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1

Imaging of short time microscopic scenes with strong light emission: revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last year's session we presented some experimental results from investigations on microscopic scenes with strong light emission such as exploding wires, for which we used laser based shadow imaging methods. The present paper is understood as a continuation in two branches. First, we'd like to discuss the fourier optical properties of shadow imaging in comparison with the imaging of the object itself and its far field, showing that the shadowgraph is the link between imaging the real object and scatterometry. Second, we present investigations on gathering high dynamic range short images of short time processes using a completely different approach based on luminescent screens, delivering a decaying image of naturally high dynamic range, which - during decay time- might be converted to a series of single images under adapted conditions.

Hahlweg, Cornelius; Zhao, Wenjing; Vogeler, Hendrik; Rothe, Hendrik

2012-10-01

2

Short article Revisiting places passed: Sensitization of exploratory activity in rats with hippocampal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the involvement of the hippocampus in short-term changes in exploratory behaviour in an open field (Experiment 1) and experimental contexts (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, rats with excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus were more likely to revisit recently visited zones within the open field than were control rats. Similarly, in Experiment 2 rats with hippocampal lesions showed greater

R. C. Honey; V. J. Marshall; A. McGregor; J. Futter; M. Good

3

Time Staggering for Wave Equations Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Staggering in numerical methods for wave equations generally enhances accuracy and stability. This note is about time staggering. We assess a fourth-order, explicit, time-staggered method, while focussing on a class of second-order wave equations. Alterna...

J. G. Verwer

2007-01-01

4

Girl Number 20 Revisited: Feminist Literacies in New Hard Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the question of "voice" in the context of neo-liberal social and educational reform. "Voice" has been one of the key concepts of feminist and critical pedagogies in the theory and practice of producing social transformation. I argue in this paper, that the political effectiveness of this concept needs to be reconsidered at a…

Gonick, Marnina

2007-01-01

5

Cumulant methods and short time propagators  

SciTech Connect

The present paper clarifies a number of issues concerning the general problem of constructing improved short time quantum mechanical propagators. Cumulant methods are shown to be a particularly convenient tool for this task. Numerical results comparing methods based on partial averaging and on gradient approaches are presented for simple model problems and for many particle quantum fluids.

Coalson, R.D. (Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (US)); Freeman, D.L. (Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881); Doll, J.D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)

1989-10-01

6

Short time cycles of purely quantum refrigerators.  

PubMed

Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analog are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal timescale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore, these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle, which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the states of the working medium possess significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance. PMID:23004710

Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

2012-05-10

7

On the short time creep rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short time tensile creep rupture tests were made on 7 mil lamp filament wire and on 7 mil undoped tungsten wire in the temperature\\u000a range 2500 to 3100 K. Steady-state creep rate was described by an expression having the form: ? =AD?\\/E)m whereA is a constant,D is the self-diffusion coefficient, ? is the creep stress,E is the elastic modulus, andm

J. W. Pugh

1973-01-01

8

Short rise time intense electron beam generator  

DOEpatents

A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

9

Biogas from Macroalgae: is it time to revisit the idea?  

PubMed Central

The economic and environmental viability of dedicated terrestrial energy crops is in doubt. The production of large scale biomass (macroalgae) for biofuels in the marine environment was first tested in the late 1960’s. The culture attempts failed due to the engineering challenges of farming offshore. However the energy conversion via anaerobic digestion was successful as the biochemical composition of macroalgae makes it an ideal feedstock. The technology for the mass production of macroalgae has developed principally in China and Asia over the last 50 years to such a degree that it is now the single largest product of aquaculture. There has also been significant technology transfer and macroalgal cultivation is now well tried and tested in Europe and America. The inherent advantage of production of biofuel feedstock in the marine environment is that it does not compete with food production for land or fresh water. Here we revisit the idea of the large scale cultivation of macroalgae at sea for subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce biogas as a source of renewable energy, using a European case study as an example.

2012-01-01

10

Failure Prevention by Short Time Corrosion Tests  

SciTech Connect

Short time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel, Alloy 600 and C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets. The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited life components. The corrosion rates of the other alloys and of wire meshes were too high for useful extended service. Test results also indicated that corrosion of the dissolver should drop quickly during the dissolutions due to the inhibiting effects of the corrosion products produced by the dissolution processes.

MICKALONIS, JOHN

2005-05-01

11

Revisiting the Long/Soft-Short/Hard Classification of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Fermi Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio (E peak/Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio (HR), peak energy, and spectral index) and duration (T 90) support the long/soft-short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The HR-T 90 anti-correlation strongly depends on the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. This might explain why the HR-T 90 correlation is not evident for those GRB samples detected by instruments like Swift with a narrower/softer energy bandpass. We also analyze the intrinsic energy correlation for the GRBs with measured redshifts and well-defined peak energies. The current sample suggests E p, rest = 2455 × (E iso/1052)0.59 for short GRBs, significantly different from that for long GRBs. However, both the long and short GRBs comply with the same E p, rest-L iso correlation.

Zhang, Fu-Wen; Shao, Lang; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Wei, Da-Ming

2012-05-01

12

REVISITING THE LONG/SOFT-SHORT/HARD CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE FERMI ERA  

SciTech Connect

We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio (E{sub peak}/Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio (HR), peak energy, and spectral index) and duration (T{sub 90}) support the long/soft-short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The HR-T{sub 90} anti-correlation strongly depends on the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. This might explain why the HR-T{sub 90} correlation is not evident for those GRB samples detected by instruments like Swift with a narrower/softer energy bandpass. We also analyze the intrinsic energy correlation for the GRBs with measured redshifts and well-defined peak energies. The current sample suggests E{sub p,rest} = 2455 Multiplication-Sign (E{sub iso}/10{sup 52}){sup 0.59} for short GRBs, significantly different from that for long GRBs. However, both the long and short GRBs comply with the same E{sub p,rest}-L{sub iso} correlation.

Zhang Fuwen; Yan Jingzhi; Wei Daming [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Shao Lang, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

2012-05-10

13

Recognition of Short Time-Paired Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We undertake numerous activities in our daily life and for some of those we forget to complete the action as originally intended. Significant aspects while performing most of these actions might be: “pairing of both hands simultaneously” and “short time consumption”. In this work an attempt has been made to recognize those kinds of Paired Activities (PAs), which are easy to forget, and to provide a method to remind about uncompleted PAs. To represent PAs, a study was done on opening and closing of various bottles. A model to define PAs, which simulated the paired behavior of both hands, is proposed, called “Paired Activity Model” (PAM). To recognize PAs using PAM, Paired Activity Recognition Algorithm (PARA) was implemented. Paired motion capturing was done by accelerometers, which were worn by subjects on the wrist areas of both hands. Individual and correlative behavior of both hands was used to recognize exact PA among other activities. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm was used for data categorization in PARA. ANN significantly outperformed the support vector machine algorithm in real time evaluations. In the user-independent case, PARA achieved recognition rates of 96% for only target PAs and 91% for target PAs undertaken amidst unrelated activities.

Chaminda, Hapugahage Thilak; Klyuev, Vitaly; Naruse, Keitaro; Osano, Minetada

14

THE SPACE-TIME CUBE REVISITED FROM A GEOVISUALIZATION PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the sixties Hägerstrand introduced a space-time model which included features such as a Space-Time- Path, and a Space-Time-Prism. His model is often seen as the start of the time-geography studies. Throughout the years his model has been applied and improved to understand our movements through space. Problems studied can be found in different fields of geography,

M. Kraak

15

REVISITING THE TIME MANAGEMENT ISSUES OF UNIVERITY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey with 48 first-year university students revealed that only three of the students showed evidence of using a reasonably detailed weekly schedule to manage their time. To help students who wish to use time schedules to improve their time management, a self-help group was established. Eight students have participated in the weekly sharing meetings for the whole academic year.

ANNA S. F. KWAN

16

One-Time Signatures Revisited: Have They Become Practical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract One-time signatures have been known for more than two decades, and have been studied mainly due to their theoretical value. Recent works motivated us to examine the practical use of one-time signatures in high-performance applications. In this paper we describe FMTseq | a signature scheme that merges recent improvements in hash tree traversal into Merkle’s one-time signature scheme. Implementation

Dalit Naor; Amir Shenhav; Avishai Wool

17

Distant healing revisited: time for a new epistemology.  

PubMed

As distant healing becomes a valid object of scientific scrutiny, state-of-the-art statistical techniques point to outcomes clearly outside the realm of chance. Accordingly, a variety of experimental designs have come into play that highlight the many challenges and hazards of trying to objectify conscious intention. Our survey pinpoints some landmark studies geared toward relatively modest, short-term healing through the application of multiple modalities. In view of the transient and modest results of the distant healing reported, we suggest that the full range of its potential and its longitudinal effects have yet to be uncovered. To this end, we believe that broader, nonlinear thought processes would better serve us in fathoming the mysterious leap from mind to living matter. PMID:11795608

Koopman, Barbara G; Blasband, Richard A

18

Revisiting the effect compartment through timing errors in drug administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the pharmacological effects induced by timing errors in drug intake are compared for two drugs, one acting by way of an effect compartment and the other directly from the central compartment. A simulation was performed for two drugs having the same concentration– effect relationship at the receptor site, the same mean effect at equilibrium and identical concentrations

P. Nony; M. Cucherat; J. P. Boissel

1998-01-01

19

Debridement--is it time to revisit clinical practice?  

PubMed

Debridement is the removal of non-viable tissue from a wound bed. It is an essential procedure in order to achieve wound healing and symptom control. The clinical presentation of non-viable tissue varies in content, appearance, depth and level of hydration. There may be a risk of systemic infection if non-viable tissue is not removed in a timely fashion. There are various methods of debridement each with its own advantages and limitations. The competence of the practitioner undertaking the debridement is crucial and is a key consideration along with availability of the necessary equipment and the provision of the optimal environment. Client choice and involvement are vital to the debridement process. There should be no hierarchy of debridement methods and the chosen method should achieve timely optimal pain-free removal of non-viable tissue. There is a need to question the current situation in which the specialist nurse is highly skilled in the debridement process while the generalist nurse potentially carries a higher caseload of patients who require this procedure. PMID:21727846

Young, Trudie

20

Time-dependent quark masses and big bang nucleosynthesis revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reinvestigate the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis on a possible time-dependent quark mass. The limits on such quark-mass variations are particularly sensitive to the adopted observational abundance constraints. Hence, in the present study we have considered updated light-element abundances and uncertainties deduced from observations. We also consider new nuclear reaction rates and an independent analysis of the influence of such quark-mass variations on the resonance properties of the important He3(d,p)He4 reaction. We find that the updated abundance and resonance constraints imply a narrower range on the possible quark-mass variations in the early universe. We also find that, contrary to previous investigations, the optimum concordance region reduces to a (95% C.L.) value of -0.005??mq/mq?0.007 consistent with no variation in the averaged quark mass.

Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Mathews, Grant J.

2011-08-01

21

Revisiting the central dogma one molecule at a time.  

PubMed

The faithful relay and timely expression of genetic information depend on specialized molecular machines, many of which function as nucleic acid translocases. The emergence over the last decade of single-molecule fluorescence detection and manipulation techniques with nm and Å resolution and their application to the study of nucleic acid translocases are painting an increasingly sharp picture of the inner workings of these machines, the dynamics and coordination of their moving parts, their thermodynamic efficiency, and the nature of their transient intermediates. Here we present an overview of the main results arrived at by the application of single-molecule methods to the study of the main machines of the central dogma. PMID:21335233

Bustamante, Carlos; Cheng, Wei; Mejia, Yara X; Meija, Yara X

2011-02-18

22

Nuclear Winter Revisited: can it Make a Difference This Time?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 23 years ago, in the middle of a Cold War and the threat of a strategic nuclear weapons exchange between NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations, atmospheric scientists pointed out that the well-anticipated side effects of a large-scale nuclear war ozone depletion, radioactive contamination and some climatic effects had massively underestimated the more likely implications: massive fires, severe dimming and cooling beneath circulating smoke clouds, disruption to agriculture in non-combatant nations, severe loss of imports of food to already-food-deficient regions and major alterations to atmospheric circulation. While the specific consequences were dependent on both scenarios of weapons use and injections and removals of smoke and dust and other chemicals into the atmosphere, it was clear that this would be despite passionately argued uncertainties a large major additional effect. As further investigations of smoke removal, patchy transport, etc., were pursued, the basic concerns remained, but the magnitude calculated with one-dimensional models diminished creating an unfortunate media debate over nuclear winter vs. nuclear autumn. Of course, one can't grow summer crops in any autumn natural or nuclear but that concern often got lost in the contentious political debate. Of course, it was pointed out that anyone who required knowing the additional environmental consequences of a major nuclear exchange to be finally deterred was already so far from the reality of the direct effects of the blasts that they might never see the concerns. But for non-combatants, it was a major awakening of their inability to escape severe consequences of the troubles of others, even if they were bystanders in the east-west conflicts. Two decades later, things have radically changed: the prospect of a massive strategic nuclear exchange is greatly diminished good news but the possibility of limited regional exchanges or terrorist incidents is widely believed to have greatly increased bad news. Therefore, the re- examination in this AGU session of the entire subject of environmental and social after-effects of any nuclear weapons use is, unfortunately, once again timely. Hopefully it will convince anyone not already convinced based on conventional damages from nuclear weapons use of the urgent need to abate proliferation and monitor and control access to and potential capabilities of those who might contemplate using such weapons for some Strangelove-like strategic or ideological objective. The extent to which a scientific re-examination of the broader horrendous implications of any scale of use of nuclear weapons will deter those contemplating their use is questionable. However, it seems likely such research would increase the resolve of the large number of countries and institutions already pressing to prevent nuclear weapons use.

Schneider, S.

2006-12-01

23

Circuit breaker interrupting capacity and short-time current ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-voltage circuit breakers have interrupting capacity ratings and short-time current ratings that an engineer uses for their application. Interrupting capacity and short-time current ratings define different circuit breaker performance characteristics. The short-time rating is used by the engineer to determine the ability of the circuit breaker to protect itself and other devices and to coordinate with other circuit breakers so

D. D. Roybal

2004-01-01

24

Real-time NURBS interpolator: application to short linear segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes the use of a real-time non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) interpolator with a look-ahead function to\\u000a handle numerous short linear segments. The short linear segments conforming to the continuous short block (CSB) criterion\\u000a can be fitted into NURBS curves in real time. A modified maximum feedrate equation based on the geometric characteristics\\u000a of the fitting curves and the

Jun-Bin Wang; Hong-Tzong Yau

2009-01-01

25

DETAILED MODELLING OF SHORT-CONTACT-TIME REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light alkanes can be converted to more useful chemicals in noble metal coated monoliths at very short contact times. The short-contact- time reactor is described by detailed models for the flow field, chemistry, and their coupling. The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas in a rhodium coated monolith is studied numerically as an example.

Olaf Deutschmann; Lanny D. Schmidt; Jürgen Warnatz

26

Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1982-05-04

27

Design of self-refocused pulses under short relaxation times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of using self-refocused RF pulses of comparable duration to relaxation times is studied in detail using numerical simulation. Transverse magnetization decay caused by short T2 and longitudinal component distortion due to short T1 are consistent with other studies. In order to design new pulses to combat short T1 and T2 the relaxation terms are directly inserted into the

Bashar Issa

2009-01-01

28

Minimum variability time-scales of long and short GRBs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the time variations in the light curves from a sample of long and short Fermi/GBM gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using an impartial wavelet analysis. The results indicate that in the source frame, the variability time-scales for long bursts differ from that for short bursts, variabilities of the order of a few milliseconds are not uncommon and an intriguing relationship exists between the minimum variability time and the burst duration.

MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Sonbas, E.; Dhuga, K. S.; Cobb, B. E.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Morris, D. C.; Eskandarian, A.; Maximon, L. C.; Parke, W. C.

2013-06-01

29

Market volatility modeling for short time window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gain or loss of an investment can be defined by the movement of the market. This movement can be estimated by the difference between the magnitudes of two stock prices in distinct periods and this difference can be used to calculate the volatility of the markets. The volatility characterizes the sensitivity of a market change in the world economy. Traditionally, the probability density function (pdf) of the movement of the markets is analyzed by using power laws. The contributions of this work is two-fold: (i) an analysis of the volatility dynamic of the world market indexes is performed by using a two-year window time data. In this case, the experiments show that the pdf of the volatility is better fitted by exponential function than power laws, in all range of pdf; (ii) after that, we investigate a relationship between the volatility of the markets and the coefficient of the exponential function based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas theory. The results show an inverse relationship between the volatility and the coefficient of the exponential function. This information can be used, for example, to predict the future behavior of the markets or to cluster the markets in order to analyze economic patterns.

de Mattos Neto, Paulo S. G.; Silva, David A.; Ferreira, Tiago A. E.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.

