Science.gov

Sample records for short revisit time

  1. The Late-time Afterglow of the Extremely Energetic Short Burst GRB 090510 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Klose, S.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Rossi, A.; Kann, D. A.; Olivares, F.; Rau, A.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; McBreen, S.; Nardini, M.; Schady, P.; Schmidl, S.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A. C.; Yoldas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The Swift discovery of the short burst GRB 090510 has raised considerable attention mainly because of two reasons: first, it had a bright optical afterglow, and second it is among the most energetic events detected so far within the entire GRB population (long plus short). The afterglow of GRB 090510 was observed with Swift/UVOT and Swift/XRT and evidence of a jet break around 1.5 ks after the burst has been reported in the literature, implying that after this break the optical and X-ray light curve should fade with the same decay slope. Aims. As noted by several authors, the post-break decay slope seen in the UVOT data is much shallower than the steep decay in the X-ray band, pointing to a (theoretically hard to understand) excess of optical flux at late times. We assess here the validity of this peculiar behavior. Methods. We reduced and analyzed new afterglow light-curve data obtained with the multichannel imager GROND. These additional g'r'i'z' data were then combined with the UVOT and XRT data to study the behavior of the afterglow at late times more stringently. Results. Based on the densely sampled data set obtained with GROND, we find that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did indeed enter a steep decay phase starting around 22 ks after the burst. During this time the GROND optical light curve is achromatic, and its slope is identical to the slope of the X-ray data. In combination with the UVOT data this implies that a second break must have occurred in the optical light curve around 22 ks post burst, which, however, has no obvious counterpart in the X-ray band, contradicting the interpretation that this could be another jet break. Conclusions. The GROND data provide the missing piece of evidence that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did follow a post-jet break evolution at late times. The break seen in the optical light curve around 22 ks in combination with its missing counterpart in the X-ray band could be due to the passage of the injection frequency across the optical bands, as already theoretically proposed in the literature. This is possibly the first time that this passage has been clearly seen in an optical afterglow. In addition, our results imply that there is no more evidence for an excess of flux in the optical bands at late times.

  2. Time functions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  3. A short revisit to Kuo-Brown effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang

    2015-10-01

    This paper is a short revisit to Kuo-Brown effective interaction derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential, done by Gerry Brown and Tom Kuo. This effective interaction, derived in year 1966, is the first attempt to describe nuclear structure properties from the free nucleon-nucleon potential. Nowadays much progress has been achieved for the effective interactions in shell model. We would compare the effective interactions obtained in the 1966 paper with up-to-date shell-model interactions in sd-shell and pf-shell model space. Recent knowledge of effective interactions on nuclear structure, can also be traced in the Kuo- Brown effective interaction, i.e., the universal roles of central and tensor forces, which reminds us that such discovery should be noticed much earlier.

  4. "Time" Magazine Revisited: Presidential Stereotypes Persist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; And Others

    1979-01-01

    An examination of "Time" magazine's treatment of four recent presidents indicates that "Time" continues to use the same techniques of biased reporting as were found in a 1965 study and that it continues to favor Republican presidents. (GT)

  5. Cosmic time dilation: The clock paradox revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2004-05-01

    The relativistic time dilation is reviewed in a cosmological context. We show that a clock or twin paradox does not arise if cosmic time is properly taken into account. The receding galaxy background provides a unique frame of reference, and the proper times of geodesic as well as accelerated observers can be linked to the universal cosmic time parameter. This suggests to compare the proper time differentials of the respective observers by determining their state of motion in the galaxy grid. In this way, each observer can figure out whether his proper time is dilated or contracted relative to any other. In particular one can come to unambiguous conclusions on the aging of uniformly moving observers, without reference to asymmetries in measurement procedures or accelerations they may have undergone.

  6. The effect of time ordering revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, J.; Boland, D.; Capes, H.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.

    2008-10-22

    The effects of time ordering on line shapes are investigated for the dynamic ionic broadening of the Lyman alpha line in hydrogen plasmas. The difference between calculations with and without time ordering is calculated for an electric field created by a single particle, and for a thermal average over plasma configurations with moderate temperature and density.

  7. Frequency-time dispersion products revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, William S.; Colburn, H. Steven

    2005-04-01

    The interaction of bandwidth and duration is an important aspect of signal choice in psychophysical experiments. The traditional measures yield frequency-time dispersion products which have a lower bound of 0.25. Gabor [J. Inst. Elect. Eng. Part III 93, 429-457 (1946)] argued that the measures for the standard deviation and mean in the frequency domain do not yield formulas in agreement with intuition when applied to the calculation of frequency dispersions for real signals f(t). Gabor's prescription for correcting the problem was to limit the integrations in frequency statistic calculations to the positive frequency domain and, for consistency, use the analytic signal corresponding to f(t) to calculate time dispersions. A more recent statement of this prescription can be found in L. Cohen [Time-Frequency Analysis, (Prentice Hall, 1995)]. However the elimination of the negative frequencies introduces difficulties which have not been fully addressed in the literature. It is shown here, that unless the Fourier transform of the signal vanishes at zero frequency, a linear divergence will appear in the time dispersion derived from the analytic signal. In such instances, f(t) must be used to calculate the time dispersion. However the restriction to positive frequencies can generate frequency-time dispersion products which fall below the expected lower limit of 0.25.

  8. Test Impact Revisited: Washback Effect Over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the long-term effects of two national language tests in Israel, one in Arabic as a second language and one in English as a foreign language. The study employed questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis from teachers, students and language inspectors. Findings reveal that washback varies over time, owing to factors such as the…

  9. Nonlinear time-series analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth; Kantz, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In 1980 and 1981, two pioneering papers laid the foundation for what became known as nonlinear time-series analysis: the analysis of observed data-typically univariate-via dynamical systems theory. Based on the concept of state-space reconstruction, this set of methods allows us to compute characteristic quantities such as Lyapunov exponents and fractal dimensions, to predict the future course of the time series, and even to reconstruct the equations of motion in some cases. In practice, however, there are a number of issues that restrict the power of this approach: whether the signal accurately and thoroughly samples the dynamics, for instance, and whether it contains noise. Moreover, the numerical algorithms that we use to instantiate these ideas are not perfect; they involve approximations, scale parameters, and finite-precision arithmetic, among other things. Even so, nonlinear time-series analysis has been used to great advantage on thousands of real and synthetic data sets from a wide variety of systems ranging from roulette wheels to lasers to the human heart. Even in cases where the data do not meet the mathematical or algorithmic requirements to assure full topological conjugacy, the results of nonlinear time-series analysis can be helpful in understanding, characterizing, and predicting dynamical systems. PMID:26428563

  10. Nonlinear time-series analysis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Elizabeth; Kantz, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In 1980 and 1981, two pioneering papers laid the foundation for what became known as nonlinear time-series analysis: the analysis of observed datatypically univariatevia dynamical systems theory. Based on the concept of state-space reconstruction, this set of methods allows us to compute characteristic quantities such as Lyapunov exponents and fractal dimensions, to predict the future course of the time series, and even to reconstruct the equations of motion in some cases. In practice, however, there are a number of issues that restrict the power of this approach: whether the signal accurately and thoroughly samples the dynamics, for instance, and whether it contains noise. Moreover, the numerical algorithms that we use to instantiate these ideas are not perfect; they involve approximations, scale parameters, and finite-precision arithmetic, among other things. Even so, nonlinear time-series analysis has been used to great advantage on thousands of real and synthetic data sets from a wide variety of systems ranging from roulette wheels to lasers to the human heart. Even in cases where the data do not meet the mathematical or algorithmic requirements to assure full topological conjugacy, the results of nonlinear time-series analysis can be helpful in understanding, characterizing, and predicting dynamical systems.

  11. Principal Preparation--Revisited--Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmore, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There has been both a historic and continuing interest in the preparation process for school administrators (principals and vice principals). Much of the literature has been critical of how school administrators are prepared (Achilles, 1991; Hale and Moorman, 2003; Levine, 2005; Hallinger and Lu, 2013). Although the length of time from graduation

  12. 0957 + 561 - The time delay revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, E. E.; Shapiro, I. I.; Krolik, J. H.

    A reanalysis of Schild's (1986) data set (RS) and that of Vanderriest et al. (1989) (CV) is presented to consider the reliable determination of the difference in light propagation times from the source to the observer via A and B, delta-tau(BA). Three requirements for the accurate estimation of delta-tau(BA) are a statistically significant peak in cross-correlation, the statistical similarity of A and B in RS and CV, and the consideration of microlensing effects. The Edelson and Krolik (1988) method of discrete correlations is then applied to avoid interpolation of the time series and therefore possible biases. Any inference of delta-tau(BA) from the RS and CV optical flux data is shown to be unreliable due to the unevenness of the sampling and the possibility of systematic errors. If 0957 + 561 is not a lens system, one or both light curves may be affected microlensing, G1 may have varied over the sampling period, or unknown systematic effects may have reduced the quality of the measurements.

  13. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornrschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  14. Girl Number 20 Revisited: Feminist Literacies in New Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonick, Marnina

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the question of "voice" in the context of neo-liberal social and educational reform. "Voice" has been one of the key concepts of feminist and critical pedagogies in the theory and practice of producing social transformation. I argue in this paper, that the political effectiveness of this concept needs to be reconsidered at a

  15. Short-time dynamics of percolation observables

    SciTech Connect

    Wanzeller, Wanderson G.; Mendes, Tereza; Krein, Gastao

    2006-11-15

    We consider the critical short-time evolution of magnetic and droplet-percolation order parameters for the Ising model in two and three dimensions, through Monte Carlo simulations with the (local) heat-bath method. We find qualitatively different dynamic behaviors for the two types of order parameters. More precisely, we find that the percolation order parameter does not have a power-law behavior as encountered for the magnetization, but develops a scale (related to the relaxation time to equilibrium) in the Monte Carlo time. We argue that this difference is due to the difficulty in forming large clusters at the early stages of the evolution. Our results show that, although the descriptions in terms of magnetic and percolation order parameters may be equivalent in the equilibrium regime, greater care must be taken to interpret percolation observables at short times. In particular, this concerns the attempts to describe the dynamics of the deconfinement phase transition in QCD using cluster observables.

  16. Short-time diffusivity of dicolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczyk, Mark M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Furst, Eric M.

    2014-06-01

    The short-time diffusivity of dicolloid particles as a function of particle volume fraction ? from 0.01???0.6 is measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy. The diffusivities of symmetric and asymmetric dicolloids are compared with similarly sized spheres. The short-time diffusivity is independent of salt concentration and decreases with increasing volume fraction for both spheres and asymmetric dicolloids. Symmetric dicolloids have a higher diffusivity than spheres at similar volume fractions. This difference is accounted for by rescaling the dicolloid volume fraction based on the ratio of the random close-packing volume fractions of spheres and dicolloids. Finally, a useful method is provided for calculating the diffusivity of symmetric dicolloid particles of arbitrary aspect ratio based on the calculated hydrodynamic resistance of Zabarankin [Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 2329 (2007), 10.1098/rspa.2007.1872].

  17. Short-time diffusivity of dicolloids.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mark M; Wagner, Norman J; Furst, Eric M

    2014-06-01

    The short-time diffusivity of dicolloid particles as a function of particle volume fraction ? from 0.01 ? ? ? 0.6 is measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy. The diffusivities of symmetric and asymmetric dicolloids are compared with similarly sized spheres. The short-time diffusivity is independent of salt concentration and decreases with increasing volume fraction for both spheres and asymmetric dicolloids. Symmetric dicolloids have a higher diffusivity than spheres at similar volume fractions. This difference is accounted for by rescaling the dicolloid volume fraction based on the ratio of the random close-packing volume fractions of spheres and dicolloids. Finally, a useful method is provided for calculating the diffusivity of symmetric dicolloid particles of arbitrary aspect ratio based on the calculated hydrodynamic resistance of Zabarankin [Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 2329 (2007)]. PMID:25019780

  18. Short time cycles of purely quantum refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-05-01

    Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analog are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal timescale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore, these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle, which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the states of the working medium possess significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance.

  19. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  20. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  1. Failure Prevention by Short Time Corrosion Tests

    SciTech Connect

    MICKALONIS, JOHN

    2005-05-01

    Short time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel, Alloy 600 and C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets. The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited life components. The corrosion rates of the other alloys and of wire meshes were too high for useful extended service. Test results also indicated that corrosion of the dissolver should drop quickly during the dissolutions due to the inhibiting effects of the corrosion products produced by the dissolution processes.

  2. Hurst exponents for short time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jingchao; Yang, Huijie

    2011-12-01

    A concept called balanced estimator of diffusion entropy is proposed to detect quantitatively scalings in short time series. The effectiveness is verified by detecting successfully scaling properties for a large number of artificial fractional Brownian motions. Calculations show that this method can give reliable scalings for short time series with length 102. It is also used to detect scalings in the Shanghai Stock Index, five stock catalogs, and a total of 134 stocks collected from the Shanghai Stock Exchange Market. The scaling exponent for each catalog is significantly larger compared with that for the stocks included in the catalog. Selecting a window with size 650, the evolution of scaling for the Shanghai Stock Index is obtained by the window's sliding along the series. Global patterns in the evolutionary process are captured from the smoothed evolutionary curve. By comparing the patterns with the important event list in the history of the considered stock market, the evolution of scaling is matched with the stock index series. We can find that the important events fit very well with global transitions of the scaling behaviors.

  3. Biogas from Macroalgae: is it time to revisit the idea?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Black, Kenneth D; Stanley, Michele S

    2012-01-01

    The economic and environmental viability of dedicated terrestrial energy crops is in doubt. The production of large scale biomass (macroalgae) for biofuels in the marine environment was first tested in the late 1960's. The culture attempts failed due to the engineering challenges of farming offshore. However the energy conversion via anaerobic digestion was successful as the biochemical composition of macroalgae makes it an ideal feedstock. The technology for the mass production of macroalgae has developed principally in China and Asia over the last 50 years to such a degree that it is now the single largest product of aquaculture. There has also been significant technology transfer and macroalgal cultivation is now well tried and tested in Europe and America. The inherent advantage of production of biofuel feedstock in the marine environment is that it does not compete with food production for land or fresh water. Here we revisit the idea of the large scale cultivation of macroalgae at sea for subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce biogas as a source of renewable energy, using a European case study as an example. PMID:23186536

  4. Biogas from Macroalgae: is it time to revisit the idea?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The economic and environmental viability of dedicated terrestrial energy crops is in doubt. The production of large scale biomass (macroalgae) for biofuels in the marine environment was first tested in the late 1960s. The culture attempts failed due to the engineering challenges of farming offshore. However the energy conversion via anaerobic digestion was successful as the biochemical composition of macroalgae makes it an ideal feedstock. The technology for the mass production of macroalgae has developed principally in China and Asia over the last 50 years to such a degree that it is now the single largest product of aquaculture. There has also been significant technology transfer and macroalgal cultivation is now well tried and tested in Europe and America. The inherent advantage of production of biofuel feedstock in the marine environment is that it does not compete with food production for land or fresh water. Here we revisit the idea of the large scale cultivation of macroalgae at sea for subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce biogas as a source of renewable energy, using a European case study as an example. PMID:23186536

  5. Recognition of Short Time-Paired Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaminda, Hapugahage Thilak; Klyuev, Vitaly; Naruse, Keitaro; Osano, Minetada

    We undertake numerous activities in our daily life and for some of those we forget to complete the action as originally intended. Significant aspects while performing most of these actions might be: pairing of both hands simultaneously and short time consumption. In this work an attempt has been made to recognize those kinds of Paired Activities (PAs), which are easy to forget, and to provide a method to remind about uncompleted PAs. To represent PAs, a study was done on opening and closing of various bottles. A model to define PAs, which simulated the paired behavior of both hands, is proposed, called Paired Activity Model (PAM). To recognize PAs using PAM, Paired Activity Recognition Algorithm (PARA) was implemented. Paired motion capturing was done by accelerometers, which were worn by subjects on the wrist areas of both hands. Individual and correlative behavior of both hands was used to recognize exact PA among other activities. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm was used for data categorization in PARA. ANN significantly outperformed the support vector machine algorithm in real time evaluations. In the user-independent case, PARA achieved recognition rates of 96% for only target PAs and 91% for target PAs undertaken amidst unrelated activities.

  6. Sco X-1 revisited with Kepler, MAXI and HERMES: outflows, time-lags and echoes unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Körding, E.; Ponti, G.; Knigge, C.; Britt, C. T.; van Winckel, H.

    2015-08-01

    Sco X-1 has been the subject of many multiwavelength studies in the past, being the brightest persistent extrasolar X-ray source ever observed. Here, we revisit Sco X-1 with simultaneous short cadence Kepler optical photometry and Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image X-ray photometry over a 78 d period, as well as optical spectroscopy obtained with High Efficiency and Resolution Mercator Echelle Spectrograph (HERMES). We find Sco X-1 to be highly variable in all our data sets. The optical fluxes are clearly bimodal, implying the system can be found in two distinct optical states. These states are generally associated with the known flaring/normal branch X-ray states, although the flux distributions associated with these states overlap. Furthermore, we find that the optical power spectrum of Sco X-1 differs substantially between optical luminosity states. Additionally we find rms-flux relations in both optical states, but only find a linear relation during periods of low optical luminosity. The full optical/X-ray discrete correlation function displays a broad ≈12.5 h optical lag. However, during the normal branch phase, the X-ray and optical fluxes are anticorrelated, whilst being correlated during the flaring branch. We also performed a Cepstrum analysis on the full Kepler light curve to determine the presence of any echoes within the optical light curve alone. We find significant echo signals, consistent with the optical lags found using the discrete cross-correlation. We speculate that whilst some of the driving X-ray emission is reflected by the disc, some is absorbed and re-processed on the thermal time-scale, giving rise to both the observed optical lags and optical echoes.

  7. REVISITING COINCIDENCE RATE BETWEEN GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST FOR THE ADVANCED AND THIRD GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Regimbau, T.; Siellez, K.; Meacher, D.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.

    2015-01-20

    We use realistic Monte Carlo simulations including both gravitational-wave (GW) and short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) selection effects to revisit the coincident rate of binary systems composed of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. We show that the fraction of GW triggers that can be observed in coincidence with sGRBs is proportional to the beaming factor at z = 0, but increases with the distance until it reaches 100% at the GW detector horizon distance. When this is taken into account the rate is improved by a factor of three compared to the simple beaming factor correction. We provide an estimate of the performance future GRB detectors should achieve in order to fully exploit the potentiality of the planned third-generation GW antenna Einstein Telescope, and we propose a simple method to constrain the beaming angle of sGRBs.

  8. Distant healing revisited: time for a new epistemology.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Barbara G; Blasband, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    As distant healing becomes a valid object of scientific scrutiny, state-of-the-art statistical techniques point to outcomes clearly outside the realm of chance. Accordingly, a variety of experimental designs have come into play that highlight the many challenges and hazards of trying to objectify conscious intention. Our survey pinpoints some landmark studies geared toward relatively modest, short-term healing through the application of multiple modalities. In view of the transient and modest results of the distant healing reported, we suggest that the full range of its potential and its longitudinal effects have yet to be uncovered. To this end, we believe that broader, nonlinear thought processes would better serve us in fathoming the mysterious leap from mind to living matter. PMID:11795608

  9. Book Availability Revisited: Turnaround Time for Recalls versus Interlibrary Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, David J.; Pedersen, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that tests the assumption that locally owned books that an academic library patron finds unavailable due to checkout can be obtained more quickly via recall than via interlibrary loan. Establishes average turnaround time for circulation recalls for comparison with turnaround times for interlibrary loans. (Contains 50 references.)…

  10. Time delays for eleven gravitationally lensed quasars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eulaers, E.; Magain, P.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We test the robustness of published time delays for 11 lensed quasars by using two techniques to measure time shifts in their light curves. Methods: We chose to use two fundamentally different techniques to determine time delays in gravitationally lensed quasars: a method based on fitting a numerical model and another one derived from the minimum dispersion method introduced by Pelt and collaborators. To analyse our sample in a homogeneous way and avoid bias caused by the choice of the method used, we apply both methods to 11 different lensed systems for which delays have been published: JVAS B0218+357, SBS 0909+523, RX J0911+0551, FBQS J0951+2635, HE 1104-1805, PG 1115+080, JVAS B1422+231, SBS 1520+530, CLASS B1600+434, CLASS B1608+656, and HE 2149-2745 Results: Time delays for three double lenses, JVAS B0218+357, HE 1104-1805, and CLASS B1600+434, as well as the quadruply lensed quasar CLASS B1608+656 are confirmed within the error bars. We correct the delay for SBS 1520+530. For PG 1115+080 and RX J0911+0551, the existence of a second solution on top of the published delay is revealed. The time delays in four systems, SBS 0909+523, FBQS J0951+2635, JVAS B1422+231, and HE 2149-2745 prove to be less reliable than previously claimed. Conclusions: If we wish to derive an estimate of H0 based on time delays in gravitationally lensed quasars, we need to obtain more robust light curves for most of these systems in order to achieve a higher accuracy and robustness on the time delays.

  11. Energy state revisited. [for minimum-time aircraft climbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Weston, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Kaiser (1944) has introduced the concept of 'resultant height' in connection with aircraft minimum-time climbs. Its use as a state variable in trajectory work is attractive because it is a 'slower' variable than either altitude or velocity. Kelley (1972, 1973) has made an attempt to synthesize 'slow' state variables in connection with singular-perturbation procedures. In the present investigation, attempts are made to synthesize both 'fast' and 'slow' variables for the minimum-time-to-climb problem along lines explored by Kelley. Attention is given to climb equations, energy-modeling simplifications, 'slow'-variable choice, 'fast'-variable-choice considerations, a singular-perturbation analysis, the choice of a 'fast' variable, and the climb-dash problem.

  12. The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthe, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example.

  13. The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited.

    PubMed

    Manthe, Uwe

    2015-06-28

    The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example. PMID:26133412

  14. Through the mists of time: Sushrutha, an enigma revisited

    PubMed Central

    Puthumana, Philip Philip

    2009-01-01

    Sushrutha had been viewed in textbooks of plastic surgery as belonging to the caste of potters who performed surgery in India. We have examined the available source documents and other references to the technology of the period to examine this assertion and are convinced that there is no evidence to support this. The period, technology and geographic references in Sushrutha Samhitha are correlated with settled positions on these to arrive at an understanding of the time and knowledge which is described. Source of erroneous interpretation of Sushrutha as a potter is also examined and clarified. PMID:20368861

  15. Revisiting the Central Dogma One Molecule at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Carlos; Cheng, Wei; Meija, Yara

    2011-01-01

    The faithful relay and timely expression of genetic information depend on specialized molecular machines, many of which function as nucleic acid translocases. The emergence over the last decade of single-molecule fluorescence detection and manipulation techniques with nm and resolution, and their application to the study of nucleic acid translocases are painting an increasingly sharp picture of the inner workings of these machines, the dynamics and coordination of their moving parts, their thermodynamic efficiency, and the nature of their transient intermediates. Here we present an overview of the main results arrived at by the application of single-molecule methods to the study of the main machines of the central dogma. PMID:21335233

  16. Determinism test for very short time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Igarashi, Ryu; Seymour, William; Takeishi, Candy

    2005-03-01

    A test for determinism suitable for time series shorter than 100 points is presented, and applied to numerical and observed data. The method exploits the linear d(d0) dependence in the expression d(t)d0e?t which describes the growth of small separations between trajectories in chaotic systems.

  17. Nuclear Winter Revisited: can it Make a Difference This Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2006-12-01

    Some 23 years ago, in the middle of a Cold War and the threat of a strategic nuclear weapons exchange between NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations, atmospheric scientists pointed out that the well-anticipated side effects of a large-scale nuclear war ozone depletion, radioactive contamination and some climatic effects had massively underestimated the more likely implications: massive fires, severe dimming and cooling beneath circulating smoke clouds, disruption to agriculture in non-combatant nations, severe loss of imports of food to already-food-deficient regions and major alterations to atmospheric circulation. While the specific consequences were dependent on both scenarios of weapons use and injections and removals of smoke and dust and other chemicals into the atmosphere, it was clear that this would be despite passionately argued uncertainties a large major additional effect. As further investigations of smoke removal, patchy transport, etc., were pursued, the basic concerns remained, but the magnitude calculated with one-dimensional models diminished creating an unfortunate media debate over nuclear winter vs. nuclear autumn. Of course, one can't grow summer crops in any autumn natural or nuclear but that concern often got lost in the contentious political debate. Of course, it was pointed out that anyone who required knowing the additional environmental consequences of a major nuclear exchange to be finally deterred was already so far from the reality of the direct effects of the blasts that they might never see the concerns. But for non-combatants, it was a major awakening of their inability to escape severe consequences of the troubles of others, even if they were bystanders in the east-west conflicts. Two decades later, things have radically changed: the prospect of a massive strategic nuclear exchange is greatly diminished good news but the possibility of limited regional exchanges or terrorist incidents is widely believed to have greatly increased bad news. Therefore, the re- examination in this AGU session of the entire subject of environmental and social after-effects of any nuclear weapons use is, unfortunately, once again timely. Hopefully it will convince anyone not already convinced based on conventional damages from nuclear weapons use of the urgent need to abate proliferation and monitor and control access to and potential capabilities of those who might contemplate using such weapons for some Strangelove-like strategic or ideological objective. The extent to which a scientific re-examination of the broader horrendous implications of any scale of use of nuclear weapons will deter those contemplating their use is questionable. However, it seems likely such research would increase the resolve of the large number of countries and institutions already pressing to prevent nuclear weapons use.

  18. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1982-05-04

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  19. Market volatility modeling for short time window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos Neto, Paulo S. G.; Silva, David A.; Ferreira, Tiago A. E.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.

    2011-10-01

    The gain or loss of an investment can be defined by the movement of the market. This movement can be estimated by the difference between the magnitudes of two stock prices in distinct periods and this difference can be used to calculate the volatility of the markets. The volatility characterizes the sensitivity of a market change in the world economy. Traditionally, the probability density function (pdf) of the movement of the markets is analyzed by using power laws. The contributions of this work is two-fold: (i) an analysis of the volatility dynamic of the world market indexes is performed by using a two-year window time data. In this case, the experiments show that the pdf of the volatility is better fitted by exponential function than power laws, in all range of pdf; (ii) after that, we investigate a relationship between the volatility of the markets and the coefficient of the exponential function based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas theory. The results show an inverse relationship between the volatility and the coefficient of the exponential function. This information can be used, for example, to predict the future behavior of the markets or to cluster the markets in order to analyze economic patterns.

  20. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories?

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice; Hiley, Basil

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work MakriMiller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo ?t2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo ?t2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times. PMID:24319313

  1. Short-term and long-term stability of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion revisited

    PubMed Central

    Chamberland, Sylvain; Proffit, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this article is to present further longitudinal data for short-term and long-term stability, following up our previous article in the surgery literature with a larger sample and 2 years of stability data. Methods Data from 38 patients enrolled in this prospective study were collected before treatment, at maximum expansion, at removal of the expander 6 months later, before any second surgical phase, at the end of orthodontic treatment, and at the 2-year follow-up, by using posteroanterior cephalograms and dental casts. Results With surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE), the mean maximum expansion at the first molar was 7.60 1.57 mm, and the mean relapse was 1.83 1.83 mm (24%). Modest relapse after completion of treatment was not statistically significant for all teeth except for the maxillary first molar (0.99 1.1 mm). A significant relationship (P <0.0001) was observed between the amount of relapse after SARPE and the posttreatment observation. At maximum, a skeletal expansion of 3.58 1.63 mm was obtained, and this was stable. Conclusions Skeletal changes with SARPE were modest but stable. Relapse in dental expansion was almost totally attributed to lingual movement of the posterior teeth; 64% of the patients had more than 2 mm of dental changes. Phase 2 surgery did not affect dental relapse. PMID:21640889

  2. Koolau Revisited: Vertical, Short-Scale Heterogeneities in the Hawaiian Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Huang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The subaerial Makapuu stage lavas on the Koolau volcano define the isotopically enriched endmember of the Hawaiian lavas. Their compositions are central to the debate for the presence of recycled oceanic crust and the scales of heterogeneity in the Hawaiian plume. Despite their importance, however, relatively few isotope analyses exist. Here we report new high precision isotope data (Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb) and major / trace element compositions on newly collected samples from the Makapuu Head, Koolau. The new data extends to more unradiogenic isotopic compositions (?Nd= -1.3 - 3.0) than previously reported in Hawaiian lavas. In ?Hf - ?Nd space the Makapuu lavas define a shallower slope (0.75, r2 = 0.92) than all other Hawaiian lavas, while in Sr-Nd isotope space they define the steepest slope. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. ?Nd plot, these lavas define a well correlated negative array that is best explained by the presence of a depleted component (low 208Pb/204Pb - high ?Nd) in the Makapuu source, similar to the isotopic characteristics of pyroxenite xenoliths and rejuvenated stage lavas from the Oahu and Kaula island. When plotted on any combination of 3-isotope systems (3D plots) the Makapuu and the stratigraphically lower KSDP lavas, show well defined but non-intersecting binary arrays. This feature cannot be explained by any two or three- component mixing, and requires that the plume source changed significantly and abruptly during the shield stage volcanism at Koolau. A reexamination of available high precision isotope data from other Hawaiian volcanoes further shows that each shield volcano defines a unique linear array (implying binary mixing) in all 3D isotope plot combinations that involve Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. Note that, in general, there is very little overlap between the individual arrays. This requires that only a unique set of two end members, responsible for the isotopic variability of each volcano, is available during the eruption of that particular volcano. This observation is consistent with vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume. If vertical streaks are present within the upwelling plume (i.e. 'spaghetti' model), then the tight binary arrays defined by each volcano require that the compositions of the "streaks" are relatively constant but only present during the life cycle of each shield volcano (~500 ky). The "streaks" must have a finite length (i.e. short 'spaghetti', perhaps 'penne') in order to account for the volcano-to-volcano variability. While the concentrically zoned plume or the asymmetrically bilateral plume models are consistent with some large-scale lateral features of the Hawaiian plume (e.g. Loa - Kea trends) our data suggests that there is also considerable vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume.

  3. Short times characterisations of stochasticity in nonintegrable galactic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandrup, H. E.; Mahon, M. E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper proposes a new, potentially useful, way in which to characterise the degree of stochasticity exhibited by orbits in a fixed time-independent galactic potential. This approach differs from earlier work involving the computation of Liapounov exponents in two ways, namely (1) by focusing on the statistical properties of ensembles of trajectories, rather than individual orbits, and (2) by restricting attention to the properties of these ensembles over time scales shorter than the age of the Universe, t_H_. For many potentials, generic ensembles of initial conditions corresponding to stochastic orbits will evolve relatively quickly towards a time-independent invariant measure {GAMMA}, which is arguably the natural unit to consider if one is interested in self-consistent equilibria. The basic idea proposed here is to compute short time Liapounov characteristic numbers ?({DELTA}t) over time intervals {DELTA}t for orbits in an ensemble that samples this invariant measure, and to analyse the overall distribution of these ?'s. This is done in detail for one model potential, namely the sixth order truncation of the Toda lattice potential. One especially significant conclusion is that time averages and ensemble averages coincide, so that the form of the distribution of short time ?({DELTA}t)'s for such an ensemble is actually encoded in the calculation of ?(t) for a single orbit over long times t>>t_H_. The distribution of short time ?'s is analysed as a function of the energy E of orbits in the ensemble and the length of the short time sampling interval {DELTA}t. For relatively high energies, the distribution is essentially Gaussian, the dispersion decreasing with time as t^-p^, with an exponent 0

  4. Rules extraction in short memory time series using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, L. Y.; Szeto, K. Y.

    2001-04-01

    Data mining is performed using genetic algorithm on artificially generated time series data with short memory. The extraction of rules from a training set and the subsequent testing of these rules provide a basis for the predictions on the test set. The artificial time series are generated using the inverse whitening transformation, and the correlation function has an exponential form with given time constant indicative of short memory. A vector quantization technique is employed to classify the daily rate of return of this artificial time series into four categories. A simple genetic algorithm based on a fixed format of rules is introduced to do the forecasting. Comparing to the benchmark tests with random walk and random guess, genetic algorithms yield substantially better prediction rates, between 50% to 60%. This is an improvement compared with the 47% for random walk prediction and 25% for random guessing method.

  5. Dual beta-lactam therapy for serious Gram-negative infections: is it time to revisit?

    PubMed

    Rahme, Christine; Butterfield, Jill M; Nicasio, Anthony M; Lodise, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    We are rapidly approaching a crisis in antibiotic resistance, particularly among Gram-negative pathogens. This, coupled with the slow development of novel antimicrobial agents, underscores the exigency of redeploying existing antimicrobial agents in innovative ways. One therapeutic approach that was heavily studied in the 1980s but abandoned over time is dual beta-lactam therapy. This article reviews the evidence for combination beta-lactam therapy. Overall, in vitro, animal and clinical data are positive and suggest that beta-lactam combinations produce a synergistic effect against Gram-negative pathogens that rivals that of beta-lactam-aminoglycoside or beta-lactam-fluoroquinolone combination therapy. Although the precise mechanism of improved activity is not completely understood, it is likely attributable to an enhanced affinity to the diverse penicillin-binding proteins found among Gram negatives. The collective data indicate that dual beta-lactam therapy should be revisited for serious Gram-negative infections, especially in light of the near availability of potent beta-lactamase inhibitors, which neutralize the effect of problematic beta-lactamases. PMID:25308565

  6. Orphan drugs for rare diseases: is it time to revisit their special market access status?

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Cassiman, David; Dooms, Marc; Picavet, Eline

    2012-07-30

    Orphan drugs are intended for diseases with a very low prevalence, and many countries have implemented legislation to support market access of orphan drugs. We argue that it is time to revisit the special market access status of orphan drugs. Indeed, evidence suggests that there is no societal preference for treating rare diseases. Although society appears to assign a greater value to severity of disease, this criterion is equally relevant to many common diseases. Furthermore, the criterion of equity in access to treatment, which underpins orphan drug legislation, puts more value on health improvement in rare diseases than in common diseases and implies that population health is not maximized. Finally, incentives for the development, pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs have created market failures, including monopolistic prices and the artificial creation of rare diseases. We argue that, instead of awarding special market access status to orphan drugs, there is scope to optimize research and development (R&D) of orphan drugs and to control prices of orphan drugs by means of, for example, patent auctions, advance purchase commitments, pay-as-you-go schemes and dose-modification studies. Governments should consider carefully the right incentive strategy for R&D of orphan drugs in rare diseases. PMID:22747423

  7. Statistical Detection of Short Periodic Gene Expression Time Series Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Alan Wee-Chung; Law, N. F.; Yan, Hong

    2007-11-01

    Many cellular processes exhibit periodic behaviors. Hence, one of the important tasks in gene expression data analysis is to detect subset of genes that exhibit cyclicity or periodicity in their gene expression time series profiles. Unfortunately, gene expression time series profiles are usually of very short length and highly contaminated with noise. This makes detection of periodic profiles a very difficult problem. Recently, a hypothesis testing method based on the Fisher g-statistic with correction for multiple testing has been proposed to detect periodic gene expression profiles. However, it was observed that the test is not reliable if the signal length is too short. In this paper, we performed extensive simulation study to investigate the statistical power of the test as a function of signal length, SNR, and the false discovery rate. We found that the number of periodic profiles can be severely underestimated for short length signal. The findings indicated that caution needs to be exercised when interpreting the test result for very short length signals.

  8. Short Sleep Times Predict Obesity in Internal Medicine Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Dolores; Kumar, Ashwani; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between short sleep times and obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI). We wanted to determine whether this association occurs in patients with chronic medical diagnoses since the number of confounding factors is likely higher in patients than the general population. Methods: Two hundred patients attending internal medicine clinics completed a survey regarding sleep habits, lifestyle characteristics, and medical diagnoses. An independent surveyor collected the information on the questionnaires and reviewed the medical records. Height and weight were measured by clinic personnel. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Subjects with short sleep times (< 7 hours) had an increased likelihood of obesity as defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 when compared to the reference group of (8, 9] hours (odds ratio 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–8.09). There was a U-shaped relationship between obesity and sleep time in women but not in men. Young age (18 to 49 years), not smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea were also associated with obesity in the overall model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between short sleep times and obesity in undifferentiated patients attending an internal medicine clinic using models adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and some medical diagnoses. The U-shaped relationship in women suggests that sleep patterns may have gender specific associations. These observations provide the background for therapeutic trials in weight loss in patients with established medical problems. Citation: Buscemi D; Kumar A; Nugent R; Nugent K. Short sleep times predict obesity in internal medicine clinic patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):681–688. PMID:18198800

  9. Extracting Lyapunov Exponents from Short Time Series of Low Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Pielke, R. A.; Eykholt, R.

    Different methods for computing the Lyapunov-exponent spectrum from a time series are reviewed. All algorithms are based on either Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization or Householder QR decomposition, and they use either the linearized map or a higher-order polynomial approximation. They also differ in implementation details. The ability to use these methods for a short time series of low precision is investigated, with special attention being given to the practicality of these algorithms; i.e., their efficiency and accuracy and the number of adjustable free parameters.

  10. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2). Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (?0.03) and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ?0.05). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  11. Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping

    2014-01-01

    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  12. Short Acceleration Times from Superdiffusive Shock Acceleration in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks allows particle transport properties to be inferred. The frequently observed power-law decay upstream, indeed, implies a superdiffusive particle transport when the level of magnetic field variance does not change as the time interval from the shock front increases. In this context, a superdiffusive shock acceleration (SSA) theory has been developed, allowing us to make predictions of the acceleration times. In this work we estimate for a number of interplanetary shocks, including the solar wind termination shock, the acceleration times for energetic protons in the framework of SSA and we compare the results with the acceleration times predicted by standard diffusive shock acceleration. The acceleration times due to SSA are found to be much shorter than in the classical model, and also shorter than the interplanetary shock lifetimes. This decrease of the acceleration times is due to the scale-free nature of the particle displacements in the framework of superdiffusion. Indeed, very long displacements are possible, increasing the probability for particles far from the front of the shock to return, and short displacements have a high probability of occurrence, increasing the chances for particles close to the front to cross the shock many times.

  13. Urban air pollution by odor sources: Short time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettarin, Nicola; Campolo, Marina; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    A numerical approach is proposed to predict the short time dispersion of odors in the urban environment. The model is based on (i) a three dimensional computational domain describing the urban topography at fine spatial scale (1 m) and on (ii) highly time resolved (1 min frequency) meteorological data used as inflow conditions. The time dependent, three dimensional wind velocity field is reconstructed in the Eulerian framework using a fast response finite volume solver of Navier-Stokes equations. Odor dispersion is calculated using a Lagrangian approach. An application of the model to the historic city of Verona (Italy) is presented. Results confirm that this type of odor dispersion simulations can be used (i) to assess the impact of odor emissions in urban areas and (ii) to evaluate the potential mitigation produced by odor abatement systems.

  14. Experimental Study of Short-Time Brownian Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jianyong; Simha, Akarsh; Riegler, David; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We report our progress on the study of short-time Brownian motion of optically-trapped microspheres. In earlier work, we observed the instantaneous velocity of microspheres in gas and in liquid, verifying a prediction by Albert Einstein from 1907. We now report a more accurate test of the energy equipartition theorem for a particle in liquid. We also observe boundary effects on Brownian motion in liquid by setting a wall near the trapped particle, which changes the dynamics of the motion. We find that the velocity autocorrelation of the particle decreases faster as the particle gets closer to the wall.

  15. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themore » expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.« less

  16. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to the expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.

  17. Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

  18. Short-time vibrational dynamics of metaphosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalampounias, Angelos G.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we present the picosecond vibrational dynamics of a series of binary metaphosphate glasses, namely Na2O-P2O5, MO-P2O5 (M=Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) and Al2O3-3P2O5 by means of Raman spectroscopy. We studied the vibrational dephasing and vibrational frequency modulation by calculating time correlation functions of vibrational relaxation by fits in the frequency domain. The fitting method used enables one to model the real line profiles intermediate between Lorentzian and Gaussian by an analytical function, which has an analytical counterpart in the time domain. The symmetric stretching modes ?s(PO2-) and ?s(P-O-P) of the PO2- entity of P2O2- units and of P-O-P bridges in metaphosphate arrangements have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and we used them as probes of the dynamics of these glasses. The vibrational time correlation functions of both modes studied are rather adequately interpreted within the assumption of exponential modulation function in the context of Kubo-Rothschield theory and indicate that the system experiences an intermediate dynamical regime that gets only slower with an increase in the ionic radius of the cation-modifier. We found that the vibrational correlation functions of all glasses studied comply with the Rothschild approach assuming that the environmental modulation is described by a stretched exponential decay. The evolution of the dispersion parameter ? with increasing ionic radius of the cation indicates the deviation from the model simple liquid indicating the reduction of the coherence decay in the perturbation potential as a result of local short lived aggregates. The results are discussed in the framework of the current phenomenological status of the field.

  19. Variations in solar Lyman alpha irradiance on short time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1992-10-01

    Variations in solar UV irradiance at Lyman alpha are studied on short time scales (from days to months) after removing the long-term changes over the solar cycle. The SME/Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analysis. In order to study the nonlinear effects, Lyman alpha irradiance is modeled with a 5th-degree polynomial as well. It is shown that the full-disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm, which is used as a proxy for the plages and active network, can best reproduce the changes observed in Lyman alpha. Approximately 72 percent of the solar-activity-related changes in Lyman alpha irradiance arise from plages and the network. The network contribution is estimated by the correlation analysis to be about 19 percent. It is shown that significant variability remains in Lyman alpha irradiance, with periods around 300, 27, and 13.5d, which is not explained by the solar activity indices. It is shown that the nonlinear effects cannot account for a significant part of the unexplained variation in Lyman alpha irradiance. Therefore, additional events (e.g., large-scale motions and/or a systematic difference in the area and intensity of the plages and network observed in the lines of Ca-K, He 1083, and Lyman alpha) may explain the discrepancies found between the observed and estimated irradiance values.

  20. Variations in solar Lyman alpha irradiance on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Variations in solar UV irradiance at Lyman alpha are studied on short time scales (from days to months) after removing the long-term changes over the solar cycle. The SME/Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analysis. In order to study the nonlinear effects, Lyman alpha irradiance is modeled with a 5th-degree polynomial as well. It is shown that the full-disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm, which is used as a proxy for the plages and active network, can best reproduce the changes observed in Lyman alpha. Approximately 72 percent of the solar-activity-related changes in Lyman alpha irradiance arise from plages and the network. The network contribution is estimated by the correlation analysis to be about 19 percent. It is shown that significant variability remains in Lyman alpha irradiance, with periods around 300, 27, and 13.5d, which is not explained by the solar activity indices. It is shown that the nonlinear effects cannot account for a significant part of the unexplained variation in Lyman alpha irradiance. Therefore, additional events (e.g., large-scale motions and/or a systematic difference in the area and intensity of the plages and network observed in the lines of Ca-K, He 1083, and Lyman alpha) may explain the discrepancies found between the observed and estimated irradiance values.

  1. WHO, RECIST, and immune-related response criteria: is it time to revisit pembrolizumab results?

    PubMed Central

    Ades, Felipe; Yamaguchi, Nise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the rise of immunotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, we have observed a paradigm shift in oncology drug development. One common problem accompanying such paradigm shifts is how to build research strategies to fit the mechanism of action of the newer compounds. Developing immunotherapy in oncology requires us to address the unique characteristics of immunotherapeutic agents and to provide adequate tools for their evaluation, including the adjustment of clinical trial endpoints. Immunotherapy creates patterns of response different from those of chemotherapy, and thus they are not captured by the traditional World Health Organisation (WHO) tumour response criteria or the RECIST. Revisiting the results of pembrolizumab in patients with melanoma can help to evaluate the efficacy of the immune-related response criteria (irRC) as the gold standard for evaluating the clinical response of immunologic agents in oncology. PMID:26715941

  2. Short Hours, Short Shrift. Causes and Consequences of Part-Time Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Chris

    The recent growth in part-time employment has been propelled by a marked increase in the number of involuntary part-time workers. Most of the growth can be traced to sectoral shifts in the economy toward industries dominated by low-wage, part-time jobs. Many employers hire part-timers to cut costs and gain flexibility, but the creation of more

  3. Effect of heating strategies on whey protein denaturation-Revisited by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, M; Rauh, V M; Christensen, M; Johansen, L B; Hammershj, M; Larsen, L B

    2016-01-01

    Previous standards in the area of effect of heat treatment processes on milk protein denaturation were based primarily on laboratory-scale analysis and determination of denaturation degrees by, for example, electrophoresis. In this study, whey protein denaturation was revisited by pilot-scale heating strategies and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC/MC Q-TOF) analysis. Skim milk was heat treated by the use of 3 heating strategies, namely plate heat exchanger (PHE), tubular heat exchanger (THE), and direct steam injection (DSI), under various heating temperatures (T) and holding times. The effect of heating strategy on the degree of denaturation of ?-lactoglobulin and ?-lactalbumin was determined using LC/MC Q-TOF of pH 4.5-soluble whey proteins. Furthermore, effect of heating strategy on the rennet-induced coagulation properties was studied by oscillatory rheometry. In addition, rennet-induced coagulation of heat-treated micellar casein concentrate subjected to PHE was studied. For skim milk, the whey protein denaturation increased significantly as T and holding time increased, regardless of heating method. High denaturation degrees were obtained for T >100C using PHE and THE, whereas DSI resulted in significantly lower denaturation degrees, compared with PHE and THE. Rennet coagulation properties were impaired by increased T and holding time regardless of heating method, although DSI resulted in less impairment compared with PHE and THE. No significant difference was found between THE and PHE for effect on rennet coagulation time, whereas the curd firming rate was significantly larger for THE compared with PHE. Micellar casein concentrate possessed improved rennet coagulation properties compared with skim milk receiving equal heat treatment. PMID:26506552

  4. Broadband excitation for short-time impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Min, M; Pliquett, U; Nacke, T; Barthel, A; Annus, P; Land, R

    2008-06-01

    Frequency domain impedance measurements are still the common approach in assessing passive electrical properties of cells and tissues. However, due to the time requirements for sweeping over a frequency range for performing spectroscopy, they are not suited for recovering fast impedance changes of biological objects. The use of broad bandwidth excitation and monitoring the response as a function of time will greatly reduce the measurement time. The widespread usage of a square wave excitation is simple but not always the best choice. Here we consider different waveforms for excitation and discuss not only the advantages but also their limitations. Measurements in a miniaturized chamber where frequency and time domain measurements are compared show the suitability of different waveforms as excitation signals for the measurements of bio-impedance. The chirp excitation has been found to be most promising in terms of frequency range, signal-to-noise ratio and crest factor. PMID:18544807

  5. Short-chain fatty acids: ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Roy, Claude C; Kien, C Lawrence; Bouthillier, Lise; Levy, Emile

    2006-08-01

    The concept of colonic health has become a major target for the development of functional foods such as probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. These bioactive agents have a profound effect on the composition of the microflora, as well as on the physiology of the colon, and display distinct health benefits. Dietary carbohydrates escaping digestion/absorption in the small bowel and prebiotics undergo fermentation in the colon and give rise to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). As the main anions of the colon and the major source of energy for colonocytes, SCFA are rapidly absorbed by nonionic diffusion mostly but also by active transport mediated by a sodium-coupled transporter, thereby fostering the absorption of sodium and water. SCFA in general and butyrate in particular enhance the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and play a central role on the physiology and metabolism of the colon. The effect of prebiotics on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, mucin production, immune function, mineral absorption, lipid metabolism, and gastrointestinal (GI) peptides has been well documented experimentally. These effects seem to be largely mediated by SCFA, but evidence from human studies remains inconsistent. The food industry is making a leap of faith in their efforts to commercialize prebiotics and exploit potential health benefits. The future lies with the design of studies to further explore basic mechanisms, and gene expression in particular, but emphasis should be placed on human intervention trials. PMID:16870803

  6. Deducing acidification rates based on short-term time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2015-07-01

    We show that, statistically, the simple linear regression (SLR)-determined rate of temporal change in seawater pH (?pH), the so-called acidification rate, can be expressed as a linear combination of a constant (the estimated rate of temporal change in pH) and SLR-determined rates of temporal changes in other variables (deviation largely due to various sampling distributions), despite complications due to different observation durations and temporal sampling distributions. Observations show that five time series data sets worldwide, with observation times from 9 to 23 years, have yielded ?pH values that vary from 1.61??10-3 to -2.5??10-3?pH unit yr-1. After correcting for the deviation, these data now all yield an acidification rate similar to what is expected under the air-sea CO2 equilibrium (-1.6??10-3?~?-1.8??10-3?pH unit yr-1). Although long-term time series stations may have evenly distributed datasets, shorter time series may suffer large errors which are correctable by this method.

  7. Improved initial value estimation for short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectral analysis using short T2 signal attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Jeffrey; Soher, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Robust spectral analysis of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data frequently uses a spectral model with prior metabolite signal information within a nonlinear least squares optimization algorithm. Starting values for the spectral model greatly influence the final results. Short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy contains broad signals that overlap with metabolite signals, complicating the estimation of starting values. We describe a method for more robust initial value estimation using a filter to attenuate short T2 signal contributions (e.g., macromolecules or residual lipids). The method attenuates signals by truncating early points in the data set. Metabolite peak estimation is simplified by the removal of broad, short T2 signals, and corrections for metabolite signal truncation are described. Short echo time simulated Monte Carlo data and in vivo data were used to validate the method. Areas for metabolite signals in the Monte Carlo data with singlet (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline) and singlet-like (myo-inositol) resonances were estimated within 10% of actual value for various metabolite line widths, signal-to-noise ratios, and underlying broad signal contributions. Initial value estimates of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were within 14% of metabolite area ratios relative to the creatine peak fitted using established magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectral analysis software. PMID:21858869

  8. The Effect of Time-Compressed Speech on Comprehensive, Interpretive, and Short-Term Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul E.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the impact of varying levels of time compression on comprehensive, interpretive, and short-term listening. Finds that comprehensive listening performance deteriorates significantly as speech compression levels increase, while interpretive and short-term listening performance remain stable until a high degree of time compression is

  9. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent; Pitz, Alan; Kaplinger, Brian; Hawkins, Matt; Winkler, Tim; Premaratne, Pavithra; Vardaxis, George; Lyzhoft, Joshua; Zimmerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation technique for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (i.e., when we don't have sufficient warning times for a deflection mission).

  10. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  11. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  12. Short time investigation of the neurospora kinesin step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Dupont, Aurlie; Symonds, Clmentine; Prost, Jacques; Cappello, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Kinesin is a dimeric molecular motor, which processively moves along the microtubule in a sequence of 8 nm steps. The stepping dynamics needs to be clarified: there are controversial reports about the existence of substructures in the mechanical step and the step timescale. We present observations of the kinesin steps in the absence of external forces, measured with subnanometre precision and microsecond time resolution using a technique which we have recently introduced and named travelling wave tracking. The data suggest that, at zero load, the 8 nm step occurs in less than 30 s and without any long mechanical substeps.

