions occurring within the PBL of central Pakistan (i.e., Thar Desert), the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic plain, and the Himalayan foothills. The systematic occurrence of these events appeared to represent the most important source of SLCF/P inputs into the central Himalayas during the summer monsoon onset period, with possible important implications for the regional climate and for hydrological cycles.

Cristofanelli, P.; Putero, D.; Adhikary, B.; Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Laj, P.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Vuillermoz, E.; Kang, S.; Ming, J.; Bonasoni, P.

2014-08-01

241

Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a by-product of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focussed on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health impacts but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve due to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a short-lived climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate-change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner.

Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.

2014-12-01

242

Diurnal variation climatology of short-lived at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a diurnal variation climatology for short-lived at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf

Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko

2013-04-01

243

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. Selectively impaired T-helper cell activity in in vitro antibody response.  

PubMed

New short-lived strains of mice (SAM-P), which have been developed by Takeda et al. (1981), shows a defective antibody response to T dependent (TD) antigen in vitro, as demonstrated in the accompanying paper (see page 419). In the present study, we investigated the cellular site of the defect, using a cell culture system. In this paper, it is demonstrated that T-helper (Th) cell activity for the antibody response to TD antigen is impaired, while other cellular immune responses, e.g. mixed leucocyte reaction, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, are normal. These results suggest that the defect in T-helper subset is limited in helper function for the antibody response, and that the helper function for the cell-mediated immune responses is intact. These two functions of the T-helper subset are apparently regulated in a different manner. The SAM-P strains of mice may thus serve as an appropriate model for studying functional heterogeneity in T-helper/inducer cell subsets. PMID:2959613

Hosokawa, T; Hosono, M; Hanada, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Takeda, T

1987-11-01

244

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. Selectively impaired T-helper cell activity in in vitro antibody response.  

PubMed Central

New short-lived strains of mice (SAM-P), which have been developed by Takeda et al. (1981), shows a defective antibody response to T dependent (TD) antigen in vitro, as demonstrated in the accompanying paper (see page 419). In the present study, we investigated the cellular site of the defect, using a cell culture system. In this paper, it is demonstrated that T-helper (Th) cell activity for the antibody response to TD antigen is impaired, while other cellular immune responses, e.g. mixed leucocyte reaction, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, are normal. These results suggest that the defect in T-helper subset is limited in helper function for the antibody response, and that the helper function for the cell-mediated immune responses is intact. These two functions of the T-helper subset are apparently regulated in a different manner. The SAM-P strains of mice may thus serve as an appropriate model for studying functional heterogeneity in T-helper/inducer cell subsets. PMID:2959613

Hosokawa, T; Hosono, M; Hanada, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K; Takeda, T

1987-01-01

245

Carbon isotope compositions (?(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.  

PubMed

The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (?(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of ?(13) Cwood and ?(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with ?(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to ?(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher ?(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between ?(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with ?(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. PMID:24906162

Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

2015-01-01

246

Concentrated fish oil (Lovaza®) extends lifespan and attenuates kidney disease in lupus-prone short-lived (NZBxNZW)F1 mice  

PubMed Central

A growing number of reports indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil (FO) are beneficial against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the majority of pre-clinical studies were performed using 5–20% FO, which is higher than the clinically relevant dose for lupus patients. The present study was performed in order to determine the effective low dose of FDA-approved concentrated FO (Lovaza®) compared to the commonly used FO-18/12 (18-Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]/12-Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). We examined the dose-dependent response of Lovaza® (1% and 4%) on an SLE mouse strain (NZB×NZW)F1 and compared the same with 1% and 4% placebo, as well as 4% FO-18/12, maintaining standard chow as the control. Results show for the first time that 1% Lovaza® extends maximal lifespan (517 d) and 4% Lovaza® significantly extends both the median (502 d) and maximal (600 d) life span of (NZB×NZW)F1 mice. In contrast, FO-18/12 extends only median lifespan (410 d) compared to standard chow diet (301 d). Additionally, 4% Lovaza® significantly decreased anti-dsDNA antibodies, reduced glomerulonephritis and attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?) in splenocytes compared to placebo. 4% Lovaza® was also shown to reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, while increasing renal anti-oxidant enzymes in comparison to placebo. Notably, NF?B activation and p65 nuclear translocation were lowered by 4% Lovaza® compared to placebo. These data indicate that 1% Lovaza® is beneficial, but 4% Lovaza® is more effective in suppressing glomerulonephritis and extending life span of SLE-prone short-lived mice, possibly via reducing inflammation signaling and modulating oxidative stress. PMID:23918873

Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Veigas, Jyothi M; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Fernandes, Gabriel

2014-01-01

247

TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of decay products of a short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.

Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: siipatov@hotmail.co, E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed, E-mail: HarriVanhala@ncesse.or [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

2010-01-10

248

IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 is a key in vivo signal for CD8+ short-lived effector T cell differentiation.  

PubMed

During infection or vaccination, only a small proportion of CD8(+) T cells differentiate into memory cells. The mechanisms underlying the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) or memory precursor effector cells are poorly defined. It was recently shown in infectious models that the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) enhances the formation of SLECs. The factors controlling Blimp-1 expression leading to the in vivo formation of SLECs are still not known. However, it has been shown that cytokines such as IL-2 induce Blimp-1 expression in vitro. In this study, we took advantage of the low-inflammation model of dendritic cell immunization to study the role of the IL-2/Blimp-1 axis in SLEC differentiation as well as the importance of Blimp-1 expression in memory precursor effector cells for proper CD8(+) memory generation. Our results show that Blimp-1 deficiency affects effector differentiation and function in the absence of inflammation. Unexpectedly, memory generation was not affected in Blimp-1-deficient OT-I cells responding to vaccination. In addition, modulation of the bioavailability of IL-2 by injection either of a blocking Ab or of the cytokine, demonstrates a link between IL-2, Blimp-1 induction, and SLEC formation in wild-type cells. Conversely, injection of IL-2 had less effect on Blimp-1-deficient CD8(+) T cells, indicating that the effect of IL-2 on in vivo SLEC differentiation is mediated by Blimp-1. In conclusion, IL-2 induction of Blimp-1 expression is a key regulator of SLEC differentiation in vivo. PMID:25015830

Boulet, Salix; Daudelin, Jean-François; Labrecque, Nathalie

2014-08-15

249

RNA-seq of the aging brain in the short-lived fish N. furzeri – conserved pathways and novel genes associated with neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

The brains of teleost fish show extensive adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. The patterns of gene regulation during fish brain aging are unknown. The short-lived teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows markers of brain aging including reduced learning performances, gliosis, and reduced adult neurogenesis. We used RNA-seq to quantify genome-wide transcript regulation and sampled five different time points to characterize whole-genome transcript regulation during brain aging of N. furzeri. Comparison with human datasets revealed conserved up-regulation of ribosome, lysosome, and complement activation and conserved down-regulation of synapse, mitochondrion, proteasome, and spliceosome. Down-regulated genes differ in their temporal profiles: neurogenesis and extracellular matrix genes showed rapid decay, synaptic and axonal genes a progressive decay. A substantial proportion of differentially expressed genes (?40%) showed inversion of their temporal profiles in the last time point: spliceosome and proteasome showed initial down-regulation and stress-response genes initial up-regulation. Extensive regulation was detected for chromatin remodelers of the DNMT and CBX families as well as members of the polycomb complex and was mirrored by an up-regulation of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark. Network analysis showed extensive coregulation of cell cycle/DNA synthesis genes with the uncharacterized zinc-finger protein ZNF367 as central hub. In situ hybridization showed that ZNF367 is expressed in neuronal stem cell niches of both embryonic zebrafish and adult N. furzeri. Other genes down-regulated with age, not previously associated with adult neurogenesis and with similar patterns of expression are AGR2, DNMT3A, KRCP, MEX3A, SCML4, and CBX1. CBX7, on the other hand, was up-regulated with age. PMID:25059688

Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Priebe, Steffen; Savino, Aurora; Testa, Giovanna; Dix, Andreas; Ripa, Roberto; Spallotta, Francesco; Gaetano, Carlo; Ori, Michela; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Guthke, Reinhard; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro

2014-01-01

250

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. IV. Chromosomal location of a gene controlling defective helper T-cell activity.  

PubMed Central

Short-lived SAMP-P/1 mice are low responders in in vitro antibody responses because of a selectively impaired helper T(Th)-cell activity. After crossing with high responders (B10.BR mice), about 12% of (B10.BR x SAM-P/1) (BRP)F2 mice showed low responsiveness, as did SAM-P/1 mice, against two T-dependent antigens, sheep and horse red blood cells (RBC), both of which were not cross-reactive to each other at helper T- and B-cell levels. The immune activities against the two antigens in individual BRPF2 mice showed a good correlation (r = 0.81), thereby suggesting that SAM-P/1 mice have an antigen non-specific Th cell dysfunction. Based on the incidence of the low responders in F2 generation and statistical analyses, the hypo-responsiveness was postulated to be controlled by two genes. To survey the location of these genes, linkage analyses were performed in the F2 mice using a large set of genetic markers. Low responders in the F2 generation showed a significantly higher incidence of SAM-P/1 genotype at the Gpi-1 as well as c locus on chromosome 7 (Chr.7). However, no linkage of low responsiveness to the Hbb locus was evident, an area present at a more distal site to the centromere on the same chromosome. These results suggest that one of the genes controlling the hypo-responsiveness of SAM-P/1 mice is linked to both Gpi-1 and c loci and that it locates at a more proximal site on Chr.7. PMID:1834548

Hanada, K; Katoh, H; Hosokawa, T; Hosono, M; Takeda, T

1991-01-01

251

Immune responses in newly developed short-lived SAM mice. III. Genetic control of defective helper T-cell activity in in vitro primary antibody response.  

PubMed Central

Immune activities of newly developed, short-lived SAM-P/1 mice declined sharply after a few months of age. As early as 2 months of age, the activity of T-helper (Th) cells ('Th2'-like) in the in vitro primary antibody response was profoundly impaired, in contrast to normal activity of Th cells ('Th1'-like) engaged in cell-mediated immune responses. Thus, young SAM-P/1 mice show a functional heterogeneity of Th cells. To determine how such a 'Th2' abnormality is inherited in SAM-P/1 mice, immune activities of their hybrids and backcrosses between MHC-identical, high responder B10.BR mice were statistically assessed. The distribution of responses did not support the Mendelian single-gene determination for low responsiveness. Moreover, involvement of a single gene which exhibits incomplete dominance was ruled out because of a continuous distribution pattern of antibody response in the F2 generation. Such an analysis strongly suggests that the impaired 'Th2'-like activity of SAM-P/1 mice is under control of two genes, based on the proportion of low responders in F2 hybrids (29 out of 267, 10.8%) and on calculation according to Wright's formula (n = 1.72). Further linkage analyses suggest that one of the genes is closely linked to albino coat-colour (c) locus on chromosome 7. The putative two genes are likely to control 'differentiation' or 'maturation' of Th2-like cells defectively, but the defect is not refractory, because in vivo-primed Th cells function in vitro as do those in ordinary strains of mice. Possible mechanisms and biological significance in relation to loss of immune activity with ageing are discussed. PMID:2532621

Hanada, K; Hosono, M; Hosokawa, T; Chen, W E; Tsuboyama, T; Takeda, T

1989-01-01

252

Soluble maize fibre affects short-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable isotopic tracers.  