2011-10-01

30

Recent studies of short-range order in alloys: The Cowley theory revisited  

SciTech Connect

We present comparisons of various statistical theories for effective pair interactions (EPI) in alloys. We then evaluate these EPI`s using the Cowley theory, the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss (KCM) approximation, the {gamma}-expansion method (GEM) of Tokar, Masanskii and coworkers, and the exact inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) method, introduced by Gerold and Kern. Via a series of model calculations on a hypothetical bcc alloy with a single nearest-neighbor interaction we show that the Cowley theory is successful in evaluating the EPI`s in more dilute alloys but tends to overestimate the magnitude of the nearest neighbor energy at higher concentrations, whereas the KCM expression becomes increasingly inaccurate at lower concentrations. In general, however, the approximate mean field theories are most accurate at higher concentrations and higher temperatures. Recent studies of short-range order in single crystals are discussed in which these EPI`s have been evaluated using the IMC, KCM, GEM and Cowley theories. Examples include the bcc alloy Fe{sub 0.53}Cr{sub 0.47} and the fcc alloys Cu{sub 3} Au, CU{sub 0.69}Zn{sub 0.31} and Ni{sub 0.89}BgCr{sub 0.11}. In all cases the approximate expressions do quite well, especially the GEM.

Reinhard, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moss, S.C. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-02-08

31

Effect of initial correlations on short-time decoherence  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of initial correlations on the short-time decoherence of a particle linearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. We analytically evaluate the attenuation coefficient of the superposition of two wave packets both for a free and a harmonically bound particle, with and without initial thermal correlations between the particle and the bath. While short-time decoherence appears to be independent of the system in the absence of initial correlations, we find on the contrary that, for initial thermal correlations, decoherence becomes system dependent even for times much shorter than the characteristic time of the system. The temperature behavior of this system dependence is discussed.

Lutz, Eric [Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

2003-02-01

32

Short-time dynamics of polymer diffusion across an interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated diffusion between deuterated and protonated polystyrene films at short times using neutron reflectometry (NR)\\u000a and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). We covered six orders of magnitude in time and identified two time regimes of diffusion\\u000a with a crossover at the reptation time ?\\u000a rep. Below ?\\u000a rep the interfacial profile can be described by two superposed error functions attributed

G. Reiter; U. Steiner

33

Short echo time in vivo prostate ¹H-MRSI.  

PubMed

Visualization of short echo time (TE) metabolites in prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is difficult due to lipid contamination and pulse timing constraints. In this work, we present a modified pulse sequence to permit short echo time (TE=40ms) acquisitions with reduced lipid contamination for the detection of short TE metabolites. The modified pulse sequence employs the conformal voxel MRS (CV-MRS) technique, which automatically optimizes the placement of spatial saturation planes to adapt the excitation volume to the shape of the prostate, thus reducing lipid contamination in prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Metabolites were measured and assessed using a modified version of LCModel for analysis of in vivo prostate spectra. We demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring high quality spectra at short TEs, and show the measurement of short TE metabolites, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, taurine and glutamine/glutamate for both single and multi-voxel acquisitions. In single voxels experiments, the reduction in TE resulted in 57% improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Additional 3D MRSI experiments comparing short (TE=40 ms), and long (TE=130 ms) TE acquisitions revealed a 35% improvement in the number of adequately fitted metabolite peaks (775 voxels over all subjects). This resulted in a 42 ± 24% relative improvement in the number of voxels with detectable citrate that were well-fitted using LCmodel. In this study, we demonstrate that high quality prostate spectra can be obtained by reducing the TE to 40 ms to detect short T2 metabolites, while maintaining positive signal intensity of the spin-coupled citrate multiplet and managing lipid suppression. PMID:22154684

Venugopal, Niranjan; McCurdy, Boyd; Al Mehairi, Salem; Alamri, Aziz; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S; Sivalingam, Sri; Drachenberg, Darrel; Ryner, Lawrence

2011-12-09

34

Signal estimation from modified short-time Fourier transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an algorithm to estimate a signal from its modified short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This algorithm is computationally simple and is obtained by minimizing the mean squared error between the STFT of the estimated signal and the modified STFT. Using this algorithm, we also develop an iterative algorithm to estimate a signal from its modified STFT

DANIEL W. GRIFFIN; JAE S. LIM

1984-01-01

35

A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

36

Short Time Series Analysis: C Statistic vs Edgington Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young's C statistic (1941) makes it possible to compare the randomization of a set of sequentially organized data and constitutes an alternative of appropriate analysis in short time series designs. On the other hand, models based on the randomization of stimuli are also very important within the behavioral content applied. For this reason, a comparison is established between the C

Jaume Arnau; Roser Bono

1998-01-01

37

Separation of time variant vibration sources by short time coherent output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This effort describes the use of time variant coherence causality based analysis to separate the effects of nonstationary time variant vibration excitation sources. A time variant coherence function using the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is first discussed. The concept of a time variant coherent output power for source separation of systems with time variant transfer functions is developed. A

Martin W. Trethewey

2011-01-01

38

Linking River Channel Form and Process: Time, Space and Causality Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluvial geomorphology has witnessed a continuing reduction in the time- and space-scales of research, with increasing emphasis on the dynamics of small site-specific river reaches. This shift can be regarded as part of a trend towards the understanding and explanation rather than description of how rivers change, which raises important questions regarding the relevance of such short time-scale and small

Keith S. Richards

1997-01-01

39

Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

Erwin, R.M.

1989-01-01

40

The choose-short effect and trace models of timing.  

PubMed Central

The tuned-trace multiple-time-scale (MTS) theory of timing can account both for the puzzling choose-short effect in time-discrimination experiments and for the complementary choose-long effect. But it cannot easily explain why the choose-short effect seems to disappear when the intertrial and recall intervals are signaled by different stimuli. Do differential stimuli actually abolish the effect, or merely improve memory? If the latter, there are ways in which an expanded MTS theory might explain differential-context effects in terms of reduced interference. If the former, there are observational and experimental ways to determine whether differential context favors prospective encoding or some other nontemporal discrimination.

Staddon, J E; Higa, J J

1999-01-01

41

Minimal model for short-time diffusion in periodic potentials.  

PubMed

We investigate the dynamics of a single, overdamped colloidal particle, which is driven by a constant force through a one-dimensional periodic potential. We focus on systems with large barrier heights where the lowest-order cumulants of the density field, that is, average position and the mean-squared displacement, show nontrivial (nondiffusive) short-time behavior characterized by the appearance of plateaus. We demonstrate that this "cage-like" dynamics can be well described by a discretized master equation model involving two states (related to two positions) within each potential valley. Nontrivial predictions of our approach include analytic expressions for the plateau heights and an estimate of the "de-caging time" obtained from the study of deviations from Gaussian behavior. The simplicity of our approach means that it offers a minimal model to describe the short-time behavior of systems with hindered dynamics. PMID:23367921

Emary, Clive; Gernert, Robert; Klapp, Sabine H L

2012-12-26

42

Failure prevention by short-time corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from type 304L stainless steel, alloy 600, and\\u000a C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets.\\u000a The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited-life components. The corrosion rates of the other\\u000a alloys and of

J. I. Mickalonis

2005-01-01

43

Measurement of hyperpolarized gas diffusion at very short time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new pulse sequence for measuring very-short-time-scale restricted diffusion of hyperpolarized noble gases. The pulse sequence is based on concatenating a large number of bipolar diffusion-sensitizing gradients to increase the diffusion attenuation of the MR signal while maintaining a fundamentally short diffusion time. However, it differs in several respects from existing methods that use oscillating diffusion gradients for this purpose. First, a wait time is inserted between neighboring pairs of gradient pulses; second, consecutive pulse pairs may be applied along orthogonal axes; and finally, the diffusion-attenuated signal is not simply read out at the end of the gradient train but is periodically sampled during the wait times between neighboring pulse pairs. The first two features minimize systematic differences between the measured (apparent) diffusion coefficient and the actual time-dependent diffusivity, while the third feature optimizes the use of the available MR signal to improve the precision of the diffusivity measurement in the face of noise. The benefits of this technique are demonstrated using theoretical calculations, Monte-Carlo simulations of gas diffusion in simple geometries, and experimental phantom measurements in a glass sphere containing hyperpolarized 3He gas. The advantages over the conventional single-bipolar approach were found to increase with decreasing diffusion time, and thus represent a significant step toward making accurate surface-to-volume measurements in the lung airspaces.

Carl, Michael; Wilson Miller, G.; Mugler, John P.; Rohrbaugh, Scott; Tobias, William A.; Cates, Gordon D.

2007-12-01

44

Short-time critical dynamics for the transverse ising model.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the short-time critical behavior for the one-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model through Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature. We used the scaling relation for the dynamics at the early time stages in order to obtain the static critical exponents (beta,nu) and the dynamical critical exponent z for this model. While the values found for the static exponents are in agreement with the exact ones, here, the dynamical critical exponent is found for a quantum spin model. PMID:11088420

Santos, M

2000-06-01

45

Permutation test for periodicity in short time series data  

PubMed Central

Background Periodic processes, such as the circadian rhythm, are important factors modulating and coordinating transcription of genes governing key metabolic pathways. Theoretically, even small fluctuations in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues may result in functional asynchrony at the organism level and may contribute to a wide range of pathologic disorders. Identification of circadian expression pattern in time series data is important, but equally challenging. Microarray technology allows estimation of relative expression of thousands of genes at each time point. However, this estimation often lacks precision and microarray experiments are prohibitively expensive, limiting the number of data points in a time series expression profile. The data produced in these experiments carries a high degree of stochastic variation, obscuring the periodic pattern and a limited number of replicates, typically covering not more than two complete periods of oscillation. Results To address this issue, we have developed a simple, but effective, computational technique for the identification of a periodic pattern in relatively short time series, typical for microarray studies of circadian expression. This test is based on a random permutation of time points in order to estimate non-randomness of a periodogram. The Permutated time, or Pt-test, is able to detect oscillations within a given period in expression profiles dominated by a high degree of stochastic fluctuations or oscillations of different irrelevant frequencies. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian expression on a large data set produced at PBRC, representing three different peripheral murine tissues. We have also re-analyzed a number of similar time series data sets produced and published independently by other research groups over the past few years. Conclusion The Permutated time test (Pt-test) is demonstrated to be effective for detection of periodicity in short time series typical for high-density microarray experiments. The software is a set of C++ programs available from the authors on the open source basis.

Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Zvonic, Sanjin; Gimble, Jeffrey M

2006-01-01

46

Time-dependence in short-lived volcanic eruption plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishing relationships between source conditions and plume evolution is critical for developing accurate, predictive models of volcanic plumes. Such relationships have been derived and successfully applied to field cases for long-duration eruptions with approximately constant source conditions. Similarly useful relationships exist for instantaneous releases. However, equivalent relationships have yet to be developed for time-varying and finite source conditions that drive many short-lived volcanic plumes, despite the fact that such eruptions are frequent in nature. Short-lived plumes have been observed and documented using UV, visible, and IR imaging techniques, as well as satellite and radar measurements. However, the source conditions which generate these plumes are difficult to constrain in the field. Thus, a laboratory investigation of jets and plumes generated by short-duration time-dependent sources was undertaken. Experiments were designed specifically to examine the role of time-dependent source conditions in controlling overall morphology, flow front velocity as a function of time, internal velocity and eddy structure, and entrainment characteristics. In the experimental work presented here, neutrally-buoyant turbulent jets were generated by injecting pressurized water into a tank of still water. Velocity and discharge rate with time were Gaussian-like with durations shorter than jet rise times. Flows had vent Reynolds numbers from 103 to 105 and were documented using flow visualization and particle image velocimetry. Two different flow patterns were observed: isolated vortex rings that separated from a trailing jet and head vortices connected to a trailing stem. The latter was favored as both the vent Reynolds number and the total ejected volume increased. These flows had three main phases of development - an injection phase which occurred while the source was 'on', a transition phase immediately following injection termination, and a final phase during which the flow continued to propagate although the injection had ended. The injection phase was further subdivided into two distinct sub-phases, corresponding to acceleration and deceleration at the vent. Scaling of the results indicate that individual characteristic velocities describe each of the acceleration, deceleration, and transition phases, whereas the final phase behaves like an instantaneous release of momentum, termed a puff. As such, time-dependent source conditions appear to have dominant first-order effects on flow evolution during the injection and transition phases but have little control over the dynamics during the final phase, when instead the total volume injected dominates the dynamics. These results have a number of implications for interpreting dynamics from observations of short-lived volcanic plumes. For example, estimates of vent fluxes from plume observations should be restricted to early 'source on' phases, while later stages of development should provide information about total volume erupted.

Chojnicki, K. N.; Clarke, A. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Adrian, R. J.

2011-12-01

47

Short-time fluctuations of displacements and work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent theorem giving the initial behavior of very short-time fluctuations of particle displacements in classical many-body systems is discussed. It has applications to equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, one of which is a series expansion of the distribution of work fluctuations around a Gaussian function. To determine the time-scale at which this series expansion is valid, we present preliminary numerical results for a Lennard-Jones fluid. These results suggest that the series expansion is useful up to time scales on the order of a picosecond, below which a simple Gaussian function for the distribution of the displacements can be used. To cite this article: R. van Zon et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

van Zon, Ramses; Ashwin, S. S.; Cohen, E. G. D.

2007-06-01

48

Short Time Indicators in the Restricted Problem of Three Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied the method of stretching numbers (or local Lyapounov characteristic numbers), helicity and twist angles in order to distinguish between chaotic and regular domains of the restricted three-body problem. Comparing our results with the corresponding Poincaré's surface of section shows this method to be useful for a quick separation between regular and chaotic domains of the phase space. As we have shown in the case of the planar, circular restricted three-body problem, the method of short-time indicators is very efficient and it needs only 20 iterations per orbit.

Sandor, Zsolt; Balla, Robert; Teger, Ferenc; Erdi, Balint

49

Short time scale variability in the solar wind.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing observations of the interplanetary medium over short time scales are incomplete due to lack of steerable telescopes dedicated for such observations. Consequently, understanding of fast interplanetary disturbances and their association to the solar and geomagnetic activity has been inadequate. A programme of interplanetary scintillation observations was, thus, initiated using the Ooty Radio Telescope, where a few strong scintillating sources were monitored over a period of one year. These observations show significant interplanetary activity over a time scale of few minutes to hours. The disturbances observed during the monitoring programme can be understood with a simple model for interplanetary scattering produced by dense plasma objects moving at high velocities. This model was used to associate the events with their origin on the Sun and subsequent geomagnetic activity produced at Earth.

Gothoskar, P.; Pramesh Rao, A.

1995-06-01

50

Common structure in panels of short ecological time-series.  

PubMed Central

Typically, in many studies in ecology, epidemiology, biomedicine and others, we are confronted with panels of short time-series of which we are interested in obtaining a biologically meaningful grouping. Here, we propose a bootstrap approach to test whether the regression functions or the variances of the error terms in a family of stochastic regression models are the same. Our general setting includes panels of time-series models as a special case. We rigorously justify the use of the test by investigating its asymptotic properties, both theoretically and through simulations. The latter confirm that for finite sample size, bootstrap provides a better approximation than classical asymptotic theory. We then apply the proposed tests to the mink-muskrat data across 81 trapping regions in Canada. Ecologically interpretable groupings are obtained, which serve as a necessary first step before a fuller biological and statistical analysis of the food chain interaction.

Yao, Q; Tong, H; Finkenstadt, B; Stenseth, N C

2000-01-01

51

Coupling among electroencephalogram gamma signals on a short time scale.  

PubMed

An important goal in neuroscience is to identify instances when EEG signals are coupled. We employ a method to measure the coupling strength between gamma signals (40-100 Hz) on a short time scale as the maximum cross-correlation over a range of time lags within a sliding variable-width window. Instances of coupling states among several signals are also identified, using a mixed multivariate beta distribution to model coupling strength across multiple gamma signals with reference to a common base signal. We first apply our variable-window method to simulated signals and compare its performance to a fixed-window approach. We then focus on gamma signals recorded in two regions of the rat hippocampus. Our results indicate that this may be a useful method for mapping coupling patterns among signals in EEG datasets. PMID:20811477

McAssey, Michael P; Hsieh, Fushing; Smith, Anne C

2010-07-29

52

IPS Observations of Short-Time Scale Interplanetary Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a program of continuous Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) monitoring of the interplanetary activity using Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). From May 1990 to March 1991, during the 22nd, solar maximum, a few radio sources were monitored to provide long stretches of IPS data with a high-time resolution of few minutes. These observations covered 0.3 to 0.8 AU region (12° to 70° elongations) around the sun at several heliographic latitudes. During the observation, we detected 33 short-time scale IPS events which had significant variation in the scintillation index and solar wind velocity. These were considered to be due to travelling interplanetary disturbances. A multi-component model of plasma density enhancement was developed to estimate the geometry and physical properties of these IPS events. Detailed analysis of 20 of these events suggests, 1. fast IPS events were interplanetary signatures of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), 2. the average mass and energy of these events was ˜ 1016 gm and 1033 erg respectively,3. 80% of IPS events were associated with X-ray flares on the sun and 50% were associated with geomagnetic activity at earth. Detailed study of the multicomponent model suggests IPS observations at smaller elongations (hence at higher radio frequencies) are more suited to detect fast-moving interplanetary disturbances such as produced by CMEs.