  13. Fitting ordinary differential equations to short time course data.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Daniel; Barenco, Martino; Callard, Robin; Hubank, Michael; Stark, Jaroslav

    2008-02-28

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used to model many systems in physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Often one wants to compare such equations with observed time course data, and use this to estimate parameters. Surprisingly, practical algorithms for doing this are relatively poorly developed, particularly in comparison with the sophistication of numerical methods for solving both initial and boundary value problems for differential equations, and for locating and analysing bifurcations. A lack of good numerical fitting methods is particularly problematic in the context of systems biology where only a handful of time points may be available. In this paper, we present a survey of existing algorithms and describe the main approaches. We also introduce and evaluate a new efficient technique for estimating ODEs linear in parameters particularly suited to situations where noise levels are high and the number of data points is low. It employs a spline-based collocation scheme and alternates linear least squares minimization steps with repeated estimates of the noise-free values of the variables. This is reminiscent of expectation-maximization methods widely used for problems with nuisance parameters or missing data. PMID:17698469

  14. Estimating Mean First Passage Time of Biased Random Walks with Short Relaxation Time on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Zhuo Qi; Hsu, Wen-Jing; Lin, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Biased random walk has been studied extensively over the past decade especially in the transport and communication networks communities. The mean first passage time (MFPT) of a biased random walk is an important performance indicator in those domains. While the fundamental matrix approach gives precise solution to MFPT, the computation is expensive and the solution lacks interpretability. Other approaches based on the Mean Field Theory relate MFPT to the node degree alone. However, nodes with the same degree may have very different local weight distribution, which may result in vastly different MFPT. We derive an approximate bound to the MFPT of biased random walk with short relaxation time on complex network where the biases are controlled by arbitrarily assigned node weights. We show that the MFPT of a node in this general case is closely related to not only its node degree, but also its local weight distribution. The MFPTs obtained from computer simulations also agree with the new theoretical analysis. Our result enables fast estimation of MFPT, which is useful especially to differentiate between nodes that have very different local node weight distribution even though they share the same node degrees. PMID:24699325

  15. Short-time forecasting of the system magnetosheath -magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobreva, Polya; Iliev, Hristo; Grigorov, Krum; Koitchev, Detelin; Keremidarska, Valentina; Kartalev, Monio

    We report on the efforts to optimize the performance of a new magnetosphere-magnetosheath model in order to achieve at least 30 minutes forecasting advance of the near-Earth space. The utilized model, developed at the Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, consists of two models, describing self-consistently the magnetosheath-magnetosphere system. The 3D magnetosheath modul receives the flow distribution at the magnetosheath region (in gasdynamic approach). The magnetosphere model is a modification of the Tsyganenko magnetic field model with numerically calculated shielding field and boundary. The locations and shapes of the bow shock and magnetopause are also described as a part of the solution. The 3D form of the magnetopause (generally non-axially-symmetric), including the cusp indentation, influences essentially the flow. Input data for the whole model are density, temperature, flow velocity and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A complementary part of the system is a set of algorithms and programs, making use of the available in Internet near real time solar wind monitoring in L1 (currently performed by ACE). In order to modernize and extend the existing simulation software, several performance optimization techniques were applied to the FORTRAN source code. Also parts of the code are being incrementally parallelized using OpenMP directives. The simulations run on several multicore x86-64 machines under 64-bit Linux OS. The traveling time of the solar wind from L1 to the Earth is enough for running the magnetosheath-magnetosphere problem. Numerical experiments, performed on different configuration of the computer platform are discussed.

  16. Healthy Work Revisited: Do Changes in Time Strain Predict Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Lam, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Building on Karasek and Theorell (R. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990, Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life, New York, NY: Basic Books), we theorized and tested the relationship between time strain (work-time demands and control) and seven self-reported health outcomes. We drew on survey data from 550 employees fielded before and 6 months after the implementation of an organizational intervention, the Results Only Work Environment (ROWE) in a white-collar organization. Cross-sectional (Wave 1) models showed psychological time demands and time control measures were related to health outcomes in expected directions. The ROWE intervention did not predict changes in psychological time demands by Wave 2, but did predict increased time control (a sense of time adequacy and schedule control). Statistical models revealed increases in psychological time demands and time adequacy predicted changes in positive (energy, mastery, psychological well-being, self-assessed health) and negative (emotional exhaustion, somatic symptoms, psychological distress) outcomes in expected directions, net of job and home demands and covariates. This study demonstrates the value of including time strain in investigations of the health effects of job conditions. Results encourage longitudinal models of change in psychological time demands as well as time control, along with the development and testing of interventions aimed at reducing time strain in different populations of workers. PMID:23506547

  17. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOEpatents

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  18. Revisiting the Development of Time Sharing Using a Dual Motor Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Nancy; Pabreja, Priya

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss and examine how to develop time sharing using a dual motor task and its effects. They state that when one is required to perform two tasks at the same time (time sharing), an individual may experience difficulty in expressing one or both of the tasks. This phenomenon, known as interference, has been studied

  19. The short-time spectrum analysis of real-time sampling speech with DSP TMS320VC5416 chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qinru; Ren, Wen-hua

    2013-07-01

    For automatic speech recognition (ASR), the research centers mainly on algorithm of improving robust, researchers put less emphasis on realization and application of better speech algorithm. Real-time proceeding of speech recognition directly influence on its application, so real-time proceeding of speech recognition is as important as study of algorithm. Speech transform domain method is a necessary technique of speech recognition, so real-time analysis of transform domain method is necessary. In transform domain methods, the short-time spectrum analysis is simple and easy to realize, especially the short-time FFT algorithm is applied to the short-time spectrum analysis. FFT algorithm reduces multiplications greatly. For the purpose, this paper presents short-time spectrum analysis of real-time sampling speech based on FFT algorithm. We use DSP TMS320VC5416 chip and speech codec ASIC TLV320AIC23 as hardware, the real-time speech signal is acquired by ASIC TLV320AIC23. When working frequency of TMS320VC5416 is set 160 MHz and sampling frequency is 44.1 kHz, the short-time FFT is radix-2 DIF-FFT algorithm and the length of short-time window is 128, the simulation waves and data show that the short-time FFT algorithm analysis based on TMS320VC5416 chip can meet real-time of system. For estimation of proceeding error, we make a calculation of radix- 2 DIT-IFFT. Comparing the result of DIT-IFFT and sampling speech data, error is less than 10-3.

  20. Mars Polar Motion at Short Time-Scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V. M.; de Viron, O.; Karatekin, O.; van Hoolst, T.

    2005-12-01

    The rotation of Mars is not constant in time and presents irregularities that are mostly associated with the seasonal CO2 mass exchange between Mars' atmosphere and polar caps. This large mass redistribution (about a third of the total atmospheric mass is considered to be exchanged) induces variations in Mars' rotation speed as well as in polar motion. The effects of the atmosphere on the rotation can be estimated by using the angular momentum approach: because of conservation of angular momentum of Mars (solid body and atmosphere), considered as isolated, any change in the angular momentum of the atmosphere is associated with an opposite change in the angular momentum of the solid body of the planet. Mars' polar motion is computed for Mars models with three homogeneous layers (solid inner core, fluid outer core, and mantle) for different excitation causes (atmosphere, ice caps, and quakes). We estimate the amplitude of the polar motion resulting from atmospheric excitation, for a reasonable interval of damping factor values, for the two polar motion normal modes, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the Inner Core wobble. We show how the amplitude of the CW excited by the atmospheric noise can be interpreted in terms of anelasticity of the Martian mantle, through the CW damping factor. The damping is estimated from the observation of the mode itself under hypotheses on the type of forcing noise. We show that the signature of the inner core in the polar motion is very small, and is unlikely to be detected with the present observational precision. We further investigate the possibility to excite these normal modes through Marsquakes, and show that the predicted quake moments are not large enough to excite polar motion to an observable level. The analysis of polar motion, and in particular the determination of its normal mode components, is promising because normal mode periods and amplitudes are directly related to the properties of the deep interior. The precision needed to get useful information is very demanding, and requires improvement of the Martian rotation measurements. A first step could be the deployment of a long-lived network of landers at the Martian surface.

  1. Revisiting the Time Trade-Off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics During College.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    How adolescents spend their time has long-term implications for their educational, health, and labor market outcomes, yet surprisingly little research has explored the time use of students across days and semesters. The current study used longitudinal daily diary data from a sample of college students attending a large public university in the Northeastern US (n = 726, M age = 18.4) that was followed for 14 days within each of seven semesters (for up to 98 diary days per student). The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to explore demographic correlates of employment time, organized activity time, and academic time. The second aim was to provide a rigorous test of the time trade-off hypothesis, which suggests that students will spend less time on academics when they spend more time on employment and extracurricular activities. The results demonstrated that time use varied by gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, the results from multi-level models provided some support for the time trade-off hypothesis, although associations varied by the activity type and whether the day was a weekend. More time spent on employment was linked to less time spent on academics across days and semesters whereas organized activities were associated with less time on academics at the daily level only. The negative associations between employment and academics were most pronounced on weekdays. These results suggest that students may balance certain activities across days, whereas other activities may be in competition over longer time frames (i.e., semesters). PMID:25381597

  2. Short-time dynamics in dispersions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion.

    PubMed

    Riest, Jonas; Ngele, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic clustering of globular Brownian particles in dispersions exhibiting competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion (SALR) such as low-salinity protein solutions has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. While the structure of the various cluster phases has been intensely explored, little is known about the dynamics of SALR systems. We present the first systematic theoretical study of short-time diffusion and rheological transport properties of two-Yukawa potential SALR systems in the single-particle dominated dispersed-fluid phase, using semi-analytic methods where the salient hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for. We show that the dynamics has unusual features compared to reference systems with pure repulsion or attraction. Results are discussed for the hydrodynamic function characterizing short-time diffusion that reveals an intermediate-range-order (cluster) peak, self-diffusion and sedimentation coefficients, and high-frequency viscosity. As important applications, we discuss the applicability of two generalized Stokes-Einstein relations, and assess the wavenumber range required for the determination of self-diffusion in a dynamic scattering experiment. PMID:26426932

  3. Revisiting the classics: is [Mg/Fe] a good proxy for galaxy formation time-scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    In the local Universe, massive early-type galaxies exhibit enhanced [Mg/Fe] ratios, which has been traditionally interpreted as the result of a rapid (τ ≲ 1 Gyr) collapse. However, recent claims of a non-universal, steep initial mass function call for a revision of this standard interpretation. In the present work we show how the simultaneous consideration of a high [Mg/Fe] and a steep IMF slope would imply unreasonably short (τ ˜ 7 Myr) and intense (SFR ˜105 M⊙ yr-1) formation events for massive early-type galaxies. We discuss possible caveats and explanations to this apparent inconsistency, and we suggest that further IMF determinations, both in the local Universe and at high redshift, are necessary to better understand the problem.

  4. Highly optimized fourth-order short-time approximation for pathintegrals

    SciTech Connect

    Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-01

    We derive a fourth-order short-time approximation for use in imaginary-time path-integral simulations. The short-time approximation converges for all continuous and bounded from below potentials, attains quartic order of convergence for sufficiently smooth potentials, and utilizes statistically independent random variables for its construction. These properties recommend the approximation as a natural replacement of the trapezoidal Trotter-Suzuki approximation for physical systems with continuous distributions.

  5. The time-dependent quantum harmonic oscillator revisited: Applications to quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Vergel, Daniel Villasenor, Eduardo J.S.

    2009-06-15

    In this article, we formulate the study of the unitary time evolution of systems consisting of an infinite number of uncoupled time-dependent harmonic oscillators in mathematically rigorous terms. We base this analysis on the theory of a single one-dimensional time-dependent oscillator, for which we first summarize some basic results concerning the unitary implementability of the dynamics. This is done by employing techniques different from those used so far to derive the Feynman propagator. In particular, we calculate the transition amplitudes for the usual harmonic oscillator eigenstates and define suitable semiclassical states for some physically relevant models. We then explore the possible extension of this study to infinite dimensional dynamical systems. Specifically, we construct Schroedinger functional representations in terms of appropriate probability spaces, analyze the unitarity of the time evolution, and probe the existence of semiclassical states for a wide range of physical systems, particularly, the well-known Minkowskian free scalar fields and Gowdy cosmological models.

  6. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1) to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2) to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise. PMID:23360586

  7. Biases in the subjective timing of perceptual events: Libet et al. (1983) revisited.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Adam N; Farrell, Martin J; O'Boyle, Donald J

    2008-09-01

    We report two experiments in which participants had to judge the time of occurrence of a stimulus relative to a clock. The experiments were based on the control condition used by Libet, Gleason, Wright, and Pearl [Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., & Pearl, D. K. (1983). Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activities (readiness-potential): The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain 106, 623-642] to correct for any bias in the estimation of the time at which an endogenous event, the conscious intention to perform a movement, occurred. Participants' responses were affected systematically by the sensory modality of the stimulus and by the speed of the clock. Such findings demonstrate the variability in judging the time at which an exogenous event occurs and, by extension, suggest that such variability may also apply to the judging the time of occurrence of endogenous events. The reliability of participants' estimations of when they formed the conscious intention to perform a movement in Libet et al.'s (1983) study is therefore questionable. PMID:17983768

  8. Temporal moments revisited: Why there is no better way for physically based model reduction in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leube, P. C.; Nowak, W.; Schneider, G.

    2012-11-01

    Many hydro(geo)logical problems are highly complex in space and time, coupled with scale issues, variability, and uncertainty. Especially time-dependent models often consume enormous computational resources, but model reduction techniques can alleviate this problem. Temporal moments (TM) offer an approach to reduce the time demands of transient hydro(geo)logical simulations. TM reduce transient governing equations to steady state and directly simulate the temporal characteristics of the system, if the equations are linear and coefficients are time independent. This is achieved by an integral transform, projecting the dynamic system response onto monomials in time. In comparison to classical approaches of model reduction that involve orthogonal base functions, however, the monomials for TM are nonorthogonal, which might impair the quality and efficiency of model reduction. Thus, we raise the question of whether there are more suitable temporal base functions than the monomials that lead to TM. In this work, we will derive theoretically that there is only a limited class of temporal base functions that can reduce hydro(geo)logical models. By comparing those to TM we conclude that, in terms of gained efficiency versus maintained accuracy, TM are the best possible choice. While our theoretical results hold for all systems of linear partial or ordinary differential equations (PDEs, ODEs) with any order of space and time derivatives, we illustrate our study with an example of pumping tests in a confined aquifer. For that case, we demonstrate that two (four) TM are sufficient to represent more than 80% (90%) of the dynamic behavior, and that the information content strictly increases with increasing TM order.

  9. Short-time dynamics and critical behavior of three-dimensional bond-diluted Potts model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. Q.; Zheng, B.; Prudnikov, V. V.; Trimper, S.

    2006-01-01

    The short-time dynamics of the three-dimensional bond-diluted 4-state Potts model is investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. A recently suggested nonequilibrium reweighting method is applied, and the tricritical point is determined with the short-time dynamic approach. Based on the dynamic scaling form, both the dynamic and static critical exponents are estimated for the second order phase transition. Dynamic corrections to scaling are carefully considered.

  10. Residence time and collision statistics for exponential flights: the rod problem revisited.

    PubMed

    Zoia, A; Dumonteil, E; Mazzolo, A

    2011-08-01

    Many random transport phenomena, such as radiation propagation, chemical-biological species migration, or electron motion, can be described in terms of particles performing exponential flights. For such processes, we sketch a general approach (based on the Feynman-Kac formalism) that is amenable to explicit expressions for the moments of the number of collisions and the residence time that the walker spends in a given volume as a function of the particle equilibrium distribution. We then illustrate the proposed method in the case of the so-called rod problem (a one-dimensional system), and discuss the relevance of the obtained results in the context of Monte Carlo estimators. PMID:21928981

  11. Revisiting the Stark Broadening by fluctuating electric fields using the Continuous Time Random Walk Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capes, H.; Christova, M.; Boland, D.; Catoire, F.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Mekkaoui, A.; Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.

    2010-10-01

    Stark broadening of atomic lines in plasmas is calculated by modelling the plasma stochastic electric field using the CTRW approach [1,2]. This allows retaining non Markovian terms in the Schrödinger equation averaged over the electric field fluctuations. As an application we consider a special case of a non separable CTRW process, the so called Kangaroo process [3]. An analytic expression for the line profile is presented for arbitrary waiting time distribution functions. A preliminary application to the hydrogen Lyman α line is discussed.

  12. Circinus X-1 revisited: Fast-timing properties in relation to spectral state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oosterbroek, T.; Van Der Klis, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray spectral and fast-timing variations of Cir X-1 by performing a homogenous analysis of all EXOSAT ME data on this source using X-ray hardness-intensity diagrams (HIDs), color-color diagrams (CDs), and power spectra. Cir X-1 exhibits a wide range of power spectral shapes and a large variety in X-ray spectral shapes. At different epochs the power spectra variously resemble those of an atoll source, a Z source, a black-hole candidate, or are unlike any of these. At some epochs one-dimensional connected-branch patterns are seen in HID and CD, and at other times more complex structures are found. We interpret the complex behavior of Cir X-1 in terms of a model where accretion rate, orbital phase and epoch are the main determinants of the source behavior, and where the unique properties of the source are due to two special circumstances: (1) the source is the only known atoll source (accreting neutron star with a very low magnetic field) that can reach the Eddington critical accretion rate, and (2) it has a unique, highly eccentric and probably precessing orbit. Property (1) makes Cir X-1 a very important source for our understanding of the similarities in the observable properties of neutron stars and black holes as it allows to separate out black hole signatures from properties that are merely due to the presence of accretion compact with a low magnetic field.

  13. Lakatos Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social sciences as

  14. Late-time tails of a self-gravitating massless scalar field, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizo?, Piotr; Chmaj, Tadeusz; Rostworowski, Andrzej

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the nonlinear origin of the power-law tail in the long-time evolution of a spherically symmetric self-gravitating massless scalar field in even-dimensional spacetimes. Using the third-order perturbation method, we derive explicit expressions for the tail (the decay rate and the amplitude) for solutions starting from small initial data, and we verify this prediction via numerical integration of the Einstein-scalar field equations in four and six dimensions. Our results show that the coincidence of decay rates of linear and nonlinear tails in four dimensions (which has misguided some tail hunters in the past) is in a sense accidental and does not hold in higher dimensions.

  15. Universal short-time response and formation of correlations after quantum quenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawetz, K.

    2014-08-01

    The short-time evolutions of two distinct systems, the pump and probe experiments with a semiconductor and the sudden quench of cold atoms in an optical lattice, are found to be described by the same universal response function. This analytic formula at short time scales is derived from the quantum kinetic-theory approach observing that correlations need time to form. The demand of density conservation leads to a reduction of the relaxation time by a factor of 4 in quench setups. The influence of the finite-trapping potential is derived and discussed along with Singwi-Sjlander local-field corrections including the proof of sum rules.

  16. Timing analysis of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, Mark; Haberl, Frank; Zane, Silvia; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2004-07-01

    We present a reanalysis of the X-ray data for RX J0720.4-3125 presented in our previous paper, Zane et al., using more data recently available from XMM-Newton and Chandra. This analysis also corrects the ROSAT data used in that paper to the barycentric dynamical time (TDB) system, incorporates the revised XMM-Newton barycentric correction available since then, and corrects the definition of the instantaneous period in the maximum likelihood periodogram search. However, we are now unable to find a single coherent period that is consistent with all ROSAT, Chandra and XMM-Newton data sets. From an analysis of the separate data sets, we have derived limits on the period change of at 99 per cent confidence level. This is stronger than the value presented in Zane et al., but sufficiently similar that their scientific conclusions remain unchanged. We examine the implications in more detail, and find that RX J0720.4-3125 can have been born as a magnetar provided that it has a young age of ~104 yr. A more conservative interpretation is that the field strength has remained relatively unchanged at just over 1013 G, over the ~106-yr lifetime of the star.

  17. The effects of time, luminance, and high contrast targets: revisiting grating acuity in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daria L; Clark, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    Based on optical clarity and retinal cone density, the cat has a potential acuity of 20-30cycles per degree (cpd), yet most behavioral studies estimate feline acuity between 3 and 9cpd. Those studies, however, were limited by restrictive experimental conditions that may have inadvertently lowered the estimated grating acuity. Two domestic cats previously trained on a two-choice visual discrimination task were retrained on a grating detection/discrimination task with unlimited time, high luminance, high contrast targets, and adequate space to prevent poor accommodation from affecting the results. Initially, vertical gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Then, horizontal gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Finally, the finest horizontal grating resolved was confirmed with a third test requiring 24 correct out of 36 consecutive trials, yielding a binomial probability less than 0.02 of non-random occurrence. M1, a 7-year-old male gray tabby with+2.00 OU refraction, tested for a grating detection acuity of 15cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability=0.009). F1, a 2-year-old female gray tabby with+0.25 OU refraction, tested for a grating orientation discrimination acuity of 20cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability=0.004). These results demonstrate that a young cat with good focus is capable of discriminating 20cpd, in close agreement with the physiologic maximum. Uncorrected focusing errors appear to degrade visual performance. Optimum experimental conditions resulted in better grating acuity measurements than previously reported, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors in feline behavioral testing. PMID:23978601

  18. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. PMID:24756071

  19. Real-time mobile customer short message system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qirui; Sun, Fang

    To expand the current mobile phone short message service, and to make the contact between schools, teachers, parents and feedback of the modern school office system more timely and conveniently, designed and developed the Short Message System based on the Linux platform. The state-of-the-art principles and designed proposals in the Short Message System based on the Linux platform are introduced. Finally we propose an optimized secure access authentication method. At present, many schools,vbusinesses and research institutions ratify the promotion and application the messaging system gradually, which has shown benign market prospects.

  20. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output. PMID:25836455

  1. Short-time evolution of Lagrangian velocity gradient correlations in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Bos, W. J. T.; Jin, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    We show by direct numerical simulation (DNS) that the Lagrangian cross correlation of velocity gradients in homogeneous isotropic turbulence increases at short times, whereas its auto-correlation decreases. Kinematic considerations allow to show that two invariants of the turbulent velocity field determine the short-time velocity gradient correlations. In order to get a more intuitive understanding of the dynamics for longer times, heuristic models are proposed involving the combined action of local shear and rotation. These models quantitatively reproduce the effects and disentangle the different physical mechanisms leading to the observations in the DNS.

  2. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (<3 yr) travel times in aquifers because they have unique genetic signatures, are detectable in trace quantities, and are mobile and stable in groundwater. Virus “snaphots” result from infection and disappearance over time as a community develops resistance. T...

  3. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1997-01-30

    The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction in tetralin of a Montana Lignite, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, Illinois #6 hv bituminous coal, Pittsburgh #8 hv bituminous coals, and Pocohontas lV bituminous coal at short contact times. All of these coals showed a distinct extraction stage. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

  4. Measurement-technical investigations of wind energy units in the short-time range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinkauf, W.

    1984-02-01

    Wind energy systems were investigated by short-time spectral analyses. The analyses make it possible to determine causes of power fluctuations, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is advisable to determine such power spectra as a quality label for wind energy systems. Spectrum analysis also allows investigation of the effect of several construction measures on a unit with a view to reduced power fluctuations in the short-time range. For data evaluation a fast computer with process-interface, or, preferably, a digital signal analyzer which is directly available in situ, can be used.

  5. Dispersion curves from short-time molecular dynamics simulation. 1. Diatomic chain results

    SciTech Connect

    Noid, D.W.; Broocks, B.T.; Gray, S.K.; Marple, S.L.

    1988-06-16

    The multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) for frequency estimation is used to compute the frequency dispersion curves of a diatomic chain from the time-dependent structure factor. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that MUSIC can accurately determine the frequencies from very short time trajectories. MUSIC is also used to show how the frequencies can vary in time, i.e., along a trajectory. The method is ideally suited for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of large systems.

  6. Predicting the Long-Time Dynamic Heterogeneity in a Supercooled Liquid on the Basis of Short-Time Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Widmer-Cooper, Asaph; Harrowell, Peter

    2006-05-12

    We report that the local Debye-Waller factor in a simulated 2D glass-forming mixture exhibits significant spatial heterogeneities and that these short-time fluctuations provide an excellent predictor of the spatial distribution of the long-time dynamic propensities [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135701 (2004)]. In contrast, the potential energy per particle of the inherent structure does not correlate well with the spatially distributed dynamics.

  7. Short collision time approximation for neutron scattering using discrete frequency distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A completely general form for computing any scattering cross section based on the incoherent approximation without extending f(..omega..) to negative frequencies and without integrating over the complex plane is presented. A simple derivation of the short collision time approximation for discrete frequency distributions is also given. The approximation works well for large incident neutron energies when the duration of a collision is short compared with the natural periods of atomic motion. Single-differential scattering cross sections for light water as computed with the free proton and Nelkin scattering models at 561/sup 0/K, and the short collision time approximation with T/sub eff/ = 1468/sup 0/K, are shown for an incident neutron energy of 1.0 eV. 1 figure. (RWR)

  8. Hierarchical structure of the energy landscape of proteins revisited by time series analysis. II. Investigation of explicit solvent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakent, Burak; Camurdan, Mehmet C.; Doruker, Pemra

    2005-10-01

    Time series analysis tools are employed on the principal modes obtained from the Cα trajectories from two independent molecular-dynamics simulations of α-amylase inhibitor (tendamistat). Fluctuations inside an energy minimum (intraminimum motions), transitions between minima (interminimum motions), and relaxations in different hierarchical energy levels are investigated and compared with those encountered in vacuum by using different sampling window sizes and intervals. The low-frequency low-indexed mode relationship, established in vacuum, is also encountered in water, which shows the reliability of the important dynamics information offered by principal components analysis in water. It has been shown that examining a short data collection period (100ps) may result in a high population of overdamped modes, while some of the low-frequency oscillations (<10cm-1) can be captured in water by using a longer data collection period (1200ps). Simultaneous analysis of short and long sampling window sizes gives the following picture of the effect of water on protein dynamics. Water makes the protein lose its memory: future conformations are less dependent on previous conformations due to the lowering of energy barriers in hierarchical levels of the energy landscape. In short-time dynamics (<10ps), damping factors extracted from time series model parameters are lowered. For tendamistat, the friction coefficient in the Langevin equation is found to be around 40-60cm-1 for the low-indexed modes, compatible with literature. The fact that water has increased the friction and that on the other hand has lubrication effect at first sight contradicts. However, this comes about because water enhances the transitions between minima and forces the protein to reduce its already inherent inability to maintain oscillations observed in vacuum. Some of the frequencies lower than 10cm-1 are found to be overdamped, while those higher than 20cm-1 are slightly increased. As for the long-time dynamics in water, it is found that random-walk motion is maintained for approximately 200ps (about five times of that in vacuum) in the low-indexed modes, showing the lowering of energy barriers between the higher-level minima.

  9. APPARATUS FOR SHORT TIME MEASUREMENTS IN A FIXED-BED, GAS/SOLID REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An apparatus for exposure of a solid to reactive process gas is described which makes possible short time (? 0.3 to 15 s) exposures in a fixed-bed reactor. Operating conditions for differential reaction with respect to the gas concentration and rapid quench for arresting hi...

  10. Managing the Editing Function on Large Publication Tasks with Short Flow Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Terry M. Dalla

    Large publication tasks with short flow times require that several editors be assigned to work together as part of a larger publication team that includes management, engineer-writers, publishing logistics personnel, word processor operators, illustrators, and printers. Team-edited publications have special problems, and the technical editing and

  11. Managing the Editing Function on Large Publication Tasks with Short Flow Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Terry M. Dalla

    Large publication tasks with short flow times require that several editors be assigned to work together as part of a larger publication team that includes management, engineer-writers, publishing logistics personnel, word processor operators, illustrators, and printers. Team-edited publications have special problems, and the technical editing and…

  12. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  13. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  14. New methods for regulating flowering time in short-day strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher percentages of transplants of short-day cultivars 'Chandler', 'Carmine', 'Strawberry Festival', and 'Sweet Charlie' from runner tips plugged in early July rather than the standard time (early August) bloomed in the fall. Nearly 100% of the transplants produced in early July flowered in the f...

  15. MULTI-INSTRUMENT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS WITH SHORT RECURRENCE TIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Keek, L.; Heger, A.; Galloway, D. K.; In't Zand, J. J. M.

    2010-07-20

    Type I X-ray bursts from low-mass X-ray binaries result from a thermonuclear runaway in the material accreted onto the neutron star. Although typical recurrence times are a few hours, consistent with theoretical ignition model predictions, there are also observations of bursts occurring as promptly as 10 minutes or less after the previous event. We present a comprehensive assessment of this phenomenon using a catalog of 3387 bursts observed with the BeppoSAX/WFCs and RXTE/PCA X-ray instruments. This catalog contains 136 bursts with recurrence times of less than 1 hr, that come in multiples of up to four events, from 15 sources. Short recurrence times are not observed from the so-called ultra-compact binaries, indicating that hydrogen-burning processes play a crucial role. As far as the neutron star spin frequency is known, these sources all spin fast at over 500 Hz; the rotationally induced mixing may explain burst recurrence times of the order of 10 minutes. Short recurrence time bursts generally occur at all mass accretion rates where normal bursts are observed, but for individual sources the short recurrence times may be restricted to a smaller interval of accretion rate. The fraction of such bursts is roughly 30%. We also report the shortest known recurrence time of 3.8 minutes.

  16. Short-time dynamics in the 1D long-range Potts model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzelac, K.; Glumac, Z.; Barii?, O. S.

    2008-05-01

    We present numerical investigations of the short-time dynamics at criticality in the 1D Potts model with power-law decaying interactions of the form 1/r1+?. The scaling properties of the magnetization, autocorrelation function and time correlations of the magnetization are studied. The dynamical critical exponents ?' and z are derived in the cases q=2 and q=3 for several values of the parameter ? belonging to the nontrivial critical regime.

  17. A dosimetry procedure based on storage phosphors with short fading time.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Salis, M

    2008-01-01

    Problem of retrieving data on exposure to radiation from storage phosphors characterised by short fading time in unpredictably long exposure times is addressed from a numerical point of view. A simple algorithm is presented for the case of first kinetic order. Extension to a generic kinetic order is possible provided a suitable characterisation of the fading features is performed. Simulations are also presented where temperature and reading effects, as well as error measurements, are taken into account. PMID:19066251

  18. Short-Time Glassy Dynamics in Viscous Protein Solutions with Competing Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrin, P. Douglas; Hudson, Steven D.; Hong, Kunlun; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Peter; Wagner, Norman J.; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    The glass transition of colloidal dispersions interacting with both a short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion is studied using highly purified lysozyme solutions. Newtonian liquid behavior is observed at all conditions while measurements of the dynamics in the short-time limit show features typical of glassy colloidal systems at high protein concentrations. This interesting behavior is due to the competition of the attraction and repulsion that produces a heterogeneous microstructure only at intermediate range length scales. The results demonstrate that theories for the macroscopic properties of systems with competing interactions need to include intermediate range order.

  19. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR. PMID:26852096

  20. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E. H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al2O3:C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: TOSL, and Peak OSL: POSL) from droplets and Luxel pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al2O3:C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al2O3:C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (TOSL and POSL) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both TOSL and POSL from droplets and Luxel.

  1. Correlation transfer in stochastically driven neural oscillators over long and short time scales.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Aushra; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of synaptic coupling, two or more neural oscillators may become synchronized by virtue of the statistical correlations in their noisy input streams. Recent work has shown that the degree of correlation transfer from input currents to output spikes depends not only on intrinsic oscillator dynamics, but also on the length of the observation window over which the correlation is calculated. In this paper we use stochastic phase reduction and regular perturbations to derive the correlation of the total phase elapsed over long time scales, a quantity that provides a convenient proxy for the spike count correlation. Over short time scales, we derive the spike count correlation directly using straightforward probabilistic reasoning applied to the density of the phase difference. Our approximations show that output correlation scales with the autocorrelation of the phase resetting curve over long time scales. We also find a concise expression for the influence of the shape of the phase resetting curve on the initial slope of the output correlation over short time scales. These analytic results together with numerical simulations provide new intuitions for the recent counterintuitive finding that type I oscillators transfer correlations more faithfully than do type II over long time scales, while the reverse holds true for the better understood case of short time scales. PMID:22304123

  2. Detection systems for short-time stroboscopic neutron imaging and measurements on a rotating engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, B.; Abele, H.; Brunner, J.; Frei, G.; Ghler, R.; Gildemeister, A.; Hillenbach, A.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Today's neutron sources do not deliver sufficient flux to examine singular short-time events in the millisecond range by neutron radiography. However, periodic processes can be examined if a triggered accumulating detector collects information of identical time-windows and positions over several cycles of the process. The same problem applies if the source signal itself carries information, like the energy-time dependence in the pulse of a spallation source. Several possible detection methods were considered; measurements were performed at the intense neutron beam H9 of ILL Grenoble, where an electrically driven BMW engine was examined at 1000 rpm with time resolution of 200 ?s.

  3. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. PMID:26682893

  4. Time profiles of short and middle GRB fractal analysis and fireball model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I.

    In present work results of GRB time profile fractal analysis are presented. The fractal index is a time profile characteristic which is sensitive to change of shape and indentness of an event time profile. Many experimental signals are fractal in nature, and, importantly, fractal dimensions must be different for time profiles of events which are caused by different physical processes.There are two important featuries of the fractal index for our proposed project: 1) the fractal indexes of Poisson statisticsdominated sets are equal to 1.5; 2) invariance of fractal index to event duration: if there are two bursts with the same form of time profile but different duration, the fractal indexes of these bursts will be the same. The combined data processing for two different types of BATSE data is presented as an example. We try to separate some additional types of Gamma-Ray Bursts(GRB) using fractal analysis of GRB time profiles (now 3 classes of GRB are known : short, middle, long with mean durations t90 0.7s, 3s and 25s correspondingly). We study time profiles of short and middle GRB using LAD discriminator (DISCLA) data with 64 ms time resolution for bursts with t90 > 2s from the 5B BATSE catalog and time-tagged event (TTE) data (in this data, time of registration of first 32767 photons recorded with 2 mks time resolution) for bursts with t90 < 2s. TTE and DISCLA are very different types of data and we can use both types in one dataset because these data have the same background fractal indexes - 1.5 for both dataset. We analyse time profiles of 2000 GRB from 5B BATSE catalog by fractal analysis and obtain some new additional subclasses of GRB. There are 4 subclasses in fractal index distribution of short GRB with mean fractal indexies 1.05 +/- 0.03, 1.31 +/- 0.05,1.51 +/- 0.03,1.90 +/- 0.003 and there are 3 subclasses in fractal index distribution of middle GRB with mean fractal indexies 1.25 +/- 0.03, 1.47 +/- 0.03,1.87 +/- 0.03. We calculate time profiles using fireball model and study fractal index distribution of these time profiles. We obtain that fractal indexies of such time profiles are in region 1.213D1.400 and these events are correspond to subclass of short and middle GRB with maximum at D=1.31. and D=1.25 correspondly.

  5. SLIM--An Early Work Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    An early, but at the time illuminating, piece of work on how to deal with a general, linearly coupled accelerator lattice is revisited. This work is based on the SLIM formalism developed in 1979-1981.

  6. Short time-scale variability of chromospheric Ca II in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baliunas, S. L.; Vaughan, A. H.; Hartmann, L.; Liller, W.; Dupree, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The short time-scale variability of singly ionized calcium chromospheric emission has been investigated in a few late-type stars. Emission-line variations with time scales of a few minutes to hours are seen in Alpha Tau (K5 III), Lambda And (G8 III-IV), and Epsilon Eri (K2 V). The existence of substantial chromospheric flux changes (10 to the 30th to 10 to the 32nd ergs) over short periods of time suggests that the calcium emission arises from a few small, coherent regions. Frequencies present in the data are discussed in the context of acoustic wave predictions and estimated acoustic cutoff frequencies for giants and dwarfs.

  7. Short-time dynamic behavior of two-dimensional fully frustrated XY model with time dependent Ginzburg Landau dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Luo, Meng-Bo; Chen, Qing-Hu

    2006-02-01

    The Ising-like phase transition of two-dimensional fully frustrated XY (FFXY) model with time dependent Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) dynamics is studied by using the short-time dynamics scaling analysis. The transition temperature T and the dynamic and static critical exponents z, 2?/?, and ? are estimated and are compared with the results of FFXY model under resistively-shunted junction dynamics (RSJ) and Monte Carlo (MC) dynamics. We find T, z, and ? are roughly independent of dynamic mode but 2?/? is dependent on the dynamic mode.

  8. 1/f2 and 1/f power spectra of short-term interbeat interval time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czegledy, Ferenc; Katz, Jose

    1993-11-01

    Power spectral scaling and correlation properties of physical and biological dynamical systems are useful in system characterization and in giving insight into their mechanisms. Since, heart rate has been found to vary with respect to time in a very complicated manner, analysis of this variation using power spectral scaling and correlation techniques can give insight into the various physiologic systems which are involved in heart rate control. 1/f power spectrum, one of the most ubiquitous types of power spectra found in nature, has previously been found to be characteristic of normal cardiac interbeat interval time series for frequencies less than 2 X 10-2 Hz. This frequency domain corresponds to relatively long-term interbeat interval variation. The scaling properties of short-term heart rate variability (related to short-term heart rate control by the baroreceptor reflex), on the other hand, have not as yet been examined analytically. To accomplish this now, we analyzed the scaling properties of the power spectra of cardiac interbeat interval time series of five minute durations in 10 normal individuals and in 10 patients with heart failure. By studying the scaling and correlation properties of the power spectra of short-term interbeat interval time series we may gain more insight into the non-linear characteristics of baroreceptor reflex heart rate regulation.

  9. Error correction in short time steps during the application of quantum gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, L. A.; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a modification of the standard quantum error-correction method to enable the correction of errors that occur due to the interaction with a noisy environment during quantum gates without modifying the codification used for memory qubits. Using a perturbation treatment of the noise that allows us to separate it from the ideal evolution of the quantum gate, we demonstrate that in certain cases it is necessary to divide the logical operation in short time steps intercalated by correction procedures. A prescription of how these gates can be constructed is provided, as well as a proof that, even for the cases when the division of the quantum gate in short time steps is not necessary, this method may be advantageous for reducing the total duration of the computation.

  10. Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.

  11. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives. Much of the previous quarterly report was concerned mainly in the retrograde reactions occurring during the liquefaction process. This report is largely devoted to the kinetics and mechanisms of the liquefaction process itself and the influence of the liquefaction solvents.

  12. The short-term prediction of universal time and length of day using atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.; Steppe, J. A.; Dickey, J. O.; Eubanks, T. M.; Sung, L.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to predict short-term variations in the Earth's rotation has gained importance in recent years owing to more precise spacecraft tracking requirements. Universal time (UT1), that component of the Earth's orientation corresponding to the rotation angle, can be measured by number of high-precision space geodetic techniques. A Kalman filter developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) optimally combines these different data sets and generates a smoothed times series and a set of predictions for UT1, as well as for additional Earth orientation components. These UT1 predictions utilize an empirically derived random walk stochastic model for the length of the day (LOD) and require frequent and up-to-date measurements of either UT1 or LOD to keep errors from quickly accumulating. Recent studies have shown that LOD variations are correlated with changes in the Earth's axial atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) over timescales of several years down to as little as 8 days. AAM estimates and forecasts out to 10 days are routinely available from meteorological analysis centers; these data can supplement geodetic measurements to improve the short-term prediction of LOD and have therefore been incorporated as independent data types in the JPL Kalman filter. We find that AAM and, to a lesser extent, AAM forecast data are extremely helpful in generating accurate near-real-time estimates of UT1 and LOD and in improving short-term predictions of these quantities out to about 10 days.

  13. Quantifying complexity of financial short-term time series by composite multiscale entropy measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    It is significant to study the complexity of financial time series since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Multiscale entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. Due to its less reliability of entropy estimation for short-term time series at large time scales, a modification method, the composite multiscale entropy, is applied to the financial market. To qualify its effectiveness, its applications in the synthetic white noise and 1 / f noise with different data lengths are reproduced first in the present paper. Then it is introduced for the first time to make a reliability test with two Chinese stock indices. After conducting on short-time return series, the CMSE method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation and demonstrates more stable and reliable results when compared with the conventional MSE algorithm. Finally, the composite multiscale entropy of six important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  14. Localized proton NMR spectroscopy of brain tumors using short-echo time STEAM sequences.

    PubMed

    Frahm, J; Bruhn, H; Hnicke, W; Merboldt, K D; Mursch, K; Markakis, E

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress in localized proton NMR spectroscopy has been utilized to improve the spatial resolution and the metabolic specificity in a study of 19 patients with intracranial tumors. Selected examples demonstrate that short echo time stimulated echo acquisition mode sequences are able (a) to account for macroscopic tissue heterogeneity by reducing the volume of interest to 2-8 ml and (b) to facilitate a reasonable characterization of tumor metabolism by increasing the number of accessible metabolites. Proton NMR spectra were acquired within measuring times of 6.5 min on a 2.0 T whole-body system using the imaging headcoil. PMID:1939768

  15. Autophagy exacerbates caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death after short times of starvation.

    PubMed

    Mattiolo, Paolo; Yuste, Victor J; Boix, Jacint; Ribas, Judit

    2015-12-15

    Autophagy is generally regarded as a mechanism to promote cell survival. However, autophagy can occasionally be the mechanism responsible of cell demise. We have found that a concomitant depletion of glucose, nutrients and growth factors provoked cell death in a variety of cell lines. This death process was contingent upon caspase activation and was mediated by BAX/BAK proteins, thus indicating its apoptotic nature and the engagement of an intrinsic pathway. In order to abrogate autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), BECLIN-1 siRNA and Atg5 knock-out (Tet-Off type) approaches were alternatively employed. Irrespective of the procedure, at short times of starvation, we found that the ongoing autophagy was sensitizing cells to the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOMP), caspase activation and, therefore, apoptosis. On the contrary, at longer times of starvation, autophagy displayed its characteristic pro-survival effect on cells. As far as we know, we provide the first experimental paradigm where time is the only variable determining the final outcome of autophagy. In other words, we have circumscribed in time the shift transforming autophagy from a cell death to a protection mechanism. Moreover, at short times, starvation-driven autophagy exacerbated the apoptotic cell death caused by several antitumor agents. In agreement with this fact, their apoptotic effects were greatly diminished by autophagy inhibition. The implications of these facts in tumor biology will be discussed. PMID:26441250

  16. Revisiting Fitts and Peterson (1964): width and amplitude manipulations to the reaching environment elicit dissociable movement times.

    PubMed

    Heath, Matthew; Weiler, Jeffrey; Marriott, Kendal A; Elliott, Digby; Binsted, Gordon

    2011-12-01

    The classic theorem of Fitts (1954) asserts that the combined effects of movement amplitude and target width (index of difficulty: ID) define movement times (MTs) for goal-directed reaches. Moreover, Fitts' theorem states that reaches yielding the same ID produce equivalent MTs regardless of the response's amplitude and width combination. However, most work providing direct support for Fitts' theorem has employed short movement amplitudes and small target widths. Thus, no direct evidence supports the unitary nature of MT/ID relations across a range of amplitudes and widths used in contemporary studies of goal-directed reaching. To that end, we contrasted MT/ID relations for discrete reaches equated for movement ID but differing with respect to their amplitude (15.5, 19, 25.5, and 38 cm) and width (2, 3, 4, and 5 cm) requirements. Results show that amplitude and width manipulations yielded robust linear MT/ID relations; however, the slope of the MT/ID function was markedly steeper in the former (amplitude=92 ms; width=13 ms). Such findings indicate that the constituent elements of movement ID are dissociable and that the fixed parameter nature of Fitts' theorem cannot be applied to a continuous range of veridical movement amplitudes and target widths. PMID:21728407

  17. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  18. Short-term probabilistic earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Herrmann, Marcus; Seif, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments highlight a systematic b value decrease during the stress increase period before failure, and some large natural events are known to show a precursory decrease in the b value. However, short-term forecast models currently consider only the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field. While the probability increase over a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute main shock probability remains too low to warrant significant mitigation actions. We analyze the probabilities considering both changes in the seismicity rates and temporal changes in the b value. The precursory b value decrease in the 2009 L'Aquila case results in an additional fiftyfold probability increase for a M6.3 event. Translated into time-varying hazard and risk, these changes surpass the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation.

  19. [Study of new XeCl laser with short duration time and preionzation at high pressure].

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Chen, Chang-Le; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Shi-Hua; Jing, Ke-Xin; Ren, Da-Nan; Wang, Yong-Cang; Yuan, Xiao; Song, Zhou-Mo

    2005-05-01

    New short duration time XeCI excimer laser has been generated at high pressure within a large volume in order to apply it to he interaction between laser and material, and material plasma study. The laser spectrum exhibits two laser lines at 307.98 and 308.19 nm, which is realized in the proportion of HCl:Xe: He = 0.1% :1% : 98.9% through UV preionization. Theoretic analysis indicated that the maximum intensity loop is B to X grade. Not only UV preionization, glow discharge and the calculation of dynamic equation, but also the laser spectrum and pulse duration time measurement were carried out. It is shown that the duration time decreases and pulse energy rises with the increase in the pressure and discharge voltage. The minimum duration time exceeds 13 ns, the pulse energy is 450 mJ, and the beam divergence angle is 3 mrad. PMID:16128052

  20. Short time spreading and wetting of offset printing liquids on model calcium carbonate coating structures.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Hanna; Toivakka, Martti; Gane, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Spreading of oils and water on porous and pre-saturated model carbonate coating structures was studied with high speed video imaging. The short-time data were complemented with long time absorption and wicking experiments. The results indicate a strong dependence between surface structural features of the pigment tablets and water spreading at short times, both in non-saturated and water pre-saturated cases, while the oil spreading is mainly dependent on the liquid properties. Sodium polyacrylate dispersant on pigment surfaces is shown to contribute to water spreading and absorption. On pre-saturated structures the liquid-liquid interactions are dominant and the majority of results support spreading according to the molecular kinetic model. The evidence supports the hypothesis of S. Rousu, P. Gane, and D. Eklund, ["Influence of coating pigment chemistry and morphology on the chromatographic separation of offset ink constituents," in The Science of Papermaking Transactions of the 12th Fundamental Research Symposium, FRC The Pulp & Paper Fundamental Research Society, Oxford, UK, 2001, p. 1115] that at long times the oils absorb into the porous structure at a rate proportional to the ratio of viscosity and surface tension, provided there is no sorptive action with the binder. A combination of nanosized pores and large surface area is useful for providing sufficient absorption capability for carbonate based coatings. PMID:22196346

  1. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period. PMID:26827506

  2. A Short-Term Outcome Evaluation of the "I'm Special" Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Revisit Using SCAT Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines short-term outcome of "I'm Special" drug abuse prevention/education program to establish a link with what has been observed longitudinally. Administered Self-Concept Attitudinal (SCAT) Inventory to 270 third grade students before and after program. Determined program was able to generate positive changes along six SCAT attitudinal

  3. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in the failure process in that depth range. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    PubMed Central

    Spti, Jakub; Aritake, Sayaka; Meyer, Andrea H.; Kitamura, Shingo; Hida, Akiko; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood. To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on interval timing and to assess the ability of a pacemaker-based mechanism to account for the data, we measured timing performance in eighteen young healthy male subjects across two epochs of sustained wakefulness of 38.67 h each, conducted prior to (under entrained conditions) and following (under free-running conditions) a 28 h sleep-wake schedule, using the methods of duration estimation and duration production on target intervals of 10 and 40 s. Our findings of opposing oscillatory time courses across both epochs of sustained wakefulness that combine with increasing and, respectively, decreasing, saturating exponential change for the tasks of estimation and production are consistent with the hypothesis that a pacemaker emitting pulses at a rate controlled by the circadian oscillator and increasing with time awake determines human short-term interval timing; the duration-specificity of this pattern is interpreted as reflecting challenges to maintaining stable attention to the task that progressively increase with stimulus magnitude and thereby moderate the effects of pacemaker-rate changes on overt behavior. PMID:25741253

  5. Detection of central fixation using short-time autoregressive spectral estimation during retinal birefringence scanning.

    PubMed

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2015-09-01

    The manuscript reports on the implementation of autoregressive spectral estimation aimed at improving the accuracy of detecting short-lasting events in signals acquired by a retinal birefringence scanning device that was reported earlier. A signal consisting of two frequency components is generated, where each frequency is a multiple of the scanning frequency. One frequency is produced during central fixation, while another one prevails during off-central fixation. These components may be of a very short duration, presenting a challenge for the FFT to identify them with sufficient time- and frequency resolution. Autoregressive spectral estimation using the Burg algorithm provided a satisfactory solution, capable of reliably differentiating between the two frequency components (96 and 192 Hz) on signal segments of duration as short as 5 ms. The device and the signal analysis methods were developed originally with the purpose of checking for eye alignment and strabismus - a major risk factor for amblyopia. The method enables the technology to work with less-cooperative patients, such as young children. Other medical and non-medical applications are possible. PMID:26213271

  6. Cognitive abilities explaining age-related changes in time perception of short and long durations.

    PubMed

    Zlanti, Pierre S; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1s, two duration ranges longer than 3s (4-8s and >15s), and an intermediate duration range (1.25-2.5s). Their cognitive abilities were also assessed using a series of neuropsychological tests. The results showed that temporal sensitivity improved with age for each duration range but that this improvement occurred earlier for the short durations than for the long durations. Furthermore, the results revealed that the age-related improvement in time sensitivity for the durations shorter than 1s was explained by the development of short-term memory span, whereas that for long durations was explained by the development of attention/executive functions. To summarize, the development of the abilities required to process long durations seems to be explained mainly by the development of attentional resources. PMID:21334637

  7. Short-Time Beta Relaxation in Glass-Forming Liquids Is Cooperative in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-02-01

    Temporal relaxation of density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition occurs in multiple steps. Using molecular dynamics simulations for three model glass-forming liquids, we show that the short-time β relaxation is cooperative in nature. Using finite-size scaling analysis, we extract a growing length scale associated with beta relaxation from the observed dependence of the beta relaxation time on the system size. We find, in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode coupling theory, that the temperature dependence of this length scale is the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α -relaxation regime.

  8. Thick-target bremsstrahlung interpretation of short time-scale solar hard X-ray features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Steady-state analyses of bremsstrahlung hard X-ray production in solar flares are appropriate only if the lifetime of the high energy electrons in the X-ray source is much shorter than the duration of the observed X-ray burst. For a thick-target nonthermal model, this implies that a full time-dependent analysis is required when the duration of the burst is comparable to the collisional lifetime of the injected electrons, in turn set by the lengths and densities of the flaring region. In this paper we present the results of such a time-dependent analysis, and we point out that the intrinsic temporal signature of the thick-target production mechanism, caused by the finite travel time of the electrons through the target, may indeed rule out such a mechanism for extremely short duration hard X-ray events.