PubMed

Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable isotope method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases short-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca. PMID:24848974

Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

2014-08-01

253

Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

1992-01-01

254

Chemical and Isotopic Study of Lab-formed Carbonates Under Cryogenic and Hydrothermal Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous environments on early Mars were probably relatively short-lived and localized, as evidenced by the lack of abundant secondary minerals detected by the TES instrument. In order to better understand the aqueous history of early Mars we need to be able to interpret the evidence preserved in secondary minerals formed during these aqueous events. Carbonate minerals, in particular, are important secondary minerals for interpreting past aqueous environments as illustrated by the carbonates preserved in ALH84001. Carbonates formed in short-lived, dynamic aqueous events often preserve kinetic rather than equilibrium chemical and isotopic processes, and predicting the behavior of such systems is facilitated by empirical data.

Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

2004-01-01

255

Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via short-lived radium isotopes and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.  

PubMed

(224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management. PMID:24703767

Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming

2014-05-15

256

Short-lived U and Th isotope distribution in a tropical laterite derived from granite (Pitinga river basin, Amazonia, Brazil): Application to assessment of weathering rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed samples of a 15 m thick profile weathered from the Madeira granite, located in the Pitinga basin river, north of Manaus, in the state of Amazonia, Brazil. This profile consists essentially of a yellow-red saprolite covered by a soil. U and Th concentrations are particularly high in the granite (20 and 80 ?g\\/g respectively). Normalized element to

D. Mathieu; M. Bernat; D. Nahon

1995-01-01

257

The island of Pantelleria: A case for the development of DMM-HIMU isotopic compositions in a long-lived extensional setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic and trace element compositions of basalts and pantellerites from the island of Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) have been used to constrain the evolution of these magmas and their sources. All Pantelleria products have isotopic compositions that plot in Sr sbnd Pb, Nd sbnd Pb and Sr sbnd Nd space between DMM and HIMU oceanic mantle sources. The Pantelleria basalts have variable Ce/Pb, Nb/U and Th/U, and some have elevated 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb, which is indicative of the addition of an older component that resembles old enriched lithosphere sampled by potassic magmas in the circum-Tyrrhenian Sea. It is proposed that the relatively homogeneous pantellerites derive their Ce/Pb, Nb/U, and OIB-like Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions from a well-mixed crustal magma chamber supplied by heterogeneous basalts. We propose further that the radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb and 143Nd/ 144Nd, coupled with the unradiogenic Sr isotopic composition of some of the Pantelleria basalts, are inherited in a process involving chemical modification of the thinned lithospheric crust-mantle source by addition of basaltic (MORB) materials, a process that may have occurred intermittently at least since the Permo-Triassic. This process is responsible for lowering the Pb concentration and changing the U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios of portions of the lithospheric crust-mantle boundary. It is envisaged that the increase in ? and ? of the modified lithospheric mantle was caused by the addition of phases such as clinopyroxene and amphibole, crystallized in equilibrium with MORB. After chemical exchange with the asthenospheric mantle ceased during the Hercynian orogeny, this young (or rejuvenated) lithosphere evolved a radiogenic Pb isotopic composition. It is proposed that the isotopic differences observed between the volcanic rocks erupted in the Strait of Sicily and those erupted in the southern margin of the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain are primarily the result of mixing between magmas derived from a variably modified lithospheric source, some of it with OIB-type isotopic characteristics, that were developed by intermittent interaction with asthenospheric melts in a geodynamic regime dominated by extension.

Esperança, Sonia; Crisci, Gino M.

1995-12-01

258

Isotopic And Geochemical Investigations Of Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goals of our research over the past four years are to constrain the timing of certain early planetary accretion/differentiation events, and to constrain the proportions and provenance of materials involved in these processes. This work was achieved via the analysis and interpretation of long- and short-lived isotope systems, and the study of certain trace elements. Our research targeted these goals primarily via the application of the Re-187, Os-187, Pt-190 Os-186 Tc-98 Ru-99 and Tc-99 Ru-99 isotopic systems, and the determination/modeling of abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE; including Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, and maybe Tc). The specific events we examined include the segregation and crystallization histories of asteroidal cores, the accretion and metamorphic histories of chondrites and chondrite components, and the accretionary and differentiation histories of Mars and the Moon.

Walker, Richard J.

2005-01-01

259

Application of neutron activation analysis and high resolution x-ray spectrometry for the determination of trace quantities of elements with short-lived activation products  

E-print Network

Pulse Irradiation 11. RuLidium Soectrum from Peactor Pulse Irradiation PAGE 30 35 37 38 39 12. Platinum Spectrum from Reactor Pulse Irradiation 13. Dysprosium Spectrum from Steady State Irradiation 41 14. Dysprosium Spectrum from Reactcr Pulse... the energy difference between the daughter and parent isotopes is small, If this condition is satisfied, the nucleus can capture an orbital electron, whereby a proton is transformed into a neutron according to the reaction'. + p +e ? +no+ v The absence...

Marshall, John Richard

2012-06-07

260

Alpha decay of neutron deficient polonium and bismuth isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Neutron deficient isotopes of polonium and bismuth have been produced in the reactions /sup 56/Fe+/sup n/atCe and /sup 56/Fe+/sup 141/Pr, separated from the primary beam by our gas-filled on-line mass separator. The half-lives have been determined by measuring the lifetimes of individual nuclei. The new isotope /sup 192/Po(T/sub 1/2/ = 34 +- 3 ms, E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 7.17 MeV) and a short-lived isomeric state in /sup 191/Bi (T/sub 1/2/ = 150 +- 15 ms, E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 6.86 MeV) have been identified.

Leino, M.E.; Yashita, S.; Ghiorso, A.

1981-11-01

261

Design and realization of a microfluidic device devoted to the application of ultra-short pulses of electrical field to living cells  

E-print Network

and biological validation of a microfluidic biochip optimized for the nanoporation of cells is detailed spatial homogeneity of the electric field within the fluidic channel, the biochip includes thick of these electrical connections on the biochip impedance is detailled. Nanoporation was achieved on living cells

Boyer, Edmond

262

The Effectiveness of Healthy Physical Fitness Programs on People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in a Disability Institution: Six-Month Short-Term Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities living in a disability institution. There were 146…

Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Tung; Chou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Po-Hsun

2010-01-01

263

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half-lives of the isotopes specified.  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 38 41. INTERPRET This problem is about the age of the Earth in half), is called KREEP norite. ASSESS The age of the rock is on the same order as the age of the Earth, which-lives since the Earth formed is so large, that the number of these atoms left will be zero. The half-life of U

Ringwald, Frederick A.

264

Using short-lived nuclides of the U- and Th-series to probe the kinetics of colloid migration in forested soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent chemical dynamics of a podzolic forest soil section (from the Strengbach watershed, France) was investigated using U- and Th-series nuclides. Analyses of ( 238U), ( 230Th), ( 226Ra), ( 232Th), ( 228Ra) and ( 228Th) activities in the soil particles, the seepage waters, and the mature leaves of the beech trees growing on this soil were performed by TIMS or gamma spectrometry. The simultaneous analysis of the different soil ( sl) compartments allows to demonstrate that a preferential Th leaching over Ra must be assumed to explain the ( 226Ra/ 230Th), ( 228Ra/ 232Th) and ( 228Th/ 228Ra) disequilibria recorded in the soil particles. The overall Ra- and Th- transfer schemes are entirely consistent with the prevailing acido-complexolysis weathering mechanism in podzols. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) and ( 228Ra/ 232Th) disequilibria measured in the different soil layers enable dating of the contemporary processes occurring in this soil. In this way, we have determined that a preferential Th-leaching from the shallow Ah horizon, due to a strong complexation with organic colloids, began fairly recently (18 years ago at most). The continual increase in pH recorded in precipitations over the last 20 years is assumed to be the cause of this enhanced organic complexation. A lower soil horizon (50-60 cm) is also affected by preferential Th leaching, though lasting over several centuries at least, with a much smaller leaching rate. The migration of Th isotopes through this soil section might hence be used as a tracer for the organic colloids migration and the induced radioactive disequilibria demonstrate to be useful for assessing the colloidal migration kinetics in a forested soil. Ra and Th isotopic ratios also appear to be valuable tracers of some mineral-water-plant interactions occurring in soil. The ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) ratio enables discrimination of the Ra flux originating from leaf degradation from that originating from mineral weathering in shallow -10 cm seepage soil waters. It appears that, at least in some cases, the Ra-isotopic ratio measured in forest-soil seepage waters may not be representative of the Ra-isotopic ratio released from mineral weathering, indicating that the different origins of the dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra must be taken into account.

Rihs, Sophie; Prunier, Jonathan; Thien, Bruno; Lemarchand, Damien; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Chabaux, François

2011-12-01

265

Presolar graphite from the Murchison meteorite: An isotopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied presolar graphite grains from four density fractions, KE3 (1.65-1.72 g/cm3), KFA1 (2.05-2.10 g/cm3), KFB1 (2.10-2.15 g/cm3), and KFC1 (2.15-2.20 g/cm3), extracted from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite, with the ion microprobe. One of the most interesting features of presolar graphite is that isotopic features depend on density. There are grains with 15N and 18O excesses, Si isotopic anomalies, high 26Al/27Al ratios (˜0.1), and Ca and Ti isotopic anomalies, including the initial presence of short-lived 41Ca and 44Ti. These isotopic features are qualitatively explained by nucleosynthesis in core collapse supernovae. We estimate that 76%, 50%, 7% and 1% of the KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 grains, respectively, are supernova grains. We performed 3- and 4-zone supernova mixing calculations to reproduce the C, O (18O/16O) and Al isotopic ratios of the KE3 grains, using 15 M? model calculations by Rauscher et al. (2002). Isotopic ratios of grains with high 12C/13C ratios (>200) can be reproduced, whereas those of grains with ratios ?200 are hard to explain if we assume that graphite grains form in C-rich conditions.

Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

2014-05-01

266

High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600 000 and an accuracy of ?m ? 13 keV have been obtained. The masses of 123,124,126Ba and 122 mCs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model.

Ames, F.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; de Saint Simon, M.; Jertz, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; König, M.; Lunney, D.; Martel, I.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, T.; Patyk, Z.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Rouleau, G.; Savard, G.; Schark, E.; Schwarz, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Szerypo, J.; Isolde Collaboration

1999-05-01

267

Heavy-ion-induced production and preseparation of short-livedisotopes for chemistry experiments  

SciTech Connect

Physical separation of short-lived isotopes produced inheavy-ion-induced fusion reactions is a powerful and well know method andoften applied in investigations of the heaviest elements, called thetransactinides (Z>=104). By extracting these isotopes from a recoilseparator, they can be made available for transport to setups locatedoutside the heavily shielded irradiation position such as chemistrysetups. This physical preseparation technique overcomes many limitationscurrently faced in the chemical investigation of transactinides. Here wedescribe the basic principle using relatively short-lived isotopes of thelighter group 4 elements zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) that are used asanalogs of the lightest transactinide element, rutherfordium (Rf, element104). The Zr and Hf isotopes were produced at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotronusing a cocktail of 18O and 50Ti beams and the appropriate targets.Subsequently, the isotopes were physically separated in the BerkeleyGas-filled Separator (BGS) and guided to a Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC)to transfer them to chemistry setups. The magnetic rigidities of thereaction products in low-pressure helium gas were measured and theiridentities determined with gamma-pectroscopy. Using preseparated isotopeshas the advantages of low background and beam plasma free environment forchemistry experiments. The new possibilities that open up for chemicalinvestigations of transactinide elements are descr ibed. The method canreadily be applied to homologous elements within other groups in theperiodic table.