Gothoskar, Pradeep; Pramesh Rao, A.

1996-03-01

53

Separation of time variant vibration sources by short time coherent output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This effort describes the use of time variant coherence causality based analysis to separate the effects of nonstationary time variant vibration excitation sources. A time variant coherence function using the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is first discussed. The concept of a time variant coherent output power for source separation of systems with time variant transfer functions is developed. A parametric study is performed to examine the coherent output power separation capabilities with respect to the data processing parameters. The study guided the selection of the time-frequency processing parameters judged to provide a suitable compromise between the time event localization and output amplitude source separation. The time variant coherent output power is then applied to separate the effects of the two possible excitation sources on the prototype vibration isolation floor. The application was a subscale prototype isolation floor for a proposed vibration sensitive equipment site adjacent to a busy freight rail line. The moving train created time variant transmission paths. As there was a direct line of sight between the prototype floor and the rail line there was an airborne acoustic excitation path in addition to a ground path. The short time coherent output power was applied to separate prototype isolation floor vibration into respective components related to the two candidate sources. The analysis and discussion of the results focuses upon the interpretation and issues in such a complicated realistic environment. Ultimately the application was successful providing an explanation as to why the observed vibration isolation was degraded at higher frequencies.

Trethewey, Martin W.

2011-02-01

54

Short time-scale periodicity in OJ 287  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied short-term variations of the blazar OJ 287, suspected to host a supermassive black hole binary. In this study, we use a two-season optical R-band data set from 2004 to 2006 which consists of 3991 data points from the OJ 287 observation campaign. It has sections of dense time coverage, and is largely independent from previously published data. We find that these data confirm the existence of a ˜50 d periodic component, presumably related to the half-period of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of the primary black hole. In addition, we find several pseudo-periodic components in the 1-7 d range, most prominently at 3.5 d, which are likely Lorentz contracted jet re-emission of the 50 d component. The typical 50-d cycle exhibits a slow rise of brightness and a rapid dimming before the start of the new cycle. We explain this as being due to a spiral wave in the accretion disc which feeds the central black hole in this manner.

Pihajoki, P.; Valtonen, M.; Ciprini, S.

2013-10-01

55

Short sleeping time and psychobiological responses to acute stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-reported sleeping time and psychobiological stress responses [3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), perceived stress responses]. Thirty seven healthy men and women were recruited, and participants were divided according to the habitual number of hours of sleep as follows: adequate sleepers (AS) (6-8h sleep per night regularly) (N=22) and short sleepers (SS) (less than 5h sleep per night regularly) (N=15). Salivary MHPG, s-IgA and perceived stress were measured at baseline, immediately after task and recovery period. An increase in free-MHPG during the task period was observed in AS although free-MHPG increased only after the task period in SS. The level of s-IgA in both groups significantly increased during the task period, and quickly returned to a basal level during the recovery period. The results show that less than 5h of sleep was associated with different responsiveness to the Stroop color word conflict task compared to sufficient sleep, especially in the NA system. PMID:20692301

Okamura, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Yajima, Jumpei; Mark, Hamer; Horiuchi, Satoshi; Toyoshima, Natsuki; Matsuishi, Toyojirou

2010-08-06

56

Probabilistic eruption forecasting at short and long time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any effective volcanic risk mitigation strategy requires a scientific assessment of the future evolution of a volcanic system and its eruptive behavior. Some consider the onus should be on volcanologists to provide simple but emphatic deterministic forecasts. This traditional way of thinking, however, does not deal with the implications of inherent uncertainties, both aleatoric and epistemic, that are inevitably present in observations, monitoring data, and interpretation of any natural system. In contrast to deterministic predictions, probabilistic eruption forecasting attempts to quantify these inherent uncertainties utilizing all available information to the extent that it can be relied upon and is informative. As with many other natural hazards, probabilistic eruption forecasting is becoming established as the primary scientific basis for planning rational risk mitigation actions: at short-term (hours to weeks or months), it allows decision-makers to prioritize actions in a crisis; and at long-term (years to decades), it is the basic component for land use and emergency planning. Probabilistic eruption forecasting consists of estimating the probability of an eruption event and where it sits in a complex multidimensional time-space-magnitude framework. In this review, we discuss the key developments and features of models that have been used to address the problem.

Marzocchi, Warner; Bebbington, Mark S.

2012-10-01

57

Communication: An exact short-time solver for the time-dependent Schr?dinger equation  

PubMed Central

The short-time integrator for propagating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which is exact to machine’s round off accuracy when the Hamiltonian of the system is time-independent, was applied to solve dynamics processes. This integrator has the old Cayley’s form [i.e., the Padé (1,1) approximation], but is implemented in a spectrally transformed Hamiltonian which was first introduced by Chen and Guo. Two examples are presented for illustration, including calculations of the collision energy-dependent probability passing over a barrier, and interaction process between pulse laser and the I2 diatomic molecule.

Sun, Zhigang; Yang, Weitao

2011-01-01

58

Integrated multichannel photon timing instrument with very short dead time and high throughput  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precisely timed detection of single photons plays an important role in the field of quantum information processing and fluorescence sensing. The method of time-correlated single photon counting is therefore constantly evolving and the associated instrumentation is being improved with new ideas and technologies. Simultaneous, time tagged readout of multiple detector channels is invaluable in many applications, spanning from fluorescence lifetime imaging in biology to the measurement of quantum optical correlations in basic research. Here we present a new integrated design, providing up to three independent input channels, a very short dead time, very high throughput, and a timing resolution of 25 ps at reasonable cost and small size. Apart from design features and test results of the instrument, we show an application in quantum optics, namely, the measurement of the photon statistics of a heralded single photon source based on cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

Wahl, Michael; Röhlicke, Tino; Rahn, Hans-Jürgen; Erdmann, Rainer; Kell, Gerald; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Kernbach, Martin; Schell, Andreas W.; Benson, Oliver

2013-04-01

59

Integrated multichannel photon timing instrument with very short dead time and high throughput.  

PubMed

Precisely timed detection of single photons plays an important role in the field of quantum information processing and fluorescence sensing. The method of time-correlated single photon counting is therefore constantly evolving and the associated instrumentation is being improved with new ideas and technologies. Simultaneous, time tagged readout of multiple detector channels is invaluable in many applications, spanning from fluorescence lifetime imaging in biology to the measurement of quantum optical correlations in basic research. Here we present a new integrated design, providing up to three independent input channels, a very short dead time, very high throughput, and a timing resolution of 25 ps at reasonable cost and small size. Apart from design features and test results of the instrument, we show an application in quantum optics, namely, the measurement of the photon statistics of a heralded single photon source based on cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion. PMID:23635176

Wahl, Michael; Röhlicke, Tino; Rahn, Hans-Jürgen; Erdmann, Rainer; Kell, Gerald; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Kernbach, Martin; Schell, Andreas W; Benson, Oliver

2013-04-01

60

Short-time versus long-time dynamics of entanglement in quantum lattice models  

SciTech Connect

We study the short-time evolution of the bipartite entanglement in quantum lattice systems with local interactions in terms of the purity of the reduced density matrix. A lower bound for the purity is derived in terms of the eigenvalue spread of the interaction Hamiltonian between the partitions. Starting from an initially separable state the purity decreases as 1-(t/{tau}){sup 2} (i.e., quadratically in time, with a characteristic timescale {tau} that is inversely proportional to the boundary size of the subsystem, that is, as an area law). For larger times an exponential lower bound is derived corresponding to the well-known linear-in-time bound of the entanglement entropy. The validity of the derived lower bound is illustrated by comparison to the exact dynamics of a one-dimensional spin lattice system as well as a pair of coupled spin ladders obtained from numerical simulations.

Unanyan, R. G.; Muth, D.; Fleischhauer, M. [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2010-02-15

61

Distinctiveness revisited: Unpredictable temporal isolation does not benefit short-term serial recall of heard or seen events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of a link between time and memory is intuitively appealing and forms the core assumption of temporal distinctiveness\\u000a models. Distinctiveness models predict that items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors at presentation should\\u000a be recalled better than items that are temporally crowded. By contrast, event-based theories consider time to be incidental\\u000a to the processes that govern memory,

Lisa M. Nimmo; Stephan Lewandowsky

2006-01-01

62

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

2010-10-01

63

The Time Series Approach to Short Term Load Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of time series analysis methods to load forecasting is reviewed. It is shown than Box and Jenkins time series models, in particular, are well suited to this application. The logical and organized procedures for model development using the autocorrelation function and the partial autocorrelation function make these models particularly attractive. One of the drawbacks of these models is

Martin T. Hagan; Suzanne M. Behr

1987-01-01

64

“Sometimes” and “not never” revisited: on branching versus linear time temporal logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between and appropriateness of branching versus linear time temporal logic for reasoning about concurrent programs are studied. These issues have been previously considered by Lamport. To facilitate a careful examination of these issues, a language, CTL*, in which a universal or existential path quantifier can prefix an arbitrary linear time assertion, is defined. The expressive power of a

E. Allen Emerson; Joseph Y. Halpern

1986-01-01

65

The Galaxy Viewed at Very Short Time-Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high time-resolution astronomical observations recorded with the Berkeley Visible Image Tube (BVIT) photon counting detector mounted on the 10m South African Large Telescope (SALT). Relative B and V-band photometric fluxes were obtained as a function of time for targets that included Polar-type cataclysmic variables (UZ For, OY Car, V1033Cen), low-mass X-ray binaries (GX 339-4, UY Vol), pulsars (PSR

Navid Radnia; O. Siegmund; B. Welsh; J. Mcphate; D. Rogers; P. Charles; D. Buckley

2010-01-01

66

The disposable soma theory revisited: time as a resource in the theories of aging.  

PubMed

All life processes are subject to time constraints. At the cellular level, damage repair and cell cycle arrest are interrelated, allowing sufficient time for repair prior to cell cycle progression. Organisms have evolved so that developmental timing is linked to environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability and predation. Recent results in mammals regarding species-specific differences in cell cycle arrest and DNA damage suggest that a stable cell cycle arrest is a feature of longer-lived species. The implication of these results is that longer-lived species delay cell cycle progression to a greater degree than shorter-lived species, allowing for higher fidelity repair. We suggest that the ability to devote longer periods of time to repair and maintenance is a key feature of longer-lived species, and that evolutionary pressure to complete repair and resume cell division is a determinant of species lifespan. Thus, time is a resource that must be managed by the organism to attempt to maximize the fidelity of repair while completing development and reproduction in the limited window of opportunity afforded by environmental pressures. This viewpoint on time as a resource has implications for theories regarding the aging process and the development of species lifespan. PMID:22071624

Lorenzini, Antonello; Stamato, Thomas; Sell, Christian

2011-11-15

67

The time series approach to short term load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The application of time series analysis methods to load forecasting is reviewed. It is shown than Box and Jenkins time series models, in particular, are well suited to this application. The logical and organized procedures for model development using the autocorrelation function make these models particularly attractive. One of the drawbacks of these models is the inability to accurately represent the nonlinear relationship between load and temperature. A simple procedure for overcoming this difficulty is introduced, and several Box and Jenkins models are compared with a forecasting procedure currently used by a utility company.

Hagan, M.T.; Behr, S.M.

1987-08-01

68

Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive understanding and improvement of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), realized over the years through the considerable efforts of Dr. Marvin Vestal, have made possible numerous comparable efforts involving its application in the biological sciences. Here we revisit the concepts behind one such analytical approach, Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay, which is designed to selectively detect and quantify proteins present in biological milieu.

Nelson, Randall W.; Borges, Chad R.

2011-06-01

69

Evolving to Type Ia Supernovae with Short Delay Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis

Bo Wang; Xuefei Chen; Xiangcun Meng; Zhanwen Han

2009-01-01

70

Short-Time Annealing Characteristics of Electrical Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss in strength is a function of conductor maximum temperature which, itself, is a function of I2t. Instead of producing currents and times as they may occur in the field, one can, in the laboratory, choose more convenient values giving the same I2t, the same maximum temperature and the same loss in strength. Using this approach, diagrams were developed showing,

L. F. Roehmann; Earl Hazan

1963-01-01

71

Temporal moments revisited: Why there is no better way for physically based model reduction in time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many hydro(geo)logical problems are highly complex in space and time, coupled with scale issues, variability, and uncertainty. Especially time-dependent models often consume enormous computational resources, but model reduction techniques can alleviate this problem. Temporal moments (TM) offer an approach to reduce the time demands of transient hydro(geo)logical simulations. TM reduce transient governing equations to steady state and directly simulate the temporal characteristics of the system, if the equations are linear and coefficients are time independent. This is achieved by an integral transform, projecting the dynamic system response onto monomials in time. In comparison to classical approaches of model reduction that involve orthogonal base functions, however, the monomials for TM are nonorthogonal, which might impair the quality and efficiency of model reduction. Thus, we raise the question of whether there are more suitable temporal base functions than the monomials that lead to TM. In this work, we will derive theoretically that there is only a limited class of temporal base functions that can reduce hydro(geo)logical models. By comparing those to TM we conclude that, in terms of gained efficiency versus maintained accuracy, TM are the best possible choice. While our theoretical results hold for all systems of linear partial or ordinary differential equations (PDEs, ODEs) with any order of space and time derivatives, we illustrate our study with an example of pumping tests in a confined aquifer. For that case, we demonstrate that two (four) TM are sufficient to represent more than 80% (90%) of the dynamic behavior, and that the information content strictly increases with increasing TM order.

Leube, P. C.; Nowak, W.; Schneider, G.

2012-11-01

72

Short-time dynamics of correlated quantum Coulomb systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong correlations in dense Coulomb systems are attracting increasing interest in many fields ranging from dense astrophysical plasmas, dusty plasmas and semiconductors to metal clusters and ultracold trapped ions [1]. Examples are bound states in dense plasmas (atoms, molecules, clusters) and semiconductors (excitons, trions, biexcitons) and many-particle correlations such as Coulomb and Yukawa liquids and crystals. Of particular current interest is the response of these systems to short excitations generated e.g. by femtosecond laser pulses and giving rise to ultrafast relaxation processes and build up of binary correlations. The proper theoretical tool are non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations [1,2] which can be derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Functions (NEGF) and are now successfully solved numerically for dense plasmas and semiconductors [3], correlated electrons [4] and other many-body systems with moderate correlations [5]. This method is well suited to compute the nonlinear response to strong fields selfconsistently including many-body effects [6]. Finally, we discuss recent extensions of the NEGF-computations to the dynamics of strongly correlated Coulomb systems, such as single atoms and molecules [7] and electron and exciton Wigner crystals in quantum dots [8,9]. [1] H. Haug and A.-P. Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer 1996; M. Bonitz Quantum Kinetic Theory, Teubner, Stuttgart/Leipzig 1998; [2] Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions III, M. Bonitz and A. Filinov (Eds.), J. Phys. Conf. Ser. vol. 35 (2006); [3] M. Bonitz et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 8, 6057 (1996); R. Binder, H.S. K"ohler, and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5110 (1997); [4] N.H. Kwong, and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1768 (2000); [5] Introduction to Computational Methods for Many-Body Systems, M. Bonitz and D. Semkat (eds.), Rinton Press, Princeton (2006); [6] H. Haberland, M. Bonitz, and D. Kremp, Phys. Rev. E 64, 026405 (2001); [7] N.E. Dahlen, A. Stan and R. van Leeuwen, p. 324 in Ref. 2.; [8] A. Filinov, M. Bonitz, and Yu. Lozovik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3851 (2001); [9] K. Balzer, N.E. Dahlen, R. van Leeuwen, and M. Bonitz, to be published

Bonitz, Michael

2007-03-01

73

Feeling the Heat: Body Temperature and the Rate of Subjective Time, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments investigating timing behaviour in humans under conditions where body temperature was raised or (much more rarely) lowered, dating from 1927 to 1993, were reviewed. These tested the hypothesis that humans possess a temperature-sensitive chemical or biological internal clock. Most studies used conditions in which subjects produced or estimated durations less than 100 sec long, probably using chronometric counting, but

J. H. Wearden; I. S. Penton-Voak

1995-01-01

74

Revisiting the Phasor-Walkout method for detailed investigation of harmonic signals in time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-known but rarely used powerful method to investigate the presence of harmonic signals in time series is the Phasor Walkout method (other names are: Graphical Fourier Transform, Summation Dial, Complex Demodulation). At a given test frequency the complex contributions (phasors) to the Fourier Transform of each sample in an equidistantly sampled series are added vectorially in the complex plane.