  9. Characterization of the complexity in short oscillating time series: An application to seismic airgun detonations.

    PubMed

    Miralles, R; Carrión, A; Looney, D; Lara, G; Mandic, D

    2015-09-01

    Extracting frequency-derived parameters allows for the identification and characterization of acoustic events, such as those obtained in passive acoustic monitoring applications. Situations where it is difficult to achieve the desired frequency resolution to distinguish between similar events occur, for example, in short time oscillating events. One feasible approach to make discrimination among such events is by measuring the complexity or the presence of non-linearities in a time series. Available techniques include the delay vector variance (DVV) and recurrence plot (RP) analysis, which have been used independently for statistical testing, however, the similarities between these two techniques have so far been overlooked. This work suggests a method that combines the DVV method with the recurrence quantification analysis parameters of the RP graphs for the characterization of short oscillating events. In order to establish the confidence intervals, a variant of the pseudo-periodic surrogate algorithm is proposed. This allows one to eliminate the fine details that may indicate the presence of non-linear dynamics, without having to add a large amount of noise, while preserving more efficiently the phase-space shape. The algorithm is verified on both synthetic and real world time series. PMID:26428796

  10. On the short-time limit of ring polymer molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braams, Bastiaan J; Manolopoulos, David E

    2006-09-28

    We examine the short-time accuracy of a class of approximate quantum dynamical techniques that includes the centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) methods. Both of these methods are based on the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) technique for calculating the exact static equilibrium properties of quantum mechanical systems. For Kubo-transformed real-time correlation functions involving operators that are linear functions of positions or momenta, the RPMD and (adiabatic) CMD approximations differ only in the choice of the artificial mass matrix of the system of ring polymer beads that is employed in PIMD. The obvious ansatz for a general method of this type is therefore to regard the elements of the PIMD (or Parrinello-Rahman) mass matrix as an adjustable set of parameters that can be chosen to improve the accuracy of the resulting approximation. We show here that this ansatz leads uniquely to the RPMD approximation when the criterion that is used to select the mass matrix is the short-time accuracy of the Kubo-transformed correlation function. In particular, we show that the leading error in the RPMD position autocorrelation function is O(t(8)) and the error in the velocity autocorrelation function is O(t(6)), for a general anharmonic potential. The corresponding errors in the CMD approximation are O(t(6)) and O(t(4)), respectively. PMID:17014164

  11. On the short-time limit of ring polymer molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2006-09-01

    We examine the short-time accuracy of a class of approximate quantum dynamical techniques that includes the centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) methods. Both of these methods are based on the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) technique for calculating the exact static equilibrium properties of quantum mechanical systems. For Kubo-transformed real-time correlation functions involving operators that are linear functions of positions or momenta, the RPMD and (adiabatic) CMD approximations differ only in the choice of the artificial mass matrix of the system of ring polymer beads that is employed in PIMD. The obvious ansatz for a general method of this type is therefore to regard the elements of the PIMD (or Parrinello-Rahman) mass matrix as an adjustable set of parameters that can be chosen to improve the accuracy of the resulting approximation. We show here that this ansatz leads uniquely to the RPMD approximation when the criterion that is used to select the mass matrix is the short-time accuracy of the Kubo-transformed correlation function. In particular, we show that the leading error in the RPMD position autocorrelation function is O(t8) and the error in the velocity autocorrelation function is O(t6), for a general anharmonic potential. The corresponding errors in the CMD approximation are O(t6) and O(t4), respectively.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Warnert, Esther A H; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850?ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%0.2%, 0.50%0.3%, 0.4%0.2%, 1.1%0.5%, and 1.1%0.3% per mm?Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  13. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1997-04-03

    The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer) . An additional objective is to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times. Both of these objectives have been nearly achieved, however this work has shown the great importance of the liquefaction solvent characteristics and the solvent-catalyst interaction on the liquefaction process. This has prompted us to do a preliminary investigation of solvents and the solvent-catalyst systems in coal liquefaction. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1) Conversion vs time data have been extended to 5 coals of ranks from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal. A broad range of reaction rates have been observed with a maximum in the high volatile bituminous range. 2) A series of direct coal liquefaction runs have been made using a range of nitrogen containing solvents that given high liquefaction conversions of coal. These runs are now being analyzed. 3) The coalification process has been shown by TGA to go through an intermediate stage which may account for the greater reactivity of bituminous coals in the direct coal liquefaction process. 4) It was shown that coal rank can be accurately determined by thermogravimetric analysis

  14. Study of the very short time structure in three BATSE events using TTE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, David B.; Otwinowski, Stanislas; Sanders, David A.

    1996-08-01

    The short time structure (possibly shot noise) might reveal much about the spatial nature of the GRB source. In the case of GRBs from Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), the initial explosion region is ~10-13 cm in size, much smaller than any other known compact object. The BATSE team has already reported on one interesting event. We report here on the study of the TTE data from three BATSE events that may be PBH candidates. The latest results will be presented at the meeting.

  15. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Pierre; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2005-12-01

    We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  16. Ship motion extreme short time prediction of ship pitch based on diagonal recurrent neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Xie, Mei-Ping

    2005-06-01

    A DRNN (diagonal recurrent neural network) and its RPE (recurrent prediction error) learning algorithm are proposed in this paper. Using of the simple structure of DRNN can reduce the capacity of calculation. The principle of RPE learning algorithm is to adjust weights along the direction of Gauss-Newton. Meanwhile, it is unnecessary to calculate the second local derivative and the inverse matrixes, whose unbiasedness is proved. With application to the extremely short time prediction of large ship pitch, satisfactory results are obtained. Prediction effect of this algorithm is compared with that of auto-regression and periodical diagram method, and comparison results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible.

  17. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-07

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10⁻⁶Torr to 10²Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d⁹(²D) 4p → 3d⁹(²D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p⁶3d⁸(³P) 4s→ 3p⁶3d⁹ 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  18. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-01

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10-6 Torr to 102 Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d9(2D) 4p → 3d9(2D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p63d8(3P) 4s→ 3p63d9 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  19. Significance of time awake for predicting pilots' fatigue on short-haul flights: implications for flight duty time regulations.

    PubMed

    Vejvoda, Martin; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Plath, Gernot; Maass, Hartmut; Tritschler, Kristjof; Basner, Mathias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    European regulations restrict the duration of the maximum daily flight duty period for pilots as a function of the duty start time and the number of scheduled flights. However, late duty end times that may include long times awake are not specifically regulated. In this study, fatigue levels in pilots finishing their duty late at night (00:00-01:59 hour) were analysed and compared with pilots starting their duty early (05:00-06:59 hour). Fatigue levels of 40 commercial short-haul pilots were studied during a total of 188 flight duty periods, of which 87 started early and 22 finished late. Pilots used a small handheld computer to maintain a duty and sleep log, and to indicate fatigue levels immediately after each flight. Sleep logs were checked with actigraphy. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were more fatigued at the end of their duty than pilots on early-starting flight duty periods, despite the fact that preceding sleep duration was longer by 1.1 h. Linear mixed-model regression identified time awake as a preeminent factor predicting fatigue. Workload had a minor effect. Pilots on late-finishing flight duty periods were awake longer by an average of 5.5 h (6.6 versus 1.1 h) before commencing their duty than pilots who started early in the morning. Late-finishing flights were associated with long times awake at a time when the circadian system stops promoting alertness, and an increased, previously underestimated fatigue risk. Based on these findings, flight duty limitations should consider not only duty start time, but also the time of the final landing. PMID:25040665

  20. Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

    2013-01-01

    Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

  1. Protein supplementation during a short-interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Soca, F; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to improve the reproductive performance of a short-interval prostaglandin (PG)-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in sheep, using a short-term nutritional treatment. During the breeding season (March-April), 132 multiparous and 61 nulliparous Corriedale ewes grazing natural pastures (600 kg DM/ha, 8.5% CP), were allocated to two groups: 1, Control group (n=100) two injections of D-Cloprostenol (75 μg per dose, 7d apart: Synchrovine(®) protocol); and 2, Supplemented group (n=93) ewes in which stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised with Synchrovine(®) protocol plus focus feeding of a protein supplement (33.8% CP) between PG doses (Day -7 to -2). Cervical AI was performed at fixed time (Day 0), 46 ± 1.0 h after the second PG injection using 150 million sperm per ewe. Ovulation rate (Day 10), pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity at Day 69 were evaluated by ultrasonography. Ovulation rate at Day 10 (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.22 ± 0.05), pregnancy (46 ± 0.05 vs. 56 ± 0.05), prolificacy (1.09 ± 0.04 vs. 1.06 ± 0.05), and fecundity (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06) at Day 69, were similar between groups (P>0.05; Control and Supplemented group respectively). It is concluded that focus feeding for 6d with protein supplementation during a short-interval PG-based protocol (Synchrovine(®)) did not improve the reproductive outcome associated with this protocol. PMID:25129637

  2. Short-term earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Observations from laboratory experiments measuring acoustic emissions during loading cycles in pressurized rock samples have repeatedly suggested that small events in the precursory phase of an impending large event change in their relative size distribution. In particular, they highlight a systematic b-value decrease during the stress increase period before the main event. A number of large natural events, but not all of them, have been shown to have a precursory decrease in the b-value at very different time scales, from months to a few days before the subsequent mainshock. At present short term-forecast models such as STEP and ETAS consider the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field; the rate increasing during the foreshock sequences can offer a probability gain for a significant earthquake to happen. While the probability gain of a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute probability remains too low to warrant actions. This was shown for example by van Stiphout et al. (2010, GRL), for the 2009 a Mw 6.3 earthquake that hit the city of L'Aquila (Central Italy) after three months of foreshock activity. We here analyze the probability gain of a novel generation of short term forecast models which considers both the change in the seismicity rates and the temporal changes in the b-value. Changes in earthquake probability are then translated also into time-dependent hazard and risk. Preliminary results suggest that the precursory b-value decrease in the L'Aquila case results in an additional probability increase of a M6.3 event of about a factor of 30-50, which then surpasses the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation in selected cases.

  3. An Extension to Short Distances of Real-Time Estimators of Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C. W.; Okal, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Working from a data set of seismograms from 61 large events recorded at epicentral distances between 5 and 35 degrees, we assess the validity at short distances of the teleseismic (35 to 80 deg.) method of Newman and Okal (1998) using the ratio of estimated energy to moment (theta) to characterize a seismic source in real time. An evaluation of short-distance data from 17 events common to this study and that of Newman and Okal shows good agreement in calculated theta values. Deficient values of theta in this study are observed for the December 2004 N. Sumatra (theta -6.82), June 1994 S. of Java (-6.70), September 1992 Nicaragua (-6.44), July 2006 S. of Java (-6.04), and November 2006 Kuril Island (-6.00) events; all of these have been previously recognized as having unusual sources. Other notable events with slightly less-deficient theta values are June 2001 Peru (-5.81) and February 1996 Peru (-5.67). For this data set we also present an extension of the discriminant tau method of Reymond et al. (AGU, 2006) based on evaluation of the envelope of 2-4 Hz bandpass filtered P arrival windows. Preliminary results show that both theta and tau discriminants may be used to improve real-time identification of seismic sources with the potential to generate anomalously large tsunamis.

  4. Short-time transport properties of bidisperse suspensions and porous media: A Stokesian dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mu; Brady, John F.

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive computational study of the short-time transport properties of bidisperse hard-sphere colloidal suspensions and the corresponding porous media. Our study covers bidisperse particle size ratios up to 4 and total volume fractions up to and beyond the monodisperse hard-sphere close packing limit. The many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using conventional Stokesian Dynamics (SD) via a Monte-Carlo approach. We address suspension properties including the short-time translational and rotational self-diffusivities, the instantaneous sedimentation velocity, the wavenumber-dependent partial hydrodynamic functions, and the high-frequency shear and bulk viscosities and porous media properties including the permeability and the translational and rotational hindered diffusivities. We carefully compare the SD computations with existing theoretical and numerical results. For suspensions, we also explore the range of validity of various approximation schemes, notably the pairwise additive approximations with the Percus-Yevick structural input. We critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SD algorithm for various transport properties. For very dense systems, we discuss in detail the interplay between the hydrodynamic interactions and the structures due to the presence of a second species of a different size.

  5. Short-time dynamics of Fe{sub 2}/V{sub 13} magnetic superlattice models

    SciTech Connect

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Mutailamov, V. A.

    2013-04-15

    Critical relaxation from a low-temperature fully ordered state of Fe{sub 2}/V{sub 13} iron-vanadium magnetic superlattice models has been studied using the method of short-time dynamics. Systems with three variants of the ratio R of inter-to intralayer exchange coupling have been considered. Particles with N = 262144 spins have been simulated with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations have been performed using the standard Metropolis algorithm of the Monte Carlo method. The static critical exponents of magnetization and correlation radius, as well as the dynamic critical exponent, have been calculated for three R values. It is established that a small decrease in the exchange ratio (from R = 1.0 to 0.8) does not significantly influence the character of the short-time dynamics in the models studied. A further significant decrease in this ratio (to R = 0.01), for which a transition from three-dimensional to quasi-two-dimensional magnetism is possible, leads to significant changes in the dynamic behavior of iron-vanadium magnetic superlattice models.

  6. Time-resolved optical tomography using short-pulse laser for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Gopalendu; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-08-01

    Our objective is to perform a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of the short-pulse laser interaction with a tissue medium with the goal of tumor-cancer diagnostics. For a short-pulse laser source, the shape of the output signal is a function of the optical properties of the medium, and hence the scattered temporal optical signal helps in understanding the medium characteristics. Initially experiments are performed on tissue phantoms embedded with inhomogeneities to optimize the time-resolved optical detection scheme. Both the temporal and the spatial profiles of the scattered reflected and transmitted optical signals are compared with the numerical modeling results obtained by solving the transient radiative transport equation using the discrete ordinates technique. Next experiments are performed on in vitro rat tissue samples to characterize the interaction of light with skin layers and to validate the time-varying optical signatures with the numerical model. The numerical modeling results and the experimental measurements are in excellent agreement for the different parameters studied. The final step is to perform in vivo imaging of anesthetized rats with tumor-promoting agents injected inside skin tissues and of an anesthetized mouse with mammary tumors to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for detecting tumors in an animal model.

  7. Multivariate time series modeling of short-term system scale irrigation demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Kushan C.; Western, Andrew W.; George, Biju; Nawarathna, Bandara

    2015-12-01

    Travel time limits the ability of irrigation system operators to react to short-term irrigation demand fluctuations that result from variations in weather, including very hot periods and rainfall events, as well as the various other pressures and opportunities that farmers face. Short-term system-wide irrigation demand forecasts can assist in system operation. Here we developed a multivariate time series (ARMAX) model to forecast irrigation demands with respect to aggregated service points flows (IDCGi, ASP) and off take regulator flows (IDCGi, OTR) based across 5 command areas, which included area covered under four irrigation channels and the study area. These command area specific ARMAX models forecast 1-5 days ahead daily IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR using the real time flow data recorded at the service points and the uppermost regulators and observed meteorological data collected from automatic weather stations. The model efficiency and the predictive performance were quantified using the root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE), anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and mean square skill score (MSSS). During the evaluation period, NSE for IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR across 5 command areas were ranged 0.98-0.78. These models were capable of generating skillful forecasts (MSSS ⩾ 0.5 and ACC ⩾ 0.6) of IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR for all 5 lead days and IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts were better than using the long term monthly mean irrigation demand. Overall these predictive performance from the ARMAX time series models were higher than almost all the previous studies we are aware. Further, IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts have improved the operators' ability to react for near future irrigation demand fluctuations as the developed ARMAX time series models were self-adaptive to reflect the short-term changes in the irrigation demand with respect to various pressures and opportunities that farmers' face, such as changing water policy, continued development of water markets, drought and changing technology.

  8. Concurrency control in distributed databases through time intervals and short-term locks

    SciTech Connect

    Halici, U.; Dogac, A. )

    1989-08-01

    A method for concurrency control is distributed DBMS's, which increases the level of concurrent execution if transactions, called ordering by serialization numbers, is proposed. The OSN method works in the certifier mode and uses time interval technique in conjunction with short-term locks to provide serializability. Deadlocks are prevented by the method. The scheduler is distributed an the standard transaction execution policy is assumed, that is, the read and write operations are issued continuously during transaction execution. However, the write operations are copied into the database only when the transaction commits. The amount of concurrency provided by the OSN method is demonstrated by log classification. It is shown that the OSN method provides more concurrency than basic timestamp ordering and two-phase locking methods and handles successfully some logs which can not be handled by any of the past methods. The complexity analysis of the algorithm indicates that the method will work in a reasonable amount of time.

  9. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (less than 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results.

  10. Local routes revisited: the space and time dependence of the Ca2+ signal for phasic transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Meinrenken, Christoph J; Borst, J Gerard G; Sakmann, Bert

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, advances in experimental techniques and quantitative modelling have resulted in the development of the calyx of Held as one of the best preparations in which to study synaptic transmission. Here we review some of these advances, including simultaneous recording of pre- and postsynaptic currents, measuring the Ca2+ sensitivity of transmitter release, reconstructing the 3-D anatomy at the electron microscope (EM) level, and modelling the buffered diffusion of Ca2+ in the nerve terminal. An important outcome of these studies is an improved understanding of the Ca2+ signal that controls phasic transmitter release. This article illustrates the spatial and temporal aspects of the three main steps in the presynaptic signalling cascade: Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels, buffered Ca2+ diffusion from the channels to releasable vesicles, and activation of the Ca2+ sensor for release. Particular emphasis is placed on how presynaptic Ca2+ buffers affect the Ca2+ signal and thus the amplitude and time course of the release probability. Since many aspects of the signalling cascade were first conceived with reference to the squid giant presynaptic terminal, we include comparisons with the squid model and revisit some of its implications. Whilst the characteristics of buffered Ca2+ diffusion presented here are based on the calyx of Held, we demonstrate the circumstances under which they may be valid for other nerve terminals at mammalian CNS synapses. PMID:12562955

  11. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  12. Effects of Diffusion Time on Short-Range Hyperpolarized 3He Diffusivity Measurements in Emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Gierada, David S.; Woods, Jason C.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Bartel, Seth T.; Ritter, Jon H.; Choong, Cliff K.; Das, Nitin A.; Hong, Cheng; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Chang, Yulin V.; Jacob, Rick E.; Hogg, James C.; Battafarano, Richard J.; Cooper, Joel D.; Meyers, Bryan F.; Patterson, G Alexander; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Conradi, Mark S.

    2009-09-28

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of diffusion time on short-range hyperpolarized 3He MR diffusion measurements across a wide range of emphysema severity. Materials and Methods: 3He diffusion MR imaging was performed on 19 lungs or lobes resected from 18 subjects with varying degrees of emphysema using 3 diffusion times (1.6 msec, 5 msec, and 10 msec) at constant b value. Emphysema severity was quantified as the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and as the percentage of pixels with ADC higher than multiple thresholds from 0.30-0.55 cm2/sec (ADC index). Quantitative histology (mean linear intercept) was obtained in 10 of the lung specimens from 10 of the subjects. Results: The mean ADCs with diffusion times of 1.6, 5.0, and 10.0 msec were 0.46, 0.40, and 0.37 cm2/sec, respectively (P <0.0001, ANOVA). There was no relationship between the ADC magnitude and the effect of diffusion time on ADC values. Mean linear intercept correlated with ADC (r=0.91-0.94, P<0.001) and ADC index (r=0.78-0.92, P<0.01) at all diffusion times.

  13. Improvements in Solar Adaptive Optics Correction using Short-time Turbulence Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangalini, M.; Del Moro, D.; Berrilli, F.

    2008-09-01

    Time delay error and integration time effects play a crucial role in Solar Adaptive Optics systems. By using a multi-layer turbulence simulation we studied temporal variations of atmospheric turbulence. We simulated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with Zernike and Kharunen-Loeve modal expansions too. These two sets of polynomial basis have been defined over an annular pupil with a large central obscurament, which is a common feature in Ritchey-Chretien optical configuration. We found that Karhunen-Loeve functions, defined using principal component analisys methods as a linear combination of Zernike modes, represent the best choice for wavefront reconstruction, giving us the possibility of reducing fitting error with respect to Zernike modal expansion. Finally, we tested the possibility to use auto-regressive moving average time series models to provide short time forecasting for Zernike or Karhunen-Loeve coefficients. This scheme may be very helpful in improving correction bandwidth and overcoming time delay errors in next generation solar Adaptive Optics systems. These preliminary results could be particularly important in developing and studying design and performance for next European Solar Telescope.

  14. Structure and short-time dynamics in concentrated suspensions of charged colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermeier, Fabian; Fischer, Birgit; Roseker, Wojciech; Grbel, Gerhard; Ngele, Gerhard; Heinen, Marco

    2012-09-01

    We report a comprehensive joint experimental-theoretical study of the equilibrium pair-structure and short-time diffusion in aqueous suspensions of highly charged poly-acrylate (PA) spheres in the colloidal fluid phase. Low-polydispersity PA sphere systems with two different hard-core radii, R0 = 542 and 1117 , are explored over a wide range of concentrations and salinities using static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle x-ray scattering, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The measured static and dynamic scattering functions are analyzed using state-of-the-art theoretical methods. For all samples, the measured static structure factor, S(Q), is in good agreement with results by an analytical integral equation method for particles interacting by a repulsive screened Coulomb plus hard-core pair potential. In our DLS and XPCS measurements, we have determined the short-time diffusion function D(Q) = D0 H(Q)/S(Q), comprising the free diffusion coefficient D0 and the hydrodynamic function H(Q). The latter is calculated analytically using a self-part corrected version of the ??-scheme by Beenakker and Mazur which accounts approximately for many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs). Except for low-salinity systems at the highest investigated volume fraction ? ? 0.32, the theoretical predictions for H(Q) are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the increase in the collective diffusion coefficient Dc = D(Q ? 0), and the decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient, Ds = D(Q ? ?), with increasing ? is well described. In accord with the theoretical prediction, the peak value, H(Qm), of H(Q) relates to the nearest neighbor cage size 2?/Qm, for which concentration scaling relations are discussed. The peak values H(Qm) are globally bound from below by the corresponding neutral hard-spheres peak values, and from above by the limiting peak values for low-salinity charge-stabilized systems. HIs usually slow short-time diffusion on colloidal length scales, except for the cage diffusion coefficient, Dcge = D(Qm), in dilute low-salinity systems where a speed up of the system dynamics and corresponding peak values of H(Qm) > 1 are observed experimentally and theoretically.

  15. Short gamma-ray bursts in the ``time-reversal'' scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo; Siegel, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Leading models relate short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) to a relativistic jet launched by the black hole (BH)-accretion torus system that can be formed in a binary neutron star (BNS) or a NS-BH binary merger. However, recent observations by Swift have revealed a large fraction of SGRB events accompanied by X-ray afterglows with durations ~102 -105 s , suggesting continuous energy injection from a long-lived central engine, which is incompatible with the short (~ 1 s) accretion timescale of a BH-torus system. The formation of a supramassive NS (SMNS), resisting the collapse on much longer spin-down timescales, can explain these afterglow durations, but leaves serious doubts on whether a relativistic jet can be launched at merger. Here we present a novel scenario that can solve this dichotomy, in which the SGRB is produced after the eventual collapse of the SMNS, but observed before (part of) its long-lasting spin-down emission. The ``time-reversal'' in the observation of the two signals is caused by the substantial delay affecting the spin-down emission, due to the optically thick environment surrounding the system generated by the early differential rotation and the subsequent spin-down emission itself. Supported by MIUR FIR Grant No. RBFR13QJYF.

  16. Short-term memory for time in children and adults: A behavioral study and a model.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John; Delgado-Yonger, Maria

    2007-08-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the short-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants' task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention interval of 500ms, 5s, or 10s, with the order of presentation of these two durations being counterbalanced. The results revealed a shortening effect for the first presented stimulus in all of the age groups, although this was greater in the younger children, thereby indicating the presence of a negative time-order error. Furthermore, introducing a retention delay between the two durations did not produce a shortening effect but instead flattened the generalization gradient, especially in the younger children. However, this flattening of the generalization gradient with the retention delay was more marked between 500ms and 5s than between 5s and 10s. Thus, retaining the first duration in short-term memory during a task requiring the comparison of two successive durations reduced temporal discrimination accuracy and did so to a greater extent in the younger children. PMID:17543328

  17. High nitrogen removal rate using ANAMMOX process at short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, C G; Kunz, A; De Prá, M C; Bressan, C R; Soares, H M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a chemolithoautotrophic process, which converts NH(4)(+) to N(2) using nitrite (NO(2)(-)) as the electron acceptor. This process has very high nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) and is an alternative to classical nitrification/denitrification wastewater treatment. In the present work, a strategy for nitrogen removal using ANAMMOX process was tested evaluating their performance when submitted to high loading rates and very short hydraulic retention times (HRTs). An up-flow ANAMMOX column reactor was inoculated with 30% biomass (v v(-1)) fed from 100 to 200 mg L(-1) of total N (NO(2)(-)-N + NH(4)(+)-N) at 35 °C. After start-up and process stability the maximum NRR in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was 18.3 g-N L(-1) d(-1) operated at 0.2 h of HRT. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis and process stoichiometry confirmed that ANAMMOX was the prevalent process for nitrogen removal during the experiments. The results point out that high NRRs can be obtained at very short HRTs using up-flow ANAMMOX column reactor configuration. PMID:23416586

  18. Qualitative Features Extraction from Sensor Data using Short-time Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amini, Abolfazl M.; Figueroa, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The information gathered from sensors is used to determine the health of a sensor. Once a normal mode of operation is established any deviation from the normal behavior indicates a change. This change may be due to a malfunction of the sensor(s) or the system (or process). The step-up and step-down features, as well as sensor disturbances are assumed to be exponential. An RC network is used to model the main process, which is defined by a step-up (charging), drift, and step-down (discharging). The sensor disturbances and spike are added while the system is in drift. The system runs for a period of at least three time-constants of the main process every time a process feature occurs (e.g. step change). The Short-Time Fourier Transform of the Signal is taken using the Hamming window. Three window widths are used. The DC value is removed from the windowed data prior to taking the FFT. The resulting three dimensional spectral plots provide good time frequency resolution. The results indicate distinct shapes corresponding to each process.

  19. Fluctuation of similarity to detect transitions between distinct dynamical regimes in short time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong; Mucha, Peter J.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    A method to identify distinct dynamical regimes and transitions between those regimes in a short univariate time series was recently introduced [N. Malik et al., Europhys. Lett. 97, 40009 (2012), 10.1209/0295-5075/97/40009], employing the computation of fluctuations in a measure of nonlinear similarity based on local recurrence properties. In this work, we describe the details of the analytical relationships between this newly introduced measure and the well-known concepts of attractor dimensions and Lyapunov exponents. We show that the new measure has linear dependence on the effective dimension of the attractor and it measures the variations in the sum of the Lyapunov spectrum. To illustrate the practical usefulness of the method, we identify various types of dynamical transitions in different nonlinear models. We present testbed examples for the new method's robustness against noise and missing values in the time series. We also use this method to analyze time series of social dynamics, specifically an analysis of the US crime record time series from 1975 to 1993. Using this method, we find that dynamical complexity in robberies was influenced by the unemployment rate until the late 1980s. We have also observed a dynamical transition in homicide and robbery rates in the late 1980s and early 1990s, leading to increase in the dynamical complexity of these rates.

  20. Fluctuation of similarity to detect transitions between distinct dynamical regimes in short time series.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong; Mucha, Peter J; Kurths, Jrgen

    2014-06-01

    A method to identify distinct dynamical regimes and transitions between those regimes in a short univariate time series was recently introduced [N. Malik et al., Europhys. Lett. 97, 40009 (2012)], employing the computation of fluctuations in a measure of nonlinear similarity based on local recurrence properties. In this work, we describe the details of the analytical relationships between this newly introduced measure and the well-known concepts of attractor dimensions and Lyapunov exponents. We show that the new measure has linear dependence on the effective dimension of the attractor and it measures the variations in the sum of the Lyapunov spectrum. To illustrate the practical usefulness of the method, we identify various types of dynamical transitions in different nonlinear models. We present testbed examples for the new method's robustness against noise and missing values in the time series. We also use this method to analyze time series of social dynamics, specifically an analysis of the US crime record time series from 1975 to 1993. Using this method, we find that dynamical complexity in robberies was influenced by the unemployment rate until the late 1980s. We have also observed a dynamical transition in homicide and robbery rates in the late 1980s and early 1990s, leading to increase in the dynamical complexity of these rates. PMID:25019852

  1. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    PubMed Central

    Selvarajah, Gayathri T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; van Wolferen, Monique E; Rao, Nagesha AS; Fieten, Hille; Mol, Jan A

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST). They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months) and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer). Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the dog a suitable pre-clinical model for future 'novel' therapeutic approaches where the current research has provided new insights on prognostic genes, molecular pathways and mechanisms involved in OS pathogenesis and disease progression. PMID:19735553

  2. Influence of Ramadan Fasting on Anaerobic Performance and Recovery Following Short time High Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Karli, Umid; Guvenc, Alpay; Aslan, Alper; Hazir, Tahir; Acikada, Caner

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 1.25 yr) participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF), the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF) and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF)]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes. Key pointsNo significant changes were assessed on body composition, daily sleeping time and caloric intake, and body fluid balance in regularly trained power athletes during Ramadan fasting.Ramadan fasting has no adverse effect on power outputs of short time high intensity exercise.No influence of Ramadan fasting on LA metabolism during high intensity exercise and passive recovery in regularly trained power athletes. PMID:24149483

  3. Instantaneous Heart Rate detection using short-time autocorrelation for wearable healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Konishi, Toshihiro; Izumi, Shintaro; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a robust method of Instantaneous Heart Rate (IHR) detection from noisy electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Generally, the IHR is calculated from the interval of R-waves. Then, the R-waves are extracted from the ECG using a threshold. However, in wearable biosignal monitoring systems, various noises (e.g. muscle artifacts from myoelectric signals, electrode motion artifacts) increase incidences of misdetection and false detection because the power consumption and electrode distance of the wearable sensor are limited to reduce its size and weight. To prevent incorrect detection, we use a short-time autocorrelation technique. The proposed method uses similarity of the waveform of the QRS complex. Therefore, it has no threshold calculation Process and it is robust for noisy environment. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the success rate of IHR detection by up to 37%. PMID:23367467

  4. Transient polar motions and the nature of the asthenosphere for short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boschi, E.; Sabadini, R.; Yuen, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A uniformly valid mathematical formalism is developed to study the secular motions of the rotational axis of a layered viscoelastic earth due to seismic excitation. The changes required for implementing the formulation within the framework of the faulting problem. The rationale of adopting the chosen nrheological model, which contains a low-viscosity zone beneath the lithosphere and is based on linear Maxell constitutive relationship, is discussed. The impact of this low-viscosity channel on thhe two families of relaxation time, governing both isostatic readjustment and rotational processes, is considered. It is found that the polar motions depend sensitively on the viscosity structure of the asthenosphere and not at all on the underlying mantle. A gloal low-velocity zone with short-term asthenospheric viscosities less than about 5 x 10 to the 18th Pa-s and widths greater than 50 km is ruled out.

  5. Super-resolution spectral estimation in short-time non-contact vital sign measurement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Li, Yusheng; Hong, Hong; Xi, Feng; Cai, Weidong; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2015-04-01

    Non-contact techniques for measuring vital signs attract great interest due to the benefits shown in medical monitoring, military application, etc. However, the presence of respiration harmonics caused by nonlinear phase modulation will result in performance degradation. Suffering from smearing and leakage problems, conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based methods cannot distinguish the heartbeat component from closely located respiration harmonics in frequency domain, especially in short-time processing. In this paper, the theory of sparse reconstruction is merged with an extended harmonic model of vital signals, aiming at achieving a super-resolution spectral estimation of vital signals by additionally exploiting the inherent sparse prior information. Both simulated and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has superior performance to DFT-based methods and the recently applied multiple signal classification algorithm, and the required processing window length has been shortened to 5.12 s. PMID:25933881

  6. Super-resolution spectral estimation in short-time non-contact vital sign measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Li, Yusheng; Hong, Hong; Xi, Feng; Cai, Weidong; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2015-04-01

    Non-contact techniques for measuring vital signs attract great interest due to the benefits shown in medical monitoring, military application, etc. However, the presence of respiration harmonics caused by nonlinear phase modulation will result in performance degradation. Suffering from smearing and leakage problems, conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based methods cannot distinguish the heartbeat component from closely located respiration harmonics in frequency domain, especially in short-time processing. In this paper, the theory of sparse reconstruction is merged with an extended harmonic model of vital signals, aiming at achieving a super-resolution spectral estimation of vital signals by additionally exploiting the inherent sparse prior information. Both simulated and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has superior performance to DFT-based methods and the recently applied multiple signal classification algorithm, and the required processing window length has been shortened to 5.12 s.

  7. Statistics of Particle Trajectories at Short Time Intervals Reveal fN-Scale Colloidal Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainis, Sunil K.; Germain, Vincent; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2007-07-01

    We describe and implement a technique for extracting forces from the relaxation of an overdamped thermal system with normal modes. At sufficiently short time intervals, the evolution of a normal mode is well described by a one-dimensional Smoluchowski equation with constant drift velocity v, and diffusion coefficent D. By virtue of fluctuation dissipation, these transport coefficients are simply related to conservative forces, F, acting on the normal mode: F=kBTv/D. This relationship implicitly accounts for hydrodynamic interactions, requires no mechanical calibration, makes no assumptions about the form of conservative forces, and requires no prior knowledge of material properties. We apply this method to measure the electrostatic interactions of polymer microspheres suspended in nonpolar microemulsions.

  8. Arbitrary phase shift of a semiconductor quantum dot charge qubit on a short time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Guo-Dong; Chen, Bao-Bao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2015-11-01

    We present an experimental technique to better control the phase of an electron charge qubit, formed by a GaAs double quantum dot. A standard non-adiabatic gate pulse is used to generate the qubit rotation around the x-axis of the Bloch sphere. To gain good control of the z-rotation (the phase) on a short time scale, a fast 130 ps tipping pulse is superimposed on the non-adiabatic pulse. The two-axis gate operation is exhibited in the composite pulse excited qubit evolution spectrum. We demonstrate that the dynamic phase can be varied continuously from 0 to 6? by varying the amplitude of the tipping pulse. The understanding of the spectrum is validated through simulation of the von Neumann equation.

  9. Diagnosis of brain tumors using dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging with a short acquisition time.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nakajima, Kohei; Otomi, Yoichi; Irahara, Saho; Obama, Yuki; Majigsuren, Mungunkhuyag; Khashbat, Delgerdalai; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Harada, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the diagnostic utility of perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) perfusion MRI with a short acquisition time (approximately 3.5min) in patients with glioma, brain metastasis, and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Twenty-six patients with 29 lesions (4 low-grade glioma, 13 high-grade glioma, 7 metastasis, and 5 PCNSL) underwent DCE-MRI in a 3T scanner. A ROI was placed on the hotspot of each tumor in maps for volume transfer contrast K (trans) , extravascular extracellular volume V e , and fractional plasma volume V p . We analyzed differences in parameters between tumors using the Mann-Whitney U test. We calculated sensitivity and specificity using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Mean K (trans) values of LGG, HGG, metastasis and PCNSL were 0.034, 0.31, 0.38, 0.44, respectively. Mean Ve values of each tumors was 0.036, 0.57, 0.47, 0.96, and mean Vp value of each tumors was 0.070, 0.086, 0.26, 0.17, respectively. Compared with other tumor types, low-grade glioma showed lower K (trans) (P?short acquisition time provide useful information for the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. PMID:25793147

  10. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  11. Complexity signatures for short time scales in the atmosphere above Adventdalen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters from the troposphere above Adventdalen, Svalbard, 78N, 16E, are examined for signatures of complexity in their respective stochastic components over time scales from ~1 h to 1 year. Several approaches are used, all of which can estimate values of the generalized Hurst exponent, ?, which can in turn be compared with each other and with similar independent characterizations, usually via the classic Hurst exponent, H, obtained from location-specific and globally averaged time series. For tropopause altitude, the stochastic component exhibits the signature of a persistent fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) with ? ? 0.75. For surface air temperature, the indications are for fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with ? ? 1.4. Using recent high time-resolution data from a single high-latitude location, this identification of fBm is relevant for short-term memory as opposed to findings from many other studies addressing possible long-term memory, which demonstrate fGn with ? = H ? 0.7. Furthermore, the lack of similarity between the results for surface air temperature and tropopause altitude suggests that different underlying processes are responsible for stochastic variability.

  12. Short-time dynamics of 2-thiouracil in the light absorbing S2(??(?)) state.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Teng-shuo; Xue, Jia-dan; Zheng, Xuming; Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Wei-hai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh quantum yields of intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state T1 are observed for 2-thiouracils (2TU), which is in contrast to the natural uracils that predominantly exhibit ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state upon excitation to the singlet excited state. The intersystem crossing mechanism of 2TU has recently been investigated using second-order perturbation methods with a high-level complete-active space self-consistent field. Three competitive nonadiabatic pathways to the lowest triplet state T1 from the initially populated singlet excited state S2 were proposed. We investigate the initial decay dynamics of 2TU from the light absorbing excited states using resonance Raman spectroscopy, time-dependent wave-packet theory in the simple model, and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and time dependent-Becke's three-parameter exchange and correlation functional with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (TD-B3LYP) calculations. The obtained short-time structural dynamics in easy-to-visualize internal coordinates were compared with the CASSCF(16,11) predicted key nonadiabatic decay routes. Our results indicate that the predominant decay pathway initiated at the Franck-Condon region is toward the S2/S1 conical intersection point and S2T3 intersystem crossing point, but not toward the S2T2 intersystem crossing point. PMID:26547183

  13. SHORT DISSIPATION TIMES OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS: AN ARTIFACT OF SELECTION EFFECTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Pfalzner, Susanne; Steinhausen, Manuel; Menten, Karl

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of disks around young stars, a key parameter for understanding planet formation, is most readily determined in young stellar clusters where many relatively coeval stars are located in close proximity. Observational studies seem to show that the disk frequency decreases rapidly with cluster age with <10% of cluster stars retaining their disks for longer than 2-6 Myr. Given that at least half of all stars in the field seem to harbor one or more planets, this would imply extremely fast disk dispersal and rapid planet growth. Here we question the validity of this constraint by demonstrating that the short disk dissipation times inferred to date might have been heavily underestimated by selection effects. Critically, for ages >3 Myr only stars that originally populated the densest areas of very populous clusters, which are prone to disk erosion, are actually considered. This tiny sample may not be representative of the majority of stars. In fact, the higher disk fractions in co-moving groups indicate that it is likely that over 30% of all field stars retain their disks well beyond 10 Myr, leaving ample time for planet growth. Equally, our solar system, with a likely formation time >10 Myr, need no longer be an exception but in fact typical of planetary systems.

  14. Quantification of Shear-Induced Platelet Activation: High Shear Stresses for Short Exposure Time.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Chen, Zengsheng; Niu, Shuqiong; Zhang, Jiafeng; Mondal, Nandan K; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-07-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolism are the life-threatening clinical complications for patients supported or treated with prosthetic cardiovascular devices. The high mechanical shear stress within these devices is believed to be the major contributing factor to cause platelet activation (PA) and function alteration, leading to thrombotic events. There have been limited quantitative data on how the high mechanical shear stress causes platelet activation. In this study, shear-induced PA in the ranges of well-defined shear stress and exposure time relevant to cardiovascular devices was quantitatively characterized for human blood using two novel flow-through Couette-type blood shearing devices. Four markers of platelet activation-surface P-selectin (CD62p), platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs), platelet-monocyte aggregation (PMA), and soluble P-selectin-were measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicated that PA induced by high shear stresses with short exposure time could be reliably detected with surface P-selectin, and, to a lesser extent, PMPs rather than soluble P-selectin. It was also verified that PMA can be a highly sensitive indirect marker of platelet activation. The quantitative relationship between percentage of activated platelets indicated by surface P-selectin expression and shear stress/exposure time follows well the power law functional form. The coefficients of the power law models of PA based on surface P-selectin expression were derived. PMID:25808300

  15. Short-time dynamics of 2-thiouracil in the light absorbing S2(???) state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Teng-shuo; Xue, Jia-dan; Zheng, Xuming; Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Wei-hai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh quantum yields of intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state T1 are observed for 2-thiouracils (2TU), which is in contrast to the natural uracils that predominantly exhibit ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state upon excitation to the singlet excited state. The intersystem crossing mechanism of 2TU has recently been investigated using second-order perturbation methods with a high-level complete-active space self-consistent field. Three competitive nonadiabatic pathways to the lowest triplet state T1 from the initially populated singlet excited state S2 were proposed. We investigate the initial decay dynamics of 2TU from the light absorbing excited states using resonance Raman spectroscopy, time-dependent wave-packet theory in the simple model, and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and time dependent-Becke's three-parameter exchange and correlation functional with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (TD-B3LYP) calculations. The obtained short-time structural dynamics in easy-to-visualize internal coordinates were compared with the CASSCF(16,11) predicted key nonadiabatic decay routes. Our results indicate that the predominant decay pathway initiated at the Franck-Condon region is toward the S2/S1 conical intersection point and S2T3 intersystem crossing point, but not toward the S2T2 intersystem crossing point.

  16. Spatial convergent cross mapping to detect causal relationships from short time series.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas; Ye, Hao; Isbell, Forest; Deyle, Ethan R; Cowles, Jane; Tilman, G David; Sugihara, George

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in complex systems analysis have led to new techniques for detecting causal relationships using relatively short time series, on the order of 30 sequential observations. Although many ecological observation series are even shorter, perhaps fewer than ten sequential observations, these shorter time series are often highly replicated in space (i.e., plot replication). Here, we combine the existing techniques of convergent cross mapping (CCM) and dewdrop regression to build a novel test of causal relations that leverages spatial replication, which we call multispatial CCM. Using examples from simulated and real-world ecological data, we test the ability of multispatial CCM to detect causal relationships between processes. We find that multispatial CCM successfully detects causal relationships with as few as five sequential observations, even in the presence of process noise and observation error. Our results suggest that this technique may constitute a useful test for causality in systems where experiments are difficult to perform and long time series are not available. This new technique is available in the multispatialCCM package for the R programming language. PMID:26236832

  17. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent. PMID:17335934

  18. Real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok Wong, Wai; Hisdal, Hege

    2013-04-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most costly natural disasters. Drought monitoring and forecasting are thus important for sound water management. In this study hydrological drought characteristics applicable for real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway were developed. A spatially distributed hydrological model (HBV) implemented in a Web-based GIS framework provides a platform for drought analyses and visualizations. A number of national drought maps can be produced, which is a simple and effective way to communicate drought conditions to decision makers and the public. The HBV model is driven by precipitation and air temperature data. On a daily time step it calculates the water balance for 1 x 1 km2 grid cells characterized by their elevation and land use. Drought duration and areal drought coverage for runoff and subsurface storage (sum of soil moisture and groundwater) were derived. The threshold level method was used to specify drought conditions on a grid cell basis. The daily 10th percentile thresholds were derived from seven-day windows centered on that calendar day from the reference period 1981-2010 (threshold not exceeded 10% of the time). Each individual grid cell was examined to determine if it was below its respective threshold level. Daily drought-stricken areas can then be easily identified when visualized on a map. The drought duration can also be tracked and calculated by a retrospective analysis. Real-time observations from synoptic stations interpolated to a regular grid of 1 km resolution constituted the forcing data for the current situation. 9-day meteorological forecasts were used as input to the HBV model to obtain short-term hydrological drought forecasts. Downscaled precipitation and temperature fields from two different atmospheric models were applied. The first two days of the forecast period adopted the forecasts from Unified Model (UM4) while the following seven days were based on the 9-day forecasts from ECMWF. The approach has been tested and is now available on the Web for operational water management.

  19. An analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the CFOSAT satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Huang, Li

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses a new analytic algorithm for global coverage of the revisiting orbit and its application to the mission revisiting the Earth within long periods of time, such as Chinese-French Oceanic Satellite (abbr., CFOSAT). In the first, it is presented that the traditional design methodology of the revisiting orbit for some imaging satellites only on the single (ascending or descending) pass, and the repeating orbit is employed to perform the global coverage within short periods of time. However, the selection of the repeating orbit is essentially to yield the suboptimum from the rare measure of rational numbers of passes per day, which will lose lots of available revisiting orbits. Thus, an innovative design scheme is proposed to check both rational and irrational passes per day to acquire the relationship between the coverage percentage and the altitude. To improve the traditional imaging only on the single pass, the proposed algorithm is mapping every pass into its ascending and descending nodes on the specified latitude circle, and then is accumulating the projected width on the circle by the field of view of the satellite. The ergodic geometry of coverage percentage produced from the algorithm is affecting the final scheme, such as the optimal one owning the largest percentage, and the balance one possessing the less gradient in its vicinity, and is guiding to heuristic design for the station-keeping control strategies. The application of CFOSAT validates the feasibility of the algorithm.

  20. Assessing stomatal conductance changes on short and long time scales and its possible impact on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammertsma, Emmy; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Kuerschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    Two fundamental responses of vegetation to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are increased photosynthesis and decreased stomatal conductance. The latter is determined by both stomatal aperture adjustment on the short term, and by stomatal frequency and size adjustment on the long term. The resulting increased WUE of vegetation leads to changes in the hydrological cycle. Integrating this physiological forcing in Global Circulation Models (GCMs) results in increased surface warming and is thought to enhance terrestrial runoff significantly. Stomatal conductance is therefore considered a critical parameter in modelling past and future climate and environmental changes. However, quantification of the rate of change under [CO2] variability has proven to be not so straightforward. Values obtained from growth experiments under elevated [CO2] generally reflect the short term adaptation only, and seem to have too short a runtime for structural adaptation of the vegetation. Here we present the stomatal conductance changes deduced from Florida subfossil leaves over a 100ppmv [CO2] increment since the industrial revolution. Temporally high-resolution measurements of stomatal frequency and size on the epidermis for 8 common Florida tree species (Taxodium distichum, Pinus elliottii, P. taeda, Quercus nigra, Q. laurifolia, Acer rubrum, Myrica cerifera and Ilex cassine) are used to calculate the maximal stomatal conductance to water vapour Gwmax. Resulting conductance decreases over a 100ppmv [CO2] interval range between -19% to -59% for the different species, with an average of -40%. The current warm-temperate to subtropical Florida climate and vegetation composition serve as a modern analogue for Late Tertiary Europe, when [CO2] is thought to be comparable to today's levels. If it is assumed that past vegetation has responded similarly to [CO2] fluctuations, the stomatal conductance change reconstructed for Florida and related WUE changes can be used to better understand hydrological and climatological changes further back in the geological history. As a corollary we present for the first time stomatal conductance Gwmax from Miocene and Pliocene oak leaves. Mainly the stomatal density changes on these leaves result in significant fluctuations in Gwmax, as a consequence of variation in palaeoatmospheric CO2.

  1. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts in the "Time-reversal" Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo; Siegel, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are among the most luminous explosions in the universe and their origin still remains uncertain. Observational evidence favors the association with binary neutron star or neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary mergers. Leading models relate SGRBs to a relativistic jet launched by the BH-torus system resulting from the merger. However, recent observations have revealed a large fraction of SGRB events accompanied by X-ray afterglows with durations ~102-105 s, suggesting continuous energy injection from a long-lived central engine, which is incompatible with the short (lsim 1 s) accretion timescale of a BH-torus system. The formation of a supramassive NS, resisting the collapse on much longer spin-down timescales, can explain these afterglow durations, but leaves serious doubts on whether a relativistic jet can be launched at the merger. Here we present a novel scenario accommodating both aspects, where the SGRB is produced after the collapse of a supramassive NS. Early differential rotation and subsequent spin-down emission generate an optically thick environment around the NS consisting of a photon-pair nebula and an outer shell of baryon-loaded ejecta. While the jet easily drills through this environment, spin-down radiation diffuses outward on much longer timescales and accumulates a delay that allows the SGRB to be observed before (part of) the long-lasting X-ray signal. By analyzing diffusion timescales for a wide range of physical parameters, we find delays that can generally reach ~105 s, compatible with observations. The success of this fundamental test makes this "time-reversal" scenario an attractive alternative to current SGRB models.

  2. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE ''TIME-REVERSAL'' SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect

    Ciolfi, Riccardo; Siegel, Daniel M. E-mail: daniel.siegel@aei.mpg.de

    2015-01-10

    Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are among the most luminous explosions in the universe and their origin still remains uncertain. Observational evidence favors the association with binary neutron star or neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary mergers. Leading models relate SGRBs to a relativistic jet launched by the BH-torus system resulting from the merger. However, recent observations have revealed a large fraction of SGRB events accompanied by X-ray afterglows with durations ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} s, suggesting continuous energy injection from a long-lived central engine, which is incompatible with the short (≲ 1 s) accretion timescale of a BH-torus system. The formation of a supramassive NS, resisting the collapse on much longer spin-down timescales, can explain these afterglow durations, but leaves serious doubts on whether a relativistic jet can be launched at the merger. Here we present a novel scenario accommodating both aspects, where the SGRB is produced after the collapse of a supramassive NS. Early differential rotation and subsequent spin-down emission generate an optically thick environment around the NS consisting of a photon-pair nebula and an outer shell of baryon-loaded ejecta. While the jet easily drills through this environment, spin-down radiation diffuses outward on much longer timescales and accumulates a delay that allows the SGRB to be observed before (part of) the long-lasting X-ray signal. By analyzing diffusion timescales for a wide range of physical parameters, we find delays that can generally reach ∼10{sup 5} s, compatible with observations. The success of this fundamental test makes this ''time-reversal'' scenario an attractive alternative to current SGRB models.

  3. Short time series analysis of Didymosphenia geminata blooming in the Oreti River, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, T.; Kilroy, C.; Larned, S.; Packman, A. I.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    The mat-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was introduced to New Zealand in 2004, and subsequently spread to many rivers on the south island. D geminata mats are exceptionally dense and thick. Extensive blooms of this introduced organism have substantially modified the benthic environment in many New Zealand rivers, but the factors that contribute to D. geminata blooming are not well understood. We synthesized a sequence of observations of D. geminata areal coverage and thickness to examine physical and chemical controls on the growth and persistence of D germinata. We analyzed the best available time series on the distribution of this organism in New Zealand, observations in the Oreti River every 15 days spanning April 2006 to May 2007. During this period, mean D. geminata coverage of the river bed was ~52% and the mean mat thickness was ~6 mm. Relationships between time-series observations of D. geminata and 13 different physical and chemical variables were analyzed using linear and nonlinear methods. Areal cover and thickness of D geminata mats were found to be influenced by both slow and fast dynamic processes. The spread of the organism, in terms of % cover, was highly correlated with conductivity, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and total nitrogen with short time lags (fast dynamics). Moreover, water clarity, cloud cover, and flow were highly correlated with % cover with long time lags, indicating that these conditions exert long-term control on D. geminata growth. Areal coverage and thickness were found to be highly correlated, but the variables associated with slow and fast dynamics of these two measures were not identical. The variables found to be highly correlated with D. germinata thickness and represented fast dynamics were temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Additionally, the variables influencing the slow dynamics of D. germinata thickness were flow, water clarity, turbidity and total phosphorous.

  4. R -matrix-incorporating-time method for H2+ in short and intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ó Broin, Cathal; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we develop an approach for a molecular hydrogen ion (H2+ ) in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation while exposed to intense short-pulse radiation. Our starting point is the R -matrix-incorporating-time formulation for atomic hydrogen [L. A. A. Nikolopoulos et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 063420 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.063420], which has proven to be successful at treating multielectron atomic systems efficiently and with a high accuracy [L. R. Moore et al., J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1132 (2011), 10.1080/09500340.2011.559315]. The present study on H2+ is performed with the similar objective of developing an ab initio method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for multielectron diatomic molecules exposed to an external time-dependent potential field. The theoretical formulation is developed in detail for the molecular hydrogen ion where all the multielectron and internuclei complications are absent. As in the atomic case, the configuration space of the electron's coordinates is separated artificially over two regions: the inner (I) and outer (II) regions. In region I the time-dependent wave function is expanded on the eigenstate basis corresponding to the molecule's Hamiltonian augmented by Bloch operators, while in region II a grid representation is used. We demonstrate the independence of our results from the introduced artificial boundary surface by calculating observables that are directly accessed experimentally and also by showing that gauge-dependent quantities are also invariant with the region I box size. We also compare our results with other theoretical works and emphasize cases where basis-set approaches are currently very computationally expensive or intractable in terms of computational resources.