Dullmann, Christoph E.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Leitner, Daniela; Pang, Gregory K.; Sudowe, Ralf; Zielinski, Peter M.; Nitsche, Heino

2005-02-24

268

PuXe, UXe, UPb chronology and isotope systematics of ancient zircons from Western Australia  

E-print Network

, for in situ decay of 244 Pu in individual 4.1­4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western AustraliaPu­Xe, U­Xe, U­Pb chronology and isotope systematics of ancient zircons from Western Australia of short-lived 244 Pu has been confirmed in a suite of 16 Hadean detrital zircons from Western Australia

269

SHORT REPORT: IMMUNE RESPONSE AND OCCURRENCE OF DENGUE INFECTION IN THAI CHILDREN THREE TO EIGHT YEARS AFTER VACCINATION WITH LIVE ATTENUATED TETRAVALENT DENGUE VACCINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. From 1992 to 1997, 140 Thai children 4–15 years of age received an investigational live attenuated tet- ravalent dengue,vaccine (LATDV). These children were,contacted,3–8 years later in 2001 to assess humoral,immunity and investigate whether,they were subsequently,at higher risk of developing,severe dengue. One hundred,thirteen were successfully contacted,and participated in this retrospective cohort study with two age- and address-matched,controls per vaccinee. The

Pornthep Chanthavanich; Christine Luxemburger; Chukiat Sirivichayakul; Keswadee Lapphra; Krisana Pengsaa; Sutee Yoksan; Arunee Sabchareon; Jean Lang

270

Radium isotope quartet in groundwater as a proxy for identification of aquifer rocks and mechanisms of water-rock interactions: examples from the Negev, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aquifer systems are composed of multiple rock types. Previous attempts to evaluate the specific aquifer rocks that control the groundwater chemistry and possible flow paths within these multiple lithological systems have used major ion chemistry and isotopic tracers (e.g., strontium isotopes). Here we propose an additional isotopic proxy that is based on the distribution of radium isotopes in groundwater. Radium has four radioactive isotopes that are part of the decay chains of uranium-238, thorium-232, and uranium-235. The abundance of radium isotope quartet (226Ra-half life 1600 y; 228Ra-5.6 y; 224Ra-3.6 d; 223Ra-11.4 d) in groundwater reflects the Th/U ratios in the rocks. Investigation of groundwater from the Negev, Israel, enabled us to discriminate between groundwaters flowing in the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone and the Upper Cretaceous Judea Group carbonate aquifers. Groundwater flowing in the sandstone aquifer has distinguishably high 228Ra/226Ra and 224Ra/223Ra ratios due to the high Th/U ratio in sandstone. In contrast, the predominance of uranium in carbonate rocks results in low 228Ra/226Ra and 224Ra/223Ra ratios in the associated groundwater. We show that the radium activity in groundwater in the two-aquifer systems is correlated with temperature, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. The increase of radium activity is also associated with changes in the isotopic ratios; 228Ra/226Ra ratios increase and decrease in the sandstone and carbonate aquifers, respectively. Given that the dissolution of radium isotopes depends on their decay constants, the use of the four radium isotopes with different decay constants enabled us to distinguish between dissolution (higher abundance of the long-lived isotopes) and recoil (predominance of the short-lived isotopes) processes. In spite of these isotopic fractionations, the radium isotopic discrimination between carbonate and sandstone aquifers is significant.

Vengosh, A.; Pery, N.; Paytan, A.; Haquin, G.; Elhanani, S.; Pankratov, I.

2006-05-01

271

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste  

E-print Network

Isotope-labeled immunoassays without radiation waste Guomin Shan*, Wei Huang*, Shirley J. Gee with radioactive materials, and (iii) short shelf-life of the labeled re- agents. The advantage of isotopic with ELISA or fluorescent detection systems. We developed a format for isotope label immunoassay

Hammock, Bruce D.

272

Direct mass measurements of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.  

PubMed

Mass excesses of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)??keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)??keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point. PMID:21469858

Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L

2011-03-18

273

Rapid increase in cosmogenic 14C in AD 775 measured in New Zealand kauri trees indicates short-lived increase in 14C production spanning both hemispheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, Miyake et al. reported a sudden and strong increase of the atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in Japanese cedar trees of 1.2% between AD 774 and 775. While their findings were quickly confirmed by a German oak chronology for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the question remained if the effect was seen in both hemispheres. Here we present the first annually resolved Southern Hemisphere (SH) 14C record spanning the interval AD 760-787, using New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) chronology wood. An almost identical distinct increase compared to Northern Hemisphere data was observed, suggesting a cosmic event with globally uniform impact as a potential cause for the increase. Deploying a carbon cycle box model a worldwide averaged net 14C production of 2.2 ×108 14C atoms cm-2 was estimated, which is 3.7 times higher than the average annual 14C production. The immediate appearance of the event in tree rings on both hemispheres suggests a short duration event of significantly less than 1 yr.

Güttler, D.; Adolphi, F.; Beer, J.; Bleicher, N.; Boswijk, G.; Christl, M.; Hogg, A.; Palmer, J.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wacker, L.; Wunder, J.

2015-02-01

274

Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics  

SciTech Connect

The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

Scott, Mark R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eccleston, George W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bedell, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lockard, Chanelle M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

275

Characteristics of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to an internet program that is all about life. Just what is life? This seems like a strange question. We all know what is meant by the word \\"life\\". But how do we define it? Are all living things alike? In this internet program, you will watch several short movies and some slides. After you see each movie and slide, you will write something about the movie and slide. Our learning goal is to make a list of the traits that all living things have in common. Get out a pencil and a piece of paper. We are off on a great adventure to learn about living things! This first movie is called, \\"Is It Alive?\\" It will help you begin thinking about living things and what they all have in common. Write on your paper: \\"Living Things\\". As you watch this movie, write the names of the things that you think are alive. Copy the ...

Richard S. Melenson

2005-11-21

276

WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2011-12-01

277

Probing Isotope Effects in Chemical Reactions Using Single Ions  

SciTech Connect

Isotope effects in reactions between Mg{sup +} in the 3p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} excited state and molecular hydrogen at thermal energies are studied through single reaction events. From only {approx}250 reactions with HD, the branching ratio between formation of MgD{sup +} and MgH{sup +} is found to be larger than 5. From an additional 65 reactions with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} we find that the overall fragmentation probability of the intermediate MgH{sub 2}{sup +}, MgHD{sup +}, or MgD{sub 2}{sup +} complexes is the same. Our study shows that few single ion reactions can provide quantitative information on ion-neutral reactions. Hence, the method is well suited for reaction studies involving rare species, e.g., rare isotopes or short-lived unstable elements.

Staanum, Peter F.; Hoejbjerre, Klaus; Drewsen, Michael [QUANTOP - Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Quantum Optics, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wester, Roland [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2008-06-20

278

The Nuclear Frontier: Rare Isotope Facilities for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare isotope facilities make rich opportunities available for nuclear structure research as well as for nuclear astrophysics and applied physics. These facilities drive the increasing understanding in nuclear physics research. Rare-isotope accelerators play such a significant role for future research and development and provide the impetus for moving forward in many scientific disciplines. Existing ISOL and projectile fragmentation facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF, ISOLDE at CERN, and RIBF at RIKEN represent first generation facilities, where basic developments are being performed which pave the way to new facilities. Such facilities like FRIB, FAIR and EURISOL will provide unprecedented intensities of short lived isotopes. A review of present facilities and new projects on the horizon is presented with emphasis on new designs in accelerator physics.

Kester, Oliver

2011-04-01

279

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

280

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Chat Assisted Living Assisted living facilities offer a housing alternative for older adults who may need help ... part of a retirement community, nursing home, senior housing complex, or may stand-alone. Licensing requirements for ...

281

Living Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms move. They act. Their actions may be inimical to man's best interests. They inspire fear, dread, even terror. From time immemorial, humans have viewed with alarm, nay, with horror, the evil that lurks inside living consciousness.

Merlin X. Houdini

1977-01-01

282

Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... donors and transplant candidates Paired donation or paired exchange involves two pairs of living kidney donors and ... trans- plants are made possible. This type of exchange often involves multiple living kidney donor/transplant candidate ...

283

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

284

1. Isotope Definitions and terms a) Isotopes and isotope ratios.  

E-print Network

3/24/2011 1 Outline 1. Isotope Definitions and terms a) Isotopes and isotope ratios. Isotopes fractionation c) Simple illustration with the water cycle 2. CO2 isotopes in photosynthesis a) Photosynthetic discrimination in C3 plants b) C3 vs C4 photosynthesis and the distinction in isotopes c) Measuring isotopic

Saleska, Scott

285

LU-HF Age and Isotope Systematics of ALH84001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial isotope compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd isotope analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during short-lived thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope compositions

Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.

2009-01-01

286

Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

Draayer, Jerry P [Louisiana State University

2014-09-28

287

Accurate measurement of silver isotopic compositions in geological materials including low Pd/Ag meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very precise silver (Ag) isotopic compositions have been determined for a number of terrestrial rocks, and high and low Pd/Ag meteorites by utilizing multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The meteorites include primitive chondrites, the Group IAB iron meteorites Canyon Diablo and Toluca, and the Group IIIAB iron meteorite Grant. Silver isotopic measurements are primarily of interest because 107Ag was produced by decay of the short-lived radionuclide 107Pd during the formation of the solar system and hence the Pd-Ag chronometer has set constraints on the timing of early planetesimal formation. A 2? precision of ±0.05‰ can be obtained for analyses of standard solutions when Ag isotopic ratios are normalized to Pd, to correct for instrumental mass discrimination, and to bracketing standards. Caution must be exercised when making Ag isotopic measurements because isotopic artifacts can be generated in the laboratory and during mass spectrometry. The external reproducibility for geological samples based on replicate analyses of rocks is ±0.2‰ (2?). All chondrites analyzed have similar Ag isotopic compositions that do not differ significantly (>0.3‰) from the 'terrestrial' value of the NIST SRM 978a Ag isotope standard. Hence, they show no evidence of excess 107Ag derived from 107Pd decay or, of stable Ag isotope fractionation associated with volatile element depletion within the accretion disk or from parent body metamorphism. The Group IAB iron meteorite samples analyzed show evidence of complex behavior and disturbance of Ag isotope systematics. Therefore, care must be taken when using this group of iron meteorites to obtain chronological information based on the Pd-Ag decay scheme.