W. Zürn; P. A. Rydelek

1994-01-01

75

Short sleeping time and psychobiological responses to acute stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-reported sleeping time and psychobiological stress responses [3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), perceived stress responses]. Thirty seven healthy men and women were recruited, and participants were divided according to the habitual number of hours of sleep as follows: adequate sleepers (AS) (6–8h sleep per night regularly) (N=22)

Hisayoshi Okamura; Akira Tsuda; Jumpei Yajima; Hamer Mark; Satoshi Horiuchi; Natsuki Toyoshima; Toyojirou Matsuishi

2010-01-01

76

A Kalman filtering approach to short-time Fourier analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of estimating time-varying harmonic components of a signal measured in noise is considered. The approach used is via state estimation. Two methods are proposed, one involving pole-placement of a state observer, the other using quadratic optimization techniques. The result is the development of a new class of filters, akin to recursive frequency-sampling filters, for inclusion in a parallel

R. R. Bitmead; Ah Tsoi; P. Parker

1986-01-01

77

Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

1982-05-18

78

Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1982-05-18

79

Short-time critical dynamics at perfect and imperfect surfaces.  

PubMed

With Monte Carlo simulations, we study the dynamic relaxation at perfect and imperfect surfaces of the three-dimensional Ising model with an ordered initial state. The time evolution of the surface magnetization, the line magnetization of the defect line, and the corresponding susceptibilities and second cumulants is carefully examined. Universal dynamic scaling forms including a dynamic crossover scaling form are identified at the ordinary, special, and surface phase transitions. The critical exponents beta1 of the surface magnetization and beta2 of the line magnetization are extracted. The impact of the defect line on the universality classes is investigated. PMID:18763939

Lin, S Z; Zheng, B

2008-07-30

80

Residence time and collision statistics for exponential flights: The rod problem revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many random transport phenomena, such as radiation propagation, chemical-biological species migration, or electron motion, can be described in terms of particles performing exponential flights. For such processes, we sketch a general approach (based on the Feynman-Kac formalism) that is amenable to explicit expressions for the moments of the number of collisions and the residence time that the walker spends in a given volume as a function of the particle equilibrium distribution. We then illustrate the proposed method in the case of the so-called rod problem (a one-dimensional system), and discuss the relevance of the obtained results in the context of Monte Carlo estimators.

Zoia, A.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

2011-08-01

81

Revisiting chronodisruption: when the physiological nexus between internal and external times splits in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Concepts & Synthesis paper, we expand the definition of chronodisruption in humans by proposing that it can be operationalized as the split nexus of internal and external times. With this premise, we suggest how chronotype may be used as a temporal marker (chronomarker) of exposure to chronodisruption in studies of cancer, and beyond, offer cancer risk predictions for observational research on the basis of a chronotype-related hypothesis and corollary, and point to first empirical data in humans. In an a priori way, we examine possible outcomes and perspectives for preventive measures following from our rationale and the suggested chronobiology-driven studies and close with overall advances of chronodisruption research.

Erren, Thomas C.; Reiter, Russel J.

2013-04-01

82

Short-time forecasting of the system magnetosheath -magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the efforts to optimize the performance of a new magnetosphere-magnetosheath model in order to achieve at least 30 minutes forecasting advance of the near-Earth space. The utilized model, developed at the Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, consists of two models, describing self-consistently the magnetosheath-magnetosphere system. The 3D magnetosheath modul receives the flow distribution at the magnetosheath region (in gasdynamic approach). The magnetosphere model is a modification of the Tsyganenko magnetic field model with numerically calculated shielding field and boundary. The locations and shapes of the bow shock and magnetopause are also described as a part of the solution. The 3D form of the magnetopause (generally non-axially-symmetric), including the cusp indentation, influences essentially the flow. Input data for the whole model are density, temperature, flow velocity and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A complementary part of the system is a set of algorithms and programs, making use of the available in Internet near real time solar wind monitoring in L1 (currently performed by ACE). In order to modernize and extend the existing simulation software, several performance optimization techniques were applied to the FORTRAN source code. Also parts of the code are being incrementally parallelized using OpenMP directives. The simulations run on several multicore x86-64 machines under 64-bit Linux OS. The traveling time of the solar wind from L1 to the Earth is enough for running the magnetosheath-magnetosphere problem. Numerical experiments, performed on different configuration of the computer platform are discussed.

Dobreva, Polya; Iliev, Hristo; Grigorov, Krum; Koitchev, Detelin; Keremidarska, Valentina; Kartalev, Monio

83

The noise properties in GPS time-series at European stations revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Williams et al. (2004) made a comprehensive study of the noise in GPS time-series for a large set of stations, analysed by various research centres. One of their conclusions was that the power-law plus white noise model is a good description of the temporal correlation that exists in the observations. The power-law model mostly has a spectral index of 1 which corresponds to flicker noise. Santamaría et al. (2011) repeated this study using also the General Gauss Markov noise model and the flicker plus random walk noise model suggested by Langbein (2008). They concluded that the flicker plus random walk noise model was still the best choice. However, Langbein (2012) emphasised recently that the flicker plus random walk noise is a good alternative. To investigate this issue further, we have analysed the noise properties in GPS time-series of around 110 stations in Europe with more than 8 years of data. The data length threshold was chosen to focus our study on long periods where the effect of random walk noise should be clearer. The Bayesian Information Criteria was used to quantify how well the noise models fit the data. For this work we will use the recently developed Hector software package (Bos et al., 2013) which employs the standard Maximum Likelihood Estimation method. In addition, we will compare solutions made publicly available: JPL, EUREF, and IGS solutions and our own solutions (SEGAL) computed using GIPSY/OASIS.

Bos, Machiel; Fernandes, Rui; Williams, Simon; Bastos, Luísa

2013-04-01

84

Revisiting chronodisruption: when the physiological nexus between internal and external times splits in humans.  

PubMed

In this Concepts & Synthesis paper, we expand the definition of chronodisruption in humans by proposing that it can be operationalized as the split nexus of internal and external times. With this premise, we suggest how chronotype may be used as a temporal marker (chronomarker) of exposure to chronodisruption in studies of cancer, and beyond, offer cancer risk predictions for observational research on the basis of a chronotype-related hypothesis and corollary, and point to first empirical data in humans. In an a priori way, we examine possible outcomes and perspectives for preventive measures following from our rationale and the suggested chronobiology-driven studies and close with overall advances of chronodisruption research. PMID:23494200

Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J

2013-03-14

85

Transmission line distance relaying using a variable window short-time Fourier transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for transmission line protection using a variable window short-time Fourier transform known as S-transform. The S-transform (ST) is a time–frequency spectral localization method, similar to short-time Fourier transform (STFT), but with a Gaussian window whose width scales inversely, and whose height scales linearly with the frequency. The change in spectral energy of the ST

S. R. Samantaray; P. K. Dash

2008-01-01

86

Analysis of TTE\\/BATSE time profiles for short gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TTE\\/BATSE time profiles for short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are analyzed. A sample of 287 short GRBs and a sample of 143\\u000a background regions are studied. Bursts similar to BRBs with precursors and bursts with time profiles that are not encountered\\u000a among the bursts whose time profiles were investigated by using a combination of DISCSC and PREB data. In addition,

I. V. Arkhangelskaja

2002-01-01

87

Highly optimized fourth-order short-time approximation for pathintegrals  

SciTech Connect

We derive a fourth-order short-time approximation for use in imaginary-time path-integral simulations. The short-time approximation converges for all continuous and bounded from below potentials, attains quartic order of convergence for sufficiently smooth potentials, and utilizes statistically independent random variables for its construction. These properties recommend the approximation as a natural replacement of the trapezoidal Trotter-Suzuki approximation for physical systems with continuous distributions.

Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-01

88

Circulation in Drake Passage revisited using new current time series and satellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drake Passage circulation was examined using in situ velocity time series gathered at five mooring sites across the Yaghan Basin (from January 2006 to March 2009), and at four mooring sites across Ona Basin (from February 2006 to April 2008). The moorings were located under the Jason satellite ground-track #104, allowing precise comparisons with various altimetry products. The mooring data suggested the existence of a permanent strong deep cyclonic circulation in the northeastern part of the Yaghan Basin and in the Ona Basin. The mean velocity vectors were observed to rotate with depth. Rotations of the mean velocity vector with depth indicated consistent downwelling except at the mooring located at 59°S, in the center of the Ona Basin. Temporal scales of variability observed from the mooring data were analyzed and leading modes of variability were discussed. The in situ data provided the first opportunity to compare altimetry-derived velocities with high temporal resolution near-surface current meter velocities in a large eddy kinetic energy environment at high latitudes. Globally, altimetry-derived velocities compared rather well with the in situ velocities at 500 m depth both in strength and direction. Correlations were high between the in situ velocities and the surface velocities derived from satellite altimetric data. The quality of the altimetric surface geostrophic velocities being assessed, altimetry was used to further interpret observations at isolated mooring sites and to put them in context of the 18-year-long altimetric time series. In Yaghan Basin, during the in situ measurement period, the spatial structure of the dominant mode of Mean Sea Level Anomaly was associated to the presence of a strong southward meander of the Subantarctic Front upstream of the mooring section. The 18-year-long altimetry time series revealed that this pattern is robust, dominant and had a strong semi-annual component. Map of Absolute Dynamic Topography-derived velocity across the crest of the Shackleton Ridge, at the western entrance to the Ona Basin, showed that deep gaps in the ridge control the mean location of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current frontal branches. In the complex area where the Shackleton Fracture Zone intersects the West Scotia Ridge, the Map of Absolute Dynamic Topography maps provided an accurate documentation of the meandering of the Polar Front branches around the seamounts, in remarkable agreement with the current meter data. The altimetry helped to put the mooring period into perspective and in particular to show that some of the events sampled during the mooring period were exceptional, such as the invasions of water from south of the southern boundary of the ACC over a large part of the Ona Basin. An active ventilation of the Circumpolar Deep Water by water from the south of the southern boundary of the ACC was shown to be associated with cyclonic eddies and their filaments [Provost et al., 2011].

Ferrari, Ramiro; Prvost, Christine; Sennéchael, Nathalie; Park, Young-Hyang; Lee, Jae Hak

2013-04-01

89

Revisiting the Phasor-Walkout method for detailed investigation of harmonic signals in time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-known but rarely used powerful method to investigate the presence of harmonic signals in time series is the Phasor Walkout method (other names are: Graphical Fourier Transform, Summation Dial, Complex Demodulation). At a given test frequency the complex contributions (phasors) to the Fourier Transform of each sample in an equidistantly sampled series are added vectorially in the complex plane. The resulting pattern, the walkout, reveals information about the properties of the signal which is not easy to obtain by other methods. Synthetic examples are used to demonstrate the resolving power of the method. The following geophysical examples for the application of this method are shown: determination of the frequency of the breathing mode0 S 0 of the earth after a large earthquake; the study of superconducting gravimeter records after a large deep earthquake used in the ‘core mode’ interpretation of a spectral peak, the study of the residual S 3 (8 h period) signal in a tidal record and the bichromatic Rayleigh-waves from Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991.

Zürn, W.; Rydelek, P. A.

1994-07-01

90

Analytical study of quadratic and nonquadratic short-time behavior of quantum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-time behavior of quantum decay of an unstable state initially located within an interaction region of finite range is investigated using a resonant expansion of the survival amplitude. It is shown that in general the short-time behavior of the survival probability S(t) has a dependence on the initial state and may behave as either S(t)=1-O(t3/2) or 1-O(t2). These cases are illustrated by solvable models. The experiment reported by Wilkinson [Nature (London)10.1038/42418 387, 575 (1997)] does not distinguish between the above short-time behaviors.

Cordero, Sergio; García–Calderón, Gastón

2012-12-01

91

Embedding reconstruction methodology for short time series - application to large El Niño events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an alternative approach for the embedding space reconstruction method for short time series. An m-dimensional embedding space is reconstructed with a set of time delays including the relevant time scales characterizing the dynamical properties of the system. By using a maximal predictability criterion a d-dimensional subspace is selected with its associated set of time delays, in which a

H. F. Astudillo; F. A. Borotto; R. Abarca-Del-Rio

2010-01-01

92

NMR measurement and Brownian movement in the short-time limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is carried out to find relations between the time-dependent molecular self-diffusion and the attenuation of NMR spin-echo. Two cases of diffusion are considered: the Brownian motion in Ornstein's short-time limit and the random walk with memory [13]. The friction and the correlation time describe the mechanism of entrapping interactions between molecules or their bonding to macromolecule chains. The obtained formula for the self-diffusion attenuation is valid at short times and it develops into the well-known Torrey's result in the long-time limit. It fits very efficiently into the NMR data from Refs. [19-20].

Stepišnik, Janez

1994-05-01

93

Relations between timing, position, and grouping in short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with how information about time and position in a sequence is represented in short-term memory and\\u000a expressed in the dynamics of serial recall. Temporal-distinctiveness theories of memory predict that isolating a list item\\u000a in time will improve recall accuracy for that item. Although the majority of research in short-term memory has failed to demonstrate\\u000a a temporal

Simon Farrell; Victoria Wise; Anna Lelièvre

2011-01-01

94

A Pulsar de-dispersion Algorithm Based on the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a pulsar de-dispersion algorithm based on the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is presented. First of all, the reason of the pulsar dispersion and several popular de-dispersion algorithms are induced. Secondly, the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) algorithm is also introduced and a de-dispersion algorithm is proposed based on it. Thirdly, the process of this algorithm is

Jian-Jian Gao; Cheng-Jin Jin; Long Gao

2007-01-01

95

Neural Network Incorporating Meal Information Improves Accuracy of Short-Time Prediction of Glucose Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases, and a clinically important task in its management is the prevention of hypo\\/hyperglycemic events. This can be achieved by exploiting continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices and suitable short-term prediction algorithms able to infer future glycemia in real time. In the literature, several methods for short-time glucose prediction have been proposed,

Chiara Zecchin; Andrea Facchinetti; Giovanni Sparacino; Giuseppe De Nicolao; Claudio Cobelli

2012-01-01

96

Evolutionary Design on FCC Reactors Driven by the High Temperature and Short Contact Time Demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of high temperature and short contact time on FCC is discussed elaborately. Some novel technologies in feed distribution, riser termination system, and some new FCC processes based on the reactor's innovation are introduced in detail. Various kinds of technologies which are propitious to the realization of high-temperature and short-contact time can effectively lead to better a gas-solids contact,

Gang Wang; Jin-Sen Gao; Chun-Ming Xu

2004-01-01

97

Short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal multiple time point study  

PubMed Central

Short echo time localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantification of brain metabolites, including N-acetyl-aspartate, myo-inositol, creatine/phosphocreatine and choline-containing compounds, which may be useful biomarkers for monitoring Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to quantify the rate of metabolite change in Alzheimer's disease, to assess factors influencing changes and to investigate the potential for serial magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an Alzheimer's disease trial biomarker. A total of 42 patients and 22 controls each had up to six magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations over a 2-year period, using a midline posterior cingulate single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (1.5?T; time to repetition?=?2000?ms; echo time?=?30?ms; 192 averages). Metabolite ratios N-acetyl-aspartate:creatine/phosphocreatine, choline-containing compounds:creatine/phosphocreatine, and myo-inositol:creatine/phosphocreatine were measured using online software (PROBE-Q) and the N-acetyl-aspartate:myo-inositol ratio was derived. Baseline ratios were compared between patients and controls. A linear mixed model was used to quantify longitudinal changes and extended to assess the effect of age, disease severity and baseline use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Patients and controls were matched for age (patients: 68.9?±?7.2 years; controls: 69.1?±?6.7 years); 71% of the patients were on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors at baseline; mean Mini-Mental State Examination for patients was 19.4?±?4.1. A total of 307 spectra were acquired. In cross-sectional analyses, patients were significantly different from controls for N-acetyl-aspartate:creatine/phosphocreatine (11% lower, P?time-point study was 9.2%/year for both patients and controls. These results confirm that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to quantify excess metabolite decline in Alzheimer's disease, which may provide a useful measure of disease progression. We found no evidence that age, disease severity or acetylcholinesterase inhibitor use influenced rate of decline, although numbers were small. The substantial variability in longitudinal measurements that drives sample size requirements is principally within-subject and technique related: technical developments to reduce this variability may make serial magnetic resonance spectroscopy a viable biomarker in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease.

Frost, Chris; MacManus, David G.; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Waldman, Adam D.; Fox, Nick C.