  5. Short-time electrical effects during volcanic eruption: Experiments and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd; Rder, Helmut

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory experiments on the fragmentation and expansion of magmatic melt have been performed using remelted volcanic rock at magmatic temperatures as magma simulant. A specially designed dc amplifier in combination with high speed data recording was used to detect short-time electrostatic field effects related to the fragmentation and expansion history of the experimental system, as documented by simultaneous force and pressure recording, as well as by high-speed cinematography. It was found that (1) the voltage-time ratio of electrostatic field gradients (100 to 104 V/s) reflects different physical mechanisms of fragmentation and expansion and (2) the maximum voltage measured in 1 m distance (-0.1 to -180 V) can be correlated with the intensity of the respective processes. Based on these experimental results, a field method was developed and tested at Stromboli volcano in Italy. A 0.8 m rod antenna was used to detect the dc voltage against local ground (i.e., the electrostatic field gradient), at a distance of 60 to 260 m from the respective vent. Upwind position of the detection site was chosen to prevent interference caused by contact of charged ash particles with the antenna. A standard 8 Hz geophone was used to detect the accompanying seismicity. Three types of volcanic activity occurred during the surveillance operation; two of these could be clearly related to specific electrical and seismical signals. A typical delay time was found between the electrical and the seismical signal, corresponding to the seismic velocity within the crater deposits. Using a simple first-order electrostatic model, the field measurements were recalibrated to the laboratory scale. Comparison of field and laboratory data at first approximation revealed striking similarities, thus encouraging the further development of this technique for real-time surveillance operation at active volcanoes.

  6. Short-time hydrothermal synthesis and delamination of ion exchangeable Mg/Ga layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Ugur

    2007-09-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of magnesium-gallium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga LDHs) was studied under static and agitated conditions. Not only well-crystallized and large-sized Mg/Ga LDHs having hexagonal morphology were obtained but also the reaction time was comparatively decreased from 24 to 2 h by means of agitation during hydrothermal synthesis. In static conditions, mainly GaOOH and magnesite phases were formed. The elemental analysis results show that the final Mg/Ga ratio is significantly different from the initial ratio. The reason was attributed to the difference in the hydrolytic behavior of Mg{sup 2+} and Ga{sup 3+}. Furthermore, the anion exchange studies with glycine, dodecyl sulfate, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were performed to investigate the intercalation behavior of the anions into Mg/Ga LDHs. In addition, delamination of Mg/Ga LDHs was performed in formamide for the glycine exchanged forms. Large size of nanosheets thus obtained can be utilized in the fabrication of functional thin films. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis under agitation resulted in highly crystalline Mg/Ga LDHs slabs in a short time. The LDHs slabs were delaminated into two-dimensional nanosize sheets.

  7. Observations of short time scale variability of the Jovian UV aurora and simulation of morphological patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, J. C.; Grodent, D.; Dols, V.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Clarke, J. T.; Ballester, G. E.; Trauger, J.

    1997-07-01

    A database of far ultraviolet auroral images collected with the Faint Object Camera and Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) on board the Hubble Space Telescope has been constructed over the last five years. Some morphological features are recurrent but significant time variations are also observed. A set of WFPC2 images obtained in May 1997 shows that, within a relatively stable general morphology, variations occur inside the polar cap in 4 minutes or less, implying short timescale acceleration processes. A model simulating Earth view of auroral arcs and diffuse emissions in the north polar region has been developed. Simple geometric cases are described to illustrate the dependence on the altitude, atmospheric scale height and central meridian planetary longitude of an idealized auroral morphology seen from Earth orbit. The numerical simulation makes it possible to assess the importance of limb brightening and the contribution from high altitude auroral emission located behind the planetary limb. As an application, four images obtained with WFPC2 are used to determine the characteristics of their auroral (discrete and diffuse) structures. The apparent brightness distribution along the arcs may only be reproduced if intrinsic longitudinal (or local time) variations are introduced, in addition to the path length effects of the viewing geometry.

  8. Short-time diffusion in concentrated bidisperse hard-sphere suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mu; Heinen, Marco; Brady, John F.

    2015-02-01

    Diffusion in bidisperse Brownian hard-sphere suspensions is studied by Stokesian Dynamics (SD) computer simulations and a semi-analytical theoretical scheme for colloidal short-time dynamics, based on Beenakker and Mazur's method [Physica A 120, 388-410 (1983); 126, 349-370 (1984)]. Two species of hard spheres are suspended in an overdamped viscous solvent that mediates the salient hydrodynamic interactions among all particles. In a comprehensive parameter scan that covers various packing fractions and suspension compositions, we employ numerically accurate SD simulations to compute the initial diffusive relaxation of density modulations at the Brownian time scale, quantified by the partial hydrodynamic functions. A revised version of Beenakker and Mazur's ??-scheme for monodisperse suspensions is found to exhibit surprisingly good accuracy, when simple rescaling laws are invoked in its application to mixtures. The so-modified ?? scheme predicts hydrodynamic functions in very good agreement with our SD simulation results, for all densities from the very dilute limit up to packing fractions as high as 40%.

  9. Evidence for two distinct morphological classes of gamma-ray bursts from their short time scale variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Graziani, C.; Smith, I. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the 241 bursts for which peak counts (C)max exist in the publicly available Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) catalog. Introducing peak counts in 1024 ms as a measure of burst brightness B and the ratio of peak counts in 64 and 1024 ms as a measure of short timescale variability V, we find a statistically significant correlation between the brightness and the short time scale variability of gamma-ray bursts. The bursts which are smoother on short time scales are both faint and bright, while the bursts which are variable on short time scales are faint only, suggesting the existence of two distinct morphological classes of bursts.

  10. Time estimation among low-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders: evidence of poor sensitivity to variability of short durations.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Darlene A; Gordon Green, Cathryn; Flores, Heidi; Burack, Jacob A

    2014-04-01

    Time estimation of short durations (under 1 sec) was examined in low-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children matched on mental age. Temporal bisection and generalization tasks were used to examine basic perceptual timing mechanisms. For both tasks, the participants with ASD demonstrated less sensitivity to variability in short durations than the TD children, adding to a growing body of literature suggesting deficits in timing exist for longer durations. The results highlight the need to examine multiple levels of processing of time-related information from basic perceptual mechanisms to higher level cognitive mechanisms. PMID:24574256

  11. Suborbital Asteroid Intercept and Fragmentation for Very Short Warning Time Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hupp, Ryan; Dewald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) 50150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. However, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt).We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a fictitious incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally, at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances.Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEOwould strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total V 9.511 kms) could intercept incoming NEOs over a day prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of NEO intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  12. Suborbital Intercept and Fragmentation of an Asteroid with Very Short Warning Time Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hupp, Ryan; DeWald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) is approx. 50-150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. Furthermore, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt). We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a hypothetical incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances. Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEO would strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total deltaV is approx. 9.5-11 km/s) could intercept incoming NEOs several hours prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  13. A Real-Time MODIS Vegetation Composite for Land Surface Models and Short-Term Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is producing real-time, 1- km resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) gridded composites over a Continental U.S. domain. These composites are updated daily based on swath data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the polar orbiting NASA Aqua and Terra satellites, with a product time lag of about one day. A simple time-weighting algorithm is applied to the NDVI swath data that queries the previous 20 days of data to ensure a continuous grid of data populated at all pixels. The daily composites exhibited good continuity both spatially and temporally during June and July 2010. The composites also nicely depicted high greenness anomalies that resulted from significant rainfall over southwestern Texas, Mexico, and New Mexico during July due to early-season tropical cyclone activity. The SPoRT Center is in the process of computing greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) composites from the MODIS NDVI data at the same spatial and temporal resolution for use in the NASA Land Information System (LIS). The new daily GVF dataset would replace the monthly climatological GVF database (based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR] observations from 1992-93) currently available to the Noah land surface model (LSM) in both LIS and the public version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The much higher spatial resolution (1 km versus 0.15 degree) and daily updates based on real-time satellite observations have the capability to greatly improve the simulation of the surface energy budget in the Noah LSM within LIS and WRF. Once code is developed in LIS to incorporate the daily updated GVFs, the SPoRT Center will conduct simulation sensitivity experiments to quantify the impacts and improvements realized by the MODIS real-time GVF data. This presentation will describe the methodology used to develop the 1-km MODIS NDVI composites and show sample output from summer 2010, compare the MODIS GVF data to the AVHRR monthly climatology, and illustrate the sensitivity of the Noah LSM within LIS and/or the coupled LIS/WRF system to the new MODIS GVF dataset.

  14. Generalization of Clausius-Mossotti approximation in application to short-time transport properties of suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Karol

    2015-10-01

    In 1983, Felderhof, Ford, and Cohen gave microscopic explanation of the famous Clausius-Mossotti formula for the dielectric constant of nonpolar dielectric. They based their considerations on the cluster expansion of the dielectric constant, which relates this macroscopic property with the microscopic characteristics of the system. In this article, we analyze the cluster expansion of Felderhof, Ford, and Cohen by performing its resummation (renormalization). Our analysis leads to the ring expansion for the macroscopic characteristic of the system, which is an expression alternative to the cluster expansion. Using similarity of structures of the cluster expansion and the ring expansion, we generalize (renormalize) the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. We apply our renormalized Clausius-Mossotti approximation to the case of the short-time transport properties of suspensions, calculating the effective viscosity and the hydrodynamic function with the translational self-diffusion and the collective diffusion coefficient. We perform calculations for monodisperse hard-sphere suspensions in equilibrium with volume fraction up to 45 % . To assess the renormalized Clausius-Mossotti approximation, it is compared with numerical simulations and the Beenakker-Mazur method. The results of our renormalized Clausius-Mossotti approximation lead to comparable or much less error (with respect to the numerical simulations) than the Beenakker-Mazur method for the volume fractions below ? ?30 % (apart from a small range of wave vectors in hydrodynamic function). For volume fractions above ? ?30 % , the Beenakker-Mazur method gives in most cases lower error than the renormalized Clausius-Mossotti approximation.

  15. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (<10days) predictions of universal time (UT1-UTC). The results of predictions are analyzed and compared with those obtained by other methods. It is shown that the accuracy of the predictions is comparable with that obtained by other prediction methods. The proposed method is able to yield an exact prediction even though only a few observations are provided. Hence it is very valuable in the case of a small size dataset since traditional methods, e.g., least-squares (LS) extrapolation, require longer data span to make a good forecast. In addition, these results can be obtained without making any assumption about an original dataset, and thus is of high reliability. Another advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  16. Zipf's law in short-time timbral codings of speech, music, and environmental sound signals.

    PubMed

    Haro, Martn; Serr, Joan; Herrera, Perfecto; Corral, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Timbre is a key perceptual feature that allows discrimination between different sounds. Timbral sensations are highly dependent on the temporal evolution of the power spectrum of an audio signal. In order to quantitatively characterize such sensations, the shape of the power spectrum has to be encoded in a way that preserves certain physical and perceptual properties. Therefore, it is common practice to encode short-time power spectra using psychoacoustical frequency scales. In this paper, we study and characterize the statistical properties of such encodings, here called timbral code-words. In particular, we report on rank-frequency distributions of timbral code-words extracted from 740 hours of audio coming from disparate sources such as speech, music, and environmental sounds. Analogously to text corpora, we find a heavy-tailed Zipfian distribution with exponent close to one. Importantly, this distribution is found independently of different encoding decisions and regardless of the audio source. Further analysis on the intrinsic characteristics of most and least frequent code-words reveals that the most frequent code-words tend to have a more homogeneous structure. We also find that speech and music databases have specific, distinctive code-words while, in the case of the environmental sounds, this database-specific code-words are not present. Finally, we find that a Yule-Simon process with memory provides a reasonable quantitative approximation for our data, suggesting the existence of a common simple generative mechanism for all considered sound sources. PMID:22479497

  17. Application of MOSFET Detectors for Dosimetry in Small Animal Radiography Using Short Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G. Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  18. Short-term prediction of chaotic time series by using RBF network with regression weights.

    PubMed

    Rojas, I; Gonzalez, J; Cañas, A; Diaz, A F; Rojas, F J; Rodriguez, M

    2000-10-01

    We propose a framework for constructing and training a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The structure of the gaussian functions is modified using a pseudo-gaussian function (PG) in which two scaling parameters sigma are introduced, which eliminates the symmetry restriction and provides the neurons in the hidden layer with greater flexibility with respect to function approximation. We propose a modified PG-BF (pseudo-gaussian basis function) network in which the regression weights are used to replace the constant weights in the output layer. For this purpose, a sequential learning algorithm is presented to adapt the structure of the network, in which it is possible to create a new hidden unit and also to detect and remove inactive units. A salient feature of the network systems is that the method used for calculating the overall output is the weighted average of the output associated with each receptive field. The superior performance of the proposed PG-BF system over the standard RBF are illustrated using the problem of short-term prediction of chaotic time series. PMID:11195935

  19. Zipf's Law in Short-Time Timbral Codings of Speech, Music, and Environmental Sound Signals

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Martn; Serr, Joan; Herrera, Perfecto; Corral, lvaro

    2012-01-01

    Timbre is a key perceptual feature that allows discrimination between different sounds. Timbral sensations are highly dependent on the temporal evolution of the power spectrum of an audio signal. In order to quantitatively characterize such sensations, the shape of the power spectrum has to be encoded in a way that preserves certain physical and perceptual properties. Therefore, it is common practice to encode short-time power spectra using psychoacoustical frequency scales. In this paper, we study and characterize the statistical properties of such encodings, here called timbral code-words. In particular, we report on rank-frequency distributions of timbral code-words extracted from 740 hours of audio coming from disparate sources such as speech, music, and environmental sounds. Analogously to text corpora, we find a heavy-tailed Zipfian distribution with exponent close to one. Importantly, this distribution is found independently of different encoding decisions and regardless of the audio source. Further analysis on the intrinsic characteristics of most and least frequent code-words reveals that the most frequent code-words tend to have a more homogeneous structure. We also find that speech and music databases have specific, distinctive code-words while, in the case of the environmental sounds, this database-specific code-words are not present. Finally, we find that a Yule-Simon process with memory provides a reasonable quantitative approximation for our data, suggesting the existence of a common simple generative mechanism for all considered sound sources. PMID:22479497

  20. SHORT CONTACT TIME DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION USING A NOVEL BATCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1997-10-29

    The overall goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process at the molecular level. Many approaches have been used to study this process including kinetic studies, study of the liquefaction products, study of the effect of reaction variables, such as temperature, solvent type and composition, the changing nature and composition of the coal during liquefaction, and the distribution in the liquefaction products of the hydrogen consumed. While all these studies have contributed to our growing knowledge of the liquefaction process, an adequate understanding of direct liquefaction still eludes us. This is due to many reasons including: the complexity and variable nature of coal itself and the many different chemical reactions which are occurring simultaneously during direct coal liquefaction. We believe that a study of the liquefaction process at the very early stages will avoid the complexities of secondary reactions associated with free radical high temperature processes that are clearly involved in direct coal liquefaction. This prompted us to devise a reactor system which avoids long heat up and cool-down times associated with previous kinetic studies, and allows kinetic measurements even at as short as the first few seconds of the liquefaction reaction.

  1. The influence of alcoholic intoxication on the short-time energy function of speech.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Christian; Schiel, Florian

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates rhythmic features based on the short-time energy function of speech signals with the aim of finding robust, speaker-independent features that indicate speaker intoxication. Data from the German Alcohol Language Corpus, which comprises read, spontaneous, and command&control speech uttered by 162 speakers of both genders and various age groups when sober and intoxicated, were analyzed. Energy contours are compared directly (Root Mean Squared Error, statistical correlation, or the Euclidean distance in the spectral space of the contour) and by parameterization of the contour using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Contours are also analyzed by Principal Components Analysis aiming at fundamental "eigen contour" changes that might encode intoxication. Energy contours differ significantly with intoxication in terms of distance measures, the second and fourth DCT coefficients, and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Principal Components Analysis did not yield interpretable "eigen contours" that could be used in distinguishing intoxicated from sober contours. PMID:24815274

  2. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions. PMID:11170021

  3. Twin Signature Schemes, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäge, Sven

    In this paper, we revisit the twin signature scheme by Naccache, Pointcheval and Stern from CCS 2001 that is secure under the Strong RSA (SRSA) assumption and improve its efficiency in several ways. First, we present a new twin signature scheme that is based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in bilinear groups and allows for very short signatures and key material. A big advantage of this scheme is that, in contrast to the original scheme, it does not require a computationally expensive function for mapping messages to primes. We prove this new scheme secure under adaptive chosen message attacks. Second, we present a modification that allows to significantly increase efficiency when signing long messages. This construction uses collision-resistant hash functions as its basis. As a result, our improvements make the signature length independent of the message size. Our construction deviates from the standard hash-and-sign approach in which the hash value of the message is signed in place of the message itself. We show that in the case of twin signatures, one can exploit the properties of the hash function as an integral part of the signature scheme. This improvement can be applied to both the SRSA based and SDH based twin signature scheme.

  4. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation is analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squred error (RMSE), and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE with assimilation vs. that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in ozone prediction for both the daytime and night time with application of data assimilation is also presented.

  5. Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tu-Han; Young, Edward D; Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Chondritic meteorites are made of primitive components that record the first steps of formation of solids in our Solar System. Chondrules are the major component of chondrites, yet little is known about their formation mechanisms and history within the solar protoplanetary disk (SPD). We use the reconstructed concentrations of short-lived (26)Al in chondrules to constrain the timing of formation of their precursors in the SPD. High-precision bulk magnesium isotopic measurements of 14 chondrules from the Allende chondrite define a (26)Al isochron with (26)Al/(27)Al = 1.2(±0.2) × 10(-5) for this subset of Allende chondrules. This can be considered to be the minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron because all chondrules analyzed so far with high precision (∼50 chondrules from CV and ordinary chondrites) have an inferred minimum bulk initial ((26)Al/(27)Al) ≥ 1.2 × 10(-5). In addition, mineral (26)Al isochrons determined on the same chondrules show that their formation (i.e., fusion of their precursors by energetic events) took place from 0 Myr to ∼2 Myr after the formation of their precursors, thus showing in some cases a clear decoupling in time between the two events. The finding of a minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron is used to constrain the astrophysical settings for chondrule formation. Either the temperature of the condensation zone dropped below the condensation temperature of chondrule precursors at ∼1.5 My after the start of the Solar System or the transport of precursors from the condensation zone to potential storage sites stopped after 1.5 My, possibly due to a drop in the disk accretion rate. PMID:25605942

  6. Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Tu-Han; Young, Edward D.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites are made of primitive components that record the first steps of formation of solids in our Solar System. Chondrules are the major component of chondrites, yet little is known about their formation mechanisms and history within the solar protoplanetary disk (SPD). We use the reconstructed concentrations of short-lived 26Al in chondrules to constrain the timing of formation of their precursors in the SPD. High-precision bulk magnesium isotopic measurements of 14 chondrules from the Allende chondrite define a 26Al isochron with 26Al/27Al = 1.2(±0.2) × 10−5 for this subset of Allende chondrules. This can be considered to be the minimum bulk chondrule 26Al isochron because all chondrules analyzed so far with high precision (∼50 chondrules from CV and ordinary chondrites) have an inferred minimum bulk initial (26Al/27Al) ≥ 1.2 × 10−5. In addition, mineral 26Al isochrons determined on the same chondrules show that their formation (i.e., fusion of their precursors by energetic events) took place from 0 Myr to ∼2 Myr after the formation of their precursors, thus showing in some cases a clear decoupling in time between the two events. The finding of a minimum bulk chondrule 26Al isochron is used to constrain the astrophysical settings for chondrule formation. Either the temperature of the condensation zone dropped below the condensation temperature of chondrule precursors at ∼1.5 My after the start of the Solar System or the transport of precursors from the condensation zone to potential storage sites stopped after 1.5 My, possibly due to a drop in the disk accretion rate. PMID:25605942

  7. Time-dependent alterations of cerebral proteins following short-term normobaric hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Feldmann, Robert E; Kalenka, Armin

    2010-06-01

    Sufficient oxygenation is indispensable for cognitive performance in mammals. In order to assure adequate oxygenation and to prevent hypoxia in medicine or aviation, different approaches of oxygen delivery are realized. With regard to hyperoxia, it is well known that it increases the risk of tissue toxicity and inflammation by generating radical oxygen species. However, this impact of hyperoxia on the expression of specific brain proteins has not been evaluated in detail yet. The present study analyzes time-dependent changes in protein expression in rat brain after a short-term exposure to normobaric hyperoxia. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six different groups, three normobaric hyperoxia (NH) groups or three normobaric normoxia (NN) groups, each consisting of n = 6 animals. NH animals were exposed to 100% oxygen, NN rats to 21% oxygen, each group for 3 h. One group of NH and one group of NN were killed immediately after the 3 h, one group each after 3 days and one group each after 7 days. Rat brains were removed for analysis and whole brain detergent protein lysates were separated via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by subsequent identification of protein expression alterations by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry. Also, a functional network mapping and molecular pathway analysis were carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction using P < 0.01. Physiological parameters of the animals did not differ significantly between the two groups except for partial oxygen pressure (580 vs. 89 mmHg; P < 0.05). The expression of nine proteins was found to be significantly altered (five up-regulated: GOT1, CCT2, TCP1, G6PD, and ALB; four down-regulated: PEBP1, PRDX2, ENO1, and MDH1). IPA generated a network with eight focus proteins associated with pathways in "cell death, cancer, and signalling". Although hyperoxia was normobaric and induced for only 3 h, significant changes in brain protein expression were detectable immediately after the 3 h, after 3 days, as well as after 7 days. This may indicate effects on brain protein expression take place in the rat brain following a relatively short period of hyperoxia. PMID:20049628

  8. The rate, luminosity function and time delay of non-Collapsar short GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderman, David; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-04-01

    We estimate the rate and the luminosity function of short (hard) Gamma-Ray Bursts (sGRBs) that are non-Collapsars, using the peak fluxes and redshifts of BATSE, Swift and Fermi GRBs. Following Bromberg et al., we select a sub-sample of Swift bursts which are most likely non-Collapsars. We find that these sGRBs are delayed relative to the global star formation rate (SFR) with a typical delay time of a 3-4 Gyr (depending on the SFR model). However, if two or three sGRB at high redshifts have been missed because of selection effects, a distribution of delay times of ? 1/t would be also compatible. The current event rate of these non-Collapsar sGRBs with Liso > 5 1049 erg s-1 is 4.1_{-1.9}^{+2.3} Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}. The rate was significantly larger around z 1 and it declines since that time. The luminosity function we find is a broken power law with a break at 2.0_{-0.4}^{+1.4} 10^{52} erg s^{-1} and power-law indices 0.95_{-0.1 2}^{+0.12} and 2.0_{-0.8}^{+1.0}. When considering the whole Swift sGRB sample we find that it is composed of two populations: one group (?60-80 per cent of Swift sGRBs) with the above rate and time delay and a second group (?20-40 per cent of Swift sGRBs) of potential `impostors' that follow the SFR with no delay. These two populations are in very good agreement with the division of sGRBs to non-Collapsars and Collapsars suggested recently by Bromberg et al. If non-Collapsar sGRBs arise from neutron star merger this rate suggest a detection rate of 3-100 yr-1 by a future gravitational wave detectors (e.g. Advanced Ligo/Virgo with detection horizon on 300 Mpc), and a co-detection with Fermi (Swift ) rate of 0.1-1 yr-1 (0.02-0.14 yr-1). We estimate that about 4 10^5 (f_b^{-1}/30) mergers took place in the Milky Way. If 0.025M? were ejected in each event this would have been sufficient to produce all the heavy r-process material in the Galaxy.

  9. Time-Based Loss in Visual Short-Term Memory Is from Trace Decay, Not Temporal Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Spiegel, Lauren R.; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus as to why forgetting occurs in short-term memory tasks. In past work, we have shown that forgetting occurs with the passage of time, but there are 2 classes of theories that can explain this effect. In the present work, we investigate the reason for time-based forgetting by contrasting the predictions of temporal

  10. Revisiting the Impact of Part-Time Work on Adolescent Adjustment: Distinguishing between Selection and Socialization Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The impact of part-time employment on adolescent functioning remains unclear because most studies fail to adequately control for differential selection into the workplace. The present study reanalyzes data from L. Steinberg, S. Fegley, and S. M. Dornbusch (1993) using multiple imputation, which minimizes bias in effect size estimation, and 2 types

  11. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  12. A coordinated approach for real-time short term hydro scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Tufegdzic, N.; Frowd, R.J.; Stadlin, W.O.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a coordinated approach to short-term hydro scheduling and dispatch that has been developed as a part of the Tasmanian Hydro Electric Commission`s (HEC) new Energy Management System (EMS), which is being delivered by Landis and Gyr Energy Management. Tasmania`s hydro generation system consists of 40 reservoirs in six river catchments. The daily water release for each plant is scheduled using the HEC`s mid-term operation policy. The Hydro Scheduling and Commitment (HSC) function schedules the hydro units on a half hourly basis so that the allocated water release maximizes the energy production. This maximization of energy production is achieved by maximizing the head and this ensures that operation is always as close as possible to maximum efficiency. Mixed Integer Linear Programming is used with a detailed model of the interconnected hydro system to determine the half-hourly operation schedule. The Hydro Economic Dispatch (HED) function is used to implement the schedules produced by HSC in the real-time operation. The HED also uses a detailed model of the hydro system with a Linear Programming algorithm to ensure that each unit operates as close as possible to its head-dependent theoretical maximum efficiency point while meeting the desired storage levels specified by the HSC solution. HSC and HED have been tested against a number of operational scenarios and when it is fully integrated within the new EMS it is expected to yield annual stored energy savings up to 0.5% through more efficient hydro-electric system operation. It is expected to also provide additional savings by fostering improvements to the mid-term operating plan.

  13. Revisiting Mr. Tall and Mr. Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Suzanne M.; Steinthorsdottir, Olof Bjorg

    2014-01-01

    Ratio, rate, and proportion are central ideas in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for middle-grades mathematics (CCSSI 2010). These ideas closely connect to themes in earlier grades (pattern building, multiplicative reasoning, rational number concepts) and are the foundation for understanding linear functions as well as many high school

  14. [Slice profile measurements of half pulse excitation for MR-imaging with ultra-short echo times (UTE)].

    PubMed

    Staehle, Felix; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Bongers, Andr; Schad, Lothar Rudi

    2006-01-01

    Half pulse excitation plays an important role in imaging with ultra-short echo times (UTE imaging) of the order of TE < 100 micros. Based on half RF-pulses this method was theoretically modeled and experimentally applied in 1991 for the first time. Following this work, measurements of slice profiles produced by half pulses were performed and results were compared to the slice profiles produced by the original full pulse. Furthermore, the hypothesis was tested that short RF pulses may be of advantage in minimizing the relaxation effects during the pulse. Within the scope of these measurements no dependency of slice profile on the pulse duration could be found. PMID:16986459

  15. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated at a high spatial resolution. REFERENCES Arfeuille, Gilles J. M., A. L. Quintanilla, L. Zizumbo, and F. C. Viesca, 2012. Wind Resource Assessment in a Tropical Region with Complex Terrain using SODAR and a Meteorological Tower Network to Measure Low Level Jets and Boundary Layer Conditions. 15th AMS Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Steam boat Spring, Colorado, USA, August 2012. Available on-line: https://ams.confex.com/ams/15MountMet/webprogram/Manuscript/Paper210184/ARFEUILLLE_etal_15MountMet Conf_Aug2012.pdf Drechsel S., G. J. Mayr, J. W. Messner, and R. Stauffer, 2012: Wind Speeds at Heights Crucial for Wind Energy: Measurements and Verification of Forecasts. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 1602-1617. Rodrigo, J. S., 2010. State-of-the-Art of Wind Resource Assessment. CENER National Renewable Energy Center, Sarriguren, Spain. Available on-line: http://www.waudit-itn.eu/download.php?id=103&parent=79

  16. Power to detect trend in short-term time series of bird abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gray, B.R.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Avian point counts for population monitoring are often collected over a short timespan (e.g., 3-5 years). We examined whether power was adequate (power ???0.80) in short-duration studies to warrant the calculation of trend estimates. We modeled power to detect trends in abundance indices of eight bird species occurring across three floodplain habitats (wet prairie, early successional forest, and mature forest) as a function of trend magnitude, sample size, and species-specific sampling and among-year variance components. Point counts (5 min) were collected from 365 locations distributed among 10 study sites along the lower Missouri River; counts were collected over the period 2002 to 2004. For all study species, power appeared adequate to detect trends in studies of short duration (three years) at a single site when exponential declines were relatively large in magnitude (more than -5% year-1) and the sample of point counts per year was ???30. Efforts to monitor avian trends with point counts in small managed lands (i.e., refuges and parks) should recognize this sample size restriction by including point counts from offsite locations as a means of obtaining sufficient numbers of samples per strata. Trends of less than -5% year-1 are not likely to be consistently detected for most species over the short term, but short-term monitoring may still be useful as the basis for comparisons with future surveys. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  17. Investigating oceanic tidal energy dissipation on deep time scales using short tidal deposit sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughenour, C.

    2012-12-01

    One of the enduring problems in physical oceanography has been that of tidal dynamics and the effective tidal torque that serves to slow Earth's axial rotation. In the late 20th century, with the aid of satellite altimetry and other technologies, a suite of reliable estimates was finally placed on the magnitude of this torque and other, related parameters in the current epoch. Tidal drag accounts for a 20 microsecond/year increase in mean day length, a 3.5 terawatt dissipation of energy in the oceans (Kantha et al., 1998), and a lunar retreat rate of 3.82 cm/yr (Dickey et al., 1994). Despite these significant advances, however, the problem of tidal dissipation in the geologic past remains largely unresolved. This is due, in part, to difficulties in numerical modeling of past tidal regimes that stem from uncertainties in ocean basin configurations and lunar distances. Tidal deposits can record, to high resolution, the primary astronomical periodicities responsible for the generation of the tidal currents under which transport and deposition occur. With reliable lunar orbital period data obtained from tidal deposits, the past Earth-Moon distance and length of day can be calculated. This task requires careful spectral analysis and consideration of sedimentological factors that may add noise and/or discontinuities to the signal. For deposits representing less than one year of deposition, the necessary assumptions are that Earth's moment of inertia has not changed significantly over the time interval of interest and that the solar component of tidal dissipation can be well-approximated. With consideration of the total angular momentum of the Earth-Moon couplet, we derive a method to calculate lunar distance and length of day. The efficacy of this method and its assumptions is tested via the multi-year sequence of data obtained from the late Precambrian Elatina Formation of Australia and comparing results obtained from the full suite of data by Williams (2000). We go on to analyze a short (3.5 month) Carboniferous dataset from the Abbott Formation of the Illinois Basin, USA. The results suggest non-linearity in ocean tidal dissipation since the late Precambrian and an average lunar retreat rate since the Carbiniferous below the present value, despite a larger lunar distance. With more tidal deposit data analyzed in this way, a much more complete picture of dissipation and Earth-Moon evolution could be realized.

  18. Revisiting the Regenerative Possibilities of Ortiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duques, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article revisits Simon Ortiz's poem, "From Sand Creek," in which the latter can in so few words convey both the horrific tragedy of conquest and colonization, while at the same time find a space for possibility, a means for recovery that is never about forgetting but always occurs as a kind of recuperative remembering. Ortiz

  19. Cultural techniques for altering the flowering time and double-cropping short-day varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    July-plugged transplants of short-day cv. Strawberry Festival (Fragaria x ananassa), flowered in October and November even though they were grown under long photoperiods and warm temperatures (greater than 21 degrees C) in July and August. These unexpected results were attributed to a high plant de...

  20. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  1. Short-Term Memory for Time in Children and Adults: A Behavioral Study and a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John; Delgado-Yonger, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the short-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants' task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention…

  2. The Well of Time. Eighteen Short Stories from Philippine Contemporary Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laygo, Teresito M., Comp.

    A collection of eighteen short stories by Filipino writers is presented. The selections represent a variety of images of Filipino culture, both urban and rural, and life styles in northern and southern Philippines. The aim of the anthology is that the student will learn to empathize with experience rendered in language, appreciate the Filipino

  3. THERMAL INACTIVATION OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS IN MILK USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SHORT TIME PASTEURIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 deg C/15 sec) but is inactivated in flow apparatus...

  4. Effects of the Coordination Exercise Program on School Children's Agility: Short-Time Program during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasumitsu, Tatsuo; Nogawa, Haruo; Hatano, Yoshiro

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a short-time coordination program conducted during recess periods on improving agility in elementary school students. The subjects consisted of 60 third grade students, who were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 29) and a control group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a coordination program…

  5. Modeling of sediment flux at short, middle and long time scale in alpine torrents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazotti, Benot.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Loye, Alexandre; Bardou, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Sediments management has become an important issue in the alpine regions since all deposits of material must be removed from sediment traps to keep their efficiency. However, this is not sustainable to evacuate those deposits over long distances. The goals of this work is to quantify the sediment supply of alpine torrents and active gullies in order to make suatinable management over the long term. From a case study situated in the region of Zinal, Valais, Switzerland, we will try to give general recommendation. Several approaches are tested to create a model able to estimate the sediment budget at short, middle and long time scale. After a general analysis of the catchment rendering a geomorphological map (process and location), a quantitative assessment of sediment production is performed. Besides, a qualitative representation of sediment transport processes is created that enable the modelling of sediment cascade. Several new methods are tested combining field work and remote sensing data (DEM, Lidar acquisition and aerial photos). The torrent activity (maximum erosion volume) is estimated with the Slope Local Base Level (SLBL) constrained with field observations (e.g. presence of outcrop). Downstream and cross-sectional topographic profiles along the streams enable to determine their overall dynamics. The model is then composed of homogeneous sections of the torrent. Erosion rates are defined according to the activity observed on time series of aerial photos, historical data, etc. The climate forcing is also considered for assessing torrential dynamics in the prospective sediment balances. The preliminary conclusion is that 6 sets of information implemented in the model enable estimating the quantity of sediments transport by the torrents ((1) the geomorphologic map, (2) the division of the torrent in homogeneous sections, (3) the longitudinal profile of the torrent, (4) the calculation of the maximum volume mobilized by the torrent (with the SLBL), (5) the estimation of the overall dynamics of the torrent (erosion and deposition areas), (6) the estimation of erosion rate.). The results obtained using the SLBL allowed us to force the maximum erosion of the stream bed to avoid too extreme values. An advantage of this method is the use of the three dimensions for each meter of the torrent, which is not possible with traditional methods such as calculating by sections of torrent. Then, we find that the dynamic of the torrents (erosion, deposition) is strongly correlated with the level difference between the theoretical profile and the topographic profile along the streams. This characteristic also permits to quantify the total amount of solid material that can potentially be filled by section of stream. In order to determine the proportion of sediment deposited by section (as % of the total volume transported), this result is coupled to an deposition index (slope, width and Epot of the section torrent). This approach provides, compared to the average value of erosion at a regional level commonly used, a local estimation of the sediments transport for each streams analysed. Indeed, a modelling of sediment cascade allows knowing the amount of sediment transported and especially to know when these amounts could cause problems in their management. It will be useful for different project of sediment management like in-situ storage.

  6. Short-time asymptotics of a rigorous path integral for N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, Dana S.; Sawin, Stephen

    2014-06-15

    Following Feynman's prescription for constructing a path integral representation of the propagator of a quantum theory, a short-time approximation to the propagator for imaginary-time, N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a compact, even-dimensional Riemannian manifold is constructed. The path integral is interpreted as the limit of products, determined by a partition of a finite time interval, of this approximate propagator. The limit under refinements of the partition is shown to converge uniformly to the heat kernel for the Laplace-de Rham operator on forms. A version of the steepest descent approximation to the path integral is obtained, and shown to give the expected short-time behavior of the supertrace of the heat kernel.

  7. Modelling the water balance of a precise weighable lysimeter for short time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the atmosphere and the soil-plant system and the percolation to the groundwater system is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the atmosphere-plant-soil-groundwater system. Weighable lysimeters yield the most precise and realistic measures for the change of stored water volume (ΔS), Precipitation (P) which can be rain, irrigation, snow and dewfall and evapotranspiration (ET) as the sum of soil evaporation, evaporation of intercepted water and transpiration. They avoid systematic errors of standard gauges and class-A pans. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise (C) and leachate (L) on short time scales. Precise weighable large scale (surface >= 1 m2) monolithic lysimeters avoiding oasis effects allow to solve the water balance equation (P - ET - L + C ± ΔS = 0) for a 3D-section of a natural atmosphere-plant-soil-system for a certain time period. Precision and accuracy of the lysimeter measurements depend not only on the precision of the weighing device but also on external conditions, which cannot be controlled or turned off. To separate the noise in measured data sets from signals the adaptive window and adaptive threshold (AWAT) filter (Peters et al., 2014) is used. The data set for the years 2010 and 2011 from the HYDRO-lysimeter (surface = 1 m2, depth = 1 m) in Wagna, Austria (Klammler and Fank, 2014) with a resolution of 0,01 mm for the lysimeter scale and of 0,001 mm for the leachate tank scale is used to evaluate the water balance. The mass of the lysimeter and the mass of the leachate tank is measured every two seconds. The measurements are stored as one minute arithmetic means. Based on calculations in a calibration period from January to May 2010 with different widths of moving window the wmax - Parameter for the AWAT filter was set to 41 minutes. A time series for the system mass ('upper boundary') of the lysimeter has been calculated by adding lysimeter mass and the leachate tank mass for every minute. Based on the resolution of the scales and an evaluation of noise in periods without precipitation and evaporation a dmin-value of 0.002 to filter the leachate tank measurements and a dmin-value of 0.012 was used to filter the lysimeter weight data and the upper boundary data. A mandatory requirement for the quantification of P or ET from lysimeter measurements is that in a reasonably small time interval, either P or ET is negligible. With this assumption, every increase in upper boundary data is interpreted as P. Every increase of seepage mass is interpreted as L, every decrease as C. ΔS is evaluated from filtered lysimeter mass. ET is calculated using the water balance equation. The evaluation results are given as water balance components time series on a minute scale. P measured with the lysimeter for the two years 2010 and 2011 is 105 % of precipitation measured with a standard tipping bucket gauge 100 m beside the lysimeter. While P during the summer season (April to September) is very close to standard precipitation measurement, P during the winter season is more than 120 % of tipping bucket precipitation. Meissner et al. (2007) showed that P includes precipitation of dewfall and rime. A detailed evaluation of the HYDRO-Lysimeter in Wagna showed, that precipitation in the night and not recognized with the standard tipping bucket (interpreted as dew or rime) is about 1 % of P, the highest monthly sums (> 1 mm) are recognized from August to November. Klammler, G. and Fank, J.: Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria). Science of the Total Environment 499 (2014) 448-462. Meissner, R., Seeger, J., Rupp, H., Seyfarth, M., and Borg, H.: Measurement of dew, fog, and rime with a high-precision gravitation lysimeter, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2007, 170, 335-344. Peters, A., Nehls, T., Schonsky, H., and Wessolek, G.: Separating precipitation and evapotranspiration from noise - a new filter routine for high-resolution lysimeter data. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1189-1198, 2014.

  8. Revisiting the Posttherapeutic Cure Criterion in Chagas Disease: Time for New Methods, More Questions, Doubts, and Polemics or Time to Change Old Concepts?

    PubMed Central

    de Lana, Marta; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant issues beyond the effectiveness of etiological treatment of Chagas disease is the lack of consensual/feasible tools to identify and certify the definitive parasitological cure. Several methods of distinct natures (parasitological, serological, and molecular) have been continuously proposed and novel perspectives are currently under investigation. Although the simultaneous use of distinct tests may offer better contributions and advances, it also leads to controversies of interpretation, with lack of mutual consent of cure criterion amongst researchers and physicians. In fact, when distinct host compartments (blood/tissues) are evaluated and explored, novel questions may arise due to the nature and sensitivity limit of each test. This short analytical review intends to present a chronological and critical overview and discuss the state-of-the-art distinct devices available for posttherapeutic cure assessment in Chagas disease, their contributions, meanings, and interpretation, aiming to point out the major gaps and propose novel insight for future perspectives of posttherapeutic management of Chagas disease patients. PMID:26583124

  9. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  10. Short-term pollution forecasts based on linear and nonlinear methods of time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a complex mixture of toxic components, which may induce acute and chronic responses from sensitive groups, such as children and people with previous heart and respiratory insufficiencies. However, air pollution, presents a highly chaotic and non-linear behavior. In this work we analyzed several pollutants time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period. Linear and nonlinear methods were applied in order to assess NO2, PM10 and O3 main trends and fluctuations and finally, to produce daily forecasts of the referred pollutants. Here we evaluate the potential of linear and non-linear neural networks (NN) to produce short-term forecasts, and also the contribution of meteorological variables (daily mean temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, boundary layer height, humidity) to pollutants dispersion. Additionally, we assess the role of large-scale circulation patterns, usually referred as Weather types (WT) (from the ERA40/ECMWF and ECMWF SLP database) towards the occurrence of critical pollution events identified previously. The presence and importance of trends and fluctuation is addressed by means of two modelling approaches: (1) raw data modelling; (2) residuals modelling (after the removal of the trends from the original data). The relative importance of two periodic components, the weekly and the monthly cycles, is addressed. For the three pollutants, the approach based on the removal of the weekly cycle presents the best results, comparatively to the removal of the monthly cycle or to the use of the raw data. The best predictors are chosen independently for each monitoring station and pollutant through an objective procedure (backward stepwise regression). The analysis reveals that the most significant variables in predicting NO2 concentration are several NO2 measures, wind direction and speed and global radiation, while for O3 correspond to several O3 measures, O3 precursors and WT classification. Finally, for PM10, several PM10 measures, NO2 and CO, maximum temperature, wind direction, humidity and BLH, i.e., pollutants related to road traffic emissions and meteorological variables related to atmospheric stability. Moreover, validation results showed that non-linear NN models, on average, perform as well or worse as linear models for NO2, O3 and PM10. The results attained with an independent sample reveal a very good correlation between the predicted and observed values which confirms that linear models generalize well for independent data. The applied methods permit producing, in a simple and cost efficient way, different results for each monitoring station, which allows a good spatial resolution for Lisbon's urban area. Consistent with the performance measures, high pollutants' peak values were reproduced in most cases by each model. The attained results raises good prospects for urban air quality characterization, allowing further developments in order to produce an integrated air quality surveillance system for the area of Lisbon.

  11. Short--time-scale evidence for strong Langmuir turbulence during hf heating of the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, P. Y.; Wong, A. Y.; Tanikawa, T.; Santoru, J.; DuBois, D. F.; Rose, H. A.; Russell, D.

    1989-06-05

    Results of short-pulse, low--duty-cycle hf-heating experiments areshown to agree with predictions of a model of correlated, localized cavitonswhich undergo cycles of nucleation, collapse, and burnout. Predicted''free-mode'' spectral features associated with the radiation of Langmuir wavesfrom collapsing cavitons are observed. Single radar pulse data provide evidencethat temporal correlations between caviton events are present at early timesfollowing the onset of heating.

  12. Effect of short annealing times on the magnetoelectronic properties of Co/Pd-based pseudo-spin-valves.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Taiebeh; Law, Randall; Sbiaa, Rachid; Piramanayagam, S N; Chong, Tow Chong

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the effects of short annealing times on the magnetoelectronic properties of pseudo-spin-valves (PSV) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy based on Co/Pd multilayers using a contact hot plate. In order to study the time scale at which the degradation of film properties occurs for possible application in perpendicular MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ), the results were compared against our previous study of Co/Pd PSV based on vacuum annealing. With contact annealing for up to 90 s, no significant changes to the current-in-plane giant magnetoresistance (CIP-GMR), interlayer coupling, sheet resistance and layer coercivities were observed for up to 200 degrees C. At 350 degrees C, a 39 to 46% decrease in CIP-GMR was observed for annealing times of 30 to 90 s, respectively, slightly lower than that observed for vacuum annealing at 230 degrees C for 1 h. Similar results were also obtained for interlayer coupling, sheet resistance and layer coercivities, indicating that short annealing times allow for reduced interlayer diffusion at higher temperatures. However, it is clear that significant degradation of GMR performance occurs at 350 degrees C and above even for annealing times as short as 30 s, indicating the potential difficulty of realizing Co/Pd-based perpendicular MgO-MTJ. PMID:21449449

  13. Revisiting Buruli ulcer.

    PubMed

    Yotsu, Rie R; Murase, Chiaki; Sugawara, Mariko; Suzuki, Koichi; Nakanaga, Kazue; Ishii, Norihisa; Asiedu, Kingsley

    2015-11-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU), or Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a new emerging infectious disease which has been reported in over 33 countries worldwide. It has been noted not only in tropical areas, such as West Africa where it is most endemic, but also in moderate non-tropical climate areas, including Australia and Japan. Clinical presentation starts with a papule, nodule, plaque or edematous form which eventually leads to extensive skin ulceration. It can affect all age groups, but especially children aged between 5 and 15years in West Africa. Multiple-antibiotic treatment has proven effective, and with surgical intervention at times of severity, it is curable. However, if diagnosis and treatment is delayed, those affected may be left with life-long disabilities. The disease is not yet fully understood, including its route of transmission and pathogenesis. However, due to recent research, several important features of the disease are now being elucidated. Notably, there may be undiagnosed cases in other parts of the world where BU has not yet been reported. Japan exemplifies the finding that awareness among dermatologists plays a key role in BU case detection. So, what about in other countries where a case of BU has never been diagnosed and there is no awareness of the disease among the population or, more importantly, among health professionals? This article will revisit BU, reviewing clinical features as well as the most recent epidemiological and scientific findings of the disease, to raise awareness of BU among dermatologists worldwide. PMID:26332541

  14. Trait-specific responses of Scots pine to irrigation on a short vs long time scale.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Eilmann, Britta; Buchmann, Nina; Rigling, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    In xeric environments, an increase in drought is related to reduced forest productivity and to enhanced mortality. However, predictions of future forest development remain difficult as the mechanisms underlying the responses of mature trees to long-term variations in water availability are not well understood. Here, we aimed to compare the adjustments in radial growth and morphological needle and shoot traits of mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing along open water channels with those of control trees growing under naturally dry conditions at three sites in Valais, an inner-Alpine dry valley of Switzerland. The trees growing along two channels had been irrigated since germination (>70 years), whereas those along another previously drained channel had been irrigated only from 2010 to 2012, when the channel was re-established, and could thus be used to quantify the short-term effects of re-irrigation. Linear mixed models revealed that needle and shoot lengths as well as early- and late-wood basal area increments (BAIs) were most responsive to short-term and long-term irrigation. However, the magnitude of the response to the short-term irrigation exceeded that of the long-term irrigation. An extreme drought during the first half of 2011 led to an immediate decrease in the needle length, needle width, and early- and late-wood BAIs of the control trees, whereas the shoot length and needle numbers of control trees reacted with a 1-year delay to the extreme drought, as the shoots were responding to water availability of previous year's summer. Such negative responses to dry climatic conditions were even found in irrigated trees at one of our sites, which might be linked to tree growth becoming more sensitive to drought with increasing tree height and leaf area. In order to improve predictions of future forest development, long-term studies are necessary that consider lagged responses and adjustment processes of trees to changes in water availability. PMID:25631531

  15. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. PMID:26571051

  16. Short-time heat impulse intensification of heat transfer in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, B. V.; Delov, M. I.; Kutsenko, K. V.; Lavrukhin, A. A.; Merinov, I. G.

    2015-04-01

    The cryogenic technology deals with fluids produced from gases after liquefaction. Boiling of cryogenic fluids is frequently characterized by a hysteresis of their boiling curve. The present experimental work demonstrates an opportunity to intensify heat transfer in those fluids by means of short-term heat impulsion from a heater. The intensification takes place due to the impulse-induced transition of heat transfer regime from natural convection towards nucleate boiling. The process takes place when the impulse magnitude overcomes certain minimum value that was quantified experimentally. We also propose a theoretical expression for the minimum energy that is in agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Rotational-oscillatory motions of the deformable Earth in the short time intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, A. S.; Markov, Yu. G.; Rykhlova, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the celestial mechanics' methods namely the spatial version of the problem of the Earth-Moon system in the gravitational field of the Sun a mathematical model of the rotary- oscillatory motion of the elastic Earth is developed. It is shown that the perturbing component of the gravitational-tidal forces normal to the lunar orbit's plane is responsible for some short-term perturbations in the Moon's motion. With the aid of the numerical-analytical approach a comparison between the constructed model and the high-frequency International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS) measurements is made.

  18. IRAS revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teule, F.; Slippens, C.; Gourlay, J.

    Following the successful IRAS mission, during which many in-flight system reconfigurations had been programmed in the onboard computer, three explicit experiments were defined for in-orbit execution under ESA contract. The first one was a computer memory reconfiguration through which 3 blocks of 16 k 16-bits RAM memory became available for data storage. In the original configuration, 2 blocks of these belonged to the redundant 32k computer system. Since during the operational mission no back-up mode was ever needed, a ROM implemented back-up mode for the normal safe mode was exercized as the second experiment. The surprising result was that the back-up mode was even more accurate than the original Safe Mode, at least for the experiment circumstances. The back-up mode software in ROM was called by RAM software to provide experiment specific data storage in the extended memories. This approach was also followed for the last experiment in which the satellite recovered from a deliberately saturated reaction wheel (23 Nms). From the data storage it was concluded that the satellite unexpectedly tumbled almost three times before stable recovery. The experiment software development and the execution of the experiments forms a valuable experience for future projects.

  19. Smallpox revisited?

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the history of smallpox and ethical issues that arise with its threat as a biological weapon. Smallpox killed more people than any infectious disease in history--and perhaps three times more people in the 20th Century than were killed by all the wars of that period. Following a WHO-sponsored global vaccination campaign, smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1980. It has since been revealed that the Soviet Union, until its fall in the early 1990s, manufactured tens of tons of smallpox for military purposes. A worry is that some of this may have fallen into the hands of "rogue" nations or terrorists. Current U.S. debate questions whether smallpox vaccine should therefore be made available to the American public, which--like the rest of the world--now lacks immunity. Because the vaccine is considerably dangerous, public dialogue cannot resolve this matter if evidence material to the likelihood of attack is classified (i.e. secret). I conclude by recommending numerous future areas for ethics research related to the weaponization of smallpox. PMID:14560713

  20. Application of a short-time version of the Equalization-Cancellation model to speech intelligibility experiments with speech maskers

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Rui; Durlach, Nathaniel I.; Colburn, H. Steven

    2014-01-01

    A short-time-processing version of the Equalization-Cancellation (EC) model of binaural processing is described and applied to speech intelligibility tasks in the presence of multiple maskers, including multiple speech maskers. This short-time EC model, called the STEC model, extends the model described by Wan et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 36783690 (2010)] to allow the EC model's equalization parameters ? and ? to be adjusted as a function of time, resulting in improved masker cancellation when the dominant masker location varies in time. Using the Speech Intelligibility Index, the STEC model is applied to speech intelligibility with maskers that vary in number, type, and spatial arrangements. Most notably, when maskers are located on opposite sides of the target, this STEC model predicts improved thresholds when the maskers are modulated independently with speech-envelope modulators; this includes the most relevant case of independent speech maskers. The STEC model describes the spatial dependence of the speech reception threshold with speech maskers better than the steady-state model. Predictions are also improved for independently speech-modulated noise maskers but are poorer for reversed-speech maskers. In general, short-term processing is useful, but much remains to be done in the complex task of understanding speech in speech maskers. PMID:25096111

  1. Amyoplasia revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Tanaka, Kimi I

    2014-03-01

    Amyoplasia is a specific type and the most common form of arthrogryposis (multiple congenital contractures). It is a clinical diagnosis at this time. Care should be used making the diagnosis because of the implications for recurrence, natural history, associated anomalies, and both etiology and pathogenesis. We reviewed over 600 published reports and 2,500 individual records to identify the 560 individuals reported here. Affected limbs had characteristic positions with fatty-fibrous replacement of muscle. Upper limb involvement was usually characterized by extended elbows. Lower limbs were held in various positions at birth; however, equinovarus positioning of feet was almost always present. Symmetric involvement was common. Among 560 affected individuals, subtypes were identified: four-limb symmetric involvement (331/560 = 55.9%), severe involvement (41/560 = 7.3%), three-limb involvement (27/560 = 4.8%), upper limb only Amyoplasia (ULA; 94/560 = 16.8%), and lower limb only Amyoplasia (LLA; 25/560 = 15.5%). Discordant monozygotic twinning was increased, occurring in 6.6% (37/560; OR 10.9). A variety of additional anomalies were seen, attributed to apparent vascular compromise. Gastrointestinal vascular compromise-type anomalies were present in 9.1% (51/560), trunk muscle defects in another 2.7% (15/560), digit compromise in 12.1% (68/560), constriction rings in 4.3% (24/560), and perinatal long bone fractures in 10.5% (59/560). Although prenatal ultrasound became the standard of care in 1990, only about one quarter of affected pregnancies were diagnosed prenatally since 1990. Amyoplasia appears to be completely sporadic. Novel pathogenetic mechanisms for the congenital anomalies seen in Amyoplasia need to be identified. PMID:24459070

  2. Potential overestimation in primary and new productions of phytoplankton from a short time incubation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Joo, HuiTae; Lee, Jang Han; Kang, Jae Joong; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    A short (4-5 hour) incubation method for a 13C-15N dual isotope tracer technique has been widely applied for the measurements of daily primary and new productions of phytoplankton. However, there has been no research conducted to determine if there are any differences in the estimated daily productions between short incubation periods and 24 hour incubations. Based on hourly uptake rates estimated from a 4 hour incubation at a coastal site in the East/Japan Sea, the daily carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of total phytoplankton were approximately 60% overestimated compared to those derived from a 24 hour incubation. Especially for large phytoplankton, the daily carbon uptake rates based on the 4 hour incubation were greatly overestimated (> 200%). In contrast, the daily rates of small phytoplankton were not significantly different between the two different incubations. This is mainly because the daily carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of large phytoplankton were significantly correlated with light intensity. Consequently, the contributions of small phytoplankton were underestimated whereas large phytoplankton contributions were overestimated in daily carbon and nitrogen uptake rates based on a 4 hour incubation. Further investigations into these potential overestimations in daily carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of phytoplankton, especially for large size cells, will be needed to be carried out in order to obtain better estimations of annual primary and new productions.