Woodland, S. J.; Rehkämper, M.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D.-C.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.

2005-04-01

288

Zn isotope fractionation during adsorption on birnessite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of zinc (Zn), an important micronutrient in the ocean, may influence primary productivity and species composition within surface waters. The chemical speciation and bioavailability of Zn is governed by diverse abiotic and biotic processes. These processes include adsorption reactions at mineral/water interfaces, as nanoparticles of oxyhydroxide minerals are known to adsorb significant amounts of Zn in surface waters (and during formation of ferromanganese crusts). Investigation of Zn isotope fractionation caused by adsorption onto birnessite, the dominant manganese oxide mineral in ferromanganese crusts, may help to explain the enrichment of heavy Zn isotopes in ferromanganese crusts. This will provide insight into the role of adsorption of Zn to nanoparticulate minerals in surface waters and into the overall biogeochemical cycling of Zn. This work aims to determine the mechanism and magnitude of Zn isotope fractionation during adsorption onto synthetic birnessite (KMn2O4.1.5H2O). Our simple-system experiments involve mixing solutions of 130 ppb Zn with aliquots of birnessite suspension (proportions varied to give a range of surface coverage) and a fixed pH near that of seawater at ~8.5. The mixtures react for 48 hours. The recovered dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn are then separated, purified, and analyzed isotopically on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS. Preliminary results show enrichment of light Zn isotopes on the mineral surfaces (?66/64Znsorbed-aqueous = -0.3‰). A time series will reveal whether this process is governed by equilibrium or Rayleigh fractionation. Contrary to our results, previously published studies led us to hypothesize that isotopically heavy Zn would adsorb compared to co-existing dissolved Zn. Maréchal et al. (2000) recorded ferromanganese crusts that were heavier than seawater with a mean ?66Zn value of 0.90‰. Dissolved Zn is octahedrally coordinated with oxygen atoms, but an EXAFS study by Manceau et al. (2002) reported a mixture of tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Zn sorbed on Mn oxides. In general, a species with lower coordination number favors heavier isotopes (Schauble, 2004). The potential explanations for the discrepancy between our results and our expectations include (1) a short-lived kinetic isotope effect favors sorption of light Zn in our short experiments, but will reverse on long time scales, (2) there are structural differences between our synthetic birnessite and Mn oxides previously studied, (3) our experiments are conducted at low ionic strength, and a change in Zn speciation at high ionic strength may lead to different isotope behavior. Our subsequent work will evaluate these possible explanations. Manceau et al. (2002). GCA 66, 2639-2663. Maréchal et al. (2000). G3 1, 1015. Schauble (2004). RiMG 55, 65-112.

Bryan, A. L.; Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.

2013-12-01

289

Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center  

DOE Data Explorer

The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

290

More on Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We reported last year on endemic isotope anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo isotopes, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for isotope anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many isotopes from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process isotopes show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the short half-lives, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general isotope anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.

Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

2004-01-01

291

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Ms. Schultz

2007-11-05

292

IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE ISOTOPE MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.

Quitte, Ghylaine [Universite de Lyon (France); Markowski, Agnes [ETH Zurich, Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Latkoczy, Christopher [ETH Zurich, D-CHAB, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Wolfgang-Pauli Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas, E-mail: Ghylaine.Quitte@ens-lyon.f [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2010-09-10

293

Fluxes of uranium and thorium series isotopes in the Santa Barbara Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples from the MANOP Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap intercomparison were analyzed for the isotopes of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. All of the traps showed approximately the same compositions and isotopic ratios, indicating that they trapped similar materials. The 234Th flux via falling particles was very close to the flux predicted from the production and scavenging rates of 234Th from the water column. The 210Pb content of the trapped particles and the surface sediments were the same, however, the measured flux of 210Pb was seven times greater than the predicted flux. Predicted and measured fluxes of 228Th and 210Po were similarly out of balance. To explain this apparent inconsistency, we suggest (as others have done) that the Santa Barbara Basin is an area where scavenging from the water column is intensified and where sediments deposited initially on the margins may be physically remobilized on a short time scale. These two effects increase the apparent area from which the basin derives the longer-lived isotopes but does not increase significantly the supply of the short-lived 234Th.

Moore, Willard S.; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Michel, Jacqueline

1981-05-01

294

Iron-60 Heterogeneity and Incomplete Isotope Mixing in the Early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 26Al, 53Mn, 60Fe, 182Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive 60Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of 60Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live 60Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the 60Fe-60Ni system as a chronometer.

Quitté, Ghylaine; Markowski, Agnès; Latkoczy, Christopher; Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas

2010-09-01

295

Abrogation of SHP-1 in tumor-specific T cells improves efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy by enhancing the effector function and accumulation of short-lived effector T cells in vivo  

PubMed Central

T cell expression of inhibitory proteins can be a critical component for the regulation of immunopathology due to self-reactivity or potentially exuberant responses to pathogens, but may also limit T cell responses to some malignancies, particularly if the tumor antigen being targeted is a self-protein. We found that the abrogation of SHP-1, in tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells improves the therapeutic outcome of adoptive immunotherapy in a mouse model of disseminated leukemia, with benefit observed in therapy employing transfer of CD8+ T cells alone or in the context of also providing supplemental IL-2. SHP-1?/? and SHP-1+/+ effector T cells were expanded in vitro for immunotherapy. Following transfer in vivo, the SHP-1?/? effector T cells exhibited enhanced short-term accumulation, followed by greater contraction, and ultimately formed similar numbers of long-lived, functional memory cells. The increased therapeutic effectiveness of SHP-1?/? effector cells was also observed in recipients that expressed the tumor antigen as a self-antigen in the liver, without evidence of inducing autoimmune toxicity. SHP-1?/? effector CD8+ T cells expressed higher levels of Eomesodermin, which correlated with enhanced lysis of tumor cells. Furthermore, reduction of SHP-1 expression in tumor-reactive effector T cells by retroviral transduction with vectors that express SHP-1-specific siRNA, a translatable strategy, also exhibited enhanced anti-tumor activity in vivo. These studies suggest that abrogating SHP-1 in effector T cells may improve the efficacy of tumor elimination by T cell therapy without impacting the ability of the effector cells to persist and provide a long-term response. PMID:22798667

Stromnes, Ingunn M.; Fowler, Carla; Casamina, Chanel C.; Georgopolos, Christina M.; McAfee, Megan S.; Schmitt, Thomas M.; Tan, Xiaoxia; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo; Blattman, Joseph N.; Greenberg, Philip D.

2012-01-01

296

Superheavies: Short-Term Experiments and Far-Reaching Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low values of the fusion cross sections and very short half-lives of nuclei with Z>120 put obstacles in synthesis of new elements. However the fusion reactions of medium mass projectiles with different actinide targets still can be used for the production of the not-yet-synthesized SH nuclei. The gap of unknown SH nuclei, located between the isotopes which were produced earlier in the cold and hot fusion reactions, could be filled in fusion reactions of ^{48}Ca with available lighter isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm. Cross sections for the production of these nuclei are predicted to be rather large, and the corresponding experiments can be easily performed at existing facilities. The use of heavier actinide targets give us a chance to produce more neutron enriched SH isotopes. Moreover, for the first time, a narrow pathway is found to the middle of the island of stability owing to possible ? ^+ decay of SH isotopes which can be formed in ordinary fusion reactions of stable nuclei. Multi-nucleon transfer processes at near barrier collisions of heavy (and very heavy, U-like) ions seem to be quite realistic reaction mechanism allowing us to produce new neutron enriched heavy nuclei located in the unexplored upper part of the nuclear map. Neutron capture reactions can be also used for the production of the long-living neutron rich SH nuclei. Strong neutron fluxes might be provided by pulsed nuclear reactors and by nuclear explosions in laboratory conditions and by supernova explosions in nature. All these possibilities are discussed in the chapter.

Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter

297

Molybdenum Isotopes and Soil Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable isotope fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo isotope compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their short- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo isotope compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo isotope compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo isotopes relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo isotopes during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo isotope compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light isotope compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general isotope behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative isotope excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo isotope fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show isotope fractionation. Our data open interesting possibilities for the use of molybdenum isotopes as a paleo-proxy for soil processes. It also becomes clear that weathering processes can cause large variation in the isotope composition of the riverine input of Mo over (geologically) short time scales.

Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

2011-12-01

298

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

299

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

300

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

301

Study of short-lived climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April-May), even if at NCO-P significantly lower levels of eqBC and aerosol particle number (ratio 7% for eqBC, 29% for accumulation and 12% for coarse particles) were observed in respect to Kathmandu. Moreover, case studies concerning simultaneous events of eqBC and O3 increases in Kathmandu and in the high Himalayas will be investigated.

Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo

2014-05-01

302

Isotope effects suggest a stepwise mechanism for Berberine Bridge Enzyme†  

PubMed Central

The flavoprotein Berberine Bridge Enzyme (BBE) catalyzes the regioselective oxidative cyclization of (S)-reticuline to (S)-scoulerine in an alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. A series of solvent and substrate deuterium kinetic isotope effect studies were conducted in order to discriminate between a concerted mechanism in which deprotonation of the substrate phenol occurs before or during hydride transfer from the substrate to the flavin cofactor and substrate cyclization, and a stepwise mechanism, in which hydride transfer results in the formation of a methylene iminium ion intermediate that is subsequently cyclized. The substrate deuterium isotope effect of 3.5 on kred, the rate constant for flavin reduction, is pH-independent, indicating that C-H bond cleavage is rate-limiting during flavin reduction. Solvent isotope effects on kred are one for both wild-type BBE and the E417Q mutant, indicating that solvent exchangeable protons are not in flight during or before flavin reduction, thus eliminating a fully concerted mechanism as a possibility for catalysis by BBE. An intermediate was not detected by rapid chemical quench or continuous-flow mass spectrometry experiments, indicating that it must be short-lived. PMID:22931234

Gaweska, Helena M.; Roberts, Kenneth M.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

2012-01-01

303

Leaf Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

304

SHORT STORY: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In teaching short story, there are lots of techniques, methods and approaches. One of these methods, especially for the students at the foreign language departments of universities, is literary approaches. Sometimes by abandoning the traditional ways of teaching short story, a trainer may make use of the literary approaches. Analyzing a short story by means of using one or more

Aysel Ünsal

305

Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

Boulyga, Sergei F

2010-01-01

306

Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

2014-05-15

307

Living fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major emerging fields of research of the beginning of this century concerns living fluids. By "living fluids", we mean two major categories of complex fluids: (i) fluids which are essential to life, like blood, and (ii) active fluids made of particles that are able to propel themselves in the suspending fluid by converting a form of their energy into mechanical motion. Studies on active fluids have known a considerable interest since the last decade. Blood might be viewed as an old topic, but the progresses in experimental techniques, analytical concepts and numerics, have contributed nowadays to a dramatic renewal of the interest in this field, with a great potential towards understanding physical and mechanical factors in cardiovascular diseases. These fields have considerably strengthened interdisciplinary research. The series of reviews of this dossier focus on the tremendous recent progress achieved in research on living fluids both from the experimental and theoretical points of views. These reviews present also the major open issues, making of this dossier a unique guide for future research in these fields. This project grew up thanks to the international summer school that we organized on the topic "living fluids" at the IES (Institut d'études scientifiques) of Cargèse (Corsica) in 2012.