2010-01-01

98

The Levy sections theorem revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the Levy sections theorem. We extend the scope of the theorem to time series and apply it to historical daily returns of selected dollar exchange rates. The elevated kurtosis usually observed in such series is then explained by their volatility patterns. And the duration of exchange rate pegs explains the extra elevated kurtosis in the exchange rates

Annibal Figueiredo; Iram Gleria; Raul Matsushita; Sergio Da Silva

2007-01-01

99

Real-time mobile customer short message system design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To expand the current mobile phone short message service, and to make the contact between schools, teachers, parents and feedback of the modern school office system more timely and conveniently, designed and developed the Short Message System based on the Linux platform. The state-of-the-art principles and designed proposals in the Short Message System based on the Linux platform are introduced. Finally we propose an optimized secure access authentication method. At present, many schools,vbusinesses and research institutions ratify the promotion and application the messaging system gradually, which has shown benign market prospects.

Han, Qirui; Sun, Fang

100

Time-dependent Theory of Laser-assisted Auger Decay induced by ultra-short Pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical description of Auger decay induced by ultra-short pulses in the presence of a strong laser field is presented. It is based on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equations describing the Auger process. Appearance of the sidebands and their gross structure are discussed. With the advent of attosecond physics, the time evolution of Auger relaxation processes in

N. M. Kabachnik; A. K. Kazansky

101

Production of short timing responses: a comparative study with a deafferented patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—How far can proprioception contribute to time keeping? To answer this question, a deafferented patient and neurologically normal subjects produced ,1- or 5-sec durations in a sustained (continuous finger press) or discrete (two successive ringer taps) manner, with and without Knowledge,of Results. The findings were ,that: ( 1 ) proprioceptive ,afferents contribute to timing regulation in motor ,production ,of short

Michelle Fleury; Françoise Macar; Chantal Bard; Normand Teasdale; Jacques Paillard; Yves Lamarre; Robert Forget

1994-01-01

102

Fast range imaging by CMOS sensor array through multiple double short time integration (MDSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented novel approach for direct range image acquisition is based on a CMOS image sensor with extremely short integration time and a defined flash illumination by fast infrared laser diodes. Determining the light propagation time by the MDSI method on a chip, a single CMOS sensor chip measures simultaneously distances to a net of numerous target points in a

Peter Mengel; Giinter Doemens; L. Listl

2001-01-01

103

Automated Control and Monitoring of Thermal Processing Using High Temperature, Short Time Pasteurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature, short time pasteurization was used to evaluate a computer-based system for con- trolling the pasteurization process, acquiring data, and monitoring records. Software was used for the control of hot water temperature, flow rate through the centrifugal timing pump, and diversion of under- processed product. Three types of control strategies were conducted: single loop, cascade, and multivaria- ble. The

J. E. Schlesser; D. J. Armstrong; A. Cinar; P. Ramanauskas; A. Negiz

1997-01-01

104

Direct visualization of short transverse relaxation time component (ViSTa).  

PubMed

White matter of the brain has been demonstrated to have multiple relaxation components. Among them, the short transverse relaxation time component (T2<40ms; T2(?)<25ms at 3T) has been suggested to originate from myelin water whereas long transverse relaxation time components have been associated with axonal and/or interstitial water. In myelin water imaging, T2 or T2(?) signal decay is measured to estimate myelin water fraction based on T2 or T2(?) differences among the water components. This method has been demonstrated to be sensitive to demyelination in the brain but suffers from low SNR and image artifacts originating from ill-conditioned multi-exponential fitting. In this study, a novel approach that selectively acquires short transverse relaxation time signal is proposed. The method utilizes a double inversion RF pair to suppress a range of long T1 signal. This suppression leaves short T2(?) signal, which has been suggested to have short T1, as the primary source of the image. The experimental results confirm that after suppression of long T1 signals, the image is dominated by short T2(?) in the range of myelin water, allowing us to directly visualize the short transverse relaxation time component in the brain. Compared to conventional myelin water imaging, this new method of direct visualization of short relaxation time component (ViSTa) provides high quality images. When applied to multiple sclerosis patients, chronic lesions show significantly reduced signal intensity in ViSTa images suggesting sensitivity to demyelination. PMID:23796545

Oh, Se-Hong; Bilello, Michel; Schindler, Matthew; Markowitz, Clyde E; Detre, John A; Lee, Jongho

2013-06-22

105

Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction in tetralin of a Montana Lignite, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, Illinois #6 hv bituminous coal, Pittsburgh #8 hv bituminous coals, and Pocohontas lV bituminous coal at short contact times. All of these coals showed a distinct extraction stage. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

1997-01-30

106

Short-time growth of a Kardar-Parisi-Zhang interface with flat initial conditions.  

PubMed

The short-time behavior of the (1+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) growth equation with a flat initial condition is obtained from the exact expressions for the moments of the partition function of a directed polymer with one end point free and the other fixed. From these expressions, the short-time expansions of the lowest cumulants of the KPZ height field are exactly derived. The results for these two classes of cumulants are checked in high-precision lattice numerical simulations. The short-time limit considered here is relevant for the study of the interface growth in the large-diffusivity or weak-noise limit and describes the universal crossover between the Edwards-Wilkinson and the KPZ universality classes for an initially flat interface. PMID:23214573

Gueudré, Thomas; Le Doussal, Pierre; Rosso, Alberto; Henry, Adrien; Calabrese, Pasquale

2012-10-31

107

Short Time Lyapunov Indicators in the Restricted Three-Body Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied the method of the short time Lyapunov indicators to the planar circular and to the planar elliptic restricted three-body problem in order to study the structure of the phase space in some selected regions. In the circular case we computed the short-time averages of the stretching numbers to distinguish between regular and chaotic domains of the phase space. The results obtained in this way are in good agreement with the corresponding Poincaré's surface of sections. Using the short time Lyapunov indicators we determined the detailed structure of the phase space in the semi-major axis-eccentricity plane of the test particle both in the circular and in the elliptic restricted problem (in the latter case for some values of the eccentricities of the primaries) and we studied the main features of the phase space.

Sàndor, Zsolt; Balla, Róbert; Téger, Ferenc; Érdi, Bálint

2001-01-01

108

The new RS CVn binary V1034 Her revisited and the orbital period — activity relation of short-period RS CVn binaries using photometric distortion amplitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new CCD BV RI light curves of the newly discovered RS CVn eclipsing binary V1034 Her in 2009 and 2010, the shapes of which are different from previously published results. They show an asymmetric outside eclipse, and we try to use a spot model to explain the phenomenon. Using the Wilson-Devinney program with a one-spot or two-spot model, photometric solutions of the system and starspot parameters were derived. Comparing the two results shows that the case of two spots is more successful in reproducing light-curve distortions. Looking at all the spot longitudes, the trend is towards active longitude belts and each active longitude belt may switch. Comparing the light curves from 2009 and 2010, we can see that the light curve changes over the long time scale of a year, especially in phase 0.25. In addition, we also collected the values of the maximum amplitudes of photometric distortion of the short-period RS CVn binary. We found for the first time that there is a trend of increasing activity with decreasing orbital period. Finally, fitting all available light minimum times including our newly obtained ones with a polynomial function confirmed that the orbital period of V1034 Her increased.

Zhang, Li-Yun

2012-04-01

109

Classic performance indexes revisited: axiomatic and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article we revisit three classic performance indexes: Sharpe, Treynor and Jensen, adding a fourth index, the Penalized Internal Rate of Return (PIRR), which is perfectly coherent with those three. We propose some axioms that support the logic of these indexes, identifying one exception for the Treynor index and warning about the problems of quotients use. All these

Fernando Gómez-Bezares

2012-01-01

110

Classic performance indexes revisited: axiomatic and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article we revisit three classic performance indexes: Sharpe, Treynor and Jensen, adding a fourth index, the Penalized Internal Rate of Return (PIRR), which is perfectly coherent with those three. We propose some axioms that support the logic of these indexes, identifying one exception for the Treynor index and warning about the problems of quotients use. All these

Fernando Gómez-Bezares

2011-01-01

111

Short-time-evolved wave functions for solving quantum many-body problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact ground state of a strongly interacting quantum many-body system can be obtained by evolving a trial state with finite overlap with the ground state to infinite imaginary time. In many cases, since the convergence is exponential, the system converges essentially to the exact ground state in a relatively short time. Thus a short-time evolved wave function can be an excellent approximation to the exact ground state. Such a short-time-evolved wave function can be obtained by factorizing, or splitting, the evolution operator to high order. However, for the imaginary time Schrödinger equation, which contains an irreversible diffusion kernel, all coefficients, or time steps, must be positive. (Negative time steps would require evolving the diffusion process backward in time, which is impossible.) Heretofore, only second-order factorization schemes can have all positive coefficients, but without further iterations, these cannot be used to evolve the system long enough to be close to the exact ground state. In this work, we use a newly discovered fourth-order positive factorization scheme which requires knowing both the potential and its gradient. We show that the resulting fourth-order wave function alone, without further iterations, gives an excellent description of strongly interacting quantum systems such as liquid 4He, comparable to the best variational results in the literature. This suggests that such a fourth-order wave function can be used to study the ground state of diverse quantum many-body systems, including Bose-Einstein condensates and Fermi systems.

Ciftja, Orion; Chin, Siu A.

2003-10-01

112

A comparison of statistical models for short categorical or ordinal time series with applications in ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study two statistical models for short-length categorical (or ordinal) time series. The first one is a regression model based on generalized linear model. The second one is a parametrized Markovian model, particularizing the discrete autoregressive model to the case of categorical data. These models are used to analyze two data-sets: annual larch cone production and weekly planktonic abundance.

Noëlle Bru; Laurence Despres; Christian Paroissin

2007-01-01

113

Studies of Coal Liquefaction by Short-Residence-Time Hydropyrolysis Using Promoters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bench-scale short residence time reactor was operated and a total of forty runs were reported. Cold-flow tests were done in glass models of vertical helical and straight reactors to permit visual observations of mass flow of gas and solids particles. Re...

S. J. Bivacca J. A. Hamshar P. O. McCoy U. M. Oko W. A. Fling

1979-01-01

114

Time perspective and identity formation: Short-term longitudinal dynamics in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college students assessed at two time-points, four months apart.

Koen Luyckx; Willy Lens; Ilse Smits; Luc Goossens

2010-01-01

115

Response Conflict Determines Sequential Effects in Serial Response Time Tasks with Short Response-Stimulus Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In serial choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance in each trial critically depends on the sequence of preceding events. In this study, the authors specifically examined the mechanism underlying RT sequence effects at short response-stimulus intervals (RSIs), in which performance is impaired in the current trial N if events alternate rather…

Jentzsch, Ines; Leuthold, Hartmut

2005-01-01

116

Short time traffic speed prediction using pattern recognition and feature selection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we predict traffic speed on Istanbul roads using RTMS (remote traffic microwave sensor) speed measurements obtained from the Istanbul Municipality web site. We use two different pattern recognition methods, k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector regression machine (SVM). In order to predict the speed at a short time (5 minutes to 60 minutes) ahead, we use speed

Ülkem Yildirim; Zehra Çataltepe

2008-01-01

117

Automatic recognition of ground radar targets based on target RCS and short time spectrum variance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel feature vector to be used with a robust automatic target recognition (ATR) classifier designed for a ground surveillance radar. A three element feature vector has been used where features are based on radar audio signal of 100 milliseconds duration. The short feature length allows fast real-time implementation of the classifier. Classification is done using a

S. Liaqat; S. A. Khan; M. B. Ihsan; S. Z. Asghar; A. Ejaz; A. I. Bhatti

2011-01-01

118

ESTIMATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN OIL PALM CATCHMENTS BY SHORT-TIME PERIOD WATER-BUDGET METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short Time Period Water Budget (SPWB) and Catchment Water Balance (CWB) methods were used for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) rates in oil palm catchments in Johor, Malaysia. Three catchments of different oil palm ages were established, namely C1 (2 years), C2 (5 years) and C3 (9 years). Eight months data of rainfall and runoff were used in the analysis. By adopting

Zulkifli Yusop; Chong Meng Hui; Geoffery James Garusu; Ayob Katimon

2008-01-01

119

Interactive Software Package For Analysis Of Short, Noisy And Nonequidistant Biologic Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on periodic regression have been designed for the detection of periodic components in short, noisy and nonequidistant time series (as they are usually present in medicine and biology). The procedure consists of fitting a set of (cosine) curves to the data, with the analyst choosing the domain of trial periods to be analyzed and the distance between consecutive

Artemio Moj; Mojon; J. R. Fernandez; R. C. Hermida

1991-01-01

120

APPARATUS FOR SHORT TIME MEASUREMENTS IN A FIXED-BED, GAS/SOLID REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

An apparatus for exposure of a solid to reactive process gas is described which makes possible short time (? 0.3 to 15 s) exposures in a fixed-bed reactor. Operating conditions for differential reaction with respect to the gas concentration and rapid quench for arresting hi...

121

Short-time maximum entropy method analysis of molecular dynamics simulation: Unimolecular decomposition of formic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed spectral analysis by using the maximum entropy method instead of the traditional Fourier transform technique to investigate the short-time behavior in molecular systems, such as the energy transfer between vibrational modes and chemical reactions. This procedure was applied to direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations for the decomposition of formic acid. More reactive trajectories of dehydrolation than those

Osamu Takahashi; Tetsuo Nomura; Kiyohiko Tabayashi; Katsuyoshi Yamasaki

2008-01-01

122

Catalyst assessment for upgrading short contact time SRC to low sulfur boiler fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short contact time SRC can be upgraded via catalytic hydroprocessing into low sulfur boiler fuels. However, the solid SCT SRC feedstock requires solvent dilution to reduce its viscosity. Furthermore, even for a 50 wt % W. Kentucky SCT SRC blend, all pilot units lines and valves have to be heat-traced above 350°F in order to achieve smooth mechanical operations. Catalytically,

S. S. Shih; P. J. Angevine; R. H. Heck; S. Sawruk

1979-01-01

123

Short-Time Creep Behavior of Carbon, Graphite, and Silica Phenolic Composites at Elevated Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Short-time tensile creep behavior of carbon, graphite, and silica phenolics at elevated temperatures was determined for durations up to 40 sec. A plasma arc was used as a heat source, with test temperatures ranging from 1095 to 2760C. The results show app...

A. Ching J. D. Buch

1970-01-01

124

New methods for regulating flowering time in short-day strawberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Higher percentages of transplants of short-day cultivars 'Chandler', 'Carmine', 'Strawberry Festival', and 'Sweet Charlie' from runner tips plugged in early July rather than the standard time (early August) bloomed in the fall. Nearly 100% of the transplants produced in early July flowered in the f...

125

Conversion of hydrocarbon fuels to syngas in a short contact time catalytic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some results of the theoretical and experimental research on the oxidative production of syngas from hydrocarbon fuels in catalytic reactors which operate at high temperatures and short contact times are presented. Pilot scale tests of the partial oxidation of methane, isooctane and gasoline have been carried out in nearly adiabatic conditions on structured catalysts developed at the Boreskov Institute of

L. Bobrova; N. Vernikovskaya; V. Sadykov

2009-01-01

126

Syngas formation by selective catalytic oxidation of liquid hydrocarbons in a short contact time adiabatic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of pilot plant scale explores syngas formation from such liquid fuels like isooctane and gasoline by selective catalytic oxidation at short contact times in nearly adiabatic reactor operating with the representative throughputs. The original monolithic catalysts with different (microchannel ceramics and metallic honeycomb structure) supports have been used in the experiments. The results demonstrated that over the range

L. Bobrova; I. Zolotarskii; V. Sadykov; S. Pavlova; O. Snegurenko; S. Tikhov; V. Korotkich; T. Kuznetsova; V. Sobyanin; V. Parmon

2005-01-01

127

Fuel processor based on syngas production via short contact time catalytic partial oxidation reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short contact time catalytic partial oxidation (SCT-CPO) of natural gas is a promising technology for syngas production, representing an appealing alternative to existing processes. The high conversion and selectivity observed since the earlier works in this field can make this process attractive. Moreover, the SCT-CPO reactors can be autothermally operated and the possibility to use air as oxidant appears a

Stefania Specchia; Giovanna Negro; Guido Saracco; Vito Specchia

2007-01-01

128

High yields of olefins and hydrogen from decane in short contact time reactors: rhodium versus platinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial oxidation of n-decane to produce H2, ethylene, and ?-olefins has been compared over Rh and Pt in autothermal reactors at short contact times. Over Rh it is shown that the addition of an alumina wash coat and small foam pore size give higher H2 selectivity (>85%), while the absence of wash coat and larger pore size give more

Jakob J Krummenacher; Lanny D Schmidt

2004-01-01

129

APPARATUS FOR SHORT TIME MEASUREMENTS IN A FIXED BED, GAS/SOLID REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes an apparatus for the exposure of a solid to reactive process gas. he switch makes possible short time exposures (equal to or greater than 0.3 s) in a fixed-bed reactor for kinetic studies of rapid reactions....