  3. Human brain detects short-time nonlinear predictability in the temporal fine structure of deterministic chaotic sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2013-04-01

    Deterministic nonlinear dynamical processes are ubiquitous in nature. Chaotic sounds generated by such processes may appear irregular and random in waveform, but these sounds are mathematically distinguished from random stochastic sounds in that they contain deterministic short-time predictability in their temporal fine structures. We show that the human brain distinguishes deterministic chaotic sounds from spectrally matched stochastic sounds in neural processing and perception. Deterministic chaotic sounds, even without being attended to, elicited greater cerebral cortical responses than the surrogate control sounds after about 150 ms in latency after sound onset. Listeners also clearly discriminated these sounds in perception. The results support the hypothesis that the human auditory system is sensitive to the subtle short-time predictability embedded in the temporal fine structure of sounds.

  4. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefactionn Using a Novel Batch Reactor. Quarterly Report. May 16 - August 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1996-08-30

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction of Illinois #6 bituminous coal, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, and Pittsburgh #8 bituminous coal. The thermodynamic characteristics of the extraction stage at the start of the liquefaction process in the liquefaction of Illinois #6 coal is also discussed. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

  5. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly progress report, January 1--May 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1995-05-31

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Experimental progress is reported for uncatalyzed liquefactions, catalyzed liquefactions, liquefaction in the presence of solvents other than tetralin, and kinetics of gas formation during coal liquefaction. Analytical methods were developed for the determination of the boiling range of coal liquids by thermogravimetric analysis and the determination of phenolic hydroxyl in coal, coal liquids, and coal residues.

  6. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-09-15

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  7. Panspermia revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda

    "Panspermia", coined by S. Arrhenius in 1903, suggests that microscopic forms of life, e.g., bacterial spores, can be dispersed in space by the radiation pressure from the Sun thereby seeding life from one planet to another or even beyond our Solar System. Being ignored for almost the rest of the century, the scenario of interplanetary transfer of life has received increased support from recent discoveries, such as the detection of Martian meteorites and the high resistance of microorganisms to outer space conditions. With the aid of space technology and adequate laboratory devices the following decisive step required for viable transfer from one planet to another have been tested: (i) the escape process, i.e. impact ejection into space; (ii) the journey through space over extended periods of time; and (iii) the landing process, i.e. non-destructive deposition of the biological material on another planet. In systematic shock recovery experiments within a pressure range observed in Martian meteorites (5-50 GPa) a vital launch window of 5-40 GPa has been determined for spores of Bacillus subtilis and the lichen Xanthoria elegans, whereas this window was restricted to 5-10 GPa for the endolithic cyanobaterium Chroococcidiopsis. Traveling through space implies exposure to high vacuum, an intense radiation regime of cosmic and solar origin and high temperature fluctuations. In several space experiments the biological efficiency of these different space parameters has been tested: extraterrestrial solar UV radiation has exerted the most deleterious effects to viruses, as well as to bacterial and fungal spores; however shielding against this intense insolation resulted in 70 % survival of B. subtilis spores after spending 6 years in outer space. Lichens survived 2 weeks in space, even without any shielding. The entry process of microorganisms has been recently tested in the STONE facility attached to the heat shield of a reentry capsule. The data support the scenario of "Lithopanspermia", which assumes that impact-expelled rocks serve as interplanetary transfer vehicles for microorganisms colonizing those rocks. Literature: Stffler D, Horneck G, Ott S, Hornemann, U, Cockell CS, Moeller R, Meyer C, de Vera J-P, o Fritz J, Artemieva NA,.Experimental evidence for the potential impact ejection of viable microorganisms from Mars and Mars-like planets (2007) Icarus, 186, 585-588. Sancho, L.G., de la Torre, R., Horneck, G., Ascaso, C., de los Rios, A., Pintado, A., Wierzchos, J. and Schuster, M. (2007) Lichens survive in space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment. Astrobiology, 7, 443-454. Mileikowsky C, Cucinotta F, Wilson J W, Gladman B, Horneck G, Lindegren L, Melosh J, Rickman H, Valtonen M, Zheng J Q (2000) Natural transfer of viable microbes In space, Part 1: From Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars, Icarus, 145, 391-427. Nicholson WL, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh HJ, and Setlow P (2000) Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, Microb. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64, 548-572.

  8. Numerical study of the effect of normalised window size, sampling frequency, and noise level on short time Fourier transform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, T. A.

    2013-10-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry, is a widely used optical technique that requires the analysis of frequency modulated signals. This paper describes an investigation into the errors of short time Fourier transform analysis. The number of variables requiring investigation was reduced by means of an equivalence principle. Error predictions, as the number of cycles, samples per cycle, noise level, and window type were varied, are presented. The results were found to be in good agreement with analytical models.

  9. Effect of short-time hydrothermal pretreatment of kitchen waste on biohydrogen production: fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxiao; Xia, Tianming; Zhu, Chaowei; Xi, Beidou; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhu, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of bio-hydrogen production from kitchen waste by a short-time hydrothermal pretreatment at different temperatures (i.e., 90°C, 120°C, 150°C and 200°C) was evaluated. The effects of temperature for the short-time hydrothermal pretreatment on kitchen waste protein conversion and dissolved organic matter characteristics were investigated in this study. A maximum bio-hydrogen yield of 81.27mL/g VS was acquired at 200°C by the short-time hydrothermal pretreatment during the anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production. Analysis of the dissolved organic matter composition showed that the protein-like peak dominated and that three fluorescent components were separated using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra coupled with the parallel factor model. The maximum fluorescence intensities of protein-like components decomposed through the parallel factor analysis has a significant correlation with the raw protein concentration, showed by further correlation analysis. This directly impacted the hydrogen production ability. PMID:25280046

  10. Effect of short-time aerobic digestion on bioflocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiao; Zhao, Jianfu; Xia, Siqing

    2015-02-01

    The effect of short-time aerobic digestion on bioflocculation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. Bioflocculation of the EPS was found to be enhanced by 2∼6 h of WAS aerobic digestion under the conditions of natural sludge pH (about 7), high sludge concentration by gravity thickening, and dissolved oxygen of about 2 mg/L. With the same EPS extraction method, the total suspended solid content reduction of 0.20 and 0.36 g/L and the volatile suspended solid content reduction of 0.19 and 0.26 g/L were found for the WAS samples before and after aerobic digestion of 4 h. It indicates that more EPS is produced by short-time aerobic digestion of WAS. The scanning electron microscopy images of the WAS samples before and after aerobic digestion of 4 h showed that more EPS appeared on the surface of zoogloea by aerobic digestion, which reconfirmed that WAS aerobic digestion induced abundant formation of EPS. By WAS aerobic digestion, the flocculating rate of the EPS showed about 31 % growth, almost consistent with the growth of its yield (about 34 %). The EPSs obtained before and after the aerobic digestion presented nearly the same components, structures, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. These results revealed that short-time aerobic digestion of WAS enhanced the flocculation of the EPS by promoting its production. PMID:23771440

  11. Short-time-scale (year) variations of petroleum fluids from the U.S. Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Jean K.; Eglinton, Lorraine; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2001-10-01

    Evolving short-term (less than 5 yr) compositional changes in hydrocarbon charge from some Eugene Island Block 330 (EI-330) wells are demonstrated. Storage, analytical, and production artifacts are shown to be minimal. In some wells, compositions remain constant from 1985 to 1993, whereas in others in the same reservoir, significant changes are observed. In some cases, temporal variability is greater than spatial variability. Maximum temporal change is strongest for specific compounds: toluene and C 6 to C 9 normal alkanes, but is also observed to a lesser extent for higher-molecular-weight components (up to n-C 32). Principal coordinate analysis shows the highest degree of overall temporal compositional change over an 8-yr period in the shallowest wells where there is also evidence of biodegradation. Small temporal compositional changes are also observed in two deeper wells that are below the thermal window favorable for biodegradation. An exception is an unusual oil, where a very large increase in toluene, as well as smaller changes in a number of n-alkanes, was observed in 1993. The δ 13C compound-specific isotopic signature of toluene, in addition to several other C 7-C 8 compounds in this oil, yields convincing evidence that it is related to the same family as other EI-330 oils and unlikely to be due to a drilling or laboratory contaminant. Minor isotopic differences in other C 7 compounds (1.5‰) are consistent with extensive gas washing of this oil. The short-term compositional changes in EI-330 oils are attributed to gas washing, which causes overprinting of biodegraded oils with light n-alkanes in shallower GA and HB reservoirs where oils are currently being biodegraded in situ. Patterns of smaller changes in heavier compounds in both shallower and deeper wells are also consistent with this interpretation.

  12. FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN SHORT NOISY TIME SERIES. (R828745)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy time series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the time series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...

  13. Distribution Entropy (DistEn): A complexity measure to detect arrhythmia from short length RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Chandan; Udhayakumar, Radhagayathri K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate complexity analysis is a powerful non-invasive means to diagnose several cardiac ailments. Non-linear tools of complexity measurement are indispensable in order to bring out the complete non-linear behavior of Physiological signals. The most popularly used non-linear tools to measure signal complexity are the entropy measures like Approximate entropy (ApEn) and Sample entropy (SampEn). But, these methods become unreliable and inaccurate at times, in particular, for short length data. Recently, a novel method of complexity measurement called Distribution Entropy (DistEn) was introduced, which showed reliable performance to capture complexity of both short term synthetic and short term physiologic data. This study aims to i) examine the competence of DistEn in discriminating Arrhythmia from Normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects, using RR interval time series data; ii) explore the level of consistency of DistEn with data length N; and iii) compare the performance of DistEn with ApEn and SampEn. Sixty six RR interval time series data belonging to two groups of cardiac conditions namely `Arrhythmia' and `NSR' have been used for the analysis. The data length N was varied from 50 to 1000 beats with embedding dimension m = 2 for all entropy measurements. Maximum ROC area obtained using ApEn, SampEn and DistEn were 0.83, 0.86 and 0.94 for data length 1000, 1000 and 500 beats respectively. The results show that DistEn undoubtedly exhibits a consistently high performance as a classification feature in comparison with ApEn and SampEn. Therefore, DistEn shows a promising behavior as bio marker for detecting Arrhythmia from short length RR interval data. PMID:26737465

  14. Vessel failure time for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence has been analyzed using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1, in a boiling water reactor (BWR)-4. This paper presents a sensitivity study evaluating the effect of several MELCOR input parameters on vessel failure time. Results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR code are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. These calculated vessel failure times are discussed, and a judgment is offered as to which is the most realistic.

  15. Real-time Seismicity Evaluation as a Tool for the Earthquake and Tsunami Short-Term Hazard Assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic activity is a 3-D process varying in the space-time-magnitude domains. When in a target area the short-term activity deviates significantly from the usual (background) seismicity, then the modes of activity may include swarms, temporary quiescence, foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, doublets and multiplets. This implies that making decision for civil protection purposes requires short-term seismic hazard assessment and evaluation. When a sizable earthquake takes place the critical question is about the nature of the event: mainshock or a foreshock which foreshadows the occurrence of a biger one? Also, the seismicity increase or decrease in a target area may signify either precursory changes or just transient seismicity variations (e.g. swarms) which do not conclude with a strong earthquake. Therefore, the real-time seismicity evaluation is the backbone of the short-term hazard assessment. The algorithm FORMA (Foreshock-Mainshock-Aftershock) is presented which detects and updates automatically and in near real-time significant variations of the seismicity according to the earthquake data flow from the monitoring center. The detection of seismicity variations is based on an expert system which for a given target area indicates the mode of seismicity from the variation of two parameters: the seismicity rate, r, and the b-value of the magnitude-frequency relation. Alert levels are produced according to the significance levels of the changes of r and b. The good performance of FORMA was verified retrospectively in several earthquake cases, e.g. for the L Aquila, Italy, 2009 earthquake sequence (Mmax 6.3) (Papadopoulos et al., 2010). Real-time testing was executed during January 2010 with the strong earthquake activity (Mmax 5.6) in the Corinth Rift, Central Greece. Evaluation outputs were publicly documented on a nearly daily basis with successful results. Evaluation of coastal and submarine earthquake activity is also of crucial importance for the short-term hazard assessment for near-field tsunamis, given that the time constraints for early warning is on the order of few minutes up to less than 1 hour. It is proposed that warning procedures for near-field tsunamis in a target area may benefit by combining a tsunami decision matrix with short-term seismic hazard evaluation. Simulated procedures incorporating retrospective tests in the Mediterranean Sea proved encouraging.

  16. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  17. Time Resolved Studies of ZnO (Eu) Nanostructure Luminescence Using Short Synchrotron Radiation Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heigl, F.; Jrgensen, A.; Zhou, X.-T.; Murphy, M.; Ko, J. Y. P.; Lam, S.; Sham, T. K.; Regier, T.; Blyth, R. I. R.; Coulthard, I.; Zuin, L.; Hu, Y.-F.; Armelao, L.; Gordon, R.; Brewe, D.

    2007-02-01

    X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) is a well established technique to study nano structured light emitting materials. XEOL bares the essential features necessary for the study of advanced nano structured materials like element specifity, good quantum efficiency, and easy approach for time resolution. Being sensitive to the geometry of the material on a nano-scale, luminescence gives insight into the phenomenologic correlation of structural, optical, and electronic properties. Besides structural aspects we study the time behavior of nanostructured ZnO (Eu) in a pump-probe like experiment, using the time structure of synchrotron radiation.

  18. Short-term sandbar variability based on video imagery: Comparison between Time-Average and Time-Variance techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guedes, R.M.C.; Calliari, L.J.; Holland, K.T.; Plant, N.G.; Pereira, P.S.; Alves, F.N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Time-exposure intensity (averaged) images are commonly used to locate the nearshore sandbar position (xb), based on the cross-shore locations of maximum pixel intensity (xi) of the bright bands in the images. It is not known, however, how the breaking patterns seen in Variance images (i.e. those created through standard deviation of pixel intensity over time) are related to the sandbar locations. We investigated the suitability of both Time-exposure and Variance images for sandbar detection within a multiple bar system on the southern coast of Brazil, and verified the relation between wave breaking patterns, observed as bands of high intensity in these images and cross-shore profiles of modeled wave energy dissipation (xD). Not only is Time-exposure maximum pixel intensity location (xi-Ti) well related to xb, but also to the maximum pixel intensity location of Variance images (xi-Va), although the latter was typically located 15m offshore of the former. In addition, xi-Va was observed to be better associated with xD even though xi-Ti is commonly assumed as maximum wave energy dissipation. Significant wave height (Hs) and water level (??) were observed to affect the two types of images in a similar way, with an increase in both Hs and ?? resulting in xi shifting offshore. This ??-induced xi variability has an opposite behavior to what is described in the literature, and is likely an indirect effect of higher waves breaking farther offshore during periods of storm surges. Multiple regression models performed on xi, Hs and ?? allowed the reduction of the residual errors between xb and xi, yielding accurate estimates with most residuals less than 10m. Additionally, it was found that the sandbar position was best estimated using xi-Ti (xi-Va) when xb was located shoreward (seaward) of its mean position, for both the first and the second bar. Although it is unknown whether this is an indirect hydrodynamic effect or is indeed related to the morphology, we found that this behavior can be explored to optimize sandbar estimation using video imagery, even in the absence of hydrodynamic data. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  19. Time-dependent intensity and phase measurements of ultrashort laser pulses as short as 10 fs

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R.; Taft, G.; Rundquist, A.; Murnane, M.M.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Christov, I.P.

    1995-05-01

    Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) measures the time-dependent intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse. Using FROG, we have tested theories for the operation of sub{minus}10 fs laser oscillators.

  20. Precise Point Positioning technique for short and long baselines time transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejba, Pawel; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Lemanski, Dariusz; Foks-Ryznar, Anna; Nogas, Pawel; Dunst, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In this work the clock parameters determination of several timing receivers TTS-4 (AOS), ASHTECH Z-XII3T (OP, ORB, PTB, USNO) and SEPTENTRIO POLARX4TR (ORB, since February 11, 2012) by use of the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique were presented. The clock parameters were determined for several time links based on the data delivered by time and frequency laboratories mentioned above. The computations cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 and were performed in two modes with 7-day and one-month solution for all links. All RINEX data files which include phase and code GPS data were recorded in 30-second intervals. All calculations were performed by means of Natural Resource Canada's GPS Precise Point Positioning (GPS-PPP) software based on high-quality precise satellite coordinates and satellite clock delivered by IGS as the final products. The used independent PPP technique is a very powerful and simple method which allows for better control of antenna positions in AOS and a verification of other time transfer techniques like GPS CV, GLONASS CV and TWSTFT. The PPP technique is also a very good alternative for calibration of a glass fiber link PL-AOS realized at present by AOS. Currently PPP technique is one of the main time transfer methods used at AOS what considerably improve and strengthen the quality of the Polish time scales UTC(AOS), UTC(PL), and TA(PL). KEY-WORDS: Precise Point Positioning, time transfer, IGS products, GNSS, time scales.

  1. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Mller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  2. Potential denitrification and N2O efflux from riparian soils during short-time flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Denitrification can contribute significantly to the filter function of soils because it leads to permanent removal of nitrate. Denitrification has been intensively studied in wetlands characterized by seasonal wet-dry cycles and in riparian buffer zones between agricultural land and rivers. Less attention has been paid to the effects of overbank flooding in river floodplains, in particular to short terms effect of flood pulses. We monitored denitrification potential, N2O efflux and related parameters in soils of a restored reach of the Alpine river Thur in northeastern Switzerland during and after flashy flood events. The study was part of the interdisciplinary project cluster RECORD, which was initiated to advance the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The studied river reach comprised the following three functional processing zones (FPZ) representing a lateral successional gradient with decreasing hydrological connectivity (i.e. decreasing flooding frequency and duration). (i) The grass zone developed naturally on a gravel bar after restoration of the channelized river section (mainly colonized by canary reed grass Phalaris arundinacae). The soil is composed of up to 80 cm thick fresh sediments trapped and stabilized by the grass roots. (ii) The bush zone is composed of young willow trees (Salix viminalis) planted during restoration to stabilize older overbank deposits. (iii) The mixed forest is a mature riparian hardwood forest developed on older overbank sediments with ash and maple as dominant trees. The study period was between April and October 2009 including two flood events in June and July. The first flood inundated the grass zone and lower part of the willow bush while the second bigger flood swept through all the FPZs. Topsoil samples were taken from four spatial replicates in each FPZ mostly biweekly and with higher frequency following the floods. Potential denitrification was measured as denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA) and substrate limitation was assessed by the same assay but without addition of glucose and nitrate. Over the entire observation period, soil moisture was the main controlling factor of DEA in all FPZ (correlation between DEA and gravimetric water content with R = 0.74, 0.61 and 0.47 for grass zone, willow bush and mixed forest, respectively, at p<0.01). Considering extractable nitrate and the results from the denitrification assay without nitrate and glucose we conclude that there was some substrate limitation but it was not severe. During the flooding events, DEA responded instantaneously to the changes in soil moisture. Particularly strong denitrification "pulses" were observed 1 to 2 days after peak floods in the grass zone, while the scale of change decreased with distance from the river. A severe substrate limitation in the grass zone was indicated 5 days after the peak of the second flood. N2O emissions did not correlate with DEA. High N2O emissions were measured in the grass zone during the entire period of relatively high soil moisture encompassing the two floods with maximum values shortly after water level fell below the overbank sediment. Smaller N2O emissions during complete or partial saturation of the sediments indicated a smaller proportion of denitrification related N2O vs. N2. In addition, a comparison with the composition of soil solution collected in-situ (in particular nitrate and DOC) will be presented for additional insight into controls and limitations of denitrification.

  3. Caterpillars selected for large body size and short development time are more susceptible to oxygen-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jon F; Cease, Arianne J; VandenBrooks, John M; Albert, Todd; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that higher growth rates may be associated with reduced capacities for stress tolerance and increased accumulated damage due to reactive oxygen species. We tested the response of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) lines selected for large or small body size and short development time to hypoxia (10 kPa) and hyperoxia (25, 33, and 40 kPa); both hypoxia and hyperoxia reduce reproduction and oxygen levels over 33 kPa have been shown to increase oxidative damage in insects. Under normoxic (21 kPa) conditions, individuals from the large-selected (big-fast) line were larger and had faster growth rates, slightly longer developmental times, and reduced survival rates compared to individuals from a line selected for small size (small-fast) or an unselected control line. Individuals from the big-fast line exhibited greater negative responses to hyperoxia with greater reductions in juvenile and adult mass, growth rate, and survival than the other two lines. Hypoxia generally negatively affected survival and growth/size, but the lines responded similarly. These results are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that simultaneous acquisition of large body sizes and short development times leads to reduced capacities for coping with stressful conditions including oxidative damage. This result is of particular importance in that natural selection tends to decrease development time and increase body size. PMID:23762517

  4. Performance impact on nuclear thermal propulsion of piloted Mars missions with short transit times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickenheiser, T. J.; Gessner, K. S.; Alexander, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) are examined with respect to a specific mission scenario derived from Stafford Committee recommendations. The recommended mission scenario is a split/sprint opposition mission which includes a piloted vehicle and a cargo vehicle, and the baseline mission is developed from a reference trajectory. Key mision parameters are developed from the baseline mission, including engine-thrust levels, mission opportunity, and engine burn-time requirements. The impact of engine failure is also considered in terms of burn-time requirements, and other mission-performance issues considered include propulsion-technology assumptions, triple-perigee earth-departure burns, and Mars parking-orbit selection. The engine requirements call for a 50-75-klb engine-thrust level, maximum single burn time of 0.6 hours, and a maximum total-mission burn time of 1.7 hours. For a crew of 6, a 475-day total-mission trip with a 90-day stay at Mars is possible.

  5. Autocorrelation Effects on Least-Squares Intervention Analysis of Short Time Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.; McKnight, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Clarifies several issues regarding the effects of autocorrelated errors on Type I error in ordinary least-squares models. Demonstrates through Monte Carlo simulation the conditions under which distortion in Type I error is less than predicted by asymptotic theory. Suggests a recently developed small-sample method for time-series analyses. (SLD)

  6. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  7. Short-Time Events, Coherence, and Structural Dynamics in Photochemistry of Aqueous Halogenated Transition Metal Dianions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnovsky, A. N.; Zheldakov, I. L.; El-Khoury, P. Z.; Pal, S. K.; Mereshchenko, A. S.; Ryazantsev, M. N.; Butaeva, E. V.; Pascher, T.; Uhlig, J.; Milne, C. J.; Johnson, S. L.

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved x-ray absorption, and computational photochemistry elucidate the photochemical pathway of hexabromoplatinate dianions that propagates through distortions of nascent penta-bromoplatinate anions caused by Jahn-Teller conical intersections and terminates at aquated product complexes.

  8. The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic

  9. Revisiting the Rhetorical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the special strand on "Revisiting the rhetorical curriculum" is to explore the educational potential of a new rhetorical perspective, specifically in relation to different traditions within educational and rhetorical studies. This implies that we do not only look at education "in" rhetoric, but that we position education also "as" a

  10. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  11. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  12. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…

  13. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the

  14. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon

  15. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30... Provisions 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the... be subject to user fees unless otherwise exempted. Revisit survey means a survey performed...

  16. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30... Provisions 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the... subject to user fees unless otherwise exempted. Revisit survey means a survey performed with respect to...

  17. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30... Provisions 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the... be subject to user fees unless otherwise exempted. Revisit survey means a survey performed...

  18. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30... Provisions 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the... be subject to user fees unless otherwise exempted. Revisit survey means a survey performed...

  19. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30... Provisions 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the... be subject to user fees unless otherwise exempted. Revisit survey means a survey performed...

  20. Inspiratory-phase Short Time Scale Synchrony in the Brainstem Slice is Generated Downstream of the PreBtzinger Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sebe, Joy Y.; Berger, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory neurons are synchronized on a long time scale to generate inspiratory and expiratory-phase activities that are critical for respiration. Long time scale synchrony within the respiratory network occurs on a time scale of more than hundreds of milliseconds to seconds. During inspiration, neurons are synchronized on a short time scale to produce synchronous oscillations, which shape the pattern of inspiratory motor output. This latter form of synchrony within the respiratory network spans a shorter time range of tens of milliseconds. In the neonatal mouse rhythmically active medullary slice preparation, we recorded bilateral inspiratory activity from hypoglossal (XII) rootlets to study where in the slice synchronous oscillations are generated. Based on previous work that proposed the origin of these oscillations, we tested the PreBtzinger Complex (PreBtC) and the XII motor nucleus. Unilateral excitation of the PreBtC, via local application of a perfusate containing high K+, increased mean inspiratory burst frequency bilaterally (296 66%; n=10, p<0.01), but had no effect on the relative power of oscillations. In contrast, unilateral excitation of the XII nucleus increased both mean peak integrated activity bilaterally (ipsilateral: 41 10%, p<0.01;contralateral: 17 7%; p<0.05, n=10) and oscillation power in the ipsilateral (50 17%, n=7, p<0.05), but not in the contralateral rootlet. Crosscorrelation analysis of control inspiratory activity recorded from the left and right XII rootlets produced crosscorrelation histograms with significant peaks centered around a time lag of zero and showed no subsidiary harmonic peaks. Coherence analysis of left and right XII rootlet recordings demonstrated that oscillations are only weakly coherent. Together, the findings from local application experiments and crosscorrelation and coherence analyses indicate that short time scale synchronous oscillations recorded in the slice are likely generated in or immediately upstream of the XII motor nucleus. PMID:18455877

  1. Test of the exponential decay law at short decay times using tau leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Ametewee, K.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Beaudoin, G.; Bechtluft, J.; Beck, G. A.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A. N.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bloomer, J. E.; Bock, P.; Bosch, H. M.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B. T.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Brgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlesworth, C.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Chu, S. L.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clowes, S. G.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Darling, C.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; Dixit, M. S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dunwoody, U. C.; Edwards, J. E. G.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Evans, H. G.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbro, B.; Fath, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fischer, H. M.; Folman, R.; Fong, D. G.; Foucher, M.; Fukui, H.; Frtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gaidot, A.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Geddes, N. I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hilse, T.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horvth, D.; Howard, R.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; King, B. J.; King, J.; Kirk, J.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W. P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Layter, J. G.; Lee, A. M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lewis, C.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Luig, A.; Malik, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Matthews, W.; Mttig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McNab, A. I.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Mller, U.; Nellen, B.; Nijjhar, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oldershaw, N. J.; Omori, T.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Palazzo, M.; Plinks, J.; Palmonari, F. M.; Pansart, J. P.; Psztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Pearce, M. J.; Phillips, P. D.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Przysiezniak, H.; Rees, D. L.; Rigby, D.; Rison, M. G.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A. M.; Rosvick, M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Rylko, R.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sasaki, M.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schrder, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Schulz, M.; Schtz, P.; Schwiening, J.; Scott, W. G.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Sldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Starks, M.; Stegmann, C.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Strom, D.; Strumia, F.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Takeda, H.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Tecchio, M.; Tesch, N.; Thomson, M. A.; von Trne, E.; Towers, S.; Tscheulin, M.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Vikas, P.; Vincter, M.; Vokurka, E. H.; Wckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, D. L.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Ward, J. J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wlodek, T.; Wolf, G.; Wotton, S.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xella, S.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; OPAL Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts an exponential distribution for the decay time of massive particles. However, deviations are expected for decay times shorter than about 10 -13 s in models conjecturing the existence of hidden variables. Following a recent proposal, the decay length distribution of 5843 ? leptons decaying into 3 charged particles was analyzed in search of such a deviation. The deviation from an exponential distribution with respect to the number of decays present within the exponential form, expressed as the relative weight of an excess at zero decay length, was measured to be 1.1%1.4%3.5%. This result is consistent with zero deviation and leads to an upper limit of 8.5% and a lower limit of -6.3% at the 95% confidence level.

  2. New short-time alignment technique for 70-meter antenna surface panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katow, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    With severely limited field modification time for upgrading the 64-m antenna to 70-m diameter, a new shorter time method for aligning the surface panels of the main reflector was needed. For each target on the surface panel, both distance (or range) and elevation angle measurements are made. A new technique for setting the surface panels at zenith look has been devised. This article describes the software required to convert the computed target distortions obtained from the JPL-IDEAS structural analysis computer program (defining the gravity load change from a 45-deg elevation angle to zenith look) into the theodolite reading at zenith look. The technique results in a perfectly shaped reflector at the 45-deg rigging elevation, with acceptable surface error tolerance.

  3. Short time variability of solar corona during recent solar cycle minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siarkowski, Marek; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Kepa, Anna; Buczkowska, Agnieszka; Kowalinski, Miroslaw

    Sphinx is the X-ray spectrophotometer designed to measure X-ray emission from the Sun in the energy range between 0.8 keV and 15 keV. The instrument is placed onboard Russian KORONAS-PHOTON satellite launched on January 30, 2009. In this paper we present the observations of coronal emission obtained between March-April and August-September 2009, i.e. the times towards the end of the last, very prolonged and deep minimum of solar activity. Prompt analysis of SphinX spectra reveal the variability of the average coronal plasma charac-teristics like the temperature and emission measure. These data are used to compare SphinX and GOES measurements, for selected times. Examples of many sub/microflare events with maxima of the X-ray flux, observed much below the GOES sensitivity threshold level will be presented.

  4. The effects of temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure on short-sprint race times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureika, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind-gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in times (0.01 s per 10 degrees C increment in the 100 m), while relative humidity contributes the least (under 0.01 s for all realistic conditions for 100 m). Barometric pressure variations at a particular venue can also introduce fluctuations in performance times on the order of a 0.01 s for this race. The combination of all three variables is essentially additive, and is more important for head-wind conditions that for tail-winds. As expected, calculated corrections in the 200 m are magnified due to the longer duration of the race. The overall effects of these factors on sprint times can be considered a ``second order'' adjustment to previous methods that rely strictly on a venue's physical elevation, but can become important in extreme conditions.

  5. Short-Term Dispersal Response of an Endangered Australian Lizard Varies with Time of Year

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Bull, C. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is an important component in the demography of animal populations. Many animals show seasonal changes in their tendency to disperse, reflecting changes in resource availability, mating opportunities, or in population age structure at the time when new offspring enter the population. Understanding when and why dispersal occurs can be important for the management of endangered species. The pygmy bluetongue lizard is an endangered Australian species that occupies and defends single burrow refuges for extended periods of time, rarely moving far from the burrow entrance. However, previous pitfall trapping data have suggested movement of adult males in spring and of juveniles in autumn of each year. In the current study we compared behaviours of adult lizards each month, over the spring-summer activity period over two consecutive field seasons, to provide deeper understanding of the seasonal dispersal pattern. We released adult pygmy bluetongue lizards into a central area, provided with artificial burrows, within large enclosures, and monitored the behaviour and movements of the released lizards over a four day period. There was a consistent decline in time spent basking, amount of movement around burrow entrances, and rates of dispersal from the central release area from early spring to late summer. Results could be relevant to understanding and managing natural populations and for any translocation attempts of this endangered lizard species. PMID:25147949

  6. Four-dimensional noise reduction using the time series of medical computed tomography datasets with short interval times: a static-phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Tani, Wakiko; Suehiro, Erina; Negi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. This study examines the hypothesis that four-dimensional noise reduction (4DNR) with short interval times reduces noise in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) using padding phases. Furthermore, the capability of reducing the reduction dose in CCT using this post-processing technique was assessed. Methods. Using base and quarter radiation doses for CCT (456 and 114 mAs/rot with 120 kVp), a static phantom was scanned ten times with retrospective electrocardiogram gating, and 4DNR with short interval times (50 ms) was performed using a post-processing technique. Differences in the computed tomography (CT) attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution with modulation transfer function in each dose image obtained with and without 4DNR were assessed by conducting a TukeyKramers test and non-inferiority test. Results. For the base dose, by using 4DNR, the CNR was improved from 1.18 0.15 to 2.08 0.20 (P = 0.001), while the CT attenuation and spatial resolution of the image of 4DNR did not were significantly inferior to those of reference image (P < 0.001). CNRs of the quarter-dose image in 4DNR also improved to 1.28 0.11, and were not inferior to those of the non-4DNR images of the base dose (P < 0.001). Conclusions. 4DNR with short interval times significantly reduced noise. Furthermore, applying this method to CCT would have the potential of reducing the radiation dose by 75%, while maintaining a similar image noise level. PMID:26893966

  7. Identifying monomer phases and cluster phases in lysozyme solutions by studying the temperature dependence of the short-time dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, P; Chen, Wei-Ren; Falus, Peter; Faraone, Antonio; Fratini, Emiliano; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Porcar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently experiments that combine both small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) have demonstrated that dynamic clusters can form in concentrated lysozyme solutions when there is a right combination of a short-ranged attraction and a long-ranged electrostatic repulsion. In this paper, we study the temperature effect on the dynamic cluster formation and try to pinpoint the transition concentration from a monomer phase to a cluster phase. Interestingly at even a relatively high concentration (10 % mass fraction), despite the significant change of the SANS patterns that are associated with the change of the short-ranged attraction among proteins, the normalized short-time self-diffusion coefficient is not affected. This is interpreted due to the fact that there is no cluster formation at this condition. However, at larger concentrations such as 17.5 % and 22.5 % mass fraction, we show that the average hydrodynamic radius increase significantly and causes a large decrease of the normalized self-diffusion coefficient when the temperature is changed from 25 oC to 5 oC indicating the formation of dynamic clusters in solution.

  8. [Effect of short-time drought process on denitrifying bacteria abundance and N2O emission in paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Jin-Bo; Sheng, Rong; Liu, Yi; Chen, An-Lei; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate the impact of drying process on greenhouse gas emissions and denitrifying microorganisms in paddy soil, wetting-drying process was simulated in laboratory conditions. N2O flux, redox potential (Eh) were monitored and narG- and nosZ-containing denitrifiers abundances were determined by real-time PCR. N2O emission was significantly increased only 4 h after drying process began, and it was more than 6 times of continuous flooding (CF) at 24 h. In addition, narG and nosZ gene abundances were increased rapidly with the drying process, and N2O emission flux was significantly correlated with narG gene abundance (P < 0.01). Our results indicated that the narG-containing deniteifiers were the main driving microorganisms which caused the N2O emission in the short-time drought process in paddy soil. PMID:25796895

  9. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. Objectives: This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. Materials and Methods: After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2; maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. Results: The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation < 3%) and relative (intraclass coefficient correlation > 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). Conclusions: TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg-1), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h-1). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness. PMID:26448846

  10. [Key time window of fiber quality formation in response to short-term higher temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin-tao; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Zhi-guo; Zhao, Wen-qing; Wang, You-hua

    2015-08-01

    By taking two cotton cultivars with different temperature-sensitivity (Sumian 15, temperature-sensitive cultivar and Kemian 1, temperature-insensitive cultivar) as materials, an experiment with two temperature regimes (high temperature: 34 C [38/30 C], HT and control: 26 C [30/22 C], CK) were set in climate chamber to study the change of key matters in different genotypes cotton in response to high temperature and their relationships with fiber quality. The results showed that as treated in the 34.0 C high-temperature regime for 5 days at different DPA (days past anthesis), significant change in fiber quality was observed in the temperature-sensitive cultivar Sumian 15. The key time window for fiber length, fiber strength and Micronaire in response to the high temperature stress was from 0 to 18.3 DPA, 10.9 to 26.1 DPA, and 10.5 to 34.0 DPA, respectively. So, it could be concluded that the key time window of cotton fiber development in response to high temperature stress was around 11 to 18 DPA. After treated under high temperature stress at the key time window for 5 days, the content of sucrose decreased firstly then increased compared with that in the control, the content of callose increased and the content of cellulose decreased by 4.2% in maximum. The fiber length decreased (by 23.3% in maximum), fiber strength increased (by 4.3% in maximum), Micronaire decreased (by 10.5% in maximum) , and the general fiber quality deteriorated. Similar changes and trends were also observed in the temperature-insensitive cultivar Kemian 1 except that the variation degree was comparatively lower. PMID:26685607

  11. Impact of Short-Stay Urethroplasty on Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient's Perception of Timing of Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Henry; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate health-related quality of life in patients after a short-stay or outpatient urethroplasty. Methods. Over a 2-year period a validated health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, EuroQol (EQ-5D), was administered to all patients after urethroplasty. Postoperatively patients were offered to be sent home immediately or to stay overnight. Within 24 hours after discharge they were assessed for mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety and depression. An additional question assessing timing of discharge was added to the survey. Clinical and operative characteristics were examined. Results. Forty-eight patients after anterior urethroplasty completed the survey. Mean age and mean stricture length were 51.6 years (2178) and 60?mm (5200?mm), respectively. Most etiologies were idiopathic (50% n = 24), trauma (19%, n = 9), and iatrogenic (19%, n = 9). Forty-one patients (85%) stayed overnight, while 7 patients (15%) chose to be discharged the same day. Overall, ninety-six percent were discharged within 23 hours of surgery. In the short-stay and the outpatient cohorts, 90% and 86%, respectively, felt they were discharged on time. No patient reported a severe problem with postoperative pain or mobility. Conclusions. The majority of patients discharged soon after their procedure felt that discharge timing was appropriate and their health-related quality of life was only minimally affected. PMID:26494996

  12. Picosecond time scale dynamics of short pulse laser-driven shocks in tin

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, W.; Bowes, B. T.; Dalton, D. A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Bless, S.; Downer, M. C.; Taleff, E.; Ditmire, T.; Colvin, J.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of high strain rate shock waves driven by a subnanosecond laser pulse in thin tin slabs have been investigated. These shocks, with pressure up to 1 Mbar, have been diagnosed with an 800 nm wavelength ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe configuration, which measured reflectivity and two-dimensional interferometry of the expanding rear surface. Time-resolved rear surface expansion data suggest that we reached pressures necessary to shock melt tin upon compression. Reflectivity measurements, however, show an anomalously high drop in the tin reflectivity for free standing foils, which can be attributed to microparticle formation at the back surface when the laser-driven shock releases.

  13. Ultrasound surgery with a toric transducer allows the treatment of large volumes over short periods of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, David; N'Djin, William A.; Parmentier, Hubert; Chesnais, Sabrina; Rivoire, Michel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2007-11-01

    Thermal ablation by physical agents is widely used in clinical settings, but it generally results in a small coagulated volume. Here, we report that a technologically advanced high intensity focused ultrasound transducer can significantly enlarge the coagulated volume over short periods of time. Eight ultrasound emitters were created by sectioning a single toric piezocomposite transducer. A single thermal lesion is created when the eight emitters perform alternative and consecutive 5s ultrasound exposures. This paper presents in vivo evidence that the coagulated volume obtained from a 40s total exposure in the liver was 8.64.8cm3.

  14. On-line separation of short-lived nuclei by a multi-reflection time-of-flight device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. N.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Bhm, Ch.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Stanja, J.; Wienholtz, F.; Zuber, K.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer has been integrated into ISOLTRAP, the precision mass spectrometer for on-line mass determinations of short-lived nuclides at ISOLDE/CERN. The new instrument improves ISOLTRAP by providing a fast separation of isobaric contaminant species as well as subsequent ion selection using the fast Bradbury-Nielsen gate. Suppression ratios of up to 104 and mass-resolving powers of over 105 have been reached in off-line experiments. Preliminary data from on-line applications illustrate the benefit and performance of the device and its potential in the context of the ISOLTRAP setup.

  15. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Progress report, January 1, 1994--May 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1994-05-31

    The objective for this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). This reactor is simple enough and low enough in cost to serve as a suitable replacement for the traditional tubing-bomb reactors for many coal liquefaction and other high-pressure, high-temperature reaction studies. The liquefaction of selected Argonne Premium coals and the role of organic oxygen components of the coal and their reaction pathways at very low conversions are being investigated.

  16. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Metaxas, Peter J.; Chanthbouala, Andre; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-12-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 107 A/cm2. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  17. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Progress report, May 16, 1994--September 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1994-09-30

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). This reactor is simple enough and low enough in cost to serve as a suitable replacement for the traditional tubing-bomb reactors for many coal liquefaction and other high-pressure, high-temperature reaction studies. The liquefaction of selected Argonne Premium coals and the role of organic oxygen components of the coal and their reaction pathways at very low conversions are being investigated.

  18. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  19. Long- and short-time analysis of heartbeat sequences: correlation with mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, P; Balocchi, R; Chillemi, S; Grigolini, P; Hamilton, P; Maestri, R; Palatella, L; Raffaelli, G

    2003-06-01

    We analyze RR heartbeat sequences with a dynamic model that satisfactorily reproduces both the long- and the short-time statistical properties of heart beating. These properties are expressed quantitatively by means of two significant parameters, the scaling delta concerning the asymptotic effects of long-range correlation, and the quantity 1-pi establishing the amount of uncorrelated fluctuations. We find a correlation between the position in the phase space (delta, pi) of patients with congestive heart failure and their mortality risk. PMID:16241281

  20. Time Dependence of Material Properties of Polyethylene Glycol Hydrogels Chain Extended with Short Hydroxy Acid Segments

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Danial; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Karaman, Ozan; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of chemical composition and segment number (n) on gelation, stiffness, and degradation of hydroxy acid-chain-extended star polyethylene glycol acrylate (SPEXA) gels. The hydroxy acids included glycolide (G,), L-lactide (L), p-dioxanone (D) and -caprolactone (C). Chain-extension generated water soluble macromers with faster gelation rates, lower sol fractions, higher compressive moduli, and a wide-ranging degradation times when crosslinked into a hydrogel. SPEGA gels with the highest fraction of inter-molecular crosslinks had the most increase in compressive modulus with n whereas SPELA and SPECA had the lowest increase in modulus. SPEXA gels exhibited a wide range of degradation times from a few days for SPEGA to a few weeks for SPELA, a few months for SPEDA, and many months for SPECA. Marrow stromal cells and endothelial progenitor cells had the highest expression of vasculogenic markers when co-encapsulated in the faster degrading SPELA gel. PMID:25267858

  1. High Photoresponsivity and Short Photoresponse Times in Few-Layered WSe2 Transistors.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Nihar R; Ludwig, Jonathan; Lu, Zhengguang; Rhodes, Daniel; Bishop, Michael M; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; McGill, Stephen A; Smirnov, Dmitry; Balicas, Luis

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report the photoconducting response of field-effect transistors based on three atomic layers of chemical vapor transport grown WSe2 crystals mechanically exfoliated onto SiO2. We find that trilayered WSe2 field-effect transistors, built with the simplest possible architecture, can display high hole mobilities ranging from 350 cm(2)/(V s) at room temperature (saturating at a value of ?500 cm(2)/(V s) below 50 K) displaying a strong photocurrent response, which leads to exceptionally high photoresponsivities up to 7 A/W under white light illumination of the entire channel for power densities p < 10(2) W/m(2). Under a fixed wavelength of ? = 532 nm and a laser spot size smaller than the conducting channel area, we extract photoresponsitivities approaching 100 mA/W with concomitantly high external quantum efficiencies up to ?40% at room temperature. These values surpass values recently reported from more complex architectures, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides based heterostructures. Also, trilayered WSe2 phototransistors display photoresponse times on the order of 10 ?s. Our results indicate that the addition of a few atomic layers considerably decreases the photoresponse times, probably by minimizing the interaction with the substrates, while maintaining a very high photoresponsivity. PMID:25988364

  2. Broadband extreme-ultraviolet survey spectrometer for short-time-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, B.E.; Den Hartog, D.J. ); Fonck, R.J. )

    1994-07-01

    A fast and inexpensive spectrometer system has been developed to record extreme-UV impurity spectra in a magnetic-fusion-research device. To simplify the vacuum system, light is passed out of the spectrometer's vacuum to the detector with a sodium-salicylate-coated, fiber-optic coupler. This coupler is positioned so that the focal field is nearly flat over its aperture. The system's detector is a microchannel-plate-intensified, linear, self-scanning photodiode array. The 1024-pixel array covers a bandwidth greater than 80 nm and is read out once every millisecond. The readout, which is four times faster than the manufacturer's maximum rating, is fully synchronized to the experiment by a locally designed control circuit.

  3. Short-time critical dynamics of the Baxter-Wu model.

    PubMed

    Arashiro, Everaldo; de Felício, J R Drugowich

    2003-04-01

    We study the early time behavior of the Baxter-Wu model, an Ising model with three-spin interactions on a triangular lattice. Our estimates for the dynamic exponent z are compatible with results recently obtained for two models which belong to the same universality class of the Baxter-Wu model: the two-dimensional four-state Potts model and the Ising model with three-spin interactions in one direction. However, our estimates for the dynamic exponent theta of the Baxter-Wu model are completely different from the values obtained for those models. This discrepancy could be related to the absence of a marginal operator in the Baxter-Wu model. PMID:12786452

  4. Short treatment time and excellent treatment outcome in accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yukihisa; Hieda, Yoko; Yoshida, Rika; Yoshizako, Takeshi; Fuchiwaki, Takafumi; Aoi, Noriaki; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryohei; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-11-01

    Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed as treatment for patients with T1 glottic cancer, and its utility was evaluated based on treatment outcomes and adverse effects. Fifty-eight men who had undergone radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor classification was Tis in 4 patients, T1a in 38, and T1b in 16. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 55 patients. Travel time from home to hospital was 0-1 hour for 24 patients, 1-2 hours for 9, and >2 hours for 25. Laser vaporization was performed prior to radiotherapy in 38 patients, and 19 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with an agent such as S-1. Patients were irradiated twice daily using an irradiation container. Most patients received a dose of 1.5 Gy/fraction up to a total of 60 Gy. The median overall treatment time was 30 days, with a median observation period of 59.6 months. A complete response was observed in all patients. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 97.2%, 93.2%, and 97.8%, respectively. Although grade 3 pharyngeal mucositis was observed in 2 patients, there were no other grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. As late toxicity, grade 2 laryngeal edema and grade 1 laryngeal hemorrhage were observed in 1 patient each, but no serious events such as laryngeal necrosis or laryngeal stenosis were observed. In conclusion, this treatment method brings excellent outcome and will substantially reduce the treatment duration among patients who need to stay at nearby hotels while undergoing treatment at hospitals in rural areas. PMID:26663937

  5. Raman Scattering at Resonant or Near-Resonant Conditions: A Generalized Short-Time Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Sun, Yu-Ping; Miao, Quan; gren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of resonant Raman scattering in the course of the frequency detuning. The dephasing in the time domain makes the scattering fast when the photon energy is tuned from the absorption resonance. This makes frequency detuning to act as a camera shutter with a regulated scattering duration and provides a practical tool of controlling the scattering time in ordinary stationary measurements. The theory is applied to resonant Raman spectra of a couple of few-mode model systems and to trans-1,3,5-hexatriene and guanine-cytosine (G-C) Watson-Crick base pairs (DNA) molecules. Besides some particular physical effects, the regime of fast scattering leads to a simplification of the spectrum as well as to the scattering theory itself. Strong overtones appear in the Raman spectra when the photon frequency is tuned in the resonant region, while in the mode of fast scattering, the overtones are gradually quenched when the photon frequency is tuned more than one vibrational quantum below the first absorption resonance. The detuning from the resonant region thus leads to a strong purification of the Raman spectrum from the contamination by higher overtones and soft modes and purifies the spectrum also in terms of avoidance of dissociation and interfering fluorescence decay of the resonant state. This makes frequency detuning a very useful practical tool in the analysis of the resonant Raman spectra of complex systems and considerably improves the prospects for using the Raman effect for detection of foreign substances at ultra-low concentrations.