Misbah, Chaouqi; Wagner, Christian

2013-06-01

308

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

309

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

310

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

311

Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

1984-01-01

312

Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

Atcher, Robert W. (Kensington, MD); Friedman, Arnold M. (Park Forest, IL); Hines, John (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1987-01-01

313

Periodic Table Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic Table Live!, produced by the Division of Chemical Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, allows users "to explore a broad range of information about the elements, their reactions, their properties, their structures and their histories." After selecting an element from the periodic table, users can access a myriad of information divided into three sections: Description, Physical, and Atomic. Students can view short videos of many of the elements' reactions with air, water, acids, and bases. The website is equipped with a helpful glossary and images of the elements, scientists, and other related items.

314

How Can I Live with Heart Failure?  

MedlinePLUS

What medicine might I take? The goal of heart failure treatment is to help you live a longer, better-quality life. Treating the causes of heart failure with medication can lessen tiredness (fatigue), shortness of ...

315

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

316

Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon isotope anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the isotope record shows a series of short-lived positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the isotopic pattern consists of a series of short duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the isotopic record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Ward, P.D.; Garrison, G.H.; Haggart, J.W.; Kring, D.A.; Beattie, M.J.

2004-01-01

317

Isotope Science and Production  

E-print Network

Isotope Science and Production 35 years of experience in isotope production, processing. Contact: Kevin John LANL Isotope Program Manager kjohn@lanl.gov 505-667-3602 Sponsored by the Department of Energy National Isotope Program http://www.nuclear.energy.gov/isotopes/nelsotopes2a.html Isotopes

318

Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

None

2009-04-23

319

Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body. An alternative scenario is the potential existence of a transient high-temperature reservoir having superchondritic Cs/Ba in the early Solar System while 135Cs was extant, which enabled a radiogenic 135Ba signature to develop in some early condensates. The nucleosynthetic source of 135Cs can be determined by reconciling the predicted astrophysical 135Cs abundance with its measured abundance in meteorites. Further, the currently accepted initial 135Cs/133Cs of the Solar System, [135Cs/133Cs]0, may be underestimated because the spread of Cs/Ba among samples is small and the range of excess 135Ba is limited thus leading to inaccuracies when estimating [135Cs/133Cs]0. If the initial meteoritic abundance of 135Cs was indeed higher than is currently thought, the most probable stellar source of short-lived radioisotopes was a nearby core-collapse supernova and/or the Wolf-Rayet wind driven by its progenitor.

Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

2014-05-01

320

Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

321

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

322

Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.

2007-01-01

323

Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated—therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in quite different materials.

Becker, Johanna Sabine

2003-10-01

324

Nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies and the Hf-W chronometry of Ca-Al-rich inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are the oldest dated objects formed in the solar system and are pivotal reference points in early solar system chronology. Knowledge of their initial 182Hf/180Hf and 182W/184W is essential, not only for obtaining precise Hf-W ages relative to the start of the solar system, but also to assess the distribution of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar nebula. However, the interpretation of Hf-W data for CAI is complicated by nucleosynthetic W isotope variations. To explore their extent and nature, and to better quantify the initial Hf and W isotope compositions of the solar system, we obtained Hf-W data for several fine- and coarse-grained CAI from three CV3 chondrites. The fine-grained CAI exhibit large and variable anomalies in ?183W (?iW equals 0.01% deviation from terrestrial values), extending to much larger anomalies than previously observed in CAI, and reflecting variable abundances of s- and r-process W isotopes. Conversely, the coarse-grained (mostly type B) inclusions show only small (if any) nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies. The investigated CAI define a precise correlation between initial ?182W and ?183W, providing a direct empirical means to correct the ?182W of any CAI for nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies using their measured ?183W. After correction for nucleosynthetic W isotope variations, the CAI data define an initial 182Hf/180Hf of (1.018±0.043)×10-4 and an initial ?182W of -3.49±0.07. The Hf-W formation intervals of the angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555 relative to this CAI initial is 4.8±0.6 Ma, in good agreement with Al-Mg ages of these two angrites. This renders a grossly heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the inner solar system unlikely, at least in the region were CAI and angrites formed.

Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Burkhardt, Christoph; Wieler, Rainer

2014-10-01

325

American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

326

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

327

Short stature  

MedlinePLUS

... while in the womb ( intrauterine growth restriction ) or small for gestational age This list does not include every possible cause ... by 2 - 3 inches. The child was born small for gestational age If your child is a boy with short ...

328

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

329

Neutron capture on Pt isotopes in iron meteorites and the Hf-W chronology of core formation in planetesimals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-lived 182Hf-182W isotope system can provide powerful constraints on the timescales of planetary core formation, but its application to iron meteorites is hampered by neutron capture reactions on W isotopes resulting from exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Here we show that Pt isotopes in magmatic iron meteorites are also affected by capture of (epi)thermal neutrons and that the Pt isotope variations are correlated with variations in 182W/184W. This makes Pt isotopes a sensitive neutron dosimeter for correcting cosmic ray-induced W isotope shifts. The pre-exposure 182W/184W derived from the Pt-W isotope correlations of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorites are higher than most previous estimates and are more radiogenic than the initial 182W/184W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI). The Hf-W model ages for core formation range from +1.6±1.0 million years (Ma; for the IVA irons) to +2.7±1.3 Ma after CAI formation (for the IID irons), indicating that there was a time gap of at least ˜1 Ma between CAI formation and metal segregation in the parent bodies of some iron meteorites. From the Hf-W ages a time limit of <1.5-2 Ma after CAI formation can be inferred for the accretion of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorite parent bodies, consistent with earlier conclusions that the accretion of differentiated planetesimals predated that of most chondrite parent bodies.

Kruijer, Thomas S.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten; Sprung, Peter; Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer

2013-01-01

330

COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup 26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

Injection of material from a core-collapse supernova into the solar system's already-formed disk is one proposed mechanism for producing the short-lived radionuclides, such as {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, inferred from isotopic studies of meteorites to have existed in the solar nebula. This hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis that the injection of enough supernova material to match the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca would produce large, measurable, and unobserved collateral effects on oxygen isotopes. Here we calculate again the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of supernova material in the solar nebula, using a variety of nucleosynthetic conditions of our own progenitor explosions. Unlike previous studies of this type, we also consider the effect of non-homogeneity in abundance distribution of the nucleosynthesis products after the explosion. We calculate the shifts in oxygen isotopes due to the injection of sufficient supernova material to produce the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, and analyze the predicted shifts in detail for compatibility with meteoritic data. We find that the range in possible isotopic shifts is considerable and sensitive to parameters such as progenitor mass and anisotropy of the explosion; however, a small number of compatible scenarios do exist. Because of the wide range of outcomes and the sensitivity of isotopic yields to assumed conditions, it is difficult to constrain the supernova that may have led to the injection of {sup 26}Al in the solar nebula. Conversely, we argue that the existence of viable counterexamples demonstrates that it is premature to use oxygen isotopes to rule out the injection of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca into the solar nebula protoplanetary disk by a nearby supernova.

Ellinger, Carola I. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 1504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

2010-12-20

331

New, heavy transuranium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we offer our most recent results concerning the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In additions to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements from bombardments of {sup 254}Es with heavy ions. {sup 2} An exciting finding in the course of this work is a new fission phenomenon, which we have termed bidmodal fission''. This is described in a subsequent section. The final part summarizes our conclusions based on the unexpectedly long half-lives and surprising fission properties of the heaviest nuclei. 27 refs., 19 figs.

Hulet, E.K.

1990-10-22

332

ISS Live!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

2013-01-01

333

Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Submicrometer SiC Grains from the Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 ?m) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si3N4) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si3N4 grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in 29Si and 30Si (?29Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, ?30Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge 32S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of 32S from the decay of short-lived 32Si (?1/2 = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as 29Si and 30Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial 44Ti (?1/2 = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal 32S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large 28Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.

Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting

2015-02-01

334

Living Nanomachines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

335

EVIDENCE FOR MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE HETEROGENEITY IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK  

SciTech Connect

With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the {sup 26}Al-to-{sup 26}Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical assumption that the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} recorded by the oldest dated solids, calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), represents the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al for the solar system as a whole. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope measurements of inner solar system solids, asteroids, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition ({mu}{sup 26}Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk at the time of CAI formation and/or Mg-isotope heterogeneity. By comparing the U-Pb and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of pristine solar system materials, we infer that the bulk of the {mu}{sup 26}Mg* variability reflects heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk. We conclude that the canonical value of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} represents the average initial abundance of {sup 26}Al only in the CAI-forming region, and that large-scale heterogeneity-perhaps up to 80% of the canonical value-may have existed throughout the inner solar system. If correct, our interpretation of the Mg-isotope composition of inner solar system objects precludes the use of the {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg system as an accurate early solar system chronometer.

Larsen, Kirsten K.; Trinquier, Anne; Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Connelly, James N.; Nordlund, Ake; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark); Ivanova, Marina A. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-07-10

336

Life prediction of short fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for estimating the fatigue lives (i.e. the number of cycles to failure) of parts made of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites. First, S-N curves were generated at stress ratios of R = 0 and R = -1 for short glass fiber reinforced Copolyamide coupons with 0° (30% or 50% fiber content by weight), 45° (50%

Alessandro Zago

2002-01-01

337

Seasonal variations on the residence times and partitioning of short-lived radionuclides (234Th, 7Be and 210Pb) and depositional fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb in Tampa Bay, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, Tampa Bay has been impacted heavily by a wide range of anthropogenic perturbations that may include, agricultural-, shipping-, phosphate mining/distribution-related activities, as well as a burgeoning coastal population. Due to the presence of U-rich underlying sediments, elevated activities of U- and Th-series daughter products may be naturally released into this system. This region is also known for summer thunderstorms and corresponding increases in precipitation and surface water runoff. Only limited work has been conducted on the partitioning of particle-reactive radionuclides (such as 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th) in such a dynamic coastal system. We investigated both the removal residence time and partitioning of these radionuclides between filter-retained particulate matter (? 0.5 ?m) and the filtrate ( Our results indicate that the partitioning of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th between filtrate and filter-retained phase is controlled foremost by enhanced bottom resuspension events during summer thunderstorms. As a consequence, no significant relationship exists between the distribution coefficients (Kd values) of these isotopes and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Relatively faster recycling rates of atmospheric water vapor derived from the ocean results in lower atmospheric depositional fluxes of 210Pb to the study site than predicted. The relationship between 7Be and 210Pb in bulk (wet + dry) deposition is compared to their respective water column activities. The residence times of particulate and dissolved 234Th, 7Be and 210Pb, as well the distribution coefficients of these radionuclides, are then compared to values reported in other coastal systems.

Baskaran, M.; Swarzenski, P.W.