130

Time-lapse Camera System for Monitoring Short and Long-term Sedimentary Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-lapse photography has seen limited use as a method for observing sedimentary processes. A problem with past techniques is the use of expensive components, limiting availability for most applications. The purpose of this project is to develop a low-cost, modular time-lapse system for both short- and long-term deployment in the field to photographically monitor various sedimentary processes, such as erosion

Nicholas I Scappaticci; Brian E Bodenbender

2011-01-01

131

Relaxation Time Mapping of Short T * 2Nuclei with Single-Point Imaging (SPI) Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

New techniques for quantitative mapping ofT1,T2, andT*2are proposed, based on thesingle-pointimaging (SPI) method, for materials with short nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times which cannot be imaged with traditional methods. Relaxation times extracted from two-dimensional images of uniform doped agarose phantoms (T*2? 60–210 ?s) as well as hardened mortar (T*2? 220 ?s) and polymers (T*2? 20–100 ?s), using these techniques, agreed

Steven D. Beyea; Bruce J. Balcom; Pablo J. Prado; Albert R. Cross; Christopher B. Kennedy; Robin L. Armstrong; Theodore W. Bremner

1998-01-01

132

Short-time dynamics of colloidal particles confined between two walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-time dynamics of colloidal particles in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry is studied by digital video microscopy. The particles (polystyrene spheres) are suspended in water and confined between two parallel glass plates, forming an effective two-dimensional system. The (effective) two-dimensional van Hove function G(r,t) and its self and distinct part are measured with a time resolution of 1\\/30 s. We found

Jesús Santana-Solano; José Luis Arauz-Lara

2002-01-01

133

Novel equipment for testing catalytic cracking and catalyst regeneration with short contact times  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new piece of equipment was developed for testing catalytic cracking and catalyst regeneration, particularly for short contact times. The gas oil to be cracked is injected into the upper section of the reactor, which can be operated in the temperature range 400–800°C, catalyst-to-oil ratios from 0 to 300gcat\\/goil and residence times between 0.01 and 2.3s. The product is led

K Lipiäinen; P Hagelberg; J Aittamaa; I Eilos; J Hiltunen; V. M Niemi; A. O. I Krause

1999-01-01

134

Reduced corrosion of pulsed 316LVM stainless steel electrodes by short time constant discharge circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical charge injection characteristics and corrosion response of single strand 316 LVM stainless steel electrodes were evaluated in vitro using capacitor and coil coupled monophasic charge injection protocols with varying discharge time constants. Positive-first charge injection was used at 44 µC\\/cm2, stimulating wave forms with short time constants exhibited a less positive potential transients and less corrosion. Multistranded 316LVM

Lisa Riedy; James Walter; Stuart Cogan; Nguyet Nguyen; Paul Zaszczurynski

1992-01-01

135

Short-time reactor neutron irradiation of YSZ prepared using reactive calcination method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted to study the short-time reactor neutron irradiation of yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) at 315 K. The samples were prepared by the reactive calcination method and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electronic microscope. The prepared samples were irradiated by reactor neutrons at different exposure times and investigated by XRD analysis. The results obtained show good radiation resistance of YSZ to reactor neutron irradiation.

Izerrouken, M.; Boucheffa, Y.; Souami, S.; Sari, A.; Hammache, A.; Meftah, A.; Nekab, M.

2006-05-01

136

Detection systems for short-time stroboscopic neutron imaging and measurements on a rotating engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's neutron sources do not deliver sufficient flux to examine singular short-time events in the millisecond range by neutron radiography. However, periodic processes can be examined if a triggered accumulating detector collects information of identical time-windows and positions over several cycles of the process. The same problem applies if the source signal itself carries information, like the energy time dependence in the pulse of a spallation source. Several possible detection methods were considered; measurements were performed at the intense neutron beam H9 of ILL Grenoble, where an electrically driven BMW engine was examined at 1000 rpm with time resolution of 200 ?s.

Schillinger, B.; Abele, H.; Brunner, J.; Frei, G.; Gähler, R.; Gildemeister, A.; Hillenbach, A.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

2005-04-01

137

Short baseline positioning with an improved time reversal technique in a multi-path channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of a multi-path channel under the water greatly decreases the accuracy of the short baseline positioning system. In this paper, the application of a time reversal mirror to the short baseline positioning system was investigated. The time reversal mirror technique allowed the acoustic signal to better focus in an unknown environment, which effectively reduced the expansion of multi-path acoustic signals as well as improved the signal focusing. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the time reversal operator greatly increased and could be obtained by ensonifying the water. The technique was less affected by the environment and therefore more applicable to a complex shallow water environment. Numerical simulations and pool experiments were used to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique.

Li, Zhuang; Qiao, Gang; Sun, Zongxin; Zhao, Haiyang; Guo, Ran

2012-06-01

138

Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in the failure process in that depth range.

Houston, Heidi; Benz, Harley M.; Vidale, John E.

1998-12-01

139

Short residence time coal liquefaction. Topical report, May 1978-July 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second in a series of topical reports describing work conducted for the US Department of Energy at Gulf Oil Corporation's Merriam Coal Liquefaction Laboratory. It reviews research carried out over several years to determine the role of process variables in an SRC I type coal dissolution process. The data reported describe the effects of temperature (440 to 500/sup 0/C), pressure (1000 to 3000 psig) and residence time (1 to 10 minutes) using bituminous coal (Kentucky 9/14, Indiana V, and Pittsburgh seams) in the short residence time solvent refined coal (SRC) process. All of the research was conducted using a continuous bench scale unit. The short residence time SRC process was originally envisioned as a stand-alone process which would produce a low cost solid SRC I type product. With interest shifting toward the production of higher quality products, the short residence time SRC process can now be thought of as a minimum cost first stage of a multi-staged process. 9 references, 16 figures, 23 tables.

Not Available

1984-02-01

140

Characterization of polydopamine thin films deposited at short times by autoxidation of dopamine.  

PubMed

Current interest in melanin films derived from the autoxidation of dopamine stems from their use as a universal adhesion layer. Here we report chemical and physical characterization of polydopamine films deposited on gold surfaces from stirred basic solutions at times ranging from 2 to 60 min, with a focus on times ?10 min. Data from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods suggest the presence of starting (dopamine) and intermediate (C=N-containing tautomers of quinone and indole) species in the polydopamine films at all deposition times. A uniform overlayer analysis of the XPS data indicates that film thickness increased linearly at short deposition times of ?10 min. At deposition times ?10 min, the films appeared largely continuous with surface roughness ? ? 2 nm, as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Pinhole-free films, as determined by anionic redox probe measurements, required deposition times of 60 min or greater. PMID:23750451

Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Morris, Todd A; Tarlov, Michael J

2013-06-27

141

Least squares support vector machine for short-term prediction of meteorological time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of meteorological time series plays very important role in several fields. In this paper, an application of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) for short-term prediction of meteorological time series (e.g. solar irradiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and pressure) is presented. In order to check the generalization capability of the LS-SVM approach, a K-fold cross-validation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test have been carried out. A comparison between LS-SVM and different artificial neural network (ANN) architectures (recurrent neural network, multi-layered perceptron, radial basis function and probabilistic neural network) is presented and discussed. The comparison showed that the LS-SVM produced significantly better results than ANN architectures. It also indicates that LS-SVM provides promising results for short-term prediction of meteorological data.

Mellit, A.; Pavan, A. Massi; Benghanem, M.

2012-05-01

142

Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives. Much of the previous quarterly report was concerned mainly in the retrograde reactions occurring during the liquefaction process. This report is largely devoted to the kinetics and mechanisms of the liquefaction process itself and the influence of the liquefaction solvents.

Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.

1996-05-01

143

Critical short-time dynamics in a system with interacting static and diffusive populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the critical short-time dynamical behavior of a one-dimensional model where diffusive individuals can infect a static population upon contact. The model presents an absorbing phase transition from an active to an inactive state. Previous calculations of the critical exponents based on quasistationary quantities have indicated an unusual crossover from the directed percolation to the diffusive contact process universality classes. Here we show that the critical exponents governing the slow short-time dynamic evolution of several relevant quantities, including the order parameter, its relative fluctuations, and correlation function, reinforce the lack of universality in this model. Accurate estimates show that the critical exponents are distinct in the regimes of low and high recovery rates.

Argolo, C.; Quintino, Yan; Gleria, Iram; Lyra, M. L.

2012-01-01

144

Least squares support vector machine for short-term prediction of meteorological time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of meteorological time series plays very important role in several fields. In this paper, an application of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) for short-term prediction of meteorological time series (e.g. solar irradiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and pressure) is presented. In order to check the generalization capability of the LS-SVM approach, a K-fold cross-validation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test have been carried out. A comparison between LS-SVM and different artificial neural network (ANN) architectures (recurrent neural network, multi-layered perceptron, radial basis function and probabilistic neural network) is presented and discussed. The comparison showed that the LS-SVM produced significantly better results than ANN architectures. It also indicates that LS-SVM provides promising results for short-term prediction of meteorological data.

Mellit, A.; Pavan, A. Massi; Benghanem, M.

2013-01-01

145

Wideband spectral reconstruction via short-time modified chirp z-transform processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the chirp z-transform is adapted for the spectral reconstruction of a wideband signal. Here, spectral reconstruction is based on the coherent and sequential processing of non-overlapping short-time segments. This approach eases hardware implementation in the presence of limited memory allocation and can provide savings in computational effort. In addition, it offers the flexibility of focusing the reconstruction

Ziad F. Hamed; Benjamin C. Flores

1997-01-01

146

Wideband spectral reconstruction via short-time modified chirp z-transform processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the chirp z-transform is adapted for the spectral reconstruction of a wideband signal. Here, spectral reconstruction is based on the coherent and sequential processing of non-overlapping short-time segments. This approach eases hardware implementation in the presence of limited memory allocation and can provide savings in computational effort. In addition, it offers the flexibility of focusing the reconstruction of the spectrum on a narrow spectral band of interest.

Hamed, Ziad F.; Flores, Benjamin C.

1997-09-01

147

Short-term Stock Market Timing Prediction under Reinforcement Learning Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are fundamental difficulties when only using a supervised learning philosophy to predict financial stock short-term movements. We present a reinforcement-oriented forecasting framework in which the solution is converted from a typical error-based learning approach to a goal-directed match-based learning method. The real market timing ability in forecasting is addressed as well as traditional goodness-of-fit-based criteria. We develop two applicable

Hailin Li; Cihan H. Dagli; David Enke

2007-01-01

148

THE DUAL BEAM PICOSECOND CONTINUUM TECHNIQUE FOR MEASUREMENT OF SHORT-TIME-SCALE TRANSMISSION SPECTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a dual-beam measurement technique is presented to measure the short-time-scale optical properties of novel materials. It is shown that the picosecond continuum probe source obtained from nonlinear interaction with H2O\\/D2O is highly variable and does not permit detection of small changes in absorption \\/transmission spectra. The dual-beam approach is proposed to allow simultaneous measurement of a sample's

M. Cynthia Hipwell; Chang-Lin Tien; Xianglei Mao; Richard E. Russo

1998-01-01

149

LC-Fining of solvent refined coal - SRC-I and short contact time coal extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities Service became involved in coal liquefaction technology through its proprietary catalytic hydrogenation process which is called LC-Fining (Lummus-Cities Fining). Successful application of this technology for upgrading coal extracts has led to the development of a coal liquefaction process - two-stage liquefaction. Concurrently, the concept of short contact time coal extract processing was developed by other researchers. This study describes

J. D. Potts; K. E. Hastings; R. S. Chillingworth; H. Unger

1980-01-01

150

Analysis and short-time extrapolation of stock market indexes through projection onto discrete wavelet subspaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of short-time extrapolation of blue chips’ stocks indexes in the context of wavelet subspaces following the theory proposed by X.-G. Xia and co-workers in a series of articles [10–13]. The idea is first to approximate the oscillations of the corresponding stock index at some scale by means of the scaling function which is part of a given

Laurent Gosse

2010-01-01

151

Fundamentals of the cyclic short-time variation of indoor power-line channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, indoor power-line channels properties are analyzed. The focus is put on the short-term variation that channel exhibits due to the behavior of electrical devices, which is influenced by the presence of mains voltage. Devices high-frequency parameters are time-varying and this makes the channel varies as well. To characterize this behavior it is proposed a model with an

F. J. Canete; J. A. Cortes; L. Diez; J. T. Entrambasaguas; J. L. Carmona

2005-01-01

152

RESIDUAL EMPIRICAL PROCESSES FOR LONG AND SHORT MEMORY TIME SERIES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the residual empirical process of long- and short-memory time series regression models and establishes its uni- form expansion under a general framework. The results are applied to the stochastic regression models and unstable autoregressive models. For the long-memory noise, it is shown that the limit distribution of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic studied in Ho and Hsing (Ann.

Ngai Hang Chan; Shiqing Ling

2008-01-01

153

Process development for improved SRC options: short residence time studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPRI Research Projects (RP) 1134-1 and 1134-2 were directed toward the development of an improved coal liquefaction technology. Potential process improvements included short contact time coal liquefaction, critical solvent de-ashing, fractionation of liquefaction products, and the selective recycling of certain product fractions. This work was conducted in the laboratories and on continuous bench-scale units of Conoco Coal Development Company (RP1134-1)

J. A. Kleinpeter; F. P. Burke; P. J. Dudt; D. C. Jones

1980-01-01

154

Catalyst investigation for applications of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane in short contact time reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

LaMnO3-based catalysts were tested in a head-to-head comparison with Pt in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at short contact times under the same reactor configuration (400cpsi honeycomb monolith). The comparison, carried out at varying C2H6\\/O2 feed ratio and flow rate, showed that on LaMnO3-based catalyst ethylene formation is greatly enhanced in comparison with Pt under a wide range of experimental

Raffaele Pirone; Gennaro Russo

2004-01-01

155

Modeling of on-line catalyst addition effects in a short contact time reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed short-contact-time reactors (SCTR), consisting of porous alumina monoliths coated with platinum, have been shown to produce ethylene from rich ethane\\/oxygen(hydrogen) mixtures with yields and selectivities comparable to conventional steam cracking, using a reactor of much smaller size. Although the overall mechanism is clearly autothermal and catalytic, the details, in particular the relative contributions of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry,

David K. Zerkle; Mark D. Allendorf; Markus Wolf; Olaf Deutschmann

2000-01-01

156

Modeling Alkaline Phosphatase Inactivation in Bovine Milk During High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is used as the indicator enzyme for proper pasteurization of bovine milk. Predictive modeling of AP inactivation during high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization would support regulations; thus ensuring the safety of heat treated milk. Activation energy (Ea) of AP in milk was measured experimentally using the capillary tube method, and Ea was found to be 429252 J\\/mol. The

Q. Lu; P. Piyasena; G. S. Mittal

2001-01-01

157

Short-term foreshocks in Southern California and Italy revisited: Observed deviations from the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have suggested that short-term foreshocks observed prior to large earthquakes are undistinguishable from the normal behaviour of seismicity, which is well described for example by the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. Here we show that these studies fail to extract abnormal foreshock behaviour due to the much more frequent occurrence of aftershocks in comparison to potential foreshocks, which results in undervaluing the role of foreshocks. We first define mainshocks as earthquakes of magnitude M6+ and use a space-time-magnitude window method with a maximum distance of 10 km to the mainshock, a maximum time range of 3 days before the mainshock and a minimum magnitude M4+ to define foreshocks in Southern California and in Italy. We then compare the observed rate of foreshock-mainshock pairs to the rate expected by ETAS simulations. Similar to previous studies, these results indicate that the foreshock activity observed in real catalogues is compatible with the ETAS model. Definition of foreshocks with a window method is, however, simplistic, since any individual event may be considered a foreshock although it is impossible to distinguish a foreshock from background or aftershock activity at a one-to-one event basis. We extend our foreshock analysis based on the predictions of the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory (NC PAST), which are: (1) foreshocks are due to overloading on the main fault and occur in clusters, the activity of which is significantly higher than background activity, (2) microseismicity (M<3) must be included for the emergence of a reliable signal and (3) foreshocks are not systematic before large earthquakes due to aleatoric uncertainty on the rupture process. Following these guidelines, we systematically investigate foreshock sequences before large earthquakes (M6+) in Southern California and Italy. Using different approaches, we finally show that significant anomalies are observed before some mainshocks (e.g., 1992 Landers, 2009 L'Aquila earthquakes), which are not explained by the ETAS process. Anomalies are defined as any deviation from a Poissonian distribution (which describes the stationary background seismicity) with a Poisson probability lower than 10^-4. We use approaches such as heuristic (what if a large cluster of events is not preceded by any event large enough to produce such a cluster?), ETAS stochastic declustering and a nearest-neighbour cluster technique that differentiates between foreshocks, mainshocks and aftershocks. Our results highlight the shortcomings of current systematic precursory seismicity analyses: First, in order to consider a sufficient number of mainshocks, a large region is usually considered, which requires the use of a relatively high completeness magnitude. This considerably limits the significance of potential anomalies, which are mostly defined from microseismicity (according to the NC PAST). Second, it is commonly assumed that all mainshocks behave the same (in agreement with the ETAS process), which would validate stacking/averaging over multiple sequences. This approach however fails if mainshocks behave differently from one to another (according to the NC PAST). To conclude, microseismicity and non-systematic presence of anomalies are key conditions to better understand potential foreshocks before large earthquakes, their physical origin and their potential role in time-dependent hazard assessment and earthquake prediction.