  6. Short treatment time and excellent treatment outcome in accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Yukihisa; Hieda, Yoko; Yoshida, Rika; Yoshizako, Takeshi; Fuchiwaki, Takafumi; Aoi, Noriaki; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryohei; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed as treatment for patients with T1 glottic cancer, and its utility was evaluated based on treatment outcomes and adverse effects. Fifty-eight men who had undergone radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor classification was Tis in 4 patients, T1a in 38, and T1b in 16. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 55 patients. Travel time from home to hospital was 01 hour for 24 patients, 12 hours for 9, and >2 hours for 25. Laser vaporization was performed prior to radiotherapy in 38 patients, and 19 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with an agent such as S-1. Patients were irradiated twice daily using an irradiation container. Most patients received a dose of 1.5 Gy/fraction up to a total of 60 Gy. The median overall treatment time was 30 days, with a median observation period of 59.6 months. A complete response was observed in all patients. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 97.2%, 93.2%, and 97.8%, respectively. Although grade 3 pharyngeal mucositis was observed in 2 patients, there were no other grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. As late toxicity, grade 2 laryngeal edema and grade 1 laryngeal hemorrhage were observed in 1 patient each, but no serious events such as laryngeal necrosis or laryngeal stenosis were observed. In conclusion, this treatment method brings excellent outcome and will substantially reduce the treatment duration among patients who need to stay at nearby hotels while undergoing treatment at hospitals in rural areas. PMID:26663937

  7. Direct growth of short single-walled carbon nanotubes with narrow-chirality distribution by time-programmed plasma chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kato, Toshiaki; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2010-12-28

    We have realized the direct growth of the short-length (<100 nm) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a narrow-chirality distribution by time-programmed plasma chemical vapor deposition (TP-PCVD). Transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope analyses reveal that the very short (<100 nm) SWNTs are selectively grown by precisely controlling their growth time on the order of a few seconds. Direct photoluminescence excitation measurements also show that the chirality distribution of the short SWNTs is fairly narrow, and (7, 6) and (8, 4) dominant short SWNTs are successfully synthesized by TP-PCVD. PMID:21082841

  8. [Evaluation of short-time premedication with d-chlorpheniramine maleate injection for paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity reaction].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomohiko; Doi, Masakazu; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Akase, Tomohide

    2008-08-01

    Paclitaxel(referred to hereinafter as PTX )is used in ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and endometrial cancer with positive treatment result reports. However, severe allergic reactions such as decreases in blood pressure and impaired breathing occur with relatively high frequency. For the prevention of such allergic reactions, administration of a premedication composed of the three components, dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablet, and ranitidine hydrochloride injection solution(or injectable famodine), is advised in the appended documentation. Administration is difficult because, among these three components, only diphenhydramine hydrochloride is administered orally and thus must be provided through the internal medicine department. Particularly when this combined dosage is administered as outpatient chemotherapy, the doctor must prescribe diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablets, and the patient must not forget to bring them on the day in which chemotherapy is administered. Also, checks by the medical staff such as pharmacists and nurses are required, complicating the administration of this therapy further. Taking this situation into consideration, our hospital uses a short-time premedication method wherein d-Chlorpheniramine Maleate injections are substituted for diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablets, and the time required for premedication is reduced to 15 minutes. This study investigated the allergic reaction ratio to consider the safety and usefulness of the short-time premedication method used at our hospital. The chemotherapy regimens conducted for the subject patients were 9 cases of PTX+CBDCA, 6 cases of biweekly- PTX, and 5 cases of weekly-PTX. A total of 67 PTX injections were given, 15 of them being first-time administrations. The ratio of allergic/hypersensitivity reactions was 10.0%(2 cases in 20). The short-time premedication method using d-Chlorpheniramine Maleate injections did not display a significant difference from the conventional method used for prevention of allergic and hypersensitivity reactions. Also, since this method of medication proves useful for is easy for the patient, reduces treatment time, is safe, economical, and helps reduce the workload of doctors, pharmacists, and nurses. PMID:18701846

  9. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Adaptive Fractal Analysis of Stride Time Data in Parkinson's Disease: Stitching Together Short Gait Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ( strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents (DFA) and (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning and . Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true . The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as standard in clinical gait analysis and to overcome limitations such as short walkways. PMID:24465708

  10. Metabolic syndrome increases oxidative stress but does not influence disability and short-time outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Simo, Andrea Name Colado; Lehmann, Marcio Francisco; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Meloni, Milena Zardetto; Flauzino, Tamires; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; de Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Dichi, Isaias; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and MetS and it may be one of molecular mechanisms involved in stroke. The aims of the present study were to verify differences in oxidative stress markers in acute ischemic stroke patients with and without MetS and to verify whether MetS influences disability and short time outcome of the patients. 148 patients with acute ischemic stroke were divided in two groups: with MetS (n?=?92) and without MetS (n?=?56). The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used for measuring the functional disability after 3-month follow-up. The study assessed the metabolic profile and oxidative stress markers. Stroke patients with MetS had higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides (p?short-come outcome did not differ after 3 months in both groups. In conclusion, an increase in oxidative stress markers was shown in acute ischemic stroke patients with MetS and this elevation seems to be involved mainly with changes in lipid profile, but the presence of MetS did not influence short-time disability and survival of the acute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:26342606

  11. Measuring the impact of temperature changes on the wine production in the Douro Region using the short time fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Mrio; Richter, Christian

    2012-03-01

    This paper investigates the cyclical behaviour of the wine production in Douro region during the period 1932-2008. In general, wine production is characterised by large fluctuations which are composed of short-term and/or long-term cycles. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, we decompose the wine production's variance in order to find the dominating production cycles, i.e we try to explain whether wine production follows more long-term or short-term cycles. In the next step, we try to explain those cycles using a dependent variable, namely the medium spring temperature (Tm_Sp) for the period 1967-2008. We estimated a Time-Varying Autoregressive Model, which could explain 75% of the production that is characterised by 4.8- and 2.5-year cycles. We use the Short Time Fourier Transform to decompose the link between wine production and temperature. When the temperature was incorporated, the R 2 increased and the Akaike criterion value was lower. Hence, Tm_Sp causes a large amount of these cycles and the wine production variation reflects this relationship. In addition to an upward trend, there is a clearly identifiable cycle around the long-term trend in production. We also show how much of the production cycle and what cycle in particular is explained by the Tm_Sp. There is a stable but not constant link between production and the Tm_Sp. In particular, the temperature is responsible for 5.2- and 2.4-year cycles which has been happening since the 1980s. The Tm_Sp can also be used as an indicator for the 4.8- and 2.5-year cycles of production. The developed model suggests that stationarity is a questionable assumption, and this means that historical distributions of wine production are going to need dynamic updating.

  12. Short-time-delay limit of the self-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erneux, Thomas; Weicker, Lionel; Bauer, Larissa; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations subject to time-delayed self-feedback in the activator variable. Parameters are chosen such that the steady state is stable independent of the feedback gain and delay τ . We demonstrate that stable large-amplitude τ -periodic oscillations can, however, coexist with a stable steady state even for small delays, which is mathematically counterintuitive. In order to explore how these solutions appear in the bifurcation diagram, we propose three different strategies. We first analyze the emergence of periodic solutions from Hopf bifurcation points for τ small and show that a subcritical Hopf bifurcation allows the coexistence of stable τ -periodic and stable steady-state solutions. Second, we construct a τ -periodic solution by using singular perturbation techniques appropriate for slow-fast systems. The theory assumes τ =O (1 ) and its validity as τ →0 is investigated numerically by integrating the original equations. Third, we develop an asymptotic theory where the delay is scaled with respect to the fast timescale of the activator variable. The theory is applied to the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations with threshold nonlinearity, and we show that the branch of τ -periodic solutions emerges from a limit point of limit cycles.

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination in liquids on short time scales: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goun, Alexei; Glusac, Ksenija; Fayer, M. D.

    2006-02-01

    The coupled processes of intermolecular photoinduced forward electron transfer and geminate recombination between the (hole) donor (Rhodamine 3B) and (hole) acceptors (N,N-dimethylaniline) are studied in three molecular liquids: acetonitrile, butyronitrile, and benzonitrile. Two color pump-probe experiments on time scales from 100fs to hundreds of picoseconds give information about the depletion of the donor excited state due to forward electron transfer and the survival kinetics of the radicals produced by forward electron transfer. The data are analyzed with a model presented previously that includes distance dependent forward and back electron transfer rates, donor and acceptor diffusion, solvent structure, and the hydrodynamic effect in a mean-field theory of through solvent electron transfer. The forward electron transfer is in the normal regime, and the Marcus equation for the distance dependence of the transfer rate is used. The forward electron transfer data for several concentrations in the three solvents are fitted to the theory with a single adjustable parameter, the electronic coupling matrix element Jf at contact. Within experimental error all concentrations in all three solvents are fitted with the same value of Jf. The geminate recombination (back transfer) is in the inverted region, and semiclassical treatment developed by Jortner [J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4860 (1976)] is used to describe the distance dependence of the back electron transfer. The data are fitted with the single adjustable parameter Jb. It is found that the value of Jb decreases as the solvent viscosity increases. Possible explanations are discussed.

  14. Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed. PMID:26474047

  15. High protective, environmental friendly and short-time developed conversion coatings for aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F. J.; Cano, M. J.; Marcos, M.

    2002-04-01

    There are a variety of procedures, described in the bibliography, for producing conversion coatings using salts of lanthanide elements, and the coatings obtained by means of some of these procedures show acceptable levels of protection. Nevertheless, the principal limitation usually presented by these procedures is the excessively prolonged treatment times required to achieve such levels of protection. This therefore limits the applicability of these treatments on an industrial scale. Coatings on the alloy AA5083 obtained by using Ce(III) are characterised by having a mixed or heterogeneous nature, being composed of a layer of alumina covering the matrix, together with islands of cerium formed over the cathodic intermetallics that are present on the surface of the alloy. The results obtained indicate that, once these precipitates have been covered, the level of protection provided is conditional upon the thickness of the layer of alumina. In this study, a procedure is proposed for obtaining conversion coatings on the alloy AA5083 based on immersion in solutions of Ce(III) at temperatures higher than ambient. By this means, coatings can be produced in only a few minutes, and of such quality that salt fog tests of 168 h duration are successfully passed. Furthermore, studies conducted employing electrochemical techniques of linear polarisation indicate that the degree of protection provided by these coatings is several orders of magnitude superior to that achieved with other treatments.

  16. On Short-Time Estimation of Vocal Tract Length from Formant Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Adam C.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal tract length is highly variable across speakers and determines many aspects of the acoustic speech signal, making it an essential parameter to consider for explaining behavioral variability. A method for accurate estimation of vocal tract length from formant frequencies would afford normalization of interspeaker variability and facilitate acoustic comparisons across speakers. A framework for considering estimation methods is developed from the basic principles of vocal tract acoustics, and an estimation method is proposed that follows naturally from this framework. The proposed method is evaluated using acoustic characteristics of simulated vocal tracts ranging from 14 to 19 cm in length, as well as real-time magnetic resonance imaging data with synchronous audio from five speakers whose vocal tracts range from 14.5 to 18.0 cm in length. Evaluations show improvements in accuracy over previously proposed methods, with 0.631 and 1.277 cm root mean square error on simulated and human speech data, respectively. Empirical results show that the effectiveness of the proposed method is based on emphasizing higher formant frequencies, which seem less affected by speech articulation. Theoretical predictions of formant sensitivity reinforce this empirical finding. Moreover, theoretical insights are explained regarding the reason for differences in formant sensitivity. PMID:26177102

  17. On Short-Time Estimation of Vocal Tract Length from Formant Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Adam C; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-01-01

    Vocal tract length is highly variable across speakers and determines many aspects of the acoustic speech signal, making it an essential parameter to consider for explaining behavioral variability. A method for accurate estimation of vocal tract length from formant frequencies would afford normalization of interspeaker variability and facilitate acoustic comparisons across speakers. A framework for considering estimation methods is developed from the basic principles of vocal tract acoustics, and an estimation method is proposed that follows naturally from this framework. The proposed method is evaluated using acoustic characteristics of simulated vocal tracts ranging from 14 to 19 cm in length, as well as real-time magnetic resonance imaging data with synchronous audio from five speakers whose vocal tracts range from 14.5 to 18.0 cm in length. Evaluations show improvements in accuracy over previously proposed methods, with 0.631 and 1.277 cm root mean square error on simulated and human speech data, respectively. Empirical results show that the effectiveness of the proposed method is based on emphasizing higher formant frequencies, which seem less affected by speech articulation. Theoretical predictions of formant sensitivity reinforce this empirical finding. Moreover, theoretical insights are explained regarding the reason for differences in formant sensitivity. PMID:26177102

  18. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short

    PubMed Central

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over time, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare. PMID:24101975

  19. The effect of short-time microwave exposures on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto chicken meat portions

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Tayebeh; Jamshidi, Abdollah; Khanzadi, Saeid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found throughout the environment and in many foods. It is associated primarily with meat and animal products. Listeria monocytogenes has become increasingly important as a food-borne pathogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microwave (MW) treatment of chicken meat samples which were inoculated with L. monocytogenes. Drumettes of broiler carcasses were soaked in fully growth of L. monocytogenes in Brain-Heart Infusion broth. The swab samples were taken from the inoculated samples, after various times of radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 sec), using a domestic MW oven at full power. Following exposures, viable counts and surface temperature measurements were performed. The bacterial counts were performed on Oxford agar. The results indicated that equal or longer than 60 sec exposures of chicken portions to MW heating which enhances the median surface temperature more than 74 ˚C could eliminate the superficial contamination of chicken meat with L. monocytogenes. Statistical analysis showed samples with equal or longer than 60 sec exposures to MW heating had significant decrease in population of inoculated bacteria compared with positive control group (p < 0.05). Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between the bacterial population and temperature of samples due to MW exposure (p < 0.001, r = – 0.879 and r2 = 0.773). PMID:26261715

  20. Short-term forecasting of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias based on symbolic dynamics and finite-time growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Ziehmann, Christine; Kurths, Jürgen; Meyerfeldt, Udo; Schirdewan, Alexander; Voss, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT-VF) as fatal cardiac arrhythmias are the main factors triggering sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study is to find early signs of sustained VT-VF in patients with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). These devices are able to safeguard patients by returning their hearts to a normal rhythm via strong defibrillatory shocks; additionally, they store the 1000 beat-to-beat intervals immediately before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia. We study these 1000 beat-to-beat intervals of 17 chronic heart failure ICD patients before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia and at a control time, i.e., without a VT-VF event. To characterize these rather short data sets, we calculate heart rate variability parameters from the time and frequency domain, from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates. We find that neither the time nor the frequency domain parameters show significant differences between the VT-VF and the control time series. However, two parameters from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates discriminate significantly both groups. These findings could be of importance in algorithms for next generation ICD's to improve the diagnostics and therapy of VT-VF.

  1. COPD Patients Have Short Lung Magnetic Resonance T1 Relaxation Time.

    PubMed

    Alamidi, Daniel F; Morgan, Alexandra R; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Nordenmark, Lars H; Hockings, Paul D; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Young, Simon S; Naish, Josephine H; Waterton, John C; Maguire, Niall C; Olsson, Lars E; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide attractive biomarkers for assessment of pulmonary disease in clinical trials as it is free from ionizing radiation, minimally invasive and allows regional information. The aim of this study was to characterize lung MRI T1 relaxation time as a biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and specifically its relationship to smoking history, computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements in comparison to healthy age-matched controls. Lung T1 and inter-quartile range (IQR) of T1 maps from 24 COPD subjects and 12 healthy age-matched non-smokers were retrospectively analyzed from an institutional review board approved study. The subjects underwent PFTs and two separate MR imaging sessions at 1.5 tesla to test T1 repeatability. CT scans were performed on the COPD subjects. T1 repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient) was 0.72 for repeated scans acquired on two visits. The lung T1 was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) and T1 IQR was significantly larger (p = 0.0002) for the COPD subjects compared to healthy controls. Lung T1 significantly (p = 0.001) correlated with lung density assessed with CT. Strong significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between lung T1 and all PFT measurements were observed. Cigarette exposure did not correlate with lung T1 in COPD subjects. In conclusion, lung MRI T1 mapping shows potential as a repeatable, radiation free, non-invasive imaging technique in the evaluation of COPD. PMID:26488310

  2. Operating envelope of a short contact time fuel reformer for propane catalytic partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Michael G.; Walluk, Mark R.; Trabold, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cell technology has yet to realize widespread deployment, in part because of the hydrogen fuel infrastructure required for proton exchange membrane systems. One option to overcome this barrier is to produce hydrogen by reforming propane, which has existing widespread infrastructure, is widely used by the general public, easily transported, and has a high energy density. The present work combines thermodynamic modeling of propane catalytic partial oxidation (cPOx) and experimental performance of a Precision Combustion Inc. (PCI) Microlith reactor with real-time soot measurement. Much of the reforming research using Microlith-based reactors has focused on fuels such as natural gas, JP-8, diesel, and gasoline, but little research on propane reforming with Microlith-based catalysts can be found in literature. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operating parameters for the reformer that maximizes efficiency and minimizes solid carbon formation. The primary parameters evaluated were reformate composition, carbon concentration in the effluent, and reforming efficiency as a function of catalyst temperature and O2/C ratio. Including the lower heating values for product hydrogen and carbon monoxide, efficiency of 84% was achieved at an O2/C ratio of 0.53 and a catalyst temperature of 940 C, resulting in near equilibrium performance. Significant solid carbon formation was observed at much lower catalyst temperatures, and carbon concentration in the effluent was determined to have a negative linear relationship at T < 750 C. The Microlith reactor displayed good stability during more than 80 experiments with temperature cycling from 360 to 1050 C.

  3. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jarideh, S.; Taeb, S.; Pishva, S. M.; Haghani, M.; Sina, S.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Hosseini, M. A.; Nematollahi, S.; Shokrpour, N.; Hassan Shahi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females), with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38), participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females) whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT) test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32) and the control group (N=29) were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively.  Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i) pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii) forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii) backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv) word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid Dastghieb international airport does not have any significant detrimental effect on their reaction time as well as short term memory. PMID:26396970

  4. Stability and bifurcation of the Tsodyks-Markram model about short-term synaptic plasticity with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiubao

    2014-06-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity in the Tsodyks-Markram model can lead to unpredictable and complicated network dynamics. In this paper, we present a new Tsodyks-Markram model with time delay as a parameter. The time delay plays a very important role for the dynamics of our model. We report on the existence of Hopf bifurcation in the model for fixed and varied release probability of available neurotransmitters. It is found that there are stability switches, and a supercritical or subcritical Hopf bifurcation occur when the delay passes through a sequence of critical values. We provide numerical results to illustrate our conclusion about stability and obtain the properties of Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, we find the large sensitivity to initial conditions in our model.

  5. Short time-scale frequency and amplitude variations in the pulsations of an roAp star: HD 217522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, R.; Kurtz, D. W.; Elkin, V. G.; Mguda, Z.; Mathys, G.

    2015-01-01

    Photometric observations of HD 217522 in 1981 revealed only one pulsation frequency ?1 = 1.215 29 mHz. Subsequent observations in 1989 showed the presence of an additional frequency ?2 = 2.0174 mHz. New observations in 2008 confirm the presence of the mode with ?2 = 2.0174 mHz. Examination of the 1989 data shows amplitude modulation over a time-scale of the order of a day, much shorter than what has been observed in other rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. High spectral and time resolution data obtained using the Very Large Telescope in 2008 confirm the presence of ?2 and short-term modulations in the radial velocity amplitudes of rare earth elements. This suggests growth and decay times shorter than a day, more typical of solar-like oscillations. The driving mechanism of roAp stars and the Sun are different, and the growth and decay seen in the Sun are due to stochastic nature of the driving mechanism. The driving mechanism in roAp stars usually leads to mode stability on a longer time-scale than in the Sun. We interpret the reported change in ?1 between the 1982 and 1989 data as part of the general frequency variability observed in this star on many time-scales.

  6. Time resolved observation of the solvation dynamics of a Rydberg excited molecule deposited on an argon cluster-I: DABCO* at short times.

    PubMed

    Awali, Slim; Poisson, Lionel; Soep, Benoît; Gaveau, Marc-André; Briant, Marc; Pothier, Christophe; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Rhouma, Mounir Ben El Hadj; Hochlaf, Majdi; Mazet, Vincent; Faisan, Sylvain

    2014-01-14

    This paper is a joint experimental and theoretical approach concerning a molecule deposited on a large argon cluster. The spectroscopy and the dynamics of the deposited molecule are measured using the photoelectron spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of the deposited molecule shows two solvation sites populated in the ground state. The combined dynamics reveals that the population ratio of the two sites is reversed when the molecule is electronically excited. This work provides the timescale of the corresponding solvation dynamics. Theoretical calculation supports the interpretation. More generally, close examination of the short time dynamics (0-6 ps) of DABCO···Ar(n) gives insights into the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of molecules deposited at interfaces and provides hence the time scale for deposited molecules to adapt to their neighborhoods. PMID:24121442

  7. Probing the hard and intermediate states of X-ray binaries using short time-scale variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, Chris J.; McHardy, Ian M.

    2016-02-01

    Below an accretion rate of approximately a few per cent of the Eddington accretion rate, X-ray binary systems are not usually found in the soft spectral state. However, at accretion rates a factor of a few lower still, in the hard state, there is another spectral transition which is well observed but not well understood. Below ˜0.5-1 per cent of the Eddington accretion rate (dot{m}_crit), the spectral index hardens with increasing accretion rate, but above dot{m}_crit, although still in the hard state, the spectral index softens with increasing accretion rate. Here we use a combination of X-ray spectral fitting and a study of short time-scale spectral variability to examine the behaviour of three well-known X-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4 and XTE J1118+480. In Cygnus X-1 we find separate hard and soft continuum components, and show using root-mean-square (rms) spectra that the soft component dominates the variability. The spectral transition at dot{m}_crit is clearly present in the hard-state hardness-intensity diagrams of Cygnus X-1. Above dot{m}_crit, GX 339-4 shows similar softer-when-brighter behaviour at both long and short time-scales. Similarly, XTE J1118+480, which remains well below dot{m}_crit, is harder-when-brighter behaviour on all time-scales. We interpret these results in terms of two continuum components: a hard power-law which dominates the spectra when the accretion rate is low, probably arising from Comptonisation of cyclo-synchrotron photons from the corona, and a soft power-law which dominates at higher accretion rates, arising from Comptonisation of seed photons from the accretion disc.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamical Classification of Short Time Series of the Rssler System in High Noise Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rssler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinsons disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rssler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to ?30?dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A? under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data. PMID:24379798

  9. Clinical ethics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456

  10. Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2012-01-01

    In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…

  11. Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2012-01-01

    In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain

  12. FY05 LDRD Final ReportTime-Resolved Dynamic Studies using Short Pulse X-Ray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Budil, K; Sadigh, B; Gilmer, G; Falcone, R; Lee, R; Ng, A

    2006-02-10

    Established techniques must be extended down to the ps and sub-ps time domain to directly probe product states of materials under extreme conditions. We used short pulse ({le} 1 ps) x-ray radiation to track changes in the physical properties in tandem with measurements of the atomic and electronic structure of materials undergoing fast laser excitation and shock-related phenomena. The sources included those already available at LLNL, including the picosecond X-ray laser as well as the ALS Femtosecond Phenomena beamline and the SSRL based sub-picosecond photon source (SPPS). These allow the temporal resolution to be improved by 2 orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art, which is {approx} 100 ps. Thus, we observed the manifestations of dynamical processes with unprecedented time resolution. Time-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray scattering were used to study phase changes in materials with sub-picosecond time resolution. These experiments coupled to multiscale modeling allow us to explore the physics of materials in high laser fields and extreme non-equilibrium states of matter. The ability to characterize the physical and electronic structure of materials under extreme conditions together with state-of-the-art models and computational facilities will catapult LLNL's core competencies into the scientific world arena as well as support its missions of national security and stockpile stewardship.

  13. Extracting Short Rise-Time Velocity Profiles with Digital Down-Shift Analysis of Optically Up-Converted PDV Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abel Diaz, Nathan Riley, Cenobio Gallegos, Matthew Teel, Michael Berninger, Thomas W. Tunnell

    2010-09-08

    This work describes the digital down-shift (DDS) technique, a new method of extracting short rise-time velocity profiles in the analysis of optically up-converted PDV data. The DDS technique manipulates the PDV data by subtracting a constant velocity (i.e., the DDS velocity ?DDS) from the velocity profile. DDS exploits the simple fact that the optically up-converted data ride on top of a base velocity (?0, the apparent velocity at no motion) with a rapid rise to a high velocity (?f) of a few km/s or more. Consequently, the frequency content of the signal must describe a velocity profile that increases from ?0 to ?0 + ?f. The DDS technique produces velocity reversals in the processed data before shock breakout when ?0 < ?DDS < ?0 + ?f. The DDS analysis process strategically selects specific DDS velocities (velocity at which the user down shifts the data) that produce anomalous reversals (maxima and/or minima), which are predictable and easy to identify in the mid-range of the data. Additional analysis determines when these maxima and minima occur. By successive application of the DDS technique and iterative analysis, velocity profiles are extracted as time as a function of velocity rather than as a function of time as it would be in a conventional velocity profile. Presented results include a description of DDS, velocity profiles extracted from laser-driven shock data with rise times of 200 ps or less, and a comparison with other techniques.

  14. Time-series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.

    2015-08-01

    A major limitation to the accurate assessment of streamwater transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable isotopes or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Also, while catchment processes are highly non-stationary, the importance of temporal dynamics in older water TT has often been overlooked. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time-series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to assess the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationships between streamwater TT and groundwater residence time. Stable isotopes and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream (≈ 76-102 years), outlining the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters shortly after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the usefulness of collecting tritium data in streamwater to document short-term variations in the older component of the TT distribution. Our results also shed light on the complex relationships between stored water and water in transit, which are highly nonlinear and remain poorly understood.

  15. Time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.

    2016-01-01

    A major limitation to the assessment of catchment transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable isotopes or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Yet, accurately capturing the TT of the old water fraction is essential, as is the assessment of its temporal variations under non-stationary catchment dynamics. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to determine the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationship between catchment TT and groundwater residence time. Stable isotopes and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits between measured and modelled tritium activities were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for groundwater in the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream ( ≈ 76-102 years), emphasising the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This counterintuitive result was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters shortly after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the usefulness of collecting tritium data in streamwater to document short-term variations in the older component of the TT distribution. Our results also shed light on the complex relationships between stored water and water in transit, which are highly non-linear and remain poorly understood.

  16. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  17. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  18. Alteration in scaling behavior of short-term heartbeat time series for professional shooting athletes from rest to exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jian Jun; Ning, Xin Bao; He, Ai Jun; Zou, Ming; Sun, Biao; Wu, Xu Hui

    2008-11-01

    Scaling analysis of heartbeat time series has emerged as a useful tool for assessing the autonomic cardiac control under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. We study the heartbeat activity and scaling behavior of heartbeat fluctuations regulated by autonomic nervous system for professional shooting athletes under two states: rest and exercise, by applying the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We focus on alteration in correlation properties of heartbeat intervals for the shooters from rest to exercise, which may have a potential value in monitoring the quality of training and evaluating the sports capacity of the athletes. The result shows that scaling exponents of short-term heart rate variability signals from the shooters get significantly larger during exercise compared with those obtained at rest. It demonstrates that during exercise stronger correlations appear in the heartbeat series of shooting athletes in order to satisfy the specific requirements for high concentration and better control on their heart beats.

  19. Optimization of Residual Water Signal Removal by HLSVD on Simulated Short Echo Time Proton MR Spectra of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, E.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Simond, G.; Cozzone, P. J.

    2001-06-01

    Suppression of the residual water signal from proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectra recorded in human brain is a prerequisite to an accurate quantification of cerebral metabolites. Several postacquisition methods of residual water signal suppression have been reported but none of them provide a complete elimination of the residual water signal, thereby preventing reliable quantification of brain metabolites. In the present study, the elimination of the residual water signal by the Hankel Lanczos singular value decomposition method has been evaluated and optimized to provide fast automated processing of spectra. Model free induction decays, reproducing the proton signal acquired in human brain localized MR spectroscopy at short echo times (e.g., 20 ms), have been generated. The optimal parameters in terms of number of components and dimension of the Hankel data matrix allowing complete elimination of the residual water signal are reported.

  20. Short-time behaviour of demand and price viewed through an exactly solvable model for heterogeneous interacting market agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, Gunter M.; de Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard; Harris, Rosemary J.; Belitsky, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    We introduce a stochastic heterogeneous interacting-agent model for the short-time non-equilibrium evolution of excess demand and price in a stylized asset market. We consider a combination of social interaction within peer groups and individually heterogeneous fundamentalist trading decisions which take into account the market price and the perceived fundamental value of the asset. The resulting excess demand is coupled to the market price. Rigorous analysis reveals that this feedback may lead to price oscillations, a single bounce, or monotonic price behaviour. The model is a rare example of an analytically tractable interacting-agent model which allows us to deduce in detail the origin of these different collective patterns. For a natural choice of initial distribution, the results are independent of the graph structure that models the peer network of agents whose decisions influence each other.

  1. Thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria monocytogenes in milk exposed to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, V K; Crawford, R G; Tierney, J T; Peeler, J T

    1992-01-01

    The effect of prior heat shock (48 degrees C for 15 min) on the thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes at the minimal high-temperature, short-time (71.7 degrees C for 15 s) parameters required by the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance was examined. The mean D71.7 degrees C value for heat-shocked L. monocytogenes was 4.6 +/- 0.5 s (control D = 3.0 +/- 1.0 s); the ratio of D to control D was 1.5. The increased thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria cells was not significant and appeared unlikely to have practical implications, in terms of risk assessment, for the safety of pasteurized milk. PMID:1622288

  2. Improving Thin Bed Identification in Sarawak Basin Field using Short Time Fourier Transform Half Cepstrum (STFTHC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizarul, O.; Hermana, M.; Bashir, Y.; Ghosh, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    In delineating complex subsurface geological feature, broad band of frequencies are needed to unveil the often hidden features of hydrocarbon basin such as thin bedding. The ability to resolve thin geological horizon on seismic data is recognized to be a fundamental importance for hydrocarbon exploration, seismic interpretation and reserve prediction. For thin bedding, high frequency content is needed to enable tuning, which can be done by applying the band width extension technique. This paper shows an application of Short Time Fourier Transform Half Cepstrum (STFTHC) method, a frequency bandwidth expansion technique for non-stationary seismic signal in increasing the temporal resolution to uncover thin beds and improve characterization of the basin. A wedge model and synthetic seismic data is used to quantify the algorithm as well as real data from Sarawak basin were used to show the effectiveness of this method in enhancing the resolution.

  3. An Evaluation of Some Current Practices for Short-Time Elevated-Temperature Tensile Tests of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Charles R., Jr.; Heimerl, George J.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of different testing practices on the short-time elevated-temperature tensile properties was determined for 2024-T3 aluminum-alloy, HM21A-T8 and HK31A-H24 magnesium-alloy, and 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet. Tests were made under single strain-rate and single head-speed conditions. A dual strain-rate test was also included. An evaluation of the effects of these practices is given for the tensile and yield strengths, the elongation in 2 inches, and the uniform elongation. The need for a uniform testing practice is demonstrated. Recommended practices suggested by different organizations are included.

  4. Short-pulsed laser transport in absorbing and scattering media: time-based versus frequency-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francoeur, Mathieu; Rousse, Daniel R.

    2007-09-01

    Optical tomography (OT) is a promising non-intrusive characterization technique of absorbing and scattering media that uses transmitted and/or reflected signals of samples irradiated with visible or near-infrared light. The quality of OT techniques is directly related to the accuracy of their forward models due to the use of inversion algorithms. In this paper, forward models for transient OT approaches are investigated. The system under study involves a one-dimensional absorbing and scattering medium illuminated by a short laser pulse; this problem is solved using a discrete ordinates-finite volume (DO-FV) method in both time and frequency domain. Previous works have shown that time-domain approaches coupled with first order spatial interpolation schemes cannot represent the physics of the problem adequately as transmitted fluxes emerge before the minimal physical time required to leave the medium. In this work, the Van Leer and Superbee flux limiters, combined with the second order Lax-Wendroff scheme, are used in an attempt to prevent this. Results show that despite significant improvement, flux limiters fail to completely eliminate the physically unrealistic behaviour. On the other hand, results for transmittance obtained from the frequency-based method are accurate, without physically unrealistic behaviours at early time periods. The frequency-dependent approach is however computationally expensive, since it requires approximately five times more computational time than its temporal counterpart when used as a forward model for transient OT. On the other hand, the great advantages of the frequency-based approach is that limited windows of temporal signals can be calculated efficiently (in transient OT), and it can also be used as a forward model for steady-state, frequency-based and transient OT techniques.

  5. Seasonal comparisons of meteorological and agricultural drought indices in Morocco using open short time-series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzine, Hicham; Bouziane, Ahmed; Ouazar, Driss

    2014-02-01

    Although the preliminary investigations of NDWI demonstrated its sensitivity to vegetation water content, drought indices based on NDWI short time-series are still understudied compared to those derived from NDVI and LST, such as VCI, SVI and TCI. On the basis of the open data, this paper introduces a new index derived from NDWI short time-series, and explores its performance for drought monitoring in Mediterranean semi-arid area. The new index, Standardized Water Index (SWI), was calculated and spatiotemporally compared to both meteorological drought index (TRMM-based SPI) and to agricultural drought index (NDVI-based SVI) for the hydrological years and autumn, winter and spring seasons during a period of 15 years (1998-2012). Furthermore, the response and spatial agreement of the meteorological and agricultural drought indices (SWI, SVI and SPI) were compared over two land use classes, rainfed agriculture and vegetation cover, for the studied years and seasons. The validation of SWI was based on in situ SPI and cereal productions. The analysis of the 336 cross-tables, proportions of concordance and Cohen's kappa coefficients indicate that SWI and SVI are concordant comparing to other combinations for hydrological years and for the three seasons. The study points that the spatial agreements of drought indices over rainfed agriculture and over vegetation cover are different. It is relatively more important in the rainfed agriculture than in the vegetation cover areas. Our results show that the agreement between vegetation drought indices and meteorological drought indices is moderated to low and the SPI is slightly more concordant with SWI when it is compared to SVI in autumn and winter seasons. The validation approach indicates that drought affected area, according to SWI, is highly correlated with cereal production. Likewise, a satisfactory correlation was revealed between SWI and in situ SPI.

  6. Short-Term Chromospheric Variability in alpha Tauri (K5 III): Results from IUE Time Series Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Deeney, Bryan D.; Brown, Alexander; Stencel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate time series observations of chromospheric lines (Mg II, Mg I, and C II) for the K giant alpha Tau obtained using the IUE LWP camera at high dispersion. These observations cover a time span of about 2 weeks in 1994 February-March and were designed to resolve variations occurring within hours, days, and weeks. We consider the observational results in relation to theoretical acoustic heating models, motivated by the fact that alpha Tau may exhibit a basal (i.e., minimum) level of chromospheric activity. The data reveal flux variations between the extremes of 8% in Mg II h+k and 15% in each emission component. These variations occur on timescales as short as 8 hr but not on timescales longer than approx.3 days. For the h and k components, flux variations occurring on a timescale as short as 1.5 hr are also found. These changes are often not correlated (and are sometimes even anticorrelated), leading to remarkable differences in the h/k ratios. We argue that these results are consistent with the presence of strong acoustic shocks, which can lead to variable Mg II line emission when only a small number of strong shocks are propagating through the atmosphere. We deduce the electron density in the C II lambda 2325 line formation region to be log(base e) of N. approx. equals 9.0, in agreement with previous studies. Our data provide evidence that the Mg II basal flux limit for K giants might be a factor of 4 higher than suggested by Rutten et al.

  7. Inherent Variability in Short-time Wind Turbine Statistics from Turbulence Structure in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Kinzel, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Using large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral and moderately convective atmospheric boundary layers (NBL, MCBL), we analyze the impact of coherent turbulence structure of the atmospheric surface layer on the short-time statistics that are commonly collected from wind turbines. The incoming winds are conditionally sampled with a filtering and thresholding algorithm into high/low horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuation coherent events. The time scales of these events are ~5 - 20 blade rotations and are roughly twice as long in the MCBL as the NBL. Horizontal velocity events are associated with greater variability in rotor power, lift and blade-bending moment than vertical velocity events. The variability in the industry standard 10 minute average for rotor power, sectional lift and wind velocity had a standard deviation of ~ 5% relative to the ``infinite time'' statistics for the NBL and ~10% for the MCBL. We conclude that turbulence structure associated with atmospheric stability state contributes considerable, quantifiable, variability to wind turbine statistics. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  8. Ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR imaging of the lung: Comparison between normal and emphysematous lungs in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaya; Togao, Osamu; Obara, Makoto; van Cauteren, Marc; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Doi, Shigehiro; Kuro-o, Makoto; Malloy, Craig; Hsia, Connie C.; Dimitrov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence as pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect non-uniform disruption of lung architecture that is typical of emphysema. Materials and Methods MRI of the lungs was conducted with a three dimensional UTE sequence in transgenic mice with severe emphysema and their wild type littermates in a 3 T clinical MR system. Measurements of the signal intensity (SI) and transverse relaxation time (T2*) of the lung parenchyma were performed with various echo times (TEs) ranging from 100 ?sec to 2 msec. Results Much higher SI of the lung parenchyma was observed at an UTE of 100 ?sec compared to longer TEs. The emphysematous lungs had reduced SIs and T2* than the controls, in particular at end-expiratory phase. The results suggested that both SI and T2* in lung parenchyma measured with the method represent fractional volume of lung tissue. Conclusion The UTE imaging provided MR signal from the lung parenchyma. Moreover, the UTE sequence was sensitive to emphysematous changes and may provide a direct assessment of lung parenchyma. UTE imaging has the potential to assist detection of localized pathological destruction of lung tissue architecture in emphysema. PMID:20677258

  9. Short range forecast verification of convective rain for a night-time event over the area of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Nazario; Gabella, Marco; Michaelides, Silas Chr.

    2008-04-01

    Night-time rain showers that occurred over the island of Cyprus and surrounding sea during the night of 11 to 12 February 2002 were investigated by means of two numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, one hydrostatic and the other one non-hydrostatic, and two kinds of radar, one ground-based located at Kykkos mountains in Cyprus and the other one on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Verification of forecast precipitation was performed using a combination of radar precipitation estimates. Because of the short time used for verification and due to the mostly convective type of precipitation, it proved difficult to accurately forecast precipitation from the model. Different initial conditions were provided to the models, in an attempt to realize their impact on the prediction of precipitation. Even though skill scores of models are not very high, the non-hydrostatic model shows a better agreement with observations when the starting time of forecast is not too distant from the occurrence of the event.

  10. Thermal inactivation of Pediococcus sp. in simulated apple cider during high-temperature short-time pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, P; McKellar, R C; Bartlett, F M

    2003-01-26

    Prompted by concerns regarding outbreaks of food-borne illness which have occurred due to the consumption of commercial, nonpasteurized fruit juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the US Food and Drug Administration and Canadian Food Inspection Agency are considering several new safety standards to apply to fresh juices, including mandatory pasteurization of all apple cider. In support of these initiatives, a study was conducted to evaluate the pasteurization of simulated cider using a heat-resistant nonpathogenic test bacterium, Pediococcus sp. NRRL B-2354. Thermal inactivation of the Pediococcus sp. was determined using a pilot scale high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurizer with a plate heat exchanger. The cumulative lethal effect, or pasteurization effect (PE), was obtained by converting times at different temperatures in the various sections of the pasteurizer to the equivalent time at the reference temperature (72 degrees C). PE was then related by a simple linear function to the log(10) of the percentage of viable counts with a power transformation of the PE values to improve linear fit. r(2) values for the four Pediococcus sp. trials varied from 0.921 to 0.981. Intertrial variation was incorporated into the model using @RISK simulation software. Output from simulations confirmed that treatment at 71 degrees C for 16 s can ensure a 5-log reduction of Pediococcus sp. PMID:12505457

  11. Classification mapping and species identification of salt marshes based on a short-time interval NDVI time-series from HJ-1 optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Yongxue; Zhao, Saishuai; Zhou, Minxi; Yang, Yuhao; Li, Feixue

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are seen as the most dynamic and valuable ecosystems in coastal zones, and in these areas, it is crucial to obtain accurate remote sensing information on the spatial distributions of species over time. However, discriminating various types of salt marsh is rather difficult because of their strong spectral similarities. Previous salt marsh mapping studies have focused mainly on high spatial and spectral (i.e., hyperspectral) resolution images combined with auxiliary information; however, the results are often limited to small regions. With a high temporal and moderate spatial resolution, the Chinese HuanJing-1 (HJ-1) satellite optical imagery can be used not only to monitor phenological changes of salt marsh vegetation over short-time intervals, but also to obtain coverage of large areas. Here, we apply HJ-1 satellite imagery to the middle coast of Jiangsu in east China to monitor changes in saltmarsh vegetation cover. First, we constructed a monthly NDVI time-series to classify various types of salt marsh and then we tested the possibility of using compressed time-series continuously, to broaden the applicability of this particular approach. Our principal findings are as follows: (1) the overall accuracy of salt marsh mapping based on the monthly NDVI time-series was 90.3%, which was ∼16.0% higher than the single-phase classification strategy; (2) a compressed time-series, including NDVI from six key months (April, June-September, and November), demonstrated very little reduction (2.3%) in overall accuracy but led to obvious improvements in unstable regions; and (3) a simple rule for Spartina alterniflora identification was established using a scene solely from November, which may provide an effective way for regularly monitoring its distribution.

  12. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system. PMID:26479653

  13. Short residence times for alkaline Vesuvius magmas in a multi-depth supply system: Evidence from geochemical and textural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Lucia; Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    It is crucial to understand magma chamber chemico-physical conditions and residence times for high-risk volcanoes because these factors control the occurrence and size of future eruptions. In order to define magmatic pressure-temperature conditions and residence times at the Somma-Vesuvius volcano, we studied the geochemistry and texture of selected past eruptions that are representative of the entire volcanic history. Our petrological model indicates a multi-depth magma chamber composed of a deeper tephritic (350-400 Mpa) magma layer, which fed Strombolian and effusive eruptions during open-conduit activity, and an upper (200-250 Mpa) phonolitic level, which supplied the high explosive events that followed closed-conduit repose time. This upper reservoir matches the inferred transition between sedimentary sequences and metamorphic basement. At this level, the presence of a structural and lithological discontinuity favors magma storage during closed-conduit periods. The prevalent differentiation process was fractional crystallization during the magma cooling associated with upward migration of less dense, evolved liquids. Our results indicate that major steam exolution occurred during the late crystallization stage of phonolites, which accounts for the high Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of eruptions supplied by these melts. Moreover, our phenocryst CSD data reveal the rapid crystallization and differentiation (decades to centuries) of alkaline Somma-Vesuvius magmas. This implies that the 400 km 2 partial melting zone detected by tomography studies at 8-10 km depth beneath Vesuvius should consist of differentiated magma that is already capable of generating a large-scale (plinian) explosive event if renewed activity develops out of the present closed-conduit state. Additionally, because our microlite CSD data indicate rapid magma migration from the chamber toward the surface, precursory activity could appear only short time before a major eruption.

  14. Acetylcholine measured at short time intervals during transmission of nerve impulses in the electric organ of Torpedo

    PubMed Central

    Dunant, Y.; Jones, G. J.; Loctin, Franoise

    1982-01-01

    1. The amounts of total acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP, and of vesicle-bound ACh were measured at short time intervals in the electrogenic tissue of Torpedo marmorata. The aim of this study is to approach with biochemical analysis the speed of electrophysiological phenomena. 2. A stimulator coupled to a rapid freezer device was used to quench a number of tissue samples simultaneously, at different time intervals during transmission of a brief train of impulses at 100 Hz. 3. The level of total ACh decreased significantly with the first ten impulses. Then a rapid but transient increase in total ACh occurred, reaching a maximum value by the fifteenth to sixteenth impulse. 4. Vesicle-bound ACh did not exhibit any changes parallel to those of total ACh, and did not decrease beyond the control level during transmission of twenty impulses at 100 Hz. 5. The amount of ATP in the tissue varied in close relation to that of total ACh. No significant phase shift was observed between the transmitter and the nucleotide and the ACh/ATP molar ratio was not significantly different from 1. 6. The shortest time interval investigated in this work was 10 ms. The rate at which the pieces of tissue are quenched for biochemical measurements when plunged into a liquid at low temperature has been estimated. It has also been evaluated to what extent the freezing rate may distort measurements of the biochemical changes occurring in the tissue. 7. It is concluded that fast freezing appears to be a valuable approach for investigating the rapid biochemical changes underlying cholinergic transmission; a better time resolution might be reached at the price, however, of greatly reducing the size of the samples. The second conclusion is that transmission of a brief train of impulses is accompanied by significant changes in the amount of extravesicular ACh. PMID:6286941

  15. Nucleoside uptake in macrophages from various murine strains: a short-time and a two-step stimulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Busolo, F.; Conventi, L.; Grigolon, M.; Palu, G. )

    1991-06-28

    Kinetics of (3H)-uridine uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages (pM phi) is early altered after exposure to a variety of stimuli. Alterations caused by Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) were similar in SAVO, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, and were not correlated with an activation process as shown by the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) being released. Short-time exposure to all stimuli resulted in an increased nucleoside uptake by SAVO pM phi, suggesting that the tumoricidal function of this cell either depends from the type of stimulus or the time when the specific interaction with the cell receptor is taking place. Experiments with priming and triggering signals confirmed the above findings, indicating that the increase or the decrease of nucleoside uptake into the cell depends essentially on the chemical nature of the priming stimulus. The triggering stimulus, on the other hand, is only able to amplify the primary response.

  16. Long and short time variability of the global and the hemisphere temperature anomalies -Application of the Cochrane-Orcutt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitare; Danov, Dimitar; Goranova, M.

    Climate change holds a key position in science and policy today. A central issue to discuss in the scientific publications is the question how much humans contribute to the climate warming. To get answers in the last decades a lot of efforts were made to model the processes determining the climate, to make forecasts under defined conditions for the development of the society (climate projections). Another scientific tendency to find a more probable right answer consists in the application and development of the statistics to study responses of different climate forcings. Here a classical statistical method -the linear regression -is applied to examine the parts of the global and hemisphere warming due to different radiation forcings, by the use of their long and short time variabilities. The residuals of the regressions are significantly auto-correlated. Therefore the Cochrane-Orcutt method is applied to test the statistical significances. By multiple regression it is found that the main part of the temperature variability is caused by CO2. The impact of the total solar irradiance during the examined time period of 1866 up to 2000 is at the critical level of significance.

  17. Short Time Region Sparkover Characteristics of Compressed N2 and CO2 using Square Impulse and their Quantitative Estimation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkai, Hiroyuki; Goshima, Hisashi; Yashima, Masafumi

    SF6 is used as a main insulation gas for gas-insulated switchgears (GIS), but it has recently become a gas to be restricted because of its greenhouse effect. Up to now, we have studied the insulation characteristics of compressed N2 and CO2 as a possible SF6-alternative gas. As GIS are subjected to very fast transient voltage due to incoming lightning surges or at disconnector switching operation, it is necessary to clarify the sparkover voltage-time (V-t) characteristics in the short time region. In this report, we describe the V-t curves ranging from 30ns to 10?s for high pressure (0.6 and 1.0MPa) N2 and CO2 obtained by applying square impulse voltage. We next studied the V-t curves for standard lightning and oscillating impulses for the same experimental conditions. Based on these results, we investigated the possibility of quantitatively estimating of the V-t curves for these waveforms by applying the equal-area criterion. The minimum sparkover voltage estimated by the criterion very well agreed with the measured characteristic in all conditions studied, and thus it has become clear that the quantitative estimation of the sparkover characteristics is possible for high pressure N2 and CO2.

  18. Improvements in localized proton NMR spectroscopy of human brain. Water suppression, short echo times, and 1 ml resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, J.; Michaelis, T.; Merboldt, K. D.; Bruhn, H.; Gyngell, M. L.; Hnicke, W.

    Considerable technical improvements are reported for localized proton NMR spectroscopy using stimulated echoes. When compared to previous results, proton NMR spectra of the human brain are now obtainable (i) with in vivo water suppression factors of ?1000, (ii) with only minor T2 losses and negligible distortions due to J modulation at short echo times of 10-20 ms, and (iii) from volumes of interest as small as 1-8 ml within measuring times of 1-10 min. As a consequence, the detection of cerebral metabolites is greatly facilitated. This particularly applies to the assignment of those resonances (e.g., glutamate, taurine, inositols) that suffer from strong spin-spin coupling at the field strengths commonly in use for NMR in man. Studies of regional metabolite differences, tissue heterogeneity, and focal lesions in patients benefit from the increased spatial resolution and a concomitant reduction of partial volume effects. Localized proton NMR spectroscopy was performed on young healthy volunteers. Experiments were carried out on a 2.0 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using the standard headcoil for both imaging and spectroscopy.

  19. Time-resolved absorption and resonance Raman investigations of short-lived intermediates in solution or occluded in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémard, C.; Buntinx, G.; De Waele, V.; Didierjean, C.; Gener, I.; Poizat, O.

    1999-05-01

    Two examples of structural investigation of photogenerated short-lived transient species of aromatic compounds, by using time-resolved electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy are provided. The picosecond Raman spectra of the lowest excited singlet state (S 1) of 4,4'-bipyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine in solution are discussed first. The results provide strong evidence for a surprising asymmetric S 1 structure in which the electronic excitation and the consequent structural distortion are localized in one of the pyridyl rings, the other ring being almost unaffected. The laser photolysis of biphenyl occluded in the pores and cavities of ZSM-5 and faujasitic zeolites have been investigated in the nanosecond time-scale as functions of aluminium content, the extraframework cations, sample loading and intensity of photolysis. At low pump power and low aluminium content the triplet state of biphenyl is observed. At higher pump power and in aluminated zeolites, biphotonic ionization was observed to generate the cation radical. As the loading increased, the anion radical yield increased. This is characteristic of faujasitic zeolites in which scavenger molecules with restricted diffusional motions are confined in the vicinity of photoionized molecules. The lifetimes of cation radical were particularly long in aluminated ZSM-5 zeolites with efficient trapping sites of the photoejected electron.

  20. Shorting time of magnetically insulated reflex-ion diodes from the neutral-atom charge-exchange mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, G.

    1981-10-01

    In a magnetically insulated diode, collision-free electrons return to the cathode and no electron current is present at the anode. Electron transport to the anode is studied in this paper. Steady-state space-charge-limited flow is assumed initially. Breakdown of ion flow occurs when static neutral atoms at the anode undergo charge exchange, which results in neutral atoms drifting across the diode. These are subsequently ionized by reflexing ions producing electrons trapped in Larmor orbits throughout the diode. These electrons drift to the anode via ionization and inelastic collisions with other neutral atoms. Model calculations compare the effects of foil and mesh cathodes. Steady-state space-charge-limited ion current densities are calculated. The neutral atom density at the cathode is determined as a function of time. The shorting time of the diode is scaled versus the electrode separation d, the diode potential V/sub 0/, the magnetic field, and the initial concentration of static neutron atoms.

  1. Mi-1-Mediated Nematode Resistance in Tomatoes is Broken by Short-Term Heat Stress but Recovers Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Marques de Carvalho, Luciana; Benda, Nicole D.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Cabrera, Ana R.; Hung, Kaddie; Cox, Thomas; Abdo, Zaid; Allen, L. Hartwell; Teal, Peter E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most valuable agricultural products, but Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematode) infestations result in serious crop losses. In tomato, resistance to root-knot nematodes is controlled by the gene Mi-1, but heat stress interferes with Mi-1-associated resistance. Inconsistent results in published field and greenhouse experiments led us to test the effect of short-term midday heat stress on tomato susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 1. Under controlled day/night temperatures of 25C/21C, Amelia, which was verified as possessing the Mi-1 gene, was deemed resistant (4.1 0.4 galls/plant) and Rutgers, which does not possess the Mi-1 gene, was susceptible (132 9.9 galls/plant) to M. incognita infection. Exposure to a single 3 hr heat spike of 35C was sufficient to increase the susceptibility of Amelia but did not affect Rutgers. Despite this change in resistance, Mi-1 gene expression was not affected by heat treatment, or nematode infection. The heat-induced breakdown of Mi-1 resistance in Amelia did recover with time regardless of additional heat exposures and M. incognita infection. These findings would aid in the development of management strategies to protect the tomato crop at times of heightened M. incognita susceptibility. PMID:26170475

  2. Deep inelastic neutron scattering from orthorhombic ordered HCl: Short-time proton dynamics and anomalous neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Senesi, R.; Colognesi, D.; Pietropaolo, A.; Abdul-Redah, T.

    2005-08-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements from orthorhombic ordered HCl are presented and analyzed in order to clarify the problem of an anomalous deficit in the neutron-proton cross section found in previous experiments on various materials. A reliable model for the HCl short-time single-particle dynamics, including atomic vibrational anisotropies and deviations from the impulsive approximation, is set up. The model HCl response function is transformed into simulated time-of-flight spectra, taking carefully into account the effects of instrumental resolution and the filter absorption profile used for neutron energy analysis. Finally, the experimental values of the anomalous reduction factor for the neutron-proton cross section are extracted by comparing simulated and experimental data. Results show a 34% reduction of the H cross section, varying with the scattering angle in a range centered at 53 deg. In addition, the same approximate procedure used in earlier studies is also employed, providing results in reasonable agreement with the more rigorous ones, and confirming the substantial reliability of the past work on this subject.

  3. A Bayesian method for characterizing distributed micro-releases: II. inference under model uncertainty with short time-series data.