2007-01-01

338

Long-Lived, Sub-Surface Layers of Toxic Oil in the Deep-Sea: A Molecular Organic and Isotopic Geochemical Approach to Understanding their Nature, Molecular Distribution, Origin and Impact to the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the results from two research cruises to the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during May and August 2010, after the April 20th blowout of BP’s Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig. Not only was the DWH tragedy the largest oil spill to have ever occurred in the United States but it was also the first blowout of a deep-sea oil exploration well. The BP oil spill presents the scientific community with a critically important and unique opportunity: i) to characterize the occurrence, molecular distribution and abundance of the hydrocarbons in the sub-surface, ii) to identify the source of the oil in the environment and, iii) to study how the distribution and chemistry of the hydrocarbons change over time and space and whether the sub-surface hydrocarbons are toxic to marine plankton and bacteria. Using sonar, fluorometry and backscatter, we were able to trace the occurrence of layers of sub-surface oil. These oil layers were found suspended at depths of 400 m and 1000-1400 m in the form of small microdroplets that were not visible to the naked eye. Both the 400 and the 1000 m layers were traced for more than 20 miles in length and 4 miles in width. Molecular organic geochemical analyses determined that petroleum hydrocarbons were the dominant components of the 400 and 1000 m layers. Interesting, the distribution of compounds was extremely consistent among all the samples with n-alkanes ranging from C24 to C37 with a maximum at C28. The loss of the lower molecular weight components of the crude oil is attributed to biodegradation. This distribution of n-alkanes was the same regardless of whether the samples were from 400 or 1000 m, whether the sites were 25 or 45 miles from the DWH site or whether the samples were collected in May or August. These observations strongly suggest that the bacteria are not able to consume all of the oil, and that these higher molecular weight compounds may persist in the environment for extended lengths of time, at least months if not years. Biosensor assays, to dbe discussed in detail, indicate that marine organisms, phytoplankton and bacteria, express a strong toxic response when introduced to these sub-surface and surface waters rich in hydrocarbons. The distribution of hydrocarbons of the fresh BP’s MC-252 oil, the surface oil mousse, and the sub-surface oils are distinctly different. Due to the biodegradation of the sub-surface oil samples, hopane and sterane biomarker molecules were not present thereby making traditional oil-oil correlations impossible. Using Compound Specific Isotopic Analyses (CSIA) we were able to perfectly correlate the “molecular isotopic” fingerprint of the BP MC-252 oil, including a decreasing trend in ?13C values of n-alkanes from C27 to C34, to all sub-surface and surface oil samples. CSIA was able to definitively correlate the expansive clouds of degraded underwater oil found in the northern GoM to the BP’s DWH.

Hollander, D. J.; Freeman, K. H.; Ellis, G.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Peebles, E. B.; Paul, J.

2010-12-01

339

SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS OF TYPE C PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE UNSTABLE ISOTOPE {sup 32}Si IN SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-rich grains are observed to condense in the ejecta of recent core-collapse supernovae (SNe) within a year after the explosion. Silicon carbide grains of type X are C-rich grains with isotopic signatures of explosive SN nucleosynthesis have been found in primitive meteorites. Much rarer silicon carbide grains of type C are a special sub-group of SiC grains from SNe. They show peculiar abundance signatures for Si and S, isotopically heavy Si, and isotopically light S, which appear to be in disagreement with model predictions. We propose that C grains are formed mostly from C-rich stellar material exposed to lower SN shock temperatures than the more common type X grains. In this scenario, extreme {sup 32}S enrichments observed in C grains may be explained by the presence of short-lived {sup 32}Si ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 153 yr) in the ejecta, produced by neutron capture processes starting from the stable Si isotopes. No mixing from deeper Si-rich material and/or fractionation of Si from S due to molecular chemistry is needed to explain the {sup 32}S enrichments. The abundance of {sup 32}Si in the grains can provide constraints on the neutron density reached during the SN explosion in the C-rich He shell material. The impact of the large uncertainty of the neutron capture cross sections in the {sup 32}Si region is discussed.

Pignatari, M.; Rauscher, T.; Thielemann, F.-K. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Zinner, E. [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bertolli, M. G. [Theoretical Division (T-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Trappitsch, R. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hoppe, P. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Fryer, C. [Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Herwig, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hirschi, R. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Timmes, F. X. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2013-07-01

340

Stable isotope studies  

SciTech Connect

The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

Ishida, T.

1992-01-01

341

Assisted Living Community Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... of all residents live in small communities. 2 Fee Structures - The costs for assisted living residences vary ... inclusive rate model, and 17 percent use a fee-for-service model. 1 Services - Assisted living residences ...

342

Mass spectrometer for accurate hydrogen isotopic analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study of the mass spectrometric analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen and helium isotopes shows that mass discrimination and low ion intensity in ion sources are the principal factors that limit accuracy. A virtual-image ion source with short focal length and high brightness avoids these limitations. Suitable analyzers and accessory equipment are available. Development and construction of an

Chastagner

1978-01-01

343

Decreases in mineralocorticoid but not glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression during the short Arctic breeding season in free-living Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).  

PubMed

The acute stress response in vertebrates is a highly adaptive suite of physiological and behavioural mechanisms that promote survival in the face of deleterious stimuli from the environment. Facultative changes of physiology and behaviour are mediated through changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids (corticosterone, cortisol) and their subsequent binding to the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Free-living male wild Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) display annual fluctuations in the stress response with marked attenuation during the transition from the pre-parental to the parental stage. We investigated whether this rapid reduction in the stress response is mediated through changes in MR and GR mRNA expression in the brain using in situ hybridisation. MR mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the hippocampus as the male birds became parental. No changes were observed in GR mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or preoptic area (POA) at this time. No significant correlations were found between initial capture levels of corticosterone and GR or MR mRNA expression. No differences were found in basal levels of corticosterone between pre-parental and parental in birds collected for in situ hybridisation. Stress response data revealed no difference at baseline but reductions in peak levels of corticosterone as birds became parental. These data suggest that changes in MR expression may be important for the regulation of the stress response or behavioural stress sensitivity with respect to promoting parental care and investment. PMID:25411901

Krause, J S; McGuigan, M A; Bishop, V R; Wingfield, J C; Meddle, S L

2015-01-01

344

Short Circuit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity, learners explore what happens when you blow a fuse. Learners short-circuit a battery using copper wire (a good conductor with very low resistance) and thin iron wire. Learners will discover that when they connect the clip to the iron wire, the voltage of the battery pushes electrons through the circuit against the resistance of the iron wire, causing the iron wire to heat up. Note: the wire gets very hot! Use this activity to introduce learners to basics of electricity including conductivity, resistance, and currents as well as electronics safety and circuit breakers.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-02

345

Isotopic effects in the electronic spectra of tryptophan.  

PubMed

No influence of isotopic substitution in deuterium-substituted tryptophan on the florescence excitation spectrum has previously been found out. Here, the isotopic effects of electronic excitation of deuterium-substituted tryptophan were experimentally and theoretically analyzed for first time. It was shown a short-wave shift of the UV-absorption maximum at 220 nm corresponding to the 360 cal/mol and short-wave shift for fluorescence spectrum corresponding to the 210 cal/mol. To account for this effect, the quantum chemical calculations of the geometric and electron structure, frequencies of normal vibrations and transition energies have been performed. The isotopic effects originate from the zero-point energies of ground and excited states. It was found that isotopic shifts depend on the position of isotope in the molecule and kind of transition. So, it can be utilized in the analysis of proteins structure and complexation. PMID:16583318

Zolotarev, Yu A; Borisov, Yu A; Dadayan, A K; Myasoedov, N F

2006-11-01

346

Winds, Water Budgets and Stable Isotopes in Tropical Cyclones using TRMM and QUICKSCAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Changes in its concentration and distribution are controlled by the hydrologic cycle. Because of its capacity to absorb and emit long wave radiation, release latent heat during condensation in storms and reflect short wave radiation when clouds form it has a major impact on Global climate change. The stable isotope ratios of water are H20 H2l6O and H0 H2l6O. These ratios change whenever water undergoes a phase change. They also change in both rain and water vapor whenever an air parcel is exposed to rain. In addition the relative changes in the two ratios differ as a &nction of the relative humidity. In short, the stable isotope ratios in water vapor in the atmosphere contain an integrated history of the processes affecting the concentration and distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere. Therefore the measurement and interpretation of changes in these stable isotope ratios are a powerful tool matched by no other method in tracing the transport history of water in the atmosphere. Our initial studies under this grant focused on the changes of the stable isotope ratios of precipitation and water vapor in tropical cyclones. The changes in time and space were found to be very large and to trace the transport of water in the storms reflecting changes in basic structural features. Because the stable isotope ratios of rains from tropical cyclones are so low flooding associated with land falling tropical cyclones introduces a negative isotopic spike into the coastal surface waters. In addition the stable isotope ratios of water vapor in the vicinity of tropical cyclones is anomalously low. This suggests that carbonate shelled organisms such as ostracoda living in coastal waters have the potential to record the isotopic spike and thereby provide a long term record of tropical storm activity in sediment cores containing fossil shells. Likewise, tree rings in coastal environments offer a similar potential. We have analyzed the oxygen isotopic composition of ostrcoda shells formed in the floodwaters of Tropical Storm Allison (2001) and discovered the negative isotopic 1 16 spike. Because we had learned that storm activity has a major impact on the stable isotope ratios of water vapor in the tropics and sub-tropics we decided to analyze the isotopic compositions of water vapor in different locations in the tropics. We did this in Puerto Escondido, Mexico in July 1998, near Kwajalein Island in the Pacific in 1999 as part of a TRMM summer field program and in 2001 in Key West, Florida as part of the CAMEX 4 summer field program. Our isotopic studies along with our earlier tropical cyclone studies showed that the low isotopic ratios in water vapor induced by exposure to rains the storms persisted for 48 hours often far away from the original storm site. We also noted that positive isotopic spikes were introduced into atmospheric water vapor if winds were high and extensive sea spray was present. These findings have a significant impact on the interpretation of the stable isotope studies of tropical ice cores found in the high mountain regions of the tropics. The assumption made in interpreting the ice core record is that the source water vapor evaporated from the sea surface is in near isotopic equilibrium with the seawater and undergoes a decrease during its transport that reflects the change in temperature from the sea surface to the site of the ice core. Because an additional isotopic depletion occurs at the sea surface source area that depends on the intensity, duration and size of the tropical rain system the isotopic variations found in the ice cores must take into account changes in past storm activity in the tropics. These systems must be an important source of water vapor to the ice cores because they charge the troposphere with water vapor to a far greater vertical height than evaporation in quiescent regions. Finally, an interest in increased heat transfer in thnterior of tropical cyclones resulting from greater amounts of sea spray is a topic of considerab

Lawrence, James R.

2004-01-01

347

ChemTeacher: Isotopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Isotopes page includes resources for teaching students about the structure and uses of isotopes.

2011-01-01

348

Isotopes and Hydrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This program provides a clickable periodic table that links elements to additional information about their isotopic systems. Information is provided about the isotopes important to hydrology, their applications, how they are measured, and how much it costs for an analysis.