Seif, Stefanie; Mignan, Arnaud; Wiemer, Stefan

2013-04-01

158

Excitatory synaptic potentials in spastic human motoneurons have a short rise-time.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether changes in size or time-course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating spastic muscle could induce a greater synaptic response, and thereby contribute to reflex hyperexcitability. We compared motor unit (MU) firing patterns elicited by tendon taps applied to both spastic and contralateral (nonspastic) biceps brachii muscle in hemiparetic stroke subjects. Based on recordings of 115 MUs, significantly shortened EPSP rise times were present on the spastic side, but with no significant differences in estimated EPSP amplitude. These changes may contribute to hyperexcitable reflex responses at short latency, but the EPSP amplitude changes appear insufficient to account for global differences in reflex excitability. PMID:15786417

Suresh, Nina L; Ellis, Michael D; Moore, Jennifer; Heckman, Heather; Rymer, William Zev

2005-07-01

159

Consumption of a large dose of alcohol in a short time span.  

PubMed

Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and time to peak BAC were determined in 16 subjects after ingestion of a large quantity of alcoholic beverages within a short drinking time span not exceeding 30 min. The first group (7 subjects) consumed alcohol after a 3- to 4-h fast. In the second group (9 subjects) the consumption of alcohol took place after eating a large meal. Venous blood samples taken 30 min after drinking finished were compared to the near-simultaneous Breathalyzer results. In addition, the minimum duration of a BAC plateau for these drinking circumstances was assessed. PMID:1452102

Jakus, J T; Shajani, N K; Image, B A

1992-10-01

160

A strategy for meta-analysis of short time series microarray datasets.  

PubMed

Many time series microarray experiments have relatively short (less than ten) time points and lack in repeats, weakening the confidence of results. Combining the microarray data from different groups may improve the statistical power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, few efforts have been taken to combine or compare the time-course array datasets generated by independent groups. Here we demonstrated a suitable strategy for meta-analysis of short time series microarray datasets and implemented this strategy on four published heat shock microarray datasets of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. We first assessed the significance of each gene in each datasets based on area calculation and the null distribution of the areas. Then the similarity of significance values across datasets was assessed with meta-analysis methods, yielding a set of transient heat shock stress sensitive genes. Following correlation calculation helped us to combine the transformed data at the same time points of each gene. Further bioinformatic investigation showed the significance of our strategy, and also indicated some interesting features of regulatory systems in S. cerevisiae during transient heat stress. PMID:19273334

Sun, Ruping; Fu, Xuping; Guo, Fenghua; Ma, Zhaorong; Goulbourne, Chris; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yao; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

2009-01-01

161

EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN SHORT-TIME BIPHASIC AND INCOMPRESSIBLE ELASTIC MATERIAL RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response ?t??2/?C4?||K||, where ? is a characteristic dimension, C4 is the elasticity tensor and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.

Ateshian, Gerard A.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

162

Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented.

Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

1994-06-01

163

Landmark Prediction of Long Term Survival Incorporating Short Term Event Time Information.  

PubMed

In recent years, a wide range of markers have become available as potential tools to predict risk or progression of disease. In addition to such biological and genetic markers, short term outcome information may be useful in predicting long term disease outcomes. When such information is available, it would be desirable to combine this along with predictive markers to improve the prediction of long term survival. Most existing methods for incorporating censored short term event information in predicting long term survival focus on modeling the disease process and are derived under restrictive parametric models in a multi-state survival setting. When such model assumptions fail to hold, the resulting prediction of long term outcomes may be invalid or inaccurate. When there is only a single discrete baseline covariate, a fully non-parametric estimation procedure to incorporate short term event time information has been previously proposed. However, such an approach is not feasible for settings with one or more continuous covariates due to the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we propose to incorporate short term event time information along with multiple covariates collected up to a landmark point via a flexible varying-coefficient model. To evaluate and compare the prediction performance of the resulting landmark prediction rule, we use robust non-parametric procedures which do not require the correct specification of the proposed varying coefficient model. Simulation studies suggest that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We illustrate them here using a dataset of post-dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:23293405

Parast, Layla; Cheng, Su-Chun; Cai, Tianxi

2012-08-21

164

Landmark Prediction of Long Term Survival Incorporating Short Term Event Time Information  

PubMed Central

Summary In recent years, a wide range of markers have become available as potential tools to predict risk or progression of disease. In addition to such biological and genetic markers, short term outcome information may be useful in predicting long term disease outcomes. When such information is available, it would be desirable to combine this along with predictive markers to improve the prediction of long term survival. Most existing methods for incorporating censored short term event information in predicting long term survival focus on modeling the disease process and are derived under restrictive parametric models in a multi-state survival setting. When such model assumptions fail to hold, the resulting prediction of long term outcomes may be invalid or inaccurate. When there is only a single discrete baseline covariate, a fully non-parametric estimation procedure to incorporate short term event time information has been previously proposed. However, such an approach is not feasible for settings with one or more continuous covariates due to the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we propose to incorporate short term event time information along with multiple covariates collected up to a landmark point via a flexible varying-coefficient model. To evaluate and compare the prediction performance of the resulting landmark prediction rule, we use robust non-parametric procedures which do not require the correct specification of the proposed varying coefficient model. Simulation studies suggest that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We illustrate them here using a dataset of post-dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.

Parast, Layla; Cheng, Su-Chun; Cai, Tianxi

2012-01-01

165

Determination time shifts and periods of short series with the use of differential representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the use of signal representation in signum delta modulation format (SignDM) has been proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the correlation analysis (CA) in real time of short highly noised time series and 2-D data. The SignDM codes are specified by comparing the values of differences between signal samples in PCM formats with a differential zone which is defined a'priori. These codes belong to the set {-1, 0, 1}. In this paper mathematical operations on such codes have been studied. SignDM's sampling rate equals Nyquist's frequency. The following approaches ares suggested to be applied when conducting determination with the help of CA: (1) the frequency of short highly disturbed periodic signals will be specified on the basis of a maximum of the proper power spectrum from their autocorrelation function in the format of SignDM; (2) time shifts between two short and highly noised signals of the same frequency will be defined by the cross- correlation function in SignDM format. Using Wiener & Hinczyn's transform of autocorrelation function increases the effectiveness of the correlation analysis for measuring and processing highly noised periodic signals. In this paper there have been presented the algorithms for the operation of specialized processors used for the correlation analysis of signals in SignDM format, as well as the results of computer simulation for time series N less than or equal to 30, and SNR up to -14dB at the chosen differential zone. These algorithms are regular and economical and especially applicable in on-board data processing for space experiments.

Pogribny, Wlodzimierz; Rozhankivsky, Igor; Drzycimski, Zdzislav; Milewski, Andrzej

1999-12-01

166

Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in the failure process in that depth range. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

Houston, H.; Benz, H. M.; Vidale, J. E.

1998-01-01

167

Intrinsic Sizes of the W3 (OH) Masers via Short Time Scale Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of short time-scale variability of OH masers within a contiguous 15-hour Very Long Baseline Array observation of the high-mass star-forming region, W3 (OH). With an angular resolution of ~7 mas and a velocity resolution of 53 m s-1, we isolate emission from masers in the field into individual Gaussian-shaped components, each a few milliarcseconds in size. We compute dynamic spectra for individual maser features with a time resolution of 1 minute by fitting for the flux density of all sources in the field simultaneously in the uv-domain. We isolate intrinsic maser variability from interstellar scintillation and instrumental effects. We find fluctuations in the maser line shape on time scales of 5 to 20 minutes, corresponding to maser column lengths of 0.5 to 2.0 Astronomical Units.

Laskar, Tanmoy; Goss, W. M.; Zauderer, B. Ashley

2012-07-01

168

Ultra-short echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-contrast weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed plaque characterisation and assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this preliminary study was to show the potential of Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) subtraction MR in detecting calcification. Methods 14 ex-vivo human carotid arteries were scanned using CMR and CT, prior to histological slide preparation. Two images were acquired using a double-echo 3D UTE pulse, one with a long TE and the second with an ultra-short TE, with the same TR. An UTE subtraction (?UTE) image containing only ultra-short T2 (and T2*) signals was obtained by post-processing subtraction of the 2 UTE images. The ?UTE image was compared to the conventional 3D T1-weighted sequence and CT scan of the carotid arteries. Results In atheromatous carotid arteries, there was a 71% agreement between the high signal intensity areas on ?UTE images and CT scan. The same areas were represented as low signal intensity on T1W and areas of void on histology, indicating focal calcification. However, in 15% of all the scans there were some incongruent regions of high intensity on ?UTE that did not correspond with a high intensity signal on CT, and histology confirmed the absence of calcification. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the UTE sequence has potential to identify calcified plaque. Further work is needed to fully understand the UTE findings.

2010-01-01

169

Short-time behavior of advecting-diffusing scalar fields in Stokes flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article addresses the short-term decay of advecting-diffusing scalar fields in Stokes flows. The analysis is developed in two main subparts. In the first part, we present an analytic approach for a class of simple flow systems expressed mathematically by the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation w(y)???=??y2?+iV(y)?-?'?, where ? is either time or axial coordinate and iV(y) an imaginary potential. This class of systems encompasses both open- and closed-flow models and corresponds to the dynamics of a single Fourier mode in parallel flows. We derive an analytic expression for the short-time (short-length) decay of ?, and show that this decay is characterized by a universal behavior that depends solely on the singularity of the ratio of the transverse-to-axial velocity components Veff(y)=V(y)/w(y), corresponding to the effective potential in the imaginary potential formulation. If Veff(y) is smooth, then ||?||L2(?)=exp(-?'?-b?3), where b>0 is a constant. Conversely, if the effective potential is singular, then ||?||L2(?)=1-a?? with a>0. The exponent ? attains the value (5)/(3) at the very early stages of the process, while for intermediate stages its value is (3)/(5). By summing over all of the Fourier modes, a stretched exponential decay is obtained in the presence of nonimpulsive initial conditions, while impulsive conditions give rise to an early-stage power-law behavior. In the second part, we consider generic, chaotic, and nonchaotic autonomous Stokes flows, providing a kinematic interpretation of the results found in the first part. The kinematic approach grounded on the warped-time transformation complements the analytical theory developed in the first part.

Giona, M.; Anderson, P. D.; Garofalo, F.

2013-06-01

170

Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer) . An additional objective is to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times. Both of these objectives have been nearly achieved, however this work has shown the great importance of the liquefaction solvent characteristics and the solvent-catalyst interaction on the liquefaction process. This has prompted us to do a preliminary investigation of solvents and the solvent-catalyst systems in coal liquefaction. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1) Conversion vs time data have been extended to 5 coals of ranks from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal. A broad range of reaction rates have been observed with a maximum in the high volatile bituminous range. 2) A series of direct coal liquefaction runs have been made using a range of nitrogen containing solvents that given high liquefaction conversions of coal. These runs are now being analyzed. 3) The coalification process has been shown by TGA to go through an intermediate stage which may account for the greater reactivity of bituminous coals in the direct coal liquefaction process. 4) It was shown that coal rank can be accurately determined by thermogravimetric analysis

He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

1997-04-03

171

Polarization averaged short-time Fourier transform technique for distributed fiber birefringence characterization using Brillouin gain.  

PubMed

A polarization averaged short-time Fourier transform (PASTFT) technique is developed for distributed fiber birefringence characterization based on counterpropagating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain signal. This technique can be used for the birefringence characterization of the general elliptical birefringent fiber. A theoretical model on polarization matching of counterpropagating SBS process is established. The performance of the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) method and the PASTFT technique is analyzed by using the simulation of the theoretical model. Simulation results show that the process of polarization average could effectively reduce the birefringence characterization error caused by the polarization dependence of the local period of SBS gain. A less than 8% normalized root mean square error is achieved for the characterization of the length of the birefringence vector on elliptical birefringent fibers. The PASTFT technique is experimentally verified by the distributed measurement of beat length and differential group delay of a standard single-mode fiber via the Brillouin optical time domain analysis system. PMID:22772108

Xie, Shangran; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

2012-07-01

172

Stellar scintillation in the short exposure regime and atmospheric coherence time evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Accurately measuring the atmospheric coherence time is still a significant problem despite a variety of applicable methods. The Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) designed for the vertical profiling of optical turbulence also provides a measurements of coherence time, but its results were found to be biased. Hence there is a need for a more robust method to determine ?0. Methods: The effect of smoothing the stellar scintillation by a finite exposure of the detector is considered. The short exposure regime is described and its limits are defined. The re-analysis of previous measurements with the MASS is performed to test the applicability of this approach in real data processing. It is shown that most of the actual measurements satisfy the criteria of short exposures. Results: The expressions for the mean wind speeds bar V_2 in the free atmosphere from the measurement of the scintillation indices are derived for this regime. These values provide an estimate of the atmospheric coherence time ?0 without the need of empirical calibration. The verification of the method based on real measurements of the resulting ?0 agree well with independent methods.

Kornilov, V.

2011-06-01

173

Short-Time Operator Product Expansion for rf Spectroscopy of a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas  

SciTech Connect

Universal relations that hold for any state provide powerful constraints on systems consisting of fermions with two spin states interacting with a large scattering length. In radio-frequency (rf) spectroscopy, the mean shift in the rf frequency and the large-frequency tail of the rf transition rate are proportional to the contact, which measures the density of pairs with small separations. We show that these universal relations can be derived and extended by using the short-time operator product expansion of quantum field theory. This is a general method for identifying aspects of many-body physics that are controlled by few-body physics.

Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Platter, Lucas [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-06-04

174

Anomalous Decay in Short Time Response of Ternary Mixtures with Ferrofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the optical transmittance of ternary mixtures of water, glycerin and ferrofluids. These mixtures are subject to pulsed magnetic field and placed between crossed polarizers. After the magnetic field is switched off, the decay process is compared with q-exponential, stretched exponential, Mittag-Leffler, and one-sided Lévy stable functions. For short time, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of stretched exponentials. The parameters of this non-exponential relaxation are investigated as functions of temperature and the water, glycerin and ferrofluid concentrations.

Laczkowski, I. M.; Mukai, H.; Fernandes, P. R. G.; Mendes, R. S.; Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

2012-04-01

175

Short-Time Operator Product Expansion for rf Spectroscopy of a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universal relations that hold for any state provide powerful constraints on systems consisting of fermions with two spin states interacting with a large scattering length. In radio-frequency (rf) spectroscopy, the mean shift in the rf frequency and the large-frequency tail of the rf transition rate are proportional to the contact, which measures the density of pairs with small separations. We show that these universal relations can be derived and extended by using the short-time operator product expansion of quantum field theory. This is a general method for identifying aspects of many-body physics that are controlled by few-body physics.

Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

2010-06-01

176

Short-time operator product expansion for rf spectroscopy of a strongly interacting Fermi gas.  

PubMed

Universal relations that hold for any state provide powerful constraints on systems consisting of fermions with two spin states interacting with a large scattering length. In radio-frequency (rf) spectroscopy, the mean shift in the rf frequency and the large-frequency tail of the rf transition rate are proportional to the contact, which measures the density of pairs with small separations. We show that these universal relations can be derived and extended by using the short-time operator product expansion of quantum field theory. This is a general method for identifying aspects of many-body physics that are controlled by few-body physics. PMID:20867166

Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

2010-06-04

177

Electromyographic and lower extremity short time to inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging findings in lumbar radiculopathy.  

PubMed

To determine if short TI (time to inversion) recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in assessing lower extremity (LE) denervation in subacute lumbar radiculopathy (LR), 25 subjects underwent lumbar spine MRI, LE STIR MRI and needle electromyography (EMG). In 23 (92%) subjects there was a positive correlation between LE STIR MRI and EMG (P < 0.009). Increased signal intensity on LE STIR MRI corresponds closely with spontaneous activity on EMG in subacute LR and may be a useful adjunct diagnostic tool. PMID:9270680

Carter, G T; Fritz, R C

1997-09-01

178

Embedding reconstruction methodology for short time series - application to large El Niño events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an alternative approach for the embedding space reconstruction method for short time series. An m-dimensional embedding space is reconstructed with a set of time delays including the relevant time scales characterizing the dynamical properties of the system. By using a maximal predictability criterion a d-dimensional subspace is selected with its associated set of time delays, in which a local nonlinear blind forecasting prediction performs the best reconstruction of a particular event of a time series. An locally unfolded d-dimensional embedding space is then obtained. The efficiency of the methodology, which is mathematically consistent with the fundamental definitions of the local nonlinear long time-scale predictability, was tested with a chaotic time series of the Lorenz system. When applied to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (observational data associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomena (ENSO)) an optimal set of embedding parameters exists, that allows constructing the main characteristics of the El Niño 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 events, directly from measurements up to 3 to 4 years in advance.