    SciTech Connect

    Marzouk, Youssef; Fast P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Kraus, M.; Ray, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern after the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the time of infection, and the average dose received, is important when planning a medical response. We address this question of characterization by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a short time-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To be of relevance to response planning, we limit ourselves to 3-5 days of data. In tests performed with anthrax as the pathogen, we find that these data are usually sufficient, especially if the model of the outbreak used in the inverse problem is an accurate one. In some cases the scarcity of data may initially support outbreak characterizations at odds with the true one, but with sufficient data the correct inferences are recovered; in other words, the inverse problem posed and its solution methodology are consistent. We also explore the effect of model error-situations for which the model used in the inverse problem is only a partially accurate representation of the outbreak; here, the model predictions and the observations differ by more than a random noise. We find that while there is a consistent discrepancy between the inferred and the true characterizations, they are also close enough to be of relevance when planning a response.

  4. Nucleoside uptake in macrophages from various murine strains: a short-time and a two-step stimulation model.

    PubMed

    Busolo, F; Conventi, L; Grigolon, M; Pal, G

    1991-06-28

    Kinetics of [3H]-uridine uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages (pM phi) is early altered after exposure to a variety of stimuli. Alterations caused by Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) were similar in SAVO, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, and were not correlated with an activation process as shown by the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) being released. Short-time exposure to all stimuli resulted in an increased nucleoside uptake by SAVO pM phi, suggesting that the tumoricidal function of this cell either depends from the type of stimulus or the time when the specific interaction with the cell receptor is taking place. Experiments with priming and triggering signals confirmed the above findings, indicating that the increase or the decrease of nucleoside uptake into the cell depends essentially on the chemical nature of the priming stimulus. The triggering stimulus, on the other hand, is only able to amplify the primary response. PMID:1905537

  5. Time-dependent density functional theory of high-intensity short-pulse laser irradiation on insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S. A.; Yabana, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Otobe, T.; Lee, K.-M.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2015-11-01

    We calculate the energy deposition by very short laser pulses in SiO2 (α -quartz) with a view to establishing systematics for predicting damage and nanoparticle production. The theoretical framework is time-dependent density functional theory, implemented by the real-time method in a multiscale representation. For the most realistic simulations we employ a meta-GGA Kohn-Sham potential similar to that of Becke and Johnson. We find that the deposited energy in the medium can be accurately modeled as a function of the local electromagnetic pulse fluence. The energy-deposition function can in turn be quite well fitted to the strong-field Keldysh formula for a range of intensities from below the melting threshold to well beyond the ablation threshold. We find reasonable agreement between the damage threshold and the energy required to melt the substrate. Also, the depth of the ablated crater at higher energies is fairly well reproduced assuming that the material ablated with the energy exceeds that required to convert it to an atomic fluid. However, the calculated ablation threshold is higher than experiment, suggesting a nonthermal mechanism for the surface ablation.

  6. Radiolytic Cryovolcanism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Wesenberg, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Active geysers of water vapor and ice grains from the south pole of Enceladus are not yet definitively explained in terms of energy sources and processes. Other instances of hot (Io) and cold (Mars, Triton) volcanism beyond Earth are known if not fully understood. We revisit, in comparison to other models, the 'Old Faithful' theory of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism first proposed by Cooper et al. [Plan. Sp. Sci. 2009]. In the energetic electron irradiation environment of Enceladus within Saturn's magnetosphere, a 10-percent duty cycle could be maintained for current geyser activity driven by gases from oxidation of ammonia to N2 and methane to CO2 in the thermal margins of a south polar sea. Much shorter duty cycles down to 0.01 percent would be required to account for thermal power output up to 16 GW, Steady accumulation of oxidant energy over four billion years could have powered all Enceladus emissions over the past four hundred thousand to four hundred million years. There could be separate energy sources driving mass flow and thermal emission over vastly different time scales. Since episodic tidal dissipation on 10 Myr time scales at 0.1 - 1 Gyr intervals [O'Neill and Nimmo, Nature 2010], and thus duty cycles 1 - 10 percent, could heat the polar sea to the current level, the radiolytic energy source could easily power and modulate the geyser mass flow on million-year time scales. Maximum thermal emission temperature 223 K [Abramov and Spencer, Icarus 2009] hints at thermal buffering in the basal and vent wall layers by a 1:1 H2O:H2O2 radiolytic eutectic, assuming deep ice crust saturation with H2O2 from long cumulative surface irradiation and downward ice convection. Due to density stratification the peroxide eutectic and salt water layers could separate, so that the denser peroxide layer (1.2 g/cc) descends to the polar sea while the lighter salt water (1.05 g/cc) rises along separate channels. Methane reservoirs could be found dissolved into the polar sea, or else trapped in hydrates [Kieffer et al., Science 2006] along flow paths and at the walls of the polar sea at surface depths below 20 km [Fortes, Icarus 2007]. Driver gas production for cryovolcanism could occur wherever these two layers come into contact under requisite temperature and pressure conditions, e.g. from 220 K and 10 bar at the 10-km basal layer of the overlying ice crust to 647 K and 220 bars at the liquid water limit, above the core-mantle boundary at 460 bars [Fortes, Icarus 2007]. We expect H2O2 oxidation to ignite at high temperatures but metallic minerals could catalyze reactions at lower temperatures nearer the basal layer. Pressure effects on oxidation rates are uncertain. Definitive modeling of Enceladus cryovolcanism likely involves synthesis of key processes from multiple models: Cold Faithful [Porco et al., Science 2006], Frigid Faithful [Keiffer et al., Science 2006], Frothy Faithful [Fortes, Icarus 2007], Old Faithful, and 'Perrier Ocean' recirculation [Matson et al., Icarus 2012].

  7. Topside Sounding As A Powerful Tool For Global Detection of Short-time Precursors of Destructive Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, S.

    The recent years brought a lot of publications on the registration onboard satellites some variations of ionosphere parameters associated with the seismic activity within few days/hours before the strong earthquakes over seismically active areas. The num- ber of information exceeded the threshold when some countries started to build spe- cialized satellites to register ionospheric earthquake precursors from space (Russia, France, Italy, Ukraine, Japan). Among the different kinds of measurements the most promising are results of vertical sounding from onboard the satellite with the help of topside sounder. The advantage of the technique is that the satellite gives information not on the only one parameter (such as electron temperature or local concentration) but the comprehensive picture of the three dimensional state of the ionosphere due to combination of remote sensing and in-situ abilities of the device. The sounding gives the vertical cross-section of the ionosphere (electron concentration vertical pro- files along the satellite orbit), the state of the plasma inhomogeneity (spread of the ionogram), estimation of electron temperature and the ion mass (scale height of the profile), tides and waves (variation of heights of different levels of electron concen- tration), particle fluxes (HF emission registered by the sounder receiver), tempera- ture anisotropy (plasma instability emissions registered by the sounder receiver), local magnetic field value (plasma resonances including electron gyrofrequency harmon- ics), etc. The multiple examples of registration of ionospheric precursors with the help of topside sounder will be demonstrated. Statistical analysis of the ionospheric sound- ing shows that the topside sounder gives the most reliable and confident measurements of the short-time ionospheric precursors in comparison with any other technique. Nevertheless, the sounder itself creates some problems for the satellite payload due to interferences connected with the HF pulse emission of the sounder. For small satellites some problems with the satellite orientation stability arise due to long dipole antennas necessary for the sounder. From this reason the idea of special dedicated mission with the topside sounder alone onboard the small satellite appears which in combination with other seismo-oriented satellites will give the opportunity for short-time forecast of destructive earthquakes.

  8. Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota respond to grazing. PMID:23874635

  9. Mission Design and Analysis for Suborbital Intercept and Fragmentation of an Asteroid with Very Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hupp, Ryan; DeWald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) approximately 50-150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. Furthermore, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt). We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a hypothetical incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances. Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEO would strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total delta V of approximately 9.5-11 km/s) could intercept incoming NEOs several hours prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  10. Interpreting short gamma-ray burst progenitor kicks and time delays using the host galaxy-dark matter halo connection

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2014-09-10

    Nearly 20% of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) have no observed host galaxies. Combining this finding with constraints on galaxies' dark matter halo potential wells gives strong limits on the natal kick velocity distribution for sGRB progenitors. For the best-fitting velocity distribution, one in five sGRB progenitors receives a natal kick above 150 km s{sup –1}, consistent with merging neutron star models but not with merging white dwarf binary models. This progenitor model constraint is robust to a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, including the sGRB progenitor time-delay model, the Swift redshift sensitivity, and the shape of the natal kick velocity distribution. We also use constraints on the galaxy-halo connection to determine the host halo and host galaxy demographics for sGRBs, which match extremely well with available data. Most sGRBs are expected to occur in halos near 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and in galaxies near 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (L {sub *}); unobserved faint and high-redshift host galaxies contribute a small minority of the observed hostless sGRB fraction. We find that sGRB redshift distributions and host galaxy stellar masses weakly constrain the progenitor time-delay model; the active versus passive fraction of sGRB host galaxies may offer a stronger constraint. Finally, we discuss how searches for gravitational wave optical counterparts in the local universe can reduce follow-up times using these findings.

  11. Multicomponent diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, S. H.

    2006-07-01

    The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.

  12. Temporal Dynamic Controllability Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul H.; Muscettola, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. We revisit the question of how to determine whether a given set of temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. In particular, we consider how best to determine whether a network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether a dynamic strategy exists for executing the network that is guaranteed to satisfy the requirements. Previous work has shown the existence of a pseudo-polynomial algorithm for testing Dynamic Controllability. Here, we greatly simplify the previous framework, and present a true polynomial algorithm with a cutoff based only on the number of nodes.

  13. 26 CFR 1.6074-2 - Time for filing declarations by corporations in case of a short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of more than 9 months, where the requirements of section 6016(a) are first met after the last day of the 8th month, but before the 1st day of the last month of the short taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the 15th day of the last month of such short year. See 1.6016-4,...

  14. Short time-scale analysis of the NW Mediterranean ecosystem during summer-autumn transition: A 1D modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Prieur, L.

    2011-01-01

    Modelling was used as a tool to better understand the physical and biological processes observed during the multidisciplinary cruise DYNAPROC 2 (DYNAmic of rapid PROCesses in the water column), which took place in the Ligurian Sea in September-October 2004. The aim of the cruise was to study the short time-scale physical and biological processes that occur when the ecosystem switches from summer oligotrophy to autumnal mesotrophy. In this study, we have tested two 1D physical-biological coupled models. The first was a classical model in which surface layer dynamics were obtained using the turbulent kinetic energy model of Gaspar [Gaspar et al., 1990]. The simulated food-web took into account ten state variables: three nutrients, three classes of phytoplankton, two classes of zooplankton and two types of detritus. The second model (called IDA, Isopycnals Depth Adjustment) was based on the initial one but it took into account the measured variations of isopycnals depths. The results showed that the IDA model most efficiently reproduced the observed ecosystem dynamics. We have therefore used the IDA model to show that physical processes observed during the cruise had a major effect on biological compartment, mainly on nano- and picophytoplankton.

  15. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, R.; Christensen, K.; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Merrill, F. E.; Skulina, K.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  16. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Christensen, K; Danly, C; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D; Grim, G P; Izumi, N; Jedlovec, D; Merrill, F E; Skulina, K; Volegov, P; Wilde, C

    2015-12-01

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF. PMID:26724078

  17. In vitro short-time killing activity of povidone-iodine (Isodine Gargle) in the presence of oral organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Akiko; Shimizu, Masaki; Tabata, Makiko; Yashiro, Junko; Takata, Toshihiko; Hikida, Muneo

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate the clinical efficacy of a povidone-iodine oral antiseptic (PVP-I) on oral bacterial infectious diseases, we studied the effect of oral organic matter on the in vitro killing activity of PVP-I. In addition, we compared the in vitro short-time killing activity of PVP-I with those of other oral antiseptics using mouth-washing and gargling samples collected from healthy volunteers. When any of the mouth-washing and gargling samples was used, the standard (0.23-0.47%) or lower concentrations of PVP-I killed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including multidrug-resistant strains, within 15-60 s in the presence of oral organic matter. 0.02% benzethonium chloride (BEC) and 0.002% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) did not show effects against MRSA and P. aeruginosa (including multidrug-resistant strains) in mouth-washing and gargling samples even after 60 s. The above-mentioned results show that the in vitro killing activity of the standard concentration of PVP-I was hardly affected by the oral organic matter and that a mouth-washing or gargling solution containing PVP-I has a stronger bactericidal activity than BEC and CHG. Although mouth-washing and gargling samples were obtained from healthy individuals in this study, PVP-I may be used for protection against infections in patients with various diseases, if proper concentrations and usage are encouraged. PMID:16490985

  18. Increasing lead time in short-range streamflow forecasting via the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Saharia, M.; Corby, B.; Bell, F.

    2013-12-01

    The current operational practice for short-range river forecasting at the West Gulf River Forecast Centers (WGRFC) is to input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) out to only 12 to 24 hours (zero precipitation is assumed beyond). In the single-valued forecasting paradigm, such a practice is inevitable to avoid highly erroneous river forecasts. In the ensemble forecasting paradigm, one may input longer-lead QPF to potentially increase the lead time. In this work, we assess this potential by comparatively evaluating ensemble streamflow hindcasts forced by Day 1-3 QPF with those forced by Day 1 QPF for five headwater basins in the Upper Trinity River Basin in North Texas. The hindcasts are generated for a 7-yr period of 2004 of 2010 using the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service (HEFS) which operates on the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) of the National Weather Service (NWS). To generate ensemble QPFs from the WGRFC-produced single-valued QPFs, we used the Meteorological Ensemble Forecast Processor (MEFP). To model hydrologic uncertainty, we used the Ensemble Post-Processor (EnsPost). To verify the ensemble hindcasts, we used the Ensemble Verification System (EVS). We describe the hindcasting experiment, summarize the results and finding, and identify the issues and challenges.

  19. Short-term light adaptation of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Yokono, Erina; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-08-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes change in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome (PBS) and photosystem (PS) II to PSI in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 20min of dark adaptation, Synechocystis cells were illuminated for 5min with strong light with different spectral profiles, blue, green, two kinds of red, and white light. After illumination, the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra, followed by spectral component analysis. Under illumination with strong light, the contribution of the energy transfer from the PSII to PSI (spillover) became greater, and that of the energy transfer from the PBS to PSI decreased; the former change was larger than the latter. The energy transfer pathway to PSI was sensitive to red light. We discuss the short-term adaptation of energy-transfer processes in Synechocystis under strong-light conditions. PMID:24495908

  20. Neutron dosimetry with the {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co reaction at short-decay times

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Holm, C.V.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    The {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co reaction is a very attractive choice for use as shown a neutron fluence monitor foil in reactor irradiations. The most important drawback to this reaction is the interference from the 9.15-h half-life {sup 58m}Co metastable state. A methodology is presented in this paper to allow the {sup 58g}Co ground-state activity to be read at short decay times and to be converted into the total {sup 58t}Co activity with no significant increase in the measurement uncertainty. This methodology involves modeling the {sup 58m}Co/{sup 58t}Co population ratio. Both theoretical and experimental estimates of the energy dependence of this ratio are presented. A method is presented to accurately measure this ratio. An empirical model of the energy dependence of this ratio is presented to allow simple estimates of the ratio to be made prior to a measurement.

  1. On the time course of short-term forgetting: a human experimental model for the sense of balance.

    PubMed

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to establish whether the decline of the memory of an angular displacement, detected by the semicircular canals, is best characterized by an exponential function or by a power function. In 27 subjects a conflict was created between the semicircular canals and the graviceptive systems. Subjects were seated, facing forwards, in the gondola of a large centrifuge. The centrifuge was accelerated from stationary to 2.5Gz. While the swing out of the gondola (66°) during acceleration constitutes a frontal plane angular-displacement stimulus to the semicircular canals, the graviceptive systems persistently signal that the subject is upright. During 6 min at 2.5Gz the perceived head and body position was recorded; in darkness the subject repeatedly adjusted the orientation of a luminous line so that it appeared to be horizontal. Acceleration of the centrifuge induced a sensation of tilt which declined with time in a characteristic way. A three-parameter exponential function (Y = Ae(-bt) + C) and a power function (Y = At(-b) + C) were fitted to the data points. The inter-individual variability was considerable. In the vast majority of cases, however, the exponential function provided a better fit (in terms of RMS error) than the power function. The mean exponential function was: y = 27.8e(-0.018t) + 0.5°, where t is time in seconds. Findings are discussed with connection to possible underlying neural mechanisms; in particular, the head-direction system and short-term potentiation and persistent action potential firing in the hippocampus are considered. PMID:26834858

  2. Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…

  3. Preparatory Body State before Reacting to an Opponent: Short-Term Joint Torque Fluctuation in Real-Time Competitive Sports

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    In a competitive sport, the outcome of a game is determined by an athletes relationship with an unpredictable and uncontrolled opponent. We have previously analyzed the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs) dividing non-weighted and weighted states (i.e., vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively) in a competitive ballgame task and demonstrated that the non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step and promoted successful guarding. However, the associated kinetics of lower extremity joints during a competitive sports task remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate the kinetic characteristics of a real-time competitive sport before movement initiation. As a first kinetic study on a competitive sport, we initially compared the successful defensive kinetics with a relatively stable preparatory state and the choice-reaction sidestep as a control movement. Then, we investigated the kinetic cause of the outcome in a 1-on-1 dribble in terms of the preparatory states according to our previous study. The results demonstrated that in successful defensive motions in the non-weighted state guarding trial, the times required for the generation of hip abduction and three extension torques for the hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly shortened compared with the choice-reaction sidestep, and hip abduction and hip extension torques were produced almost simultaneously. The sport-specific movement kinetics emerges only in a more-realistic interactive experimental setting. A comparison of the outcomes in the 1-on-1 dribble and preparatory GRF states showed that, in the non-weighted state, the defenders guarded successfully in 68.0% of the trials, and the defenders initiation time was earlier than that in the weighted state (39.1%). In terms of kinetics, the root mean squares of the derivative of hip abduction and three extension torques in the non-weighted state were smaller than those in the weighted state, irrespective of the outcome. These results indicate that the preparatory body state as explained by short-term joint torque fluctuations before the defensive step would help explain the performance in competitive sports, and will give insights into understanding human adaptive behavior in unpredicted and uncontrolled environments. PMID:26024485

  4. Electrocardiogram Signal and Linear Time-Frequency Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic analysis of non-stationary multi component signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) involves the use of time-frequency transforms. So, the application of time-frequency transforms to an ECG signal is an important problem of research. In this paper, initially, linear transforms like short time Fourier transform, continuous wavelet transforms, s-transform etc. are revisited. Then the application of these transforms to normal and abnormal ECG signals is illustrated. It has been observed that s-transform provides better time and frequency resolution compared to other linear transforms. The fractional Fourier transform provides rotation to the spectrogram representation.

  5. Inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke in relation to TOAST subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcio Francisco; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Delongui, Franciele; de Sousa Parreira, Johnathan; de Arajo, Maria Caroline Martins; Rossato, Carolina; de Almeida, Jssica Tavares; Pelegrino, Larissa Moliterno; Bragato, Erick Frank; Lehmann, Ana Lucia Cruz Frstenberger; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simo, Andrea Name Colado; Kaimen-Maciel, Damcio Ramon; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome with acute ischemic stroke subtypes. A total of 121 patients was classified according to TOAST criteria, such as large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), lacunar infarct (LAC), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), other determined etiology (ODE), and undetermined etiology (UDE). The functional impairment was evaluated within the first eight hours of stroke and the outcome after three-month follow-up using the modified Rankin Scale. Blood samples were obtained up to 24 h of stroke. Compared with 96 controls, patients with LAAS, CEI, and LAC subtypes showed higher levels of white blood cells, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), glucose, and iron (p?

  6. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-I; Tsai, Pu-Hsi; Lin, Jui-Hsing; Lee, Ning-Yuean; Liang, Michael TC

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine whether short-term, ie, five daily sessions, vigorous dynamic cycling exercise and heat exposure could achieve heat acclimation in trained athletes and the effect of heat acclimation on cutaneous blood flow in the active and nonactive limb. Methods Fourteen male badminton and table tennis athletes (age = 19.6 1.2 years) were randomized into a heat acclimation (EXP, n = 7) or nonheat acclimation (CON, n = 7) group. For 5 consecutive days, the EXP group was trained using an upright leg cycle ergometer in a hot environment (38.4C 0.4C), while the CON group trained in a thermoneutral environment (24.1C 0.3C). For both groups, the training intensity and duration increased from a work rate of 10% below ventilatory threshold (VT) and 25 minutes per session on day 1, to 10% above VT and 45 minutes per session on day 5. Subjects performed two incremental leg cycle exercise tests to exhaustion at baseline and post-training in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. Study outcome measurements include: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max); exercise heart rate (HR); O2 pulse; exercise time to exhaustion (tmax); skin blood flow in the upper arm (SkBFa) and quadriceps (SkBFq); and mean skin (Tsk). Results The significant heat-acclimated outcome measurements obtained during high-intensity leg cycling exercise in the high ambient environment are: (1) 56%100% reduction in cutaneous blood flow to the active limbs during leg cycling exercise; (2) 28% drop in cutaneous blood flow in nonactive limbs at peak work rate; (3) 5%10% reduction in heart rate (HR); (4) 10% increase in maximal O2 pulse; and (5) 6.6% increase in tmax. Conclusion Heat acclimation can be achieved with five sessions of high-intensity cycling exercise in the heat in trained athletes, and redistribution of cutaneous blood flow in the skin and exercising muscle, and enhanced cardiovascular adaptations provide the heat-acclimated athletes with the capability to increase their endurance time in the hot environment. PMID:24379721

  7. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmund, Jens M.; Kjer, Hans M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon AL; Andreasen, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, so-called MRI-only RT, would remove the systematic registration error between MR and computed tomography (CT), and provide co-registered MRI for assessment of treatment response and adaptive RT. Electron densities, however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation and (3) statistical regression. Each approach contained two methods. Approach 1 used bulk density assignment of MRI voxels into air, soft tissue and bone based on logical masks and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the bone. Approach 2 used similar bulk density assignments with Bayesian statistics including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT agreement with the pCT of each method was quantified and compared with the other methods geometrically and dosimetrically using both a number of reported metrics and introducing some novel metrics. The best geometrical agreement with CT was obtained with the statistical regression methods which performed significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI comparison. The mean dosimetric deviation for photons and protons compared to the CT was about 2% and highest in the gradient dose region of the brainstem. Both the threshold based method and the statistical regression methods showed the highest dosimetrical agreement. Generation of pCTs using statistical regression seems to be the most promising candidate for MRI-only RT of the brain. Further, the total amount of different tissues needs to be taken into account for dosimetric considerations regardless of their correct geometrical position.

  8. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times.

    PubMed

    Edmund, Jens M; Kjer, Hans M; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H; Andersen, Jon A L; Andreasen, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, so-called MRI-only RT, would remove the systematic registration error between MR and computed tomography (CT), and provide co-registered MRI for assessment of treatment response and adaptive RT. Electron densities, however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation and (3) statistical regression. Each approach contained two methods. Approach 1 used bulk density assignment of MRI voxels into air, soft tissue and bone based on logical masks and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the bone. Approach 2 used similar bulk density assignments with Bayesian statistics including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT agreement with the pCT of each method was quantified and compared with the other methods geometrically and dosimetrically using both a number of reported metrics and introducing some novel metrics. The best geometrical agreement with CT was obtained with the statistical regression methods which performed significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI comparison. The mean dosimetric deviation for photons and protons compared to the CT was about 2% and highest in the gradient dose region of the brainstem. Both the threshold based method and the statistical regression methods showed the highest dosimetrical agreement.Generation of pCTs using statistical regression seems to be the most promising candidate for MRI-only RT of the brain. Further, the total amount of different tissues needs to be taken into account for dosimetric considerations regardless of their correct geometrical position. PMID:25393873

  9. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1995--January 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He

    1996-01-26

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) f or coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives.

  10. The sun compass revisited

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation. PMID:25389374

  11. L'enfant et les sortilges revisited.

    PubMed

    Hindle, D

    2000-12-01

    The author discusses 'L'Enfant et les sortilges', an opera by Ravel based on a short story by Colette, which traces the trials and tribulations of a young boy whose bad behaviour leads to his being sent to his room, left alone and given only tea and bread until dinner. His progression from anger to persecution and fear, the various defences he employs to protect himself from feeling overwhelmed and his despair are graphically illustrated through words and music. The author considers the opera in relation to Klein's theory of the paranoidschizoid position and the struggle involved in maintaining contact with good objects, externally and internally. Revisiting the opera in light of Meltzer's contribution to psychoanalytic thinking provides a wider perspective in which to explore what he has termed the aesthetic conflict and its place in relation to the depressive position and developmental processes. PMID:11144856

  12. Satellite failures revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  13. The Nelson's syndrome... revisited.

    PubMed

    Assié, Guillaume; Bahurel, Hélène; Bertherat, Jérôme; Kujas, Michèle; Legmann, Paul; Bertagna, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Adrenalectomy is a radical therapeutic approach to control hypercortisolism in some patients with Cushing's disease. However it may be complicated by the Nelson's syndrome, defined by the association of a pituitary macroadenoma and high ACTH secretion after adrenalectomy. This definition has not changed since the end of the fifties. Today the Nelson's syndrome must be revisited with new to criteria using more sensitive diagnostic tools, especially the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper we will review the pathophysiological aspects of corticotroph tumor growth, with reference to the impact of adrenalectomy. The main epidemiological data on the Nelson's syndrome will be presented. More importantly, we will propose a new pathophysiological and practical approach to this question which attempts to evaluate the Corticotroph Tumor Progression after adrenalectomy, rather than to diagnose the Nelson's syndrome. We will discuss the consequences for the management of Cushing's disease patients after adrenalectomy, and will also draw some perspectives. PMID:16132203

  14. Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation (EEC) Effect: A Revisit.

    PubMed

    Pan, Animesh; Biswas, Tapas; Rakshit, Animesh K; Moulik, Satya P

    2015-12-31

    A short account of the developments and perspectives of IKR (iso-kinetic relation) and EEC (enthalpy (H) - entropy (S) compensation) has been presented. The IKR and EEC are known to be extra thermodynamic or empirical correlations though linear H-S correlation can be thermodynamically deduced. Attempt has also been made to explain the phenomena in terms of statistical thermodynamics. In this study, we have briefly revisited the fundamentals of both IKR and EEC from kinetic and thermodynamic grounds. A detailed revisit of the EEC phenomenon on varied kinetic and equilibrium processes has been also presented. Possible correlations among the free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes of different similar and nonsimilar chemical processes under varied conditions have been discussed with possible future projections. PMID:26641279

  15. Spatial resolution in depth for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using short source-detector separations

    PubMed Central

    Puszka, Agathe; Di Sieno, Laura; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Planat-Chrtien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Herv, Lionel; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography for medical applications can require probes with small dimensions involving short source-detector separations. Even though this configuration is seen at first as a constraint due to the challenge of depth sensitivity, we show here that it can potentially be an asset for spatial resolution in depth. By comparing two fiber optic probes on a test object, we first show with simulations that short source-detector separations improve the spatial resolution down to a limit depth. We then confirm these results in an experimental study with a state-of-the-art setup involving a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode allowing maximum depth sensitivity. We conclude that short source-detector separations are an option to consider for the design of probes so as to improve image quality for diffuse optical tomography in reflectance. PMID:25657869

  16. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1994-01-01

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90.degree. angle of incidence.

  17. Improved short peptide identification using HILIC-MS/MS: retention time prediction model based on the impact of amino acid position in the peptide sequence.

    PubMed

    Le Maux, Solène; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-04-15

    Short peptides can have interesting beneficial effects but they are difficult to identify in complex mixtures. We developed a method to improve short peptide identification based on HILIC-MS/MS. The apparent hydrophilicity of peptides was determined as a function of amino acid position in the sequence. This allowed the differentiation of peptides with the same amino acid composition but with a different sequence (homologous peptides). A retention time prediction model was established using the hydrophilicity and peptide length of 153 di- to tetrapeptides. This model was proven to be reliable (R(2)=0.992), it was validated using statistical methods and a mixture of 14 synthetic peptides. A whey protein hydrolysate was analysed to assess the ability of the model to identify unknown peptides. In parallel to milk protein database and de novo searches, the retention time prediction model permitted reduction and ranking of potential short peptides, including homologous peptides, present in the hydrolysate. PMID:25466098

  18. Revisiting Evidence for Modularity and Functional Equivalence across Verbal and Spatial Domains in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerard, Katherine; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The authors revisited evidence in favor of modularity and of functional equivalence between the processing of verbal and spatial information in short-term memory. This was done by investigating the patterns of intrusions, omissions, transpositions, and fill-ins in verbal and spatial serial recall and order reconstruction tasks under control,

  19. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four

  20. Changes in Children's Perception-Action Tuning over Short Time Scales: Bicycling across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Recker, Kara M.; Strutt, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined short-term changes in child and adult cyclists' gap decisions and movement timing in response to general and specific road-crossing experiences. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults rode a bicycle through a virtual environment with 12 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic and waited for gaps…

  1. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item

  2. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  3. Changes in Children's Perception-Action Tuning over Short Time Scales: Bicycling across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Recker, Kara M.; Strutt, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined short-term changes in child and adult cyclists' gap decisions and movement timing in response to general and specific road-crossing experiences. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults rode a bicycle through a virtual environment with 12 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic and waited for gaps

  4. Isn't It About Time?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchar, Olga A.; Hoeft, TJ J.; Havre, Susan L.; Perrine, Kenneth A.

    2006-05-01

    Time plays a key role in all aspects of the intelligence analysis process, from data ingest through analysis methods to the cognitive processes that create intelligence products; however, the concept of time is difficult to grasp and not yet fully understood. Today's analytic tools fall short of satisfying the needs of analysts; these tools do not significantly facilitate an analyst's cognitive process when assembling the pieces of a puzzle together since opportunities for analysts to exploit the time dimension of their data are curtailed by the implicit representation of time found in these tools and their visualizations. There is a need to revisit and understand how time plays a role. In this paper, we briefly discuss why time is hard, the need for visualizations and interactions to deal with time, and conclude with some thoughts about a temporal analytic discourse. Overall, time cannot be left as an afterthought when developing visualizations; time must instead be well represented and highly interactable.

  5. Re-visiting the nature and relationships between neurological signs and neurocognitive functions in first-episode schizophrenia: An invariance model across time.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Dai, Shan; Lui, Simon S Y; Ho, Karen K Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Wang, Ya; Geng, Fu-lei; Li, Zhi; Cheung, Eric F C

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined different types of neurological signs in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relationships with neurocognitive functions. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were adopted with the use of the abridged Cambridge Neurological Inventory which comprises items capturing motor coordination, sensory integration and disinhibition. A total of 157 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and 101 of them were re-assessed at six-month interval. A structural equation model (SEM) with invariance model across time was used for data analysis. The model fitted well with the data at baseline assessment, X^2(21) = 21.78, p = 0.413, NFI = 0.95, NNFI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, IFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.015. Subsequent SEM analysis with invariance model at six-month interval also demonstrated the same stable pattern across time and showed strong measurement invariance and structure invariance across time. Our findings suggest that neurological signs capture more or less the same construct captured by conventional neurocognitive tests in patients with schizophrenia. The measurement and structure of these relationships appear to be stable over time. PMID:26136150

  6. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-03-08

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90[degree] angle of incidence. 8 figures.

  7. TRADES: A new software to derive orbital parameters from observed transit times and radial velocities. Revisiting Kepler-11 and Kepler-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, L.; Marzari, F.; Nascimbeni, V.; Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Bedin, L. R.; Malavolta, L.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: With the purpose of determining the orbital parameters of exoplanetary systems from observational data, we have developed a software, named TRADES (TRAnsits and Dynamics of Exoplanetary Systems), to simultaneously fit observed radial velocities and transit times data. Methods: We implemented a dynamical simulator for N-body systems, which also fits the available data during the orbital integration and determines the best combination of the orbital parameters using grid search, ?2 minimization, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, and bootstrap analysis. Results: To validate TRADES, we tested the code on a synthetic three-body system and on two real systems discovered by the Kepler mission: Kepler-9 and Kepler-11. These systems are good benchmarks to test multiple exoplanet systems showing transit time variations (TTVs) due to the gravitational interaction among planets. We have found that orbital parameters of Kepler-11 planets agree well with the values proposed in the discovery paper and with a a recent work from the same authors. We analyzed the first three quarters of Kepler-9 system and found parameters in partial agreement with discovery paper. Analyzing transit times (T0s), covering 12 quarters of Kepler data, that we have found a new best-fit solution. This solution outputs masses that are about 55% of the values proposed in the discovery paper; this leads to a reduced semi-amplitude of the radial velocities of about 12.80 ms-1.

  8. Automatized near-real-time short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra dispersion before eruptions: BET_VHst for Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei during recent exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmtri; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short temporal intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology named BET_VHst (Selva et al. 2014) for short-term PVHA of volcanic tephra dispersal based on automatic interpretation of measures from the monitoring system and physical models of tephra dispersal from all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes based on frequently updated meteorological forecasts. The large uncertainty at all the steps required for the analysis, both aleatory and epistemic, is treated by means of Bayesian inference and statistical mixing of long- and short-term analyses. The BET_VHst model is here presented through its implementation during two exercises organized for volcanoes in the Neapolitan area: MESIMEX for Mt. Vesuvius, and VUELCO for Campi Flegrei. References Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252

  9. The linkages among hillslope-vegetation changes, elevation, and the timing of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Valley-floor-channel and alluvial-fan deposits and terraces in the southwestern US record multiple episodes of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation and incision. Perhaps the most well-constrained of these episodes took place from the latest Pleistocene to the present in the Mojave Desert. One hypothesis for this episode - i.e., the paleovegetation-change hypothesis (PVCH) - posits that a reduction in hillslope vegetation cover associated with the transition from Pleistocene woodlands to Holocene desert scrub generated a pulse of sediment that triggered a primary phase of aggradation downstream, followed by channel incision, terrace abandonment, and initiation of a secondary phase of aggradation further downstream. A second hypothesis - i.e., the extreme-storm hypothesis - attributes episodes of aggradation and incision to changes in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme storms. In the past decade a growing number of studies has advocated the extreme-storm hypothesis and challenged the PVCH on the basis of inconsistencies in both timing and process. Here I show that in eight out of nine sites where the timing of fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert is reasonably well constrained, measured ages of primary aggradation are consistent with the predictions of the PVCH if the time-transgressive nature of paleovegetation changes with elevation is fully taken into account. I also present an alternative process model for PVCH that is more consistent with available data and produces sediment pulses primarily via an increase in drainage density (i.e., a transformation of hillslopes into low-order channels) rather than solely via an increase in sediment yield from hillslopes. This paper further documents the likely important role of changes in upland vegetation cover and drainage density in driving fluvial-system response during semiarid-to-arid climatic changes.

  10. Moment tensor decompositions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavry?uk, Vclav

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition of moment tensors into isotropic (ISO), double-couple (DC) and compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components is a tool for classifying and physically interpreting seismic sources. Since an increasing quantity and quality of seismic data allow inverting for accurate moment tensors and interpreting details of the source process, an efficient and physically reasonable decomposition of moment and source tensors is necessary. In this paper, the most common moment tensor decompositions are revisited, new equivalent formulas of the decompositions are derived, suitable norms of the moment tensors are discussed and the properties of commonly used source-type plots are analysed. The Hudson skewed diamond plot is introduced in a much simpler way than originally proposed. It is shown that not only the Hudson plot but also the diamond CLVD-ISO plot and the Riedesel-Jordan plot conserve the uniform distribution probability of moment eigenvalues if the appropriate norm of moment tensors is applied. When analysing moment tensor uncertainties, no source-type plot is clearly preferable. Since the errors in the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the moment tensors cannot be easily separated, the moment tensor uncertainties project into the source-type plots in a complicated way. As a consequence, the moment tensors with the same uncertainties project into clusters of a different size. In case of an anisotropic focal area, the complexity of moment tensors of earthquakes prevents their direct interpretation, and the decomposition of moment tensors must be substituted by that of the source tensors.

  11. Streaming potential revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory; Frankel, Itzchak

    2011-11-01

    Streaming-potential phenomena refer to the generation of bulk electric fields by imposed relative motion between a charged solid and the Debye layer adjacent to it. Realistic scenarios are adequately described by the thin-Debye-layer limit ? --> 0 (? denoting the dimensionless Debye thickness), which has been addressed by Cox (1997). Cox's analysis has established that the perturbation to the flow, neglected in the earlier investigations, gives rise to an O (?4) force that dominates that contributed by Maxwell stresses. Cox's theory is founded upon the assumption of O (1) Hartmann and Pclet numbers. We demonstrate that the product of these numbers is actually O (?-2) and accordingly revisit the generic problem of streaming-potential. Electric-current matching between the Debye layer and the bulk provides an inhomogeneous Neumann condition governing the electric field in the latter. This field, in turn, results in a velocity perturbation animated by a Smoluchowski-type slip condition. Owing to dominant convection, the present analysis yields an asymptotic structure considerably simpler than that of Cox (1997): the electro-viscous effect now already appears at O (?2) and is contributed by both Maxwell and viscous stresses. The present paradigm is illustrated for the prototypic problem of a sphere sedimenting in an unbounded fluid, with the resulting drag correction differing from that calculated by Cox (1997).

  12. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  13. Searle's"Dualism Revisited"

    SciTech Connect

    P., Henry

    2008-11-20

    A recent article in which John Searle claims to refute dualism is examined from a scientific perspective. John Searle begins his recent article 'Dualism Revisited' by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective. Scientific physical theories contain two kinds of descriptions: (1) Descriptions of our empirical findings, expressed in an every-day language that allows us communicate to each other our sensory experiences pertaining to what we have done and what we have learned; and (2) Descriptions of a theoretical model, expressed in a mathematical language that allows us to communicate to each other certain ideas that exist in our mathematical imaginations, and that are believed to represent, within our streams of consciousness, certain aspects of reality that we deem to exist independently of their being perceived by any human observer. These two parts of our scientific description correspond to the two aspects of our general contemporary dualistic understanding of the total reality in which we are imbedded, namely the empirical-mental aspect and the theoretical-physical aspect. The duality question is whether this general dualistic understanding of ourselves should be regarded as false in some important philosophical or scientific sense.

  14. Revisiting caspases in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304

  15. Revisiting caspases in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304

  16. The bacterial nucleoid revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Robinow, C; Kellenberger, E

    1994-01-01

    This review compares the results of different methods of investigating the morphology of nucleoids of bacteria grown under conditions favoring short generation times. We consider the evidence from fixed and stained specimens, from phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy of growing bacteria, and from electron microscopy of whole as well as thinly sectioned ones. It is concluded that the nucleoid of growing cells is in a dynamic state: part of the chromatin is "pulled out" of the bulk of the nucleoid in order to be transcribed. This activity is performed by excrescences which extend far into the cytoplasm so as to reach the maximum of available ribosomes. Different means of fixation provide markedly different views of the texture of the DNA-containing plasm of the bulk of the nucleoid. Conventional chemical fixatives stabilize the cytoplasm of bacteria but not their protein-low chromatin. Uranyl acetate does cross-link the latter well but only if the cytoplasm has first been fixed conventionally. In the interval between the two fixations, the DNA arranges itself in liquid-crystalline form, supposedly because of loss of supercoiling. In stark contrast, cryofixation preserves bacterial chromatin in a finely granular form, believed to reflect its native strongly negatively supercoiled state. In dinoflagellates the DNA of their permanently visible chromosomes (also low in histone-like protein) is natively present as a liquid crystal. The arrangement of chromatin in Epulocystis fishelsoni, one of the largest known prokaryotes, is briefly described. Images PMID:7521510

  17. Heliocentric Distance of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Time of Energetic Particle Release: Revisiting the Ground Level Enhancement Events of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Using the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), onset time of soft X-ray flares, and the finite size of the pre-eruption CME structure, we derive the heliocentric distane at which the energetic particles during the ground level enhancement (GLE) events of Solar Cycle 23. We find that the GLE particles are released when the CMEs reach an average heliocentric distance of approx.3.25 solar radii (Rs). From this we infer that the shocks accelerating the particles are located at similar heights. Type II radio burst observations indicate that the CMEs are at much lower distances (average approx.1.4 Rs) when the CME-driven shock first forms. The shock seems to travel approx.1.8 Rs over a period of approox.30 min on the average before releasing the GLE particles. In deriving these results, we made three assumptions that have observational support: (i) the CME lift off occurs from an initial distance of about 1.25 Rs; (ii) the flare onset and CME onset are one and the same because these are two different manifestations of the same eruption; and (iii) the CME has positive acceleration from the onset to the first appearance in the coronagraphic field of view (2.5 to 6 Rs). Observations of coronal cavities in eclipse pictures and in coronagraphic images justify the assumption (i). The close relationship between the flare reconnection magnetic flux and the azimuthal flux of interplanetary magnetic clouds justify assumption (ii) consistent with the standard model (CSHKP) of solar eruption. Coronagraphic observations made close to the solar surface indicate a large positive acceleration of CMEs to a heliocentric distance of approx.3 Rs before they start slowing down due to the drag force. The inferred acceleration (approx.1.5 km/s/s) is consistent with reported values in the literature.

  18. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that

  19. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  20. Revisiting the value of pre-hospital tracheal intubation: an all time systematic literature review extracting the Utstein airway core variables

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although tracheal intubation (TI) in the pre-hospital setting is regularly carried out by emergency medical service (EMS) providers throughout the world, its value is widely debated. Heterogeneity in procedures, providers, patients, systems and stated outcomes, and inconsistency in data reporting make scientific reports difficult to interpret and compare, and the majority are of limited quality. To hunt down what is really known about the value of pre-hospital TI, we determined the rate of reported Utstein airway variables (28 core variables and 12 fixed-system variables) found in current scientific publications on pre-hospital TI. Methods We performed an all time systematic search according to the PRISMA guidelines of Medline and EMBASE to identify original research pertaining to pre-hospital TI in adult patients. Results From 1,076 identified records, 73 original papers were selected. Information was extracted according to an Utstein template for data reporting from in-the-field advanced airway management. Fifty-nine studies were from North American EMS systems. Of these, 46 (78%) described services in which non-physicians conducted TI. In 12 of the 13 non-North American EMS systems, physicians performed the pre-hospital TI. Overall, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and 65 were observational studies. None of the studies presented the complete set of recommended Utstein airway variables. The median number of core variables reported was 10 (max 21, min 2, IQR 8-12), and the median number of fixed system variables was 5 (max 11, min 0, IQR 4-8). Among the most frequently reported variables were "patient category" and "service mission type", reported in 86% and 71% of the studies, respectively. Among the least-reported variables were "co-morbidity" and "type of available ventilator", both reported in 2% and 1% of the studies, respectively. Conclusions Core data required for proper interpretation of results were frequently not recorded and reported in studies investigating TI in adults. This makes it difficult to compare scientific reports, assess their validity, and extrapolate to other EMS systems. Pre-hospital TI is a complex intervention, and terminology and study design must be improved to substantiate future evidence based clinical practice. PMID:21244667

  1. Richards model revisited: validation by and application to infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Sheng; Wu, Jianhong; Yang, Yong

    2012-11-21

    Ever since Richards proposed his flexible growth function more than half a century ago, it has been a mystery that this empirical function has made many incredible coincidences with real ecological or epidemic data even though one of its parameters (i.e., the exponential term) does not seem to have clear biological meaning. It is therefore a natural challenge to mathematical biologists to provide an explanation of the interesting coincidences and a biological interpretation of the parameter. Here we start from a simple epidemic SIR model to revisit Richards model via an intrinsic relation between both models. Especially, we prove that the exponential term in the Richards model has a one-to-one nonlinear correspondence to the basic reproduction number of the SIR model. This one-to-one relation provides us an explicit formula in calculating the basic reproduction number. Another biological significance of our study is the observation that the peak time is approximately just a serial interval after the turning point. Moreover, we provide an explicit relation between final outbreak size, basic reproduction number and the peak epidemic size which means that we can predict the final outbreak size shortly after the peak time. Finally, we introduce a constraint in Richards model to address over fitting problem observed in the existing studies and then apply our method with constraint to conduct some validation analysis using the data of recent outbreaks of prototype infectious diseases such as Canada 2009 H1N1 outbreak, GTA 2003 SARS outbreak, Singapore 2005 dengue outbreak, and Taiwan 2003 SARS outbreak. Our new formula gives much more stable and precise estimate of model parameters and key epidemic characteristics such as the final outbreak size, the basic reproduction number, and the turning point, compared with earlier simulations without constraints. PMID:22889641

  2. Analysis of lower atmosphere pressure field response for short-time cosmic ray variations by Multifield Comparison Measure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, I. V.; Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2016-02-01

    Pressure variation in lower atmosphere which take place after intensive solar proton events and Forbush-decreases of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are analyzed for the period 1980-2006. There were plotted groups of charts (multifields) for 48 solar proton events with energies of particles Ep > 90 MeV and for 48 Forbush-decreases of GCRs with amplitudes dN/N > 2.5%. These multifields revealed a growth of matrix norm over North Atlantic region and North of European part of Russia during days following the bursts of solar protons and Forbush-decreases of GCRs, respectively. These results confirm hypothesis about relation of regional cyclogenesis processes with short-term variations of solar and galactic cosmic rays.

  3. Extension of recovery time from fatigue by repeated rest with short-term sleep during continuous fatigue load: Development of chronic fatigue model.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Akinori; Okauchi, Takashi; Hu, Di; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Katayama, Yumiko; Koyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Cui, Yilong

    2016-05-01

    Homeostasis is known to be involved in maintaining the optimal internal environment, helping to achieve the best performance of biological functions. At the same time, a deviation from optimal conditions often attenuates the performance of biological functions, and such restricted performance could be considered as individual fatigue, including physical and mental fatigue. The present study seeks to develop an animal model of chronic or subacute fatigue in which the recovery time is extended through the gradual disruption of homeostasis. We show that repeated short-term rest periods with certain lengths of sleep during continuous fatigue loading extend recovery from spontaneous nighttime activity but not physical performance in comparison with a continuous fatigue-loading procedure. Furthermore, the immobility time in a forced swimming test was extended by repeated short-term rests. These results suggest that repeated short-term rest with certain lengths of sleep during continuous fatigue loading is able to extend the recovery from mental fatigue but not from physical fatigue and that this effect might occur via the disruption of a homeostatic mechanism that is involved in restoring the optimal internal environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864568

  4. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-03-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic explanation for the energy coupling and ATP synthesis carried out in mitochondria and chloroplast thylakoids. The mechanism does not suffer from the flaws in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory that have been pointed out in many studies since its first appearance 50 years ago, when it was hailed as a ground-breaking mechanistic explanation of what is perhaps the most important process in cellular energetics. The new findings fit very well with the predictions of Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis. It is argued that this mechanism, based on at least 15 years of experimental and theoretical work by Sunil Nath, constitutes a fundamentally different theory of the energy conversion process that eliminates all the inconsistencies in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory pointed out by other authors. It is concluded that the energy-transducing complexes in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis are proton-dicarboxylic acid anion cotransporters and not simply electrogenic proton translocators. These results necessitate revision of previous theories of biological energy transduction, coupling, and ATP synthesis. The novel molecular mechanism is extended to cover ATP synthesis in prokaryotes, in particular to alkaliphilic and haloalkaliphilic bacteria, essentially making it a complete theory addressing mechanistic, kinetic, and thermodynamic details. Finally, based on the new interpretation of oxidative phosphorylation, quantitative values for the P/O ratio, the amount of ATP generated per redox package of the reduced substrates, are calculated and compared with experimental values for fermentation on different substrates. It is our hope that the presentation of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation from a wholly new perspective will rekindle scientific discussion of a key process in bioenergetics and catalyze new avenues of research in a truly interdisciplinary field. PMID:25384602

  5. Expression of Flowering-Time Genes in Soybean E1 Near-isogenic Lines Under Short and Long Day Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. Plant breeders have identified a series of genes (E genes) that condition time to flowering, however, the molecular basis in the control of flowering by these E genes, in conjunction with canonical flowe...

  6. V405 ANDROMEDA REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, T.; Kafka, S.

    2011-10-15

    We present a multi-epoch time-resolved high-resolution optical spectroscopy study of the short-period (P{sub orb} = 11.2 hr) eclipsing M0V+M5V RS CVn binary V405 Andromeda. By means of indirect imaging techniques, namely Doppler imaging, we study the surface activity features of the M0V component of the system. A modified version of a Doppler imaging code, which takes into account the tidal distortion of the surface of the star, is applied to the multi-epoch data set in order to provide indirect images of the stellar surface. The multi-epoch surface brightness distributions show a low intensity 'belt' of spots at latitudes {+-}40{sup 0} and a noticeable absence of high latitude features or polar spots on the primary star of V405 Andromeda. They also reveal slow evolution of the spot distribution over {approx}4 yr. An entropy landscape procedure is used in order to find the set of binary parameters that lead to the smoothest surface brightness distributions. As a result, we find M{sub 1} = 0.51 {+-} 0.03 M{sub sun}, M{sub 2} = 0.21 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}, R{sub 1} = 0.71 {+-} 0.01 R{sub sun}, and an inclination i = 65{sup 0} {+-} 1{sup 0}. The resulting systemic velocity is distinct for different epochs, raising the possibility of the existence of a third body in the system.

  7. Automatized near-real-time short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra dispersion before and during eruptions: BET_VHst for Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Scollo, Simona; Costa, Antonio; Brancato, Alfonso; Prestifilippo, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Tephra dispersal, even in small amounts, may heavily affect public health and critical infrastructures, such as airports, train and road networks, and electric power supply systems. Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at managing and mitigating the risk posed by activity during volcanic crises and during eruptions. Short-term PVHA (over time intervals in the order of hours to few days) must account for rapidly changing information coming from the monitoring system, as well as, updated wind forecast, and they must be accomplished in near-real-time. In addition, while during unrest the primary goal is to forecast potential eruptions, during eruptions it is also fundamental to correctly account for the real-time status of the eruption and of tephra dispersal, as well as its potential evolution in the short-term. Here, we present a preliminary application of BET_VHst model (Selva et al. 2014) for Mt. Etna. The model has its roots into present state deterministic procedure, and it deals with the large uncertainty that such procedures typically ignore, like uncertainty on the potential position of the vent and eruptive size, on the possible evolution of volcanological input during ongoing eruptions, as well as, on wind field. Uncertainty is treated by making use of Bayesian inference, alternative modeling procedures for tephra dispersal, and statistical mixing of long- and short-term analyses. References Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252

  8. Gaussian short-time propagators and electron kinetics: Numerical evaluation of path-sum solutions to Fokker{endash}Planck equations for rf heating and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarro, J.P.; Belo, J.H.; Figueiredo, A.C.

    1997-06-01

    Knowing that short-time propagators for Fokker{endash}Planck equations are Gaussian, and based on a path-sum formulation, an efficient and simple numerical method is presented to solve the initial-value problem for electron kinetics during rf heating and current drive. The formulation is thoroughly presented and discussed, its advantages are stressed, and general, practical criteria for its implementation are derived regarding the time step and grid spacing. The new approach is illustrated and validated by solving the one-dimensional model for lower-hybrid current drive, which has a well-known steady-state analytical solution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Human short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones decreases computer-assisted visual reaction time.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Rouintan, M S; Taeb, S; Dehghan, N; Ghaffarpanah, A A; Sadeghi, Z; Ghafouri, F

    2012-06-01

    The worldwide dramatic increase in mobile phone use has generated great concerns about the detrimental effects of microwave radiations emitted by these communication devices. Reaction time plays a critical role in performing tasks necessary to avoid hazards. As far as we know, this study is the first survey that reports decreased reaction time after exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by a high specific absorption rate mobile phone. It is also the first study in which previous history of mobile phone use is taken into account. The aim of this study was to assess both the acute and chronic effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on reaction time in university students. Visual reaction time (VRT) of young university students was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-VRT test, before and after a 10min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones. Participants were 160 right-handed university students aged 18-31. To assess the effect of chronic exposures, the reaction time in sham-exposed phases were compared among low level, moderate and frequent users of mobile phones. The meanSD reaction time after real exposure and sham exposure were 286.7831.35ms and 295.8632.17ms (P<0.001), respectively. The age of students did not significantly alter the reaction time either in talk or in standby mode. The reaction time either in talk or in standby mode was shorter in male students. The students' VRT was significantly affected by exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone. It can be concluded that these exposures cause decreased reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. In this light, this phenomenon might decrease the chances of human errors and fatal accidents. PMID:22426673

  10. The Relativistic Oscillator Algebra Revisited in the Quantum Groups Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfone, A. M.; Narayana Swamy, P.