2008-09-29

349

Selective laser ionization of radioactive Ni-isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemically selective laser ion source based on resonance ionization of atoms in a hot cavity has been applied in the study of Ni-isotopes at the CERN-ISOLDE on-line isotope separator. Laser ionization enhanced the yields of long-lived Ni-isotopes almost four orders of magnitude when compared to the yields obtained with the surface ionization mode of the source. As a result, high yields of long-lived Ni-isotopes were obtained. Separation efficiencies of 0.3 and 0.8% were obtained for Ni produced in uranium-carbide, produced from uranium-di-pthalocyanine, and Ta-foil targets, respectively. Ni was found to be released very slowly from the present target and ion source combination.

Jokinen, A.; Evensen, A.-H.; Kugler, E.; Lettry, J.; Ravn, H.; van Duppen, P.; Erdmann, N.; Jading, Y.; Köhles, S.; Kratz, K.-L.; Trautman, N.; Wöhr, A.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Mishin, V. I.; Tikhonov, V.

1996-04-01

350

Reading Activities to Enhance the Lives of Nursing Home Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing home patients. Two reading groups were formed. Short stories of high interest were read and discussed. Patients appeared to appreciate and enjoy the sessions. (Author)

Lovelace, Terry

1979-01-01

351

Assessing the duration and possible causes of the earliest Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Toarcian stage (Early Jurassic) records two short-lived events of major faunal turnover and environmental perturbation. The first event (eT-E) occurs during the earliest Toarcian (early Polymorphum chronozone) and has been documented only in a few sites worldwide. The second event, better known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) has been documented in numerous sites from Northern Siberia to Argentina. Both events are marked by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) recorded in carbonate and organic substrate. Therefore they are thought to be associated with major changes in carbon cycling. Similarities between the eT-E and the T-OAE thus lead to the conclusion that these events might have been triggered by similar mechanisms. If this is the case, the CIEs associated with both events should have a comparable duration. In order to valid or falsify this hypothesis, it is therefore crucial to constrain the duration of both events. The duration of the T-OAE CIE was assessed in several papers by cyclostratigraphic analyses thanks to favourable outcropping condition. It is however not the case for the eT-E CIE, this latter being often associated with sedimentary condensation or hiatal surfaces. We make use of the high palaeo-subsidence rates of the Lower Toarcian Moroccan shelf leading to extended sections in the High Atlas Basin. The Foum Tillicht section was sampled in increments of 20 cm across a stratigraphic interval of 50 m, covering the Polymorphum chronozone. Carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses were performed on micritic and organic matter. Ammonites and nannofossils biostratigraphy aided in calibrating geochemical analyses. Carbon isotopes data display a rhythmic pattern. Preliminary results indicate that the eT-E negative carbon isotope excursion lasted around 400 kyr.

Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Bodin, Stéphane; Suan, Guillaume; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

2013-04-01

352

Zirconium isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

A method of separating zirconium isotopes by converting the zirconium to its iodide salt prior to separation by usual isotope methods is disclosed. After separation the desired isotopes are converted from the salt to the metal by the van Arkel-de Boer iodide process.

Siddall, M.B.

1984-12-11

353

New neutron-rich isotopes of astatine and bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-rich isotopes of astatine have been produced through spallation reactions with 600 MeV protons on a232Th target and identified by spectroscopic techniques combined with one-line mass separation at the ISOLDE facility. The half-lives of218At and219At have been remeasured to be 1.5(3) s and 57(4) s, respectively. Four new isotopes of astatine,220-223At, have been observed for the first time, and their

D. G. Burke; H. Folger; H. Gabelmann; E. Hagebø; P. Hill; P. Hoff; O C Jonsson; N. Kaffrell; W. Kurcewicz; G. Løvhøiden; K. Nybø; G H Nyman; H L Ravn; K. Riisager; J. Rogowski; K. Steffensen; T. F. Thorsteinsen

1989-01-01

354

Life prediction of short fiber composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure is described for estimating the fatigue lives (i.e. the number of cycles to failure) of parts made of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites. First, S-N curves were generated at stress ratios of R = 0 and R = -1 for short glass fiber reinforced Copolyamide coupons with 0° (30% or 50% fiber content by weight), 45° (50% fiber content) and 90° (30% or 50% fiber content) fiber orientations. Second, these S-N curves were compared to data reported in the literature for a wide range of short glass and short carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics materials. On the basis of these comparison, all available data were "collapsed" on two S-N curves, one for R = 0 and one for R = -l. The fatigue lives of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics were modeled by a Generalized Miner's Rule. Tests were conducted measuring the fatigue lives of 150 by 10 by 2 mm short glass fiber reinforced Copolyamide coupons under different types of cyclic loads. The fatigue lives measured in these tests were compared to those provided by the Generalized Miner's Rule, and good agreements were found between the test and model results. The fatigue lives of two different parts (made of short glass fiber reinforced Copolyamide) were then investigated. The first one was a 150 by 10 by 4 mm coupon with a 2 mm hole at the center. The second one was an automotive gear shift link. The fiber orientations and the stresses inside these parts were calculated, respectively, by the commercial softwares C-Mold and by ABAQUS. The fatigue lives under different cyclic loads were measured; they were also calculated by the Generalized Miner's Rule together with the results of C-Mold and ABAQUS and the S-N data generated in this study. Comparisons between the measured and estimated (by the model) fatigue lives are in reasonable agreement, indicating that the procedure employed is a useful tool for estimating the fatigue lives of parts made of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

Zago, Alessandro

355

Living with Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... raquo More Top Stories State of Tobacco Control - Michigan is Failing to Save Lives January 21, 2015 ... January 21, 2015 State of Tobacco Control - Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio & Tennessee Fail to Save Lives January 21, ...

356

Living with Sarcoidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: Next >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 10/15/2014 June 14, 2013 Sarcoidosis Clinical ...

357

Disturbances in the Isotopic Record of Asuka 881394  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asuka 881394 is a unique achondrite with a granulitic texture, very calcic approximately An(sub 98) plagioclase, and pigeonite that has not inverted to orthopyroxene. First thought to be a eucrite, recent Oisotopic studies show it has a closer affinity to angrites . Initial isotopic studies provided evidence for now extinct A-26, Mn-53, and Sm-146. A recent study confirmed an early chronology with an absolute Pb-207 - Pb-206 age of 4566.5 +/- 0.2 Ma, a new measurement of the Al-Mg formation interval as 3.7 +/- 0.1 Ma since Al-26/Al-27 = approximately 4.63 x 10(exp -5) for the E60 CAI, and a Mn-Cr formation interval of -6.0 +/- 0.2 Ma relative to LEW86010 ("LEW"). Absolute ages relative to age anchors presented by were 4563.4 +/- 0.2 Ma by Al- Mg and 4564.6 +/- 0.5 Ma by Mn-Cr. These ages are in good, but not perfect, agreement with the Pb-207 - Pb-206 age. Perhaps the most direct comparison of the early chronology of A881394 as determined by various workers is provided by reported Al-26/Al-27 values of 1.18 +/- 0.14, 1.28 +/- 0.07, and 2.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -6). Analyses of mineral separates by TIMS and MC-ICPMS6] agree well, but the higher value obtained by in situ SIMS analysis is significant in light of the slight inconsistency between absolute ages inferred from the short-lived chronometers and the Pb-207 - Pb-206 age. We examine the possibility that inconsistencies in the earliest fine-scale chronology of Asuka 881394 may be related to isotopic "disturbances" observed in Ar-39 - Ar-40, Rb-97 - Sr-87, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 chronometers.

Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

2011-01-01

358

Combined oxygen, hydrogen, /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar isotopic evaluation of molybdenite mineralization, east Pioneer Mountains, Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Pear Lake molybdenite (moly) prospect is in the Eastern Pioneer Wilderness Area, 30 km south of the Cannivan Gulch moly deposit. It lies on a NW-SE trend with other prospects that are contemporaneous. Mineralized veins outcrop sporadically over a 4 square mile area, with a major concentration in the center of the study area. Previous studies have suggested potential moly-mineralization at depth. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age-spectra on hornblend (hb) from the granodiorite host rock indicate emplacement at 75.0 +/- 1 Ma, with biotite closure at 69.0 +/- .3 Ma, in the vicinity of Pear Lake. Hydrothermal muscovites from the moly-bearing veins have ages of 68.0 +/- .5 Ma. partial resetting of biotite cooling dates in the vicinity of mineralization are observed, but biotites on the outer portion of the mineralizing system are undisturbed. These relations suggest that mineralization occurred after the host pluton had cooled to below 280/sup 0/C. Quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures are 380 to 420/sup 0/C for moly-veins. These data suggest that magmatic hydrothermal fluids operated in the upper portion of this molysystem. These isotopic data, combined with geologic mapping, suggest that the Pear Lake moly prospect resulted from a weak, short-lived magmatic hydrothermal event at depth, and is unlikely to contain economic levels of molybdenum. The combined /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar-stable isotope approach should prove useful in evaluating other hydrothermal systems.

Chesley, J.T.; Snee, L.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

1985-01-01

359

Silicon carbide grains of type C provide evidence for the production of the unstable isotope $^{32}$Si in supernovae  

E-print Network

Carbon-rich grains are observed to condense in the ejecta of recent core-collapse supernovae, within a year after the explosion. Silicon carbide grains of type X are C-rich grains with isotpic signatures of explosive supernova nucleosynthesis have been found in primitive meteorites. Much rarer silicon carbide grains of type C are a special sub-group of SiC grains from supernovae. They show peculiar abundance signatures for Si and S, isotopically heavy Si and isotopically light S, which appear to to be in disagreement with model predictions. We propose that C grains are formed mostly from C-rich stellar material exposed to lower SN shock temperatures than the more common type X grains. In this scenario, extreme $^{32}$S enrichments observed in C grains may be explained by the presence of short-lived $^{32}$Si ($\\tau$$_{1/2}$ = 153 years) in the ejecta, produced by neutron capture processes starting from the stable Si isotopes. No mixing from deeper Si-rich material and/or fractionation of Si from S due to mole...

Pignatari, M; Bertolli, M G; Trappitsch, R; Hoppe, P; Rauscher, T; Fryer, C; Herwig, F; Hirschi, R; Timmes, F X; Thielemann, F -K

2013-01-01

360

On Al-26 and other short-lived interstellar radioactivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.

Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.

1993-01-01

361

Cosmic crystallography using short-lived objects - Active Galactic Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic crystallography is based on the principle that peaks in the pair separation histogram (PSH) of objects in a catalogue should be induced by the high number of topologically lensed pairs that are separated by Clifford translations, in excess to ``random'' pairs of objects. Here we present modifications of this method that successively improve the signal-to-noise ratio by removing a

Andrzej Marecki; B. F. Roukema; Stanislaw Bajtlik

2005-01-01

362

Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

Adelstein, S.J.

1991-01-01

363

Short-lived Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a detection method of ? emitters from {sup 222}Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized {sup 222}Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.

Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland)

2013-08-08

364

Tropospheric Ozone as a Short-lived Chemical Climate Forcer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.

Pickering, Kenneth E.