    We revisit the harmonic oscillator algebra in an indefinite metric by reinterpreting consistently the time-like components in a way compatible with a positive-definite metric. We show that, despite its unusual features, the relativistic oscillator algebra can be derived starting from the Euclidean q-oscillator algebra. The consistency of this isomorphism is examined at different levels including the possible implication on the dynamics of the two formalisms by means of their respective Hamiltonians.

  11. The variability of biogenic sulfur flux from a temperate salt marsh on short time and space scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Michael C.; Hines, Mark E.

    Three emission chambers were deployed simultaneously to measure rates of emission of dimethyl sulfide, methane thiol and carbonyl sulfide within or across vegetation zones in a New Hampshire salt marsh. Short term (a few hours) variation in fluxes of all S gases from replicate sites were small within a monospecific stand of either Spartina alterniflora or S. patens. The quantity of emergent biomass and the type of vegetation present were the primary factors regulating the rate of emission. Dimethyl sulfide fluxes from the S. alterniflora soils ranged from 800 to 18,000 nmol m -2 h -1 compared to emissions of 25-120 nmol m -2 h -1 from S. patens. This difference was probably due to the presence of the dimethyl-sulfide precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate which is an osmoregulator in S. alterniflora but not in S. patens. Methane thiol emissions from S. alterniflora were 20-280 nmol m -2 h -1 and they displayed a similar diel trend as dimethyl sulfide, although at much lower rates, suggesting that methane thiol is produced primarily by leaves. Methane thiol emissions from S. patens were 20-70 nmol m -2 h -1. Net uptake of carbonyl sulfide of 25-40 nmol m -2 h -1 occurred in stands of S. alterniflora while net efflux of 10-36 nmol m -2 h -1 of carbonyl sulfide occurred in stands of S. patens. In general, ranges of emissions of sulfur gases were similar to most other published values.

  12. Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, Matthew R.

    Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. Short-lived positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The short-lived radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing short-lived positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may be introduced to plants as biologically active molecules such as 11CO2, N13O-3, 18F--[H2O], and H152O . Plants for these studies are grown in controlled-environment chambers at the Phytotron. The chambers offer an array of control for temperature, humidity, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and light intensity. Additionally, the Phytotron houses one large reach-in growth chamber that is dedicated to this project for radioisotope labeling measurements. There are several important properties of short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers that make them well suited for use in investigating metabolite transport in plants. First, because the molecular mass of a radioisotope-tagged compound is only minutely different from the corresponding stable compound, radiotracer substances should be metabolized and transported in plants the same as their non-radioactive counterparts. Second, because the relatively high energy gamma rays emitted from electron-positron annihilation are attenuated very little by plant tissue, the real-time distribution of a radiotracer can be measured in vivo in plants. Finally, the short radioactive half-lives of these isotopes allow for repeat measurements on the same plant in a short period of time. For example, in studies of short-term environmental changes on plant metabolite dynamics, a single plant can be labeled multiple times to measure its responses to different, environmental conditions. Also, different short-lived radiotracers can be applied to the same plant over a short period of time to investigate the transport and allocation of various metabolites. This newly developed system provides the capabilities for production of 11CO2 at TUNL, transfer of the 11CO 2 gas from the target area at TUNL to a radiation-shielded cryogenic trap at the Phytotron, labeling of photoassimilates with 11C, and in vivo gamma-ray detection for real-time measurements of the radiotracer distribution in small plants. The experimental techniques and instrumentation that enabled the quantitative biological studies reported in this thesis were developed through a

  13. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The relationship between surface topography, gravity anomalies, and temperature structure of convection, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 88(B2), 1129-1144, doi:10.1029/JB088iB02p01129. [3] Robinson, E. M., B. Parsons, and S. F. Daly (1987), The effect of a shallow low viscosity zone on the apparent compensation of mid-plate swells, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 82(3-4), 335-348, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(87)90207-X.

  14. Short-term soil nutrient impact in a real-time drain field soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater disposal system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alabama Black Belt area is widespread of Vertisols that are generally unsuitable for conventional septic systems; nonetheless, systems of this type have been widely used in this region for decades. In order to explore alternatives for these conventional septic systems, a real-time soil moisture ...

  15. Effects of Morning Caffeine’ Ingestion on Mood States, Simple Reaction Time, and Short-Term Maximal Performance on Elite Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Makram; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Atheymen, Rim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists. Methods Twelve elite judoists (age: 21.08 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 83.75 ± 20.2 kg, height: 1.76 ±6.57 m) participated in this study. Mood states, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test were measured during two test sessions at 07:00 h and after placebo or caffeine ingestion (i.e. 5 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of caffeine were measured before (T0) and 1-h after caffeine’ ingestion (T1) and after the Wingate test (T3). Results Our results revealed an increase of the anxiety and the vigor (P<0.01), a reduction of the simple reaction time (P<0.001) and an improvement of the peak and mean powers during the Wingate test. However, the fatigue index during this test was unaffected by the caffeine ingestion. In addition, plasma concentration of caffeine was significantly higher at T1 in comparison with T0. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that morning caffeine ingestion has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance, increase anxiety and vigor, and decrease the simple reaction time. PMID:23012635

  16. Re-visiting the electrophysiology of language.

    PubMed

    Obleser, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    This editorial accompanies a special issue of Brain and Language re-visiting old themes and new leads in the electrophysiology of language. The event-related potential (ERP) as a series of characteristic deflections ("components") over time and their distribution on the scalp has been exploited by speech and language researchers over decades to find support for diverse psycholinguistic models. Fortunately, methodological and statistical advances have allowed human neuroscience to move beyond some of the limitations imposed when looking at the ERP only. Most importantly, we currently witness a refined and refreshed look at "event-related" (in the literal sense) brain activity that relates itself more closely to the actual neurobiology of speech and language processes. It is this imminent change in handling and interpreting electrophysiological data of speech and language experiments that this special issue intends to capture. PMID:26188384

  17. Devils Hole, Nevada: revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spötl, C.; Dublyansky, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Among the ever increasing number of caves visited and studied by paleoclimate scientists around the globe one site is special for a number of reasons. First described in the literature in 1988, Devils Hole is a geometrically simple cave developed along an extensional fracture in the Amargosa Desert of SW Nevada. The deeper portion of this cavity is phreatic and part of a regional aquifer whose lowest discharge point is Death Valley. Landmark studies by Ike Winograd's team examined thick calcite crusts present on the walls of this and a neighboring cave (termed Devils Hole #2) and retrieved one of the most remarkable (and thought-provoking) isotope proxy records covering the last half million of years (1992). More recently, Coplen (2007) scrutinized the stable isotope systematics at Devils Hole. His results suggest that this setting represents a rare example of inorganic calcite precipitation essentially at isotopic equilibrium. We obtained permission from the Death Valley National Park Service to study and sample Devils Hole #2. While previous studies were based on samples from the phreatic zone we cored the calcite crust just above the groundwater table in an attempt to extend the original record further back in time and to obtain direct paleowater isotope data. Stable isotope data obtained along one core show a very high degree of similarity with the published DH11 core and a first set of U-series dates confirms the stratigraphy down to 476 ka. Older calcite also shows glacial-interglacial oscillations in both carbon and oxygen isotopes. A tentative correlation with Antarctic and deep-sea isotope records suggests that the lower part of the calcite is ca. 800 ka old (i.e. MIS 20). The cores show petrographic evidence of falling groundwater levels during MIS 9, 7 and 5e, but there are no indications of major hiati. Interestingly, growth at our drill location ended shortly after 20 ka BP, i.e. much later than at the subaqueous site in Devils Hole proper where DH11 was retrieved (ca. 60 ka BP). This observation is consistent with Winograd et al. (2006) who extended the original DH11 stratigraphy up to the mid-Holocene using additional samples drilled in the phreatic part of Devils Hole #2. Coplen, T. (2007), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 3948-2957 Winograd, I. et al. (2006), Quat. Res., 66, 202-212 Winograd, I. et al. (1992), Science, 258, 255-260

  18. Predictability of Solar Radiation for Photovoltaics systems over Europe: from short-term to seasonal time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Petitta, Marcello; Ruti, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Photovoltaic diffusion is steadily growing on Europe, passing from a capacity of almost 14 GWp in 2011 to 21.5 GWp in 2012 [1]. Having accurate forecast is needed for planning and operational purposes, with the possibility to model and predict solar variability at different time-scales. This study examines the predictability of daily surface solar radiation comparing ECMWF operational forecasts with CM-SAF satellite measurements on the Meteosat (MSG) full disk domain. Operational forecasts used are the IFS system up to 10 days and the System4 seasonal forecast up to three months. Forecast are analysed considering average and variance of errors, showing error maps and average on specific domains with respect to prediction lead times. In all the cases, forecasts are compared with predictions obtained using persistence and state-of-art time-series models. We can observe a wide range of errors, with the performance of forecasts dramatically affected by orography and season. Lower errors are on southern Italy and Spain, with errors on some areas consistently under 10% up to ten days during summer (JJA). Finally, we conclude the study with some insight on how to "translate" the error on solar radiation to error on solar power production using available production data from solar power plants. [1] EurObserver, "Baromtre Photovoltaque, Le journal des nergies renouvables, April 2012."

  19. Asymmetric response time functions during left-/right-facing discriminations of rotated objects: The short and the long of it.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jordan A; Hamm, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    When deciding if a rotated object would face to the left or to the right, if imagined at the upright, mental rotation is typically assumed to be carried out through the shortest angular distance to the upright prior to determining the direction of facing. However, the response time functions for left- and right-facing objects are oppositely asymmetric, which is not consistent with the standard explanation. Using Searle and Hamm's individual differences adaption of Kung and Hamm's Mixture Model, the current study compares the predicted response time functions derived when assuming that objects are rotated through the shortest route to the upright with the predicted response time functions derived when assuming that objects are rotated in the direction they face. The latter model provides a better fit to the majority of the individual data. This allows us to conclude that, when deciding if rotated objects would face to the left or to the right if imagined at the upright, mental rotation is carried out in the direction that the objects face and not necessarily in the shortest direction to the upright. By comparing results for mobile and immobile object sets we can also conclude that semantic information regarding the mobility of an object does not appear to influence the speed of mental rotation, but it does appear to influence pre-rotation processes and the likelihood of employing a mental rotation strategy. PMID:26228032

  20. Effect of low-temperature long-time pre-treatment of wheat on acrylamide concentration in short dough biscuits.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Quarta, Barbara; Foschia, Martina; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo

    2009-12-01

    In April 2002, unexpected high levels of the neurotoxic and suspected carcinogen acrylamide (AA) were found in many heated foods, mainly represented by cereal and potato derivatives. Since then, due to the great consumption of dietary sources of AA among people of different ages and in different countries, worldwide efforts have been carried out to reduce the formation of the toxic molecule in foods. In this paper, the effect of a low-temperature long-time pre-treatment of wheat grains on AA formation in biscuits was investigated. Wheat grains were subjected to heating at 100 degrees C for 8 h and subsequently milled. The obtained flour was used to prepare biscuits that were compared for AA content, texture and color with control samples obtained by using flour from unheated wheat. The low-temperature long-time pre-treatment was responsible for a great decrease (up to 42%) in AA levels in the biscuits, without causing significant changes in the color and texture parameters. As the pre-treatment did not cause any change in sugar and asparagine concentrations, such a reduction in AA concentration can be attributed to a difference in the thermal effect generated in the biscuits obtained by using the unheated and pre-heated flours. In fact, as the heating pre-treatment caused a 2% moisture decrease in the flour, less time at the same temperature was required to obtain biscuits with comparable moisture contents. PMID:19785002

  1. HIV and tuberculosis: noncompliance revisited.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, C J

    1995-01-01

    Revisiting the stereotype of the noncompliant patient can transcend the frustrating or resentful feelings nurses may experience when caring for patients with HIV and tuberculosis. This reevaluation also can lend itself to developing mutually participative nurse-patient relationships. The author suggests relationship goals, assessment parameters, and intervention strategies--including a directly observed therapy (DOT) contract. These actions support a commitment to empowering both the nurse and the patient in their relationship in the TB treatment process. PMID:7599328

  2. Very short NMR relaxation times of anions in ionic liquids: New pulse sequence to eliminate the acoustic ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimavicius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2014-11-01

    NMR relaxation processes of anions were studied in two neat imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide- and chloride. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of 81Br and 35Cl nuclei were found to be extremely fast due to very strong quadrupolar interactions. The determined relaxation rates are comparable with those observed in the solids or in some critical organic solute/water/salt systems. In order to eliminate the acoustic ringing of the probe-head during relaxation times measurements the novel pulse sequence has been devised. It is based on the conventional inversion recovery pulse sequence, however, instead of the last 90 pulse the subsequence of three 90 pulses applied along axes to fulfill the phase cycling condition is used. Using this pulse sequence it was possible to measure T1 for both studied nuclei. The viscosity measurements have been carried out and the rotational correlation times were calculated. The effective 35Cl quadrupolar coupling constant was found to be almost one order lower than that for 81Br, i.e. 1.8 MHz and 16.0 MHz, respectively. Taking into account the facts that the ratio of (Q(35Cl)/Q(81Br))2 ? 0.1 and EFG tensors on the anions are quite similar, analogous structural organizations are expected for both RTILs. The observed T1/T2 (1.27-1.44) ratios were found to be not sufficiently high to confirm the presence of long-living (on the time scale of ?10-8 s) mesoscopic structures or heterogeneities in the studied neat ionic liquids.

  3. Very short NMR relaxation times of anions in ionic liquids: new pulse sequence to eliminate the acoustic ringing.

    PubMed

    Klimavicius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2014-11-11

    NMR relaxation processes of anions were studied in two neat imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide- and chloride. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of 81Br and 35Cl nuclei were found to be extremely fast due to very strong quadrupolar interactions. The determined relaxation rates are comparable with those observed in the solids or in some critical organic solute/water/salt systems. In order to eliminate the acoustic ringing of the probe-head during relaxation times measurements the novel pulse sequence has been devised. It is based on the conventional inversion recovery pulse sequence, however, instead of the last 90 pulse the subsequence of three 90 pulses applied along axes to fulfill the phase cycling condition is used. Using this pulse sequence it was possible to measure T1 for both studied nuclei. The viscosity measurements have been carried out and the rotational correlation times were calculated. The effective 35Cl quadrupolar coupling constant was found to be almost one order lower than that for 81Br, i.e. 1.8 MHz and 16.0 MHz, respectively. Taking into account the facts that the ratio of (Q(35Cl)/Q(81Br))2?0.1 and EFG tensors on the anions are quite similar, analogous structural organizations are expected for both RTILs. The observed T1/T2 (1.27-1.44) ratios were found to be not sufficiently high to confirm the presence of long-living (on the time scale of ?10(-8) s) mesoscopic structures or heterogeneities in the studied neat ionic liquids. PMID:24938418

  4. A simple model for the short-time evolution of near-surface current and temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alastair D.; Ward, Brian

    2005-05-01

    A simple analytical/numerical model has been developed for computing the evolution, over periods of up to a few hours, of the current and temperature profile in the upper layer of the ocean. The model is based upon conservation laws for heat and momentum, and employs an eddy diffusion parameterisation which is dependent on both the wind speed and the wind stress applied at the sea surface. Other parameters such as the bulk-skin surface temperature difference and CO 2 flux are determined by application of the Molecular Oceanic Boundary Layer Model (MOBLAM) of Schlssel and Soloviev. A similar model, for the current profile only, predicts a temporary increase in wave breaking intensity and decrease in wave height under conditions where the wind speed increases suddenly, such as, for example, during gusts and squalls. The model results are compared with measurements from the Lagrangian Skin Depth Experimental Profiler (SkinDeEP) surface profiling instrument made during the 1999 MOCE-5 field experiment in the waters around Baja California. SkinDeEP made repeated profiles of temperature within the upper few metres of the water column. Given that no tuning was performed in the model, and that the model does not take account of stratification, the results of the model runs are in rather good agreement with the observations. The model may be suitable as an interface between time-independent models of processes very near the surface, and larger-scale three-dimensional time-dependent ocean circulation models. A straightforward extension of the model should also be capable of making time-dependent computations of gas concentration in the near-surface layer of the ocean.

  5. Optical design of the short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy time-angle correlated diffraction beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, R.; Dufresne, E. M.; Borland, M.; Beno, M. A.; Young, L.; Kim, K.-J.; Evans, P. G.

    2013-05-15

    The short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy beamline is one of the two x-ray beamlines that will take full advantage of the short pulse x-ray source in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade. A horizontally diffracting double crystal monochromator which includes a sagittally focusing second crystal will collect most of the photons generated when the chirped electron beam traverses the undulator. A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system after the monochromator will deliver to the sample a beam which has an approximately linear correlation between time and vertical beam angle. The correlation at the sample position has a slope of 0.052 ps/{mu}rad extending over an angular range of 800 {mu}rad for a cavity deflection voltage of 2 MV. The expected time resolution of the whole system is 2.6 ps. The total flux expected at the sample position at 10 keV with a 0.9 eV energy resolution is 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} photons/s at a spot having horizontal and vertical full width at half maximum of 33 {mu}m horizontal by 14 {mu}m vertical. This new beamline will enable novel time-dispersed diffraction experiments on small samples using the full repetition rate of the APS.

  6. Effect of multi-input injection locking on hysteresis width and switching time in SMFP-LDs for short pulse switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakarmi, Bikash; Won, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the effect of multi-input injection on the hysteresis width and rising-falling time of output signal at the dominant mode and the suppressed-injected mode of the single mode Fabry-perot laser diode (SMFP-LD). The dominant mode of SMFP-LD can be changed with the change in operating temperature and has a tunability of about 10 nm. The analysis of hysteresis width is useful for choosing the appropriate input power and wavelength detuning for input injected beam according to its applications. Latching application needs larger hysteresis width whereas for switching application lesser hysteresis width is preferred for less switching time. The hysteresis analysis is used to demonstrate short pulse controlled all-optical switch which includes SR latch as a control unit and 1x2 switch as a switching unit. Input control pulses are used to switch input data of 10 Gbps to output ports and the minimum control pulse observed is 280 ps. Clear waveforms, eye diagram and rising/falling time at outputs are obtained for the proposed optical short pulse controlled switching circuit.

  7. Comparison of two real-time PCR assays for the detection of malaria parasites from hemolytic blood samples Short communication

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Tannich, Egbert; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    We compared the performance of an in-house and a commercial malaria polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using freezethawed hemolytic blood samples. A total of 116 freezethawed ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of patients with suspicion of malaria were analyzed by an in-house as well as by a commercially available real-time PCR. Concordant malaria negative PCR results were reported for 39 samples and malaria-positive PCR results for 67 samples. The in-house assay further detected one case of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which was negative in the commercial assay as well as five cases of P. falciparum malaria and three cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, which showed sample inhibition in the commercial assay. The commercial malaria assay was positive in spite of a negative in-house PCR result in one case. In all concordant results, cycle threshold values of P. falciparum-positive samples were lower in the commercial PCR than in the in-house assay. Although Ct values of the commercial PCR kit suggest higher sensitivity in case of concordant results, it is prone to inhibition if it is applied to hemolytic freezethawed blood samples. The number of misidentifications was, however, identical for both real-time PCR assays. PMID:26185684

  8. Interaction between Workers during a Short Time Window Is Required for Bacterial Symbiont Transmission in Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Sarah E.; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  9. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Behnam; Khodadadi, Abasali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Esmaieli, Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with IG/ID Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  10. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenni, L.; Kery, M.

    2003-01-01

    As a response to increasing spring temperature in temperate regions in recent years, populations of many plant and animal species, including migratory birds, have advanced the seasonal start of their reproduction or growth. However, the effects of climate changes on subsequent events of the annual cycle remain poorly understood. We investigated long-term changes in the timing of autumn migration in birds, a key event in the annual cycle limiting the reproductive period. Using data spanning a 42-year period, we analysed long-term changes in the passage of 65 species of migratory birds through Western Europe. The autumn passage of migrants wintering south of the Sahara has advanced in recent years, presumably as a result of selection pressure to cross the Sahel before its seasonal dry period. In contrast, migrants wintering north of the Sahara have delayed autumn passage. In addition, species with a variable rather than a fixed number of broods per year have delayed passage, possibly because they are free to attempt more broods. Recent climate changes seem to have a simple unidirectional effect on the seasonal onset of reproduction, but complex and opposing effects on the timing of subsequent events in the annual cycle, depending on the ecology and life history of a species. This complicates predictions of overall effects of global warming on avian communities.

  11. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Sarah E; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association. PMID:25058579

  12. A one-step short-time synthesis of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lismont, Marjorie; Pez, Carlos A; Dreesen, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    A performance of shell-thickness precise control in silver-silica coating core-shell nanoparticles is presented. 60nm sized citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles are directly silica coated using a modified Stber process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate is used as a silica precursor and ammonium hydroxide as catalyst in an alcoholic solvent to promote the seeded silica growth. By simply varying the synthesis reaction time from 4 to 60min, the silica shell thickness is increased from 5.1nm to 76.4nm. This well-controlled synthesis is then transposed to 40, 80 and 100nm sized silver cores in order to show the independence of the silica shell growth on the nanoparticle core size. Optical properties, i.e. localized surface plasmon resonance, of the produced silver-silica core-shell are also investigated. PMID:25697687

  13. The short-time variability of the supersoft X-ray source RX J0019.8+2156

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Hofmeister, E.; Schandl, S.; Deufel, B.; Barwig, H.; Meyer, F.

    1998-03-01

    Optical observations of the galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0019.8+2156 reveal essential changes of the lightcurve from night to night. From October to December 1996 time resolved UBVRI photometry was performed with the high speed multichannel multicolour photometer MCCP at the 80 cm telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory of the Universitats-Sternwarte Munchen. To model these observations we compute lightcurves using a code which includes as sources of radiation the irradiated disk with an elevated outer rim and the irradiated secondary star in a consistent way. As found earlier the accretion disk rim is an important feature. We show in our investigation, that the variability of the optical flux can be understood as resulting from changes of the rim height, either from night to night or even within hours.

  14. High-sensitivity gas phase sequence analysis of proteins and peptides on PVDF membranes using short cycle times.

    PubMed

    Reim, D F; Speicher, D W

    1993-10-01

    An optimized sequencer program with a cycle time of 38 min which is specifically tailored for analysis using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes has been developed. The program was developed using a pulsed liquid-phase instrument which was converted to gas-phase acid delivery. Gas-phase acid delivery minimized sample extraction from PVDF membranes and improved tryptophan yields in at least some cases. Other modifications which contributed to reliable high sensitivity sequencer performance included use of a Blott cartridge, substitution of ethyl acetate:heptane (1:1, v/v) instead of butyl chloride as the extraction solvent, use of a modified 100-microliters injection loop with an internal restrictor to reliably inject nearly 90% of the sample, and an HPLC gradient which resolved tryptophan from diphenylurea. These shortened cycle times were achieved at the conventional gas-phase reaction temperature. A slight increase in lag or carryover at prolines was compensated by reduced background from nonspecific acid cleavage which facilitated extended and/or high sensitivity sequencing of large proteins. Reproducible high initial and repetitive cycle yields were obtained with a wide range of experimental peptides which were electroblotted from either 1D or 2D polyacrylamide gels onto high retention PVDF membranes. Initial yields of the majority of the experimental samples analyzed with this program were less than 5 pmol. In addition, most samples with initial yields below 1-2 pmol yielded sufficient sequence information to identify the protein by comparison to protein sequence data-bases or to design oligonucleotide probes. PMID:8250259

  15. Short Time-Scale Enhancements to the Global Thermosphere Temperature and Nitric Oxide Content Resulting From Ionospheric Joule Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Sutton, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The total Joule heating in the polar ionosphere can be derived from an empirical model of the electric fields and currents, using input measurements of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In the thermosphere, measurements of the neutral density from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites are used to derive exospheric temperatures, showing that enhanced ionospheric energy dissipation produces elevated temperatures with little delay.Using the total ionospheric heating, changes in the global mean exosphere temperature as a function of time can be calculated with a simple differential equation. The results compare very well with the CHAMP and GRACE measurement. A critical part of the calculation is the rate at which the thermosphere cools after the ionospheric heating is reduced. It had been noted previously that events with significant levels of heating subsequently cool at a faster rate, and this cooling was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide emissions. This correlation with nitric oxide has been confirmed with very high correlations with measurements of nitric oxide emissions in the thermosphere, from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. These measurements were used in a recent improvement in the equations that calculate the thermosphere temperature. The global nitric oxide cooling rates are included in this calculation, and the predicted levels of nitric oxide, derived from the ionosphere heating model, match the SABER measurements very well, having correlation coefficients on the order of 0.9.These calculations are used to govern the sorting of measurements CHAMP and GRACE measurements, on the basis of the global temperature enhancements due to Joule heating, as well as various solar indices, and season. Global maps of the exospheric temperature are produced from these sorted data.

  16. Measuring inorganic nitrate species with short time resolution from an aircraft platform by dual-channel ozone chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger L.; Valente, Ralph J.; Meagher, James F.

    1998-09-01

    A measurement technique for determining nitrate (the sum of nitric acid and particulate nitrate) with a few seconds time resolution in plumes is needed to resolve within-plume features. A technique using dual ozone-chemiluminescent NO detectors with a selective nitrate scrubber in one sampling train is promising if used with an appropriate sampling inlet, and if nitrate is the desired analyte. We report the design of, and preliminary results from a dual channel ozone-chemiluminescent system, each channel containing a gold-CO catalyzed converter which reduces all odd nitrogen species (NOy) quantitatively to NO; one channel also contains a nylon filter to remove nitrate from the air stream prior to the converter (this signal is termed NOy*). This system was deployed successfully in a Bell 205 helicopter during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study Nashville Ozone Study. The converters were mounted forward near the air intake, and zero air and calibration gases admitted simultaneously to both channels during flight operations. The difference signal between the two channels (NOy-NOy*) indicated apparent nitrate levels in the sampled air with a time resolution of <5 s and a limit of detection of about 1 ppbv. Nitrate levels observed with this system in plumes and background air during the Nashville Ozone Study were highly correlated with ozone and varied from below detection limits to ≈20 ppbv. Nitrate levels were also highly correlated with the calculated difference between NOy and the sum of NO and NO2 (NOz). Higher nitrate levels as a fraction of NOz were found in power plant plumes (≥60%) compared with urban plumes (≈50%) and background air, consistent with apparently lower ozone production efficiencies in power plant plumes vis-à-vis urban plumes.

  17. Short stature

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TREATMENT Your child's short stature may affect her self-esteem. Check in with your child about relationships with ... cm). The child is having extreme trouble with self-esteem and fitting in due to being short (although ...

  18. Conformations of the iduronate ring in short heparin fragments described by time-averaged distance restrained molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Muoz-Garca, Juan Carlos; Corzana, Francisco; de Paz, Jos L; Angulo, Jess; Nieto, Pedro M

    2013-11-01

    The polyconformational behavior of L-iduronic acid (L-IdoA2S) in heparin derivatives has been previously analyzed in terms of intra-ring proton-proton vicinal coupling constants ((3)JHH) through mathematical fit of experimental and theoretical values (Ferro DR, Provasoli A, Ragazzi M, Casu B, Torri G, Bossennec V, Perly B, Sinay P, Petitou M, Choay J. 1990. Conformer Populations of L-Iduronic Acid Residues in Glycosaminoglycan Sequences. Carbohydr Res. 195:157-167; Muoz-Garca JC, Lpez-Prados J, Angulo J, Daz-Contreras I, Reichardt N, de Paz JL, Martn-Lomas M, Nieto PM. 2012. Effect of the substituents of the neighboring ring in the conformational equilibrium of iduronate in heparin-like trisaccharides. Chemistry. 18:16319-16331.). However, this methodology is subjected to the experimental uncertainties of the J-coupling measurements, the force field deviations and the goodness of the least-squares fit. In the present work, we have used time-averaged distance restrained molecular dynamics (tar-MD) to largely reduce these errors, which enables accurate quantification of the population of conformers, or puckers, of the L-IdoA2S residue, in a set of eight heparin-like trisaccharides following the general sequence d-glucosamine (GlcN)-IdoA-GlcN, directly from the time evolution of the puckering coordinates ? and . Thus, by carrying out tar-MD simulations in explicit water, with the exclusive nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE)-derived distance H2-H5 of the L-IdoA2S (2)SO conformer as the unique imposed constraint, we have been able to accurately and easily determine the different extents to which the iduronate ring populates the polar ((1)C4 chair) and equatorial ((2)SO skew-boat) areas of the puckering sphere depending on the sulfation pattern of the flanking GlcN residues, under low temperature conditions (278 K). The results indicate that 6-O-sulfation at the reducing-end GlcN residue facilitates the (1)C4 to (2)SO transitions of the iduronate ring by augmenting the flexibility of the C2-C3 torsion, driving the conformational equilibrium toward a majority of equatorial conformers. PMID:23903025

  19. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, Norbert; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Lund, Magnus; Crill, Patrick; Christensen, Torben R.

    2016-02-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the simple linear regression model (first-order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat-forming wetlands ranging from 56 to 78° N to quantify the typical differences between flux estimates of different models. In addition, we aimed to assess the curvilinearity of the concentration time series and test the general applicability of curvilinear models. Despite significant episodic differences between the calculated flux estimates, the overall differences are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind-driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration as an example of how high-resolution automatic chamber measurements could be used for purposes beyond the estimation of the net gas flux. This shows that while linear and curvilinear calculation schemes can provide similar net fluxes, only curvilinear models open additional possibilities for high-resolution automatic chamber measurements.

  20. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or −80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors. PMID:26898904

  1. Time-resolved synchrotron diffraction and theoretical studies of very short-lived photo-induced molecular species

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Philip; Benedict, Jason; Messerschmidt, Marc; Novozhilova, Irina; Graber, Tim; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Vorontsov, Ivan; Scheins, Stephan; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Definitive experimental results on the geometry of fleeting species are at the time of writing still limited to monochromatic data collection, but methods for modifications of the polychromatic Laue data to increase their accuracy and their suitability for pumpprobe experiments have been implemented and are reviewed. In the monochromatic experiments summarized, excited-state conversion percentages are small when neat crystals are used, but are higher when photoactive species are embedded in an inert framework in supramolecular crystals. With polychromatic techniques and increasing source brightness, smaller samples down to tenths of a micrometre or less can be used, increasing homogeneity of exposure and the fractional population of the excited species. Experiments described include a series of transition metal complexes and a fully organic example involving excimer formation. In the final section, experimental findings are compared with those from theoretical calculations on the isolated species. Qualitative agreement is generally obtained, but the theoretical results are strongly dependent on the details of the calculation, indicating the need for further systematic analysis. PMID:20164641

  2. On violations of Le Chatelier's principle for a temperature change in small systems observed for short times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Searles, Debra J.; Ajloo, Davood; Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.

    2009-12-01

    Le Chatelier's principle states that when a system is disturbed, it will shift its equilibrium to counteract the disturbance. However for a chemical reaction in a small, confined system, the probability of observing it proceed in the opposite direction to that predicted by Le Chatelier's principle, can be significant. This work gives a molecular level proof of Le Chatelier's principle for the case of a temperature change. Moreover, a new, exact mathematical expression is derived that is valid for arbitrary system sizes and gives the relative probability that a single experiment will proceed in the endothermic or exothermic direction, in terms of a microscopic phase function. We show that the average of the time integral of this function is the maximum possible value of the purely irreversible entropy production for the thermal relaxation process. Our result is tested against computer simulations of the unfolding of a polypeptide. We prove that any equilibrium reaction mixture on average responds to a temperature increase by shifting its point of equilibrium in the endothermic direction.

  3. Prevalence of porcine circoviruses in Transylvanian wild boars, detected by real-time PCR--short communication.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Daniel; Csgola, Attila; Spinu, Marina; Dn, Adm; Ursu, Krisztina; Lorincz, Mrta; Tuboly, Tams

    2010-12-01

    Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are widespread in domestic pigs worldwide and there is growing information about the presence of PCV in other suid species. Based on serological studies with sera of wild boars, it was established that PCV1 was present in these animals and antibodies specific to PCV2 were also detected in wild boars living in captivity or in sylvatic areas, both with or without clinical signs of PMWS. Studies including PCV2 genome or antigen detection confirmed the previous findings. This is the first report about the presence of PCV in Transylvanian wild boar populations. Four hundred and sixty-nine samples were collected and grouped according to geographic origin, tested for the presence of PCV DNA using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and 13.52% of the animals proved to be positive for one or in three cases both of the PCV genotypes. PCV2 was detected in all of the PCV-positive samples. PMID:21087917

  4. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH(*) are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or -80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors. PMID:26898904

  5. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or ‑80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors.

  6. Time-frequency analysis of short-lasting modulation of EEG induced by TMS during wake, sleep deprivation and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Manganotti, Paolo; Formaggio, Emanuela; Del Felice, Alessandra; Storti, Silvia F.; Zamboni, Alessandro; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Fiaschi, Antonio; Toffolo, Gianna M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dynamic changes in spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms in the awake state or sleep is highly variable. These rhythms can be externally modulated during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a perturbation method to trigger oscillatory brain activity. EEG-TMS co-registration was performed during standard wake, during wake after sleep deprivation and in sleep in six healthy subjects. Dynamic changes in the regional neural oscillatory activity of the cortical areas were characterized using time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet method, and the modulation of induced oscillations were related to different vigilance states. A reciprocal synchronizing/desynchronizing effect on slow and fast oscillatory activity was observed in response to focal TMS after sleep deprivation and sleep. We observed a sleep-related slight desynchronization of alpha mainly over the frontal areas, and a widespread increase in theta synchronization. These findings could be interpreted as proof of the interference external brain stimulation can exert on the cortex, and how this could be modulated by the vigilance state. Potential clinical applications may include evaluation of hyperexcitable states such as epilepsy or disturbed states of consciousness such as minimal consciousness. PMID:24302903

  7. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.

    2012-02-16

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  8. Time-dependent Changes of Cadmium and Metallothionein after Short-term Exposure to Cadmium in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi Ran; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung Haing

    2010-01-01

    The time-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) concentration were studied in Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats during and after Cd exposure via drinking water (10 and 50 ppm) for 30 days. The cadmium concentration in muscle, liver, kidney, blood plasma, and urine, and the metallothionein concentration in blood plasma were determined every 10 days during exposure and every 7 days after exposure for 3 weeks. The muscle Cd concentration did not change during, and neither after, exposure. The liver Cd concentration increased from 1.4 to 3.3 (at 10 ppm) and from 6.1 to 10.1 folds (at 50 ppm) during exposure and remained higher than those of controls in both groups even during post-exposure period. The kidney Cd concentrations were 2.3 to 5.1 (at 10 ppm) and 4.9-14.0 folds (at 50 ppm) higher than those of controls during exposure and also remained elevated during the post-exposure period. Plasma Cd concentrations were not significantly different from those of controls in both groups. Urine Cd concentrations were more than 2 folds (at 10 ppm) and 6.5 to 12.6 folds (at 50 ppm) higher than those of controls but rapidly decreased over the 7 days of withdrawal. Blood plasma metallothionein concentrations were more than 2.4 folds (at 10 ppm) and 3.1 to 7.4 folds (at 50 ppm) , and they remained elevated till 7 days (10 ppm) and 14 days (at 50 ppm) after exposure. Our data support that Cd in urine could be a useful biomarker during Cd exposure period and metallothionein in blood plasma could be as a supportive biological marker for during and post Cd exposure. PMID:24278516

  9. Linear Viscoelasticity on Short Time ScalesReal-Frequency Mechanical Spectroscopy up to kHz Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmler, T.; Tweedie, R.; Pechhold, W.

    2008-07-01

    To characterize the rheological behaviour of viscoelastic fluids, polymer melts and other soft materials, motor-drive controlled rheometers are mainly used, either at constant stress or strain rate, or in the oscillatory mode. The latter has proved advantageous to discover the viscoelastic functions G*, ?*, J* as fingerprints of the material under investigation, its composition, molecular modelling and applicability. A conclusive analysis of such a viscoelastic spectrum can only be achieved if the amplitudes chosen guarantee linearity and if the frequency range covers more than 6 decades to reach the low kHz-domain. Investigations of many materials with motor-drive controlled rheometers are limited at higher frequencies and reach the above mentioned goal by applying the time-temperature superposition principle, i.e. the mastercurve technique. Since this method is restricted to rheologically simple materials (e.g. some polymer melts), but exclude those of small activation energies and others with temperature-sensitive chemical/physical structures including phase transitions, oscillating rheometry should be extended into higher real-frequency ranges, to establish useful linear viscoelastic spectroscopy. This goal has been reached by adapting a new high-frequency option into a commercially available rheometer. The available continuous frequency range with integrated high frequency option covers now approximately 8-9 decades. In this talk, advantages and limits of classical oscillatory rheometry will be covered, handling and principle of operation of the high frequency option are introduced and typical examples for real frequency spectra on soft matter, such as weak gels, polymer solutions and suspensions will be shown.

  10. Usefulness of ultrasonic strain measurement-based mechanical properties imaging technique: toward realization of short time diagnosis/treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Wakabayashi, Gou; Tanabe, Minoru

    2003-06-01

    For various soft tissues (e.g., liver, breast, etc.), we are developing the ultrasonic strain measurement-based mechanical properties (shear modulus, visco-shear modulus, etc.) reconstruction/imaging technique. To clarify the limitation of our quantitative reconstruction/imaging technique as a diagnostic tool for differentiating malignancies, together with improving the spatial resolution and the dynamic range we are collecting the clinical reconstruction image data. Furthermore, we are applying our technique as a monitoring technique for the effectiveness of chemical therapy (e.g., anticancer drug, ethanol, etc.), thermal therapy (e.g., micro, and rf electromagnetic wave, HIFU, LASER, etc.), and cryotherapy. As soft tissues are deformed in 3-D space due to externally situated quasi-static and/or low frequency mechanical sources, multidimensional signal processing improves strain measurement accuracy and reduces inhomogeneity-dependent modulus reconstruction artifacts. These have been verified by us through simulations and phantom/animal in vitro experiments. Briefly, here we discuss the limitations of low dimensional signal processing. Moreover, we exhibit the superiority both on differential diagnosis for these human in vivo malignancies and monitoring for these therapies of our quasi-real time imaging (using conventional US equipment) to conventional B-mode imaging. Our technique is available as a clinical visualization technique both for diagnosis and treatment, and monitored mechanical properties data can also be effectively utilized as the measure for controlling the therapy, i.e., the exposure energy, the foci, the exposure interval, etc. In the near future, suitable combination of various simple and low-invasive therapy techniques with our imaging technique will open up a new clinical style allowing diagnosis and the subsequently immediate treatment. This must substantially reduce the total medical expenses.

  11. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, N.; Mastepanov, M.; Parmentier, F.-J. W.; Lund, M.; Crill, P.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-09-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the robust linear regression model (first order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat forming wetlands to calculate fluxes with different models. The flux differences from independent linear estimates are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration and argue that high-resolution automatic chamber measurements could be used for purposes beyond the estimation of the net gas flux.

  12. Application of MCPA herbicide on soils amended with biostimulants: short-time effects on soil biological properties.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; Garca-Martnez, Ana M; Gmez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we studied in the laboratory the effect of MCPA herbicide at a rate of 1.5lha(-1) (manufactures rate recommended) on biological properties of a Plagic Antrosol amended with four biostimulants (WCDS, wheat condensed distillers soluble; PA-HE, hydrolyzed poultry feathers; CGHE, carob germ enzymatic extract; and RB, rice bran extract). Seven hundred grams of soil were mixed with WCDS at a rate of 10%, CGHE at a rate of 4.7%, PA-HE at a rate of 4.3%, and RB at a rate of 4.4%, respectively, in order to applying the same amount of organic matter to the soil (16.38 g organic matter). An unamended polluted and amended non-polluted soil were used as control. For all treatments, the soil ergosterol, dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatase activities were measured at two incubation times (0 and 60 d). The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles in all treatments were determined at the beginning and end of the incubation period. The results indicated that at the end of the incubation period and compared with the control soil, the dehydrogenase, urease and phosphatase activities and ergosterol decreased 39.3%, 20%, 15.7% and 56.5%, respectively in the non-organic amended polluted soil. The application of organic matter to unpolluted soil increased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB, followed by PA-HE, WCDS and CGHE. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol content. However, this decrease was lower than for the non-amended herbicide polluted soil. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the adsorption capacity of humic substances are responsible for less inhibition of these enzyme activities and soil ergosterol. The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles indicated that herbicide did not negatively affect soil bacterial biodiversity. PMID:20510432

  13. Motion times, hand forces, and trunk kinematics when using material handling manipulators in short-distance transfers of moderate mass objects.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, M A; Chaffin, D B; Stump, B S; Baker, G; Foulke, J

    2000-06-01

    The risk of musculoskeletal injury associated with manual materials handling tasks has led in part to the use of material handling manipulators, yet there is limited empirical data to facilitate selection, design, and evaluation of these devices. A laboratory study of two types of mechanical manipulators (articulated arm and overhead hoist) was conducted of short-distance transfers of moderate loads, and the influence of various task parameters and transfer method on motion times, peak hand forces, and torso kinematics was obtained. Use of manipulators increased elemental motion times for symmetric sagittal plane transfers by 36-63%, and asymmetric transfers (in the frontal plane) by 62-115%, compared to similar transfers performed manually. Peak hand forces were significantly lower with both manipulators (40-50%), and approximately 10% higher for asymmetric versus symmetric transfers. Overall torso kinematics were grossly similar with and without a manipulator. These results suggest that for self-paced job tasks, moderate mass objects will be transferred slower over short distances and with lower levels of external (hand) forces when using mechanical aids. These simple effects, however, were influenced by object mass and transfer height. PMID:10855445

  14. Delayed administration of VEGF rescues spinal motor neurons from death with a short effective time frame in excitotoxic experimental models in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B; Tapia, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) prevents neuronal death in different models of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), but few studies have addressed the efficacy of VEGF to protect motor neurons after the onset of symptoms, a critical point when considering VEGF as a potential therapeutic target for ALS. We studied the capability of VEGF to protect motor neurons after an excitotoxic challenge in two models of spinal neurodegeneration in rats induced by AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) administered either chronically with osmotic minipumps or acutely by microdialysis. VEGF was administered through osmotic minipumps in the chronic model or injected intracerebroventricularly in the acute model, and its effects were assessed by immunohistochemical and histological analyses and motor performance tests. In the chronic model, VEGF stopped the progression of the paralysis and protected motor neurons when administered after AMPA before the onset of the motor symptoms, whereas no protection was observed when administered after the onset. VEGF was also protective in the acute model, but with a short time window, since the protection was effective when administered 1 h but not 2 h after AMPA. Our results indicate that while VEGF has an indubitable neuroprotective effect, its therapeutic potential for halting or delaying the progression of motor neuron loss in ALS would likely have a short effective time frame. PMID:22369757

  15. Biliary complications in liver transplantation: Impact of anastomotic technique and ischemic time on short- and long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kienlein, Stefan; Schoening, Wenzel; Andert, Anne; Kroy, Daniela; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the impact of various donor recipient and transplant factors on the development of biliary complications after liver transplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 200 patients of our newly established liver transplantation (LT) program, who received full size liver graft. Biliary reconstruction was performed by side-to-side (SS), end-to-end (EE) anastomosis or hepeaticojejunostomy (HJ). Biliary complications (BC), anastomotic stenosis, bile leak, papillary stenosis, biliary drain complication, ischemic type biliary lesion (ITBL) were evaluated by studying patient records, corresponding radiologic imaging and reports of interventional procedures [e.g., endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)]. Laboratory results included alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase and direct/indirect bilirubin with focus on the first and fifth postoperative day, six weeks after LT. The routinely employed external bile drain was examined by a routine cholangiography on the fifth postoperative day and six weeks after transplantation as a standard procedure, but also whenever clinically indicated. If necessary, interventional (e.g., ERCP) or surgical therapy was performed. In case of biliary complication, patients were selected, assigned to different complication-groups and subsequently reviewed in detail. To evaluate the patients outcome, we focussed on appearance of postoperative/post-interventional cholangitis, need for rehospitalisation, retransplantation, ITBL or death caused by BC. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients [age: 56 (19-72), alcoholic cirrhosis: n = 64 (32%), hepatocellular carcinoma: n = 40 (20%), acute liver failure: n = 23 (11.5%), cryptogenic cirrhosis: n = 22 (11%), hepatitis B virus /hepatitis C virus cirrhosis: n = 13 (6.5%), primary sclerosing cholangitis: n = 13 (6.5%), others: n = 25 (12.5%) were included. The median follow-up was 27 mo until June 2015. The overall biliary complication rate was 37.5% (n = 75) with anastomotic strictures (AS): n = 38 (19%), bile leak (BL): n = 12 (6%), biliary drain complication: n = 12 (6%); papillary stenosis (PS): n = 7 (3.5%), ITBL: n = 6 (3%). Clinically relevant were only 19% (n = 38). We established a comprehensive classification for AS with four grades according to clinical relevance. The reconstruction techniques [SS: n = 164, EE: n = 18, HJ: n = 18] showed no significant impact on the development of BCs in general (all n < 0.05), whereas in the HJ group significantly less AS were found (P = 0.031). The length of donor intensive care unit stay over 6 d had a significant influence on BC development (P = 0.007, HR = 2.85; 95%CI: 1.33-6.08) in the binary logistic regression model, whereas other reviewed variables had not [warm ischemic time > 45 min (P = 0.543), cold ischemic time > 10 h (P = 0.114), ALT init > 1500 U/L (P = 0.631), bilirubin init > 5 mg/dL (P = 0.595), donor age > 65 (P = 0.244), donor sex (P = 0.068), rescue organ (P = 0.971)]. 13% (n = 10) of BCs had no therapeutic consequences, 36% (n = 27) resulted in repeated lab control, 40% (n = 30) received ERCP and 11% (n = 8) surgical therapy. Fifteen (7.5%) patients developed cholangitis [AS (n = 6), ITBL (n = 5), PS (n = 3), biliary lesion BL (n = 1)]. One patient developed ITBL twelve months after LT and subsequently needed retransplantation. Rehospitalisation rate was 10.5 % (n= 21) [AS (n = 11), ITBL (n = 5), PS (n = 3), BL (n = 1)] with intervention or reinterventional therapy as main reasons. Retransplantation was performed in 5 (2.5%) patients [ITBL (n = 1), acute liver injury (ALI) by organ rejection (n = 3), ALI by occlusion of hepatic artery (n = 1)]. In total 21 (10.5%) patients died within the follow-up period. Out of these, one patient with AS developed severe fatal chologenic sepsis after ERCP. CONCLUSION: In our data biliary reconstruction technique and ischemic times seem to have little impact on the development of BCs. PMID:26722658

  16. Making Productive Use of Four Models of School English: A Case Study Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macken-Horarik, Mary

    2014-01-01

    At a time when political leaders and media pundits seek to narrow the English curriculum and reduce its knowledge structure to the "basics," it is helpful to revisit the potential of different approaches to learning in English that have evolved over time. In this paper I reflect on the semantic features of personal growth, cultural

  17. Short-time Fourier transform analysis of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation: collision reaction between CN and C4H6.

    PubMed

    Tamaoki, Mari; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Nakai, Hiromi

    2005-04-15

    Collision reactions between cyano radical (CN) and dimethylacetylene (C4H6) are thought to occur in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. However, it is difficult to reproduce reactions occurring in unique environments to study their dynamical processes. In this study, collision reactions between CN and C4H6 were investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The simulation results were categorized into three kinds: nonreactive collision, incorporation, and substitution. Short-time Fourier transform analysis of velocity autocorrelation functions obtained by the AIMD simulations, which has been recently developed by our research group, was performed to examine the nonequilibrium condition of the vibrational states. Spectrograms, which correspond to the time evolution of power spectra, clarify the relationship between the three reaction channels and the dynamical changes of the vibrational states. PMID:15688439

  18. Comparison of MCNP calculation and measurement of neutron fluence in a channel for short-time irradiation in the LVR-15 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lahodova, Z.; Flibor, S.; Klupak, V.; Kucera, J.; Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.

    2006-07-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the neutron energy distribution in a channel of the LVR-15 reactor used mostly for short-time neutron activation analysis. Twenty types of activation monitors were irradiated in this channel equipped with a pneumatic facility with a transport time of 3.5 s. The activities measured and the corresponding reaction rates were used to determinate the neutron spectrum. The reaction rates were compared with MCNP calculations to confirm the results. The second purpose of this work was to verify our nuclear data library used for the reaction rate calculations. The experiment results were also incorporated into our database system of neutron energy distribution at the reactor core. (authors)

  19. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products. PMID:26525266

  20. Temporal compositional trends over short and long time-scales in basalts of the Big Pine Volcanic Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Reiners, Peter W.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Singer, Brad S.; Chesley, John

    2008-05-01

    Primitive basaltic single eruptions in the Big Pine Volcanic Field (BPVF) of Owens Valley, California show systematic temporal-compositional variation that cannot be described by simple models of fractional crystallization, partial melting of a single source, or crustal contamination. We targeted five monogenetic eruption sequences in the BPVF for detailed chemical and isotopic measurements and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating, focusing primarily on the Papoose Canyon sequence. The vent of the primitive (Mg# = 69) Papoose Canyon sequence (760.8 ± 22.8 ka) produced magmas with systematically decreasing (up to a factor of two) incompatible element concentrations, at roughly constant MgO (9.8 ± 0.3 (1σ) wt.%) and Na 2O. SiO 2 and compatible elements (Cr and Ni) show systematic increases, while 87Sr/ 86Sr systematically decreases (0.7063-0.7055) and ɛ Nd increases (- 3.4 to - 1.1). 187Os/ 188Os is highly radiogenic (0.20-0.31), but variations among four samples do not correlate with other chemical or isotopic indices, are not systematic with respect to eruption order, and thus the Os system appears to be decoupled from the dominant trends. The single eruption trends likely result from coupled melting and mixing of two isotopically distinct sources, either through melt-rock interaction or melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source. The other four sequences, Jalopy Cone (469.4 ± 9.2 ka), Quarry Cone (90.5 ±17.6 ka), Volcanic Bomb Cone (61.6 ± 23.4 ka), and Goodale Bee Cone (31.8 ± 12.1 ka) show similar systematic temporal decreases in incompatible elements. Monogenetic volcanic fields are often used to decipher tectonic changes on the order of 10 5-10 6 yr through long-term changes in lava chemistry. However, the systematic variation found in Papoose Canyon (10 0-10 2 yr) nearly spans that of the entire volcanic field, and straddles cutoffs for models of changing tectonic regime over much longer time-scales. Moreover, ten new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages combined with chemistry from all BPVF single eruption sequences show the long-term trend of BPVF evolution comprises the overlapping, temporal-compositional trends of the monogenetic vents. This suggests that the single eruption sequences contain the bulk of the systematic chemical variation, whereas their aggregate compositions define the long-term trend of volcanic field evolution.