2012-01-01

365

Production of a short-lived filament by a surge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large surge was observed on September 17, 1971 part of which, after travelling 200,000 km across the surface, returned to the surface to form a filament. The filament lasted about 30 minutes, then rose up and returned to the source of the surge. This was interpreted as the filling of a semi-stable magnetic trap. Analysis of the microwave radio burst showed it to have been produced by a source optically thick at 8,800 MHz, with area 4 (arc min)squared and T approximately 275,000 deg, N squared sub eV approximately 7 x 10 to the 48th power. The soft x-ray burst showed a component at 12 x 1,00.000 deg with N squared sub eV approximately 3 x 10 to the 48th power.

Zirin, H.

1976-01-01

366

Multi-element isotopic analyses of presolar graphite grains from Orgueil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report C, N, O, Si, Al-Mg, K, Ca, and Ti isotopic analyses of presolar graphite grains from the Orgueil CI chondrite. NanoSIMS isotopic measurements were made on 345 grains from seven density fractions, with grain sizes >1 ?m: low-density grains from OR1b, OR1c, and OR1d; and high-density grains from OR1f, OR1g, OR1h, and OR1i. In all fractions, except OR1b and OR1h, we found presolar graphite as demonstrated by the large range of 12C/13C ratios (4-2480) measured in individual grains. Some isotopic properties are dependent on density: low-density grains contain 18O, 15N, and 28Si excesses, while the majority of high-density grains contain normal N and O, and are generally enriched in 29Si and 30Si. The 15N, 18O, and 28Si excesses and very high derived isotopic ratios for the extinct radionuclides 26Al, 41Ca, and 44Ti in low-density grains indicate an origin from supernovae. In order to explain the isotopic ratios measured in these grains, we present mixing scenarios between different layers of supernovae and discuss the limitations of various theoretical models. Silicon-30 and 12C excesses in high-density grains and lower values for short-lived radionuclides (26Al and 41Ca) indicate an origin in asymptotic giant branch stars with low metallicities. Some supernova grains, with 44Ca excesses, are also present amongst the high-density grains. Grains with low 12C/13C ratios (without evidence for 44Ti) and large excesses in 42,43Ca and 46,47,49,50Ti probably originate from post-asymptotic giant branch stars, that have suffered a very late thermal pulse, and can achieve low 12C/13C ratios and large neutron capture signatures in Ca and Ti isotopes. We conclude that most low-density graphite grains originate from supernovae while high-density graphite grains have multiple stellar sources: low-metallicity and born-again asymptotic giant branch stars, Type II supernovae, and possibly, J-type stars.

Jadhav, Manavi; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Marhas, Kuljeet K.; Gallino, Roberto

2013-07-01

367

Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and environmental research.\\u000a Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plantanimal relationships.\\u000a The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours\\u000a to years to the lifetime of an individual. When animal living

Jianzhu Wang; Guanghui Lin; Jianhui Huang; Xingguo Han

2004-01-01

368

Paleodietary reconstruction of a Neolithic population in Slovenia: A stable isotope approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional habits of Neolithic farmers living during the period 6400 to 5300 years cal BP in the interior of Slovenia were determined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Human and domesticated and wild animals bone collagen samples found in Ajdovska jama cave, as well as food residuals composed of wheat grains and plants in associated ceramics were isotopically

Nives Ogrinc; Mihael Budja

2005-01-01

369

Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The additional change in nutrition induces changes in physiology that are likely to bias the estimation of the isotopic turnover. We designed an experiment with lactating cows which were successively exposed to the diet's natural isotopic variation and a diet-switch. We examined whether the same turnover information can be obtained from the natural (uncontrolled, short-term) isotopic variation as from the diet-switch experiment. Statistical methods to retrieve the turnover characteristics comprised multi-pool compartmental modeling for the diet-switch experiment as well as correlation analysis to perform wiggle-matching and quantification of autocorrelation (geostatistics) for the analysis of the natural variation. All three methods yielded similar results but differed in their strengths and weaknesses that will be highlighted. Combining the strengths of the new methods can make this tool even more advantageous than diet-switch experiments in many cases. In particular, the new approach empowers studying isotope turnover under a wider range of keepings, wildlife conditions and species, yielding turnover estimates that are not biased by changes in nutrition.

Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

2012-04-01

370

Stable isotope enrichment using a plasma centrifuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (Isotope Program) within the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is to produce isotopes that are in short supply in the U.S. and of which there exists no or insufficient domestic commercial production capability. A vacuum arc plasma centrifuge is a rigid rotor column of metal plasma in which centrifugal forces re-distribute ions radially according to their mass/charge ratio. Early work demonstrated rotation at 2 million rpm and separation of various stable isotopes. The spinning plasma column had a Gaussian flux profile, peaked on the rigid rotor axis. This work adopts a more efficient approach, with the plasma created as a hollow column, wherein the flux is concentrated at larger radii where the centrifugal action is highest. By tailoring the vacuum arc discharge geometry, the rotation rate can also be increased to ˜10 million rpm. Data from Cu, Al and other metal plasmas will be presented and discussed in light of enriched stable isotopes needed for research and medicine.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; Madden, Robert

2012-10-01

371

Hybrid isotope separation scheme  

DOEpatents

A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01

372

Hybrid isotope separation scheme  

DOEpatents

A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

Maya, J.

1991-06-18

373

Isotopes of Pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from Science Netlinks is designed to explain the weighted averages that are used in average atomic mass calculations. Students can be expected to learn that isotopes of an element have different masses; that isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons; and that atomic mass is the weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

Netlinks, Science; Science, American A.

374

Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

Fahy, Geraldine E; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

2013-04-01

375

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

2009-02-01

376

NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs  

SciTech Connect

We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

Leya, Ingo [Physical Institute, Space Sciences and Planetology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Schoenbaechler, Maria [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kraehenbuehl, Urs [Laboratory for Radiochemistry, University of Bern (Switzerland); Halliday, Alex N. [Deparment of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch

2009-09-10

377

Discovery of the Barium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Shore; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

2009-08-13

378

Discovery of the barium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-eight barium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Shore, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.ed [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-11-15

379

Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-four vanadium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M

2009-01-01

380

Discovery of the Vanadium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty-four vanadium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Shore; A. Fritsch; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

2009-07-11

381

Discovery of the vanadium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four vanadium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Shore, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thoennessen, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

2010-07-15

382

Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

2009-12-01

383

Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

2010-09-08

384

Discovery of the Tungsten Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-five tungsten isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; A. Shore; M. Thoennessen

2009-03-25

385

Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Amos, S

2009-01-01

386

Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

2009-10-22

387

Living Things and Where They Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

388

Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

2011-12-01

389

LivePhoto Physics: Colliding Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is a short Quicktime videos of a cart moving from left to right colliding with a stationary cart. Mass is varied in each video so that three elastic collisions and three inelastic collisions are depicted. This item is designed for computer analysis in introductory physics classrooms. The videos are 10-30 frames in length and may be viewed in step motion or real-time. Position and time data may be measured and collected by using video-analysis software. This item is part of a larger collection of short physics videos developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology Live Photo Physics Project.

2008-08-30

390

Isotopic paleoecology of Clovis mammoths from Arizona  

PubMed Central

The causes of megafaunal extinctions in North America have been widely debated but remain poorly understood. Mammoths (Mammuthus spp.) in the American Southwest were hunted by Clovis people during a period of rapid climate change, just before the regional onset of Younger Dryas cooling and mammoth extirpation. Thus, these mammoths may provide key insights into late Pleistocene extinction processes. Here we reconstruct the seasonal diet and climatic conditions experienced by mammoths in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona, using the carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope compositions of tooth enamel. These records suggest that Clovis mammoths experienced a warm, dry climate with sufficient summer rainfall to support seasonal C4 plant growth. Monsoon intensity may have been reduced relative to the preceding time period, but there is no isotopic evidence for severe drought. However, it is possible that the “Clovis drought”, inferred from stratigraphic evidence, occurred suddenly at the end of the animals’ lives and thus was not recorded in the enamel isotopic compositions. Unlike mammoths that lived before the Last Glacial Maximum, Clovis mammoths regularly increased C4 grass consumption during summer, probably seeking seasonally green grasslands farther from the river valley. This predictable seasonal behavior may have made mammoths easier to locate by Clovis hunters. Furthermore, Clovis mammoths probably had no previous experience of such sudden climatic change as is believed to have occurred at the time of their extinction. PMID:22025719

Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Ballenger, Jesse A. M.; Haynes, C. Vance

2011-01-01

391

Water isotopes in precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of HDO and H218O concentrations are observed in precipitation both on a geographical and on a temporal basis. These variations, resulting from successive isotopic fractionation processes at each phase change of water during its atmospheric cycle, are well documented through the IAEA\\/WMO network. Isotope concentrations are, in middle and high latitudes, linearly related to the annual mean temperature at

J. Jouzel; G. Hoffmann; R. D. Koster; V. Masson

2000-01-01

392

(Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

O'Leary, M.H.

1990-01-01

393

Radioactivity of Astatine Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of new neutron deficient isotopes of astatine have been identified in the mass number range 200 to 209 following the irradiation of bismuth with high energy helium ions. Their alpha-decay properties fall in line with predictions for isotopes in this region with less than 126 neutrons; that is, the alpha-energies increase with decrease in mass number. Because of

G. W. Barton; A. Ghiorso; I. Perlman

1951-01-01

394

Intestinal transplantation: living related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent

Stephen G Pollard

395

Molecules in Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

2012-06-19

396

Laser isotope separation  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

397

Photochemical isotope separation  

DOEpatents

A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

398

Photochemical isotope separation  

DOEpatents

A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

1987-04-28

399

Isotope Geochemistry Researches in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of Isotope Geochemistry Researches in China represents a major milestone in such research in China. Every isotope geochemist will find at least one informative article in his or her own field of interest in this large and comprehensive volume.The book is divided into 27 chapters, written by 41 authors, and the scope, content, and quality of the chapters are variable. In general, each is a review or an overview of a topic in geochemistry. Some of the chapters are very short and provide only a very general overview. Others are long and provide a detailed and more comprehensive review of a specific subject. Most are translated into English and they are generally professionally done. The quality of the figures and tables varies, but most are clear and informative. An extensive, current bibliography (some in Chinese publications) is provided at the end of the book for each chapter, but there is no index.To help readers find the localities of the areas studied, a table is appended containing names in English and Chinese with latitude and longitude, but no map is included.

Chen, James H.

400

Living things and non-living things interact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things and non-living things interact on a daily basis. The man is a human, a living thing. The corn crop and grass are also living things. The soil that the grass and corn crops are rooted in is a non-living thing.

Ken Hammond (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

401

A Zirconium Cermet for Transuranic Isotope Storage and Burning  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) isotopes comprise {approx} 1% of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory from commercial light water reactors and supply the majority of the late-term (>300 years) heat load produced by SNF. These isotopes also have significant potential fission energy content that could be recovered in a fast reactor or accelerator driven system. Estimates by Wigeland, et al. suggest that removal of 99.9% of TRU isotopes and 97% of cesium, strontium, and europium from SNF could increase the linear drift load (i.e. capacity) of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, NV by an order of magnitude. In other words, the waste packing capacity in Yucca Mt. would be increased and the recovered TRU could be used in a fast reactor system for energy production. One of the goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop advanced nuclear technologies to recycle spent nuclear fuel without separating pure plutonium. The UREX+ family of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes can be manipulated to isolate TRU isotopes from uranium and other