Astudillo, H. F.; Borotto, F. A.; Abarca-Del-Rio, R.

2010-12-01

179

Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

2008-12-01

180

Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects.

MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

2013-01-01

181

Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in milk during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.  

PubMed Central

Milk from cows inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes was pooled for 2 to 4 days and then heated at 71.7 to 73.9 degrees C for 16.4 s or at 76.4 to 77.8 degrees C for 15.4 s in a high-temperature, short-time plate heat exchanger pasteurization unit. L. monocytogenes was isolated from milk after heat treatment in six of nine pasteurization trials done at 71.7 to 73.9 degrees C and in none of three trials done at 76.4 to 77.8 degrees C. An average of 1.5 to 9.2 L. monocytogenes cells was seen in each milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte before heat treatment in 11 of 12 pasteurization trials. Noticeable degradation of leukocytes with intracellular listeria was detected in unpasteurized milk after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C, and by 4 days of storage leukocytes had deteriorated to cellular debris, suggesting that holding unpasteurized milk refrigerated for 4 or more days would eliminate a protective effect leukocytes may provide for increasing heat resistance of L. monocytogenes. Results indicate that under the conditions of this study, L. monocytogenes can survive the minimum high-temperature, short-time treatment (71.7 degrees C, 15 s) required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pasteurizing milk. Images

Doyle, M P; Glass, K A; Beery, J T; Garcia, G A; Pollard, D J; Schultz, R D

1987-01-01

182

Characterization of nitrifying microbial community in a submerged membrane bioreactor at short solids retention times.  

PubMed

This study investigated the nitrifying bacterial community in membrane bioreactor (MBR) at short solids retention times (SRTs) of 3, 5 and 10days. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that different types of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can survive at different operating conditions. The diversity of AOB increased as the SRT increased. The real-time PCR results showed that the amoA gene concentrations were similar when MBRs were stabilized, and it can be a good indicator of stabilized nitrification. The results of clone library indicated that Nitrosomonas was the dominant group of AOB in three reactors. The microarray results showed that Nitrospira was the dominant group of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the system. All groups of AOB and NOB except Nitrosolobus and Nitrococcus were found in MBR, indicated that the nitrifying bacterial community structure was more complicated. The combination of some molecular tools can provide more information of microbial communities. PMID:24099975

Duan, Liang; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

2013-09-19

183

Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes  

SciTech Connect

A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration.

Bolton, P.R.

1987-06-01

184

42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30 Section 488.30 Public...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used...

2009-10-01

185

42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30 Section 488.30 Public...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used...

2010-10-01

186

EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

2008-09-01

187

Evaluation of a short-residence-time two-stage SRC process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a two stage process for the production of a low sulfur solvent-refined coal capable of meeting EPA New Point Source Emission Standards is evaluated. The feasibility of a two stage process had previously been shown for Western Kentucky No. 9/14 coal and Western Kentucky processing solvent. Indiana V coal and Indiana V process solvent are evaluated in this work. Two baselines for the first stage liquefaction system are established: one at low temperature/long time and the other at high temperature/short reaction time. To the first stage, two sulfur scavenging materials, SRC residue ash and ferric oxide, are added. In each case, the sulfur scavengers are not as effective in lowering the sulfur content of the Indiana V SRC as the scavenger was in reducing the sulfur content of Kentucky No. 9/14 SRC. The effectiveness of a sulfur scavenger, therefore, appears to be coal dependent. Second stage catalyst hydrogenation using a Co-Mo-Al catalyst in the Indiana V coal/solvent successfully lowers the sulfur content of the second stage products and was somewhat independent of sulfur content of the feed. The Indiana V coal/solvent system, therefore, requires carefully chosen process conditions to maximize sulfur removal in the two stage process. A higher molecular weight blended solvent is evaluated at low temperature/long reaction time and high temperature/short reaction time conditions. When the liquefaction reactions using the blended solvent are compared to the baseline reactions, higher coal conversions are achieved.

Tarrer, A.R.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.

1981-04-01

188

Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with clusters: short-time dynamics of a nano-plasma  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of the interaction of short infrared laser pulses with large rare-gas clusters. Special attention is given to the microscopic atomic collision dynamics in order to explain the efficient heating of the quasi-free electrons in the nano-plasma formed during the interaction. In the framework of our mean-field classical transport simulation we are able to explain the emission of characteristic x-rays at moderate laser intensities (I {approx} 1015W cm-2) where the ponderomotive energy of the electrons is by far to low to allow for the creation of inner-shell vacancies. We identify large-angle elastic electron-ion scattering as an important heating mechanism at moderate laser intensities.

Deiss, Cornelia; Burgdoerfer, Joachim [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Rohringer, Nina [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2006-12-01

189

Effect of Short-Time Povidone-Iodine Application on Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Povidone-iodine [polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex (PVP-I)] is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, frequently used in dentistry. In this study we investigated the short- and longterm effects on osteoblast number, viability, and function after short exposure to PVP-I with and without additional bone-morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Material and Methods: Confluent osteoblast-like cell line (MC3T3-E1, subclone 24) cultures were exposed to pure PVP-I solution (7.7 mg/ml) and dilutions of 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 for 10 seconds and washed with phosphate buffer solution. Cell proliferation and viability was determined by MTT and differentiation status by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity 6 days after initial plating. In a separate experiment, long-term cell proliferation, viability and function were assessed 4 weeks after PVP-I treatment by MTT and deposited calcium using an Alizarin-red staining test. Results: PVP-I decreased ALP activity substantially. Stimulation by BMP-2 recovered ALP activity to near control levels at 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions of PVP-I. The MTT assay showed reduced proliferation of the preosteoblastic cells for all treatments, irrespective whether BMP-2 was used or not. Only at PVP-I dilutions of 1:1000 proliferation rate was back to normal levels (95.6±2.4 %). No adverse long-term effect of PVP-I on mineralization of the extracellular matrix (Alizarinred) for dilutions higher than 1:100 was observed. Interestingly, undiluted and 1:10 diluted PVP-I even showed a significant increase in mineral deposition, especially in the presence of BMP-2. Conclusion: Short-time application of PVP-I in concentrations of 1:10 and higher lead to decreased viability and impaired differentiation. However, surviving cells showed good recovery and mineralization potential.

Schmidlin, P.R; Imfeld, T; Sahrmann, P; Tchouboukov, A; Weber, F.E

2009-01-01

190

The time dependent Schrodinger equation revisited I: quantum field and classical Hamilton-Jacobi routes to Schrodinger's wave equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time dependent Schrodinger equation is frequently ‘derived’ by postulating the energy E ? i?(?\\/?t) and momentum p? ? (?\\/i)?? operator relations. In the present paper we review the quantum field theoretic route to the Schrodinger wave equation which treats time and space as parameters, not operators. Furthermore, we recall that a classical (nonlinear) wave equation can be derived from

M O Scully

2008-01-01

191

Structure and short-time dynamics in concentrated suspensions of charged colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a comprehensive joint experimental-theoretical study of the equilibrium pair-structure and short-time diffusion in aqueous suspensions of highly charged poly-acrylate (PA) spheres in the colloidal fluid phase. Low-polydispersity PA sphere systems with two different hard-core radii, R0 = 542 and 1117 A?, are explored over a wide range of concentrations and salinities using static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle x-ray scattering, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The measured static and dynamic scattering functions are analyzed using state-of-the-art theoretical methods. For all samples, the measured static structure factor, S(Q), is in good agreement with results by an analytical integral equation method for particles interacting by a repulsive screened Coulomb plus hard-core pair potential. In our DLS and XPCS measurements, we have determined the short-time diffusion function D(Q) = D0 H(Q)/S(Q), comprising the free diffusion coefficient D0 and the hydrodynamic function H(Q). The latter is calculated analytically using a self-part corrected version of the ??-scheme by Beenakker and Mazur which accounts approximately for many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs). Except for low-salinity systems at the highest investigated volume fraction ? ~ 0.32, the theoretical predictions for H(Q) are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the increase in the collective diffusion coefficient Dc = D(Q --> 0), and the decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient, Ds = D(Q --> ?), with increasing ? is well described. In accord with the theoretical prediction, the peak value, H(Qm), of H(Q) relates to the nearest neighbor cage size ~2?/Qm, for which concentration scaling relations are discussed. The peak values H(Qm) are globally bound from below by the corresponding neutral hard-spheres peak values, and from above by the limiting peak values for low-salinity charge-stabilized systems. HIs usually slow short-time diffusion on colloidal length scales, except for the cage diffusion coefficient, Dcge = D(Qm), in dilute low-salinity systems where a speed up of the system dynamics and corresponding peak values of H(Qm) > 1 are observed experimentally and theoretically.

Westermeier, Fabian; Fischer, Birgit; Roseker, Wojciech; Grübel, Gerhard; Nägele, Gerhard; Heinen, Marco

2012-09-01

192

Structure and short-time dynamics in concentrated suspensions of charged colloids.  

PubMed

We report a comprehensive joint experimental-theoretical study of the equilibrium pair-structure and short-time diffusion in aqueous suspensions of highly charged poly-acrylate (PA) spheres in the colloidal fluid phase. Low-polydispersity PA sphere systems with two different hard-core radii, R(0) = 542 and 1117 A?, are explored over a wide range of concentrations and salinities using static and dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle x-ray scattering, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The measured static and dynamic scattering functions are analyzed using state-of-the-art theoretical methods. For all samples, the measured static structure factor, S(Q), is in good agreement with results by an analytical integral equation method for particles interacting by a repulsive screened Coulomb plus hard-core pair potential. In our DLS and XPCS measurements, we have determined the short-time diffusion function D(Q) = D(0)?H(Q)?S(Q), comprising the free diffusion coefficient D(0) and the hydrodynamic function H(Q). The latter is calculated analytically using a self-part corrected version of the ??-scheme by Beenakker and Mazur which accounts approximately for many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs). Except for low-salinity systems at the highest investigated volume fraction ? ? 0.32, the theoretical predictions for H(Q) are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the increase in the collective diffusion coefficient D(c) = D(Q ? 0), and the decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient, D(s) = D(Q ? ?), with increasing ? is well described. In accord with the theoretical prediction, the peak value, H(Q(m)), of H(Q) relates to the nearest neighbor cage size ?2??Q(m), for which concentration scaling relations are discussed. The peak values H(Q(m)) are globally bound from below by the corresponding neutral hard-spheres peak values, and from above by the limiting peak values for low-salinity charge-stabilized systems. HIs usually slow short-time diffusion on colloidal length scales, except for the cage diffusion coefficient, D(cge) = D(Q(m)), in dilute low-salinity systems where a speed up of the system dynamics and corresponding peak values of H(Q(m)) > 1 are observed experimentally and theoretically. PMID:22998268

Westermeier, Fabian; Fischer, Birgit; Roseker, Wojciech; Grübel, Gerhard; ägele, Gerhard; Heinen, Marco

2012-09-21

193

Time- and space-resolved microscopy of induced ablation with ultra-short laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser lift-off processes have been observed during structuring CIS thin film solar cells with ultra-short laser pulses, if a Mo film on glass is irradiated from the glass substrate side. To investigate the underlying physical effects, ultrafast pump-probe microscopy is used for time- and space resolved investigations. The setup utilizes a 660 fs-laser pulse at a wavelength of 1053 nm that is split up into a pump and a probe pulse. The pump pulse ablates the thin film, while the frequency doubled probe pulse illuminates the ablation area after an optically defined delay time of up to 4 ns. For longer delay times, a second electronically triggered 600 ps-laser is used for probing. Thus, the complete ultra fast pulse initiated ablation process can be observed in a delay time range from femtoseconds to microseconds. First experiments on the directly induced ablation of molybdenum films from the glass substrate side show that mechanical deformation is initiated at about 400 ps after the impact of the pump laser pulse. The deformation continues until approximately 15 ns, then a Mo disk shears and lifts-off with a velocity of above 70 m/s free from thermal effects.

Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Heise, Gerhard; Huber, Heinz P.

2012-02-01

194

Short-time scale correlation between slow slip and tremor in Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use borehole strain and seismic data to show that slow slip and tremor in central Cascadia are correlated on a range of time scales shorter than 1 day. The recorded strain rate is our proxy for the slow slip moment rate, and the seismic amplitude is our proxy for the tremor amplitude. We find that, on average, the strain rate is higher when the seismic amplitude is larger. This correlation persists on time scales between 15 min and 16 h, and it can be seen in each of the five slow slip events between 2007 and 2011. Our results imply that the slow slip moment rate varies by a large amount even at these short time scales. For instance, we observe a factor of 2 variation on time scales shorter than 4 h. This apparently aperiodic variation is larger than the previously observed variation in moment rate resulting from tidal forcing. It is a lower bound on the actual moment rate variation, as we detect only changes in slow slip that are correlated with tremor amplitude.

Hawthorne, J. C.; Rubin, A. M.

2013-03-01

195

Modeling of on-line catalyst addition effects in a short contact time reactor  

SciTech Connect

Recently developed short-contact-time reactors (SCTR), consisting of porous alumina monoliths coated with platinum, have been shown to produce ethylene from rich ethane/oxygen(hydrogen) mixtures with yields and selectivities comparable to conventional steam cracking, using a reactor of much smaller size. Although the overall mechanism is clearly autothermal and catalytic, the details, in particular the relative contributions of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, are a matter of considerable debate. Recent experiments show that reactor performance can be further enhanced by dripping a dilute platinum solution onto the SCTR front face during reaction, resulting in catalyst deposition within only a short (several millimeter) zone of the reactor. The authors have undertaken a computational study of this system, using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations with full heat and mass transport and detailed heterogeneous and homogeneous kinetic mechanisms. The results indicate that front-face catalyst loading enhances reactor performance by limiting the opportunity for heterogeneous ethane reactions that produce methane. As a result, ethylene selectivity increases and CH{sub 4} selectivity decreases. The results strongly support a mechanism recently proposed by the authors, in which rapid, heterogeneous oxidation of adsorbed hydrogen consumes most of the oxygen. The resulting heat is then released to the gas phase, causing homogeneous pyrolysis of ethane to occur in an environment containing much less oxygen. This mechanism explains not only the effects of on-line catalyst addition, but also the increase in ethylene selectivity observed upon addition of hydrogen to the reactant mixture.

D. K. Zerkle; M. d. Allendorf; M. Wolf; O. Deutschmann

2000-07-30

196

Revisiting mortality predictability of serum albumin in the dialysis population: time dependency, longitudinal changes and population-attributable fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Hypoalbuminaemia is a marker of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) and a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) death in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, serum albumin may change over time. Hence, its time-varying associations with outcome may be different. Methods. Associations between 3-month averaged serum albumin levels, measured in a single labora- tory using bromocresol green, and CV mortality were

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Ryan D. Kilpatrick; Noriko Kuwae; Charles J. McAllister; Harry Alcorn Jr; Joel D. Kopple; Sander Greenland

2005-01-01

197

Methanosarcina domination in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor at short hydraulic retention time.  

PubMed

The Archaea population of anaerobic sequential batch reactor (ASBR) featuring cycle operations under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated for treating a dilute waste stream. Terminal-Restriction Length Polymorphism and clone libraries for both 16S rRNA gene and mcrA gene were employed to characterize the methanogenic community structure. Results revealed that a Methanosarcina dominated methanogenic community was successfully established when using an ASBR digester at short HRT. It was revealed that both 16S rRNA and mcrA clone library could not provide complete community structure, while combination of two different clone libraries could capture more archaea diversity. Thermodynamic calculations confirmed a preference for the observed population structure. The results both experimentally and theoretically confirmed that Methanosarcina dominance emphasizing ASBR's important role in treating low strength wastewater as Methanosarcina will be more adept at overcoming temperature and shock loadings experienced with treating this type of wastewater. PMID:23584407

Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Baisuo; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Yu, Liang; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

2013-03-22

198

Short Time Interval Solar Spectroscopy: A Possible Method for Detecting Gravitational Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of short time interval variations of visible light in solar spectra may be a possible method for detecting gravitational waves. Aim: Design and build a spectrometry system capable of detecting 0.15 mÅ shifts in the central frequency of solar absorption lines captured at 1-200 fps. Design: A coelostat was built using a 12" diameter flat primary mirror on a computer controlled tracking mount and a static 12" flat secondary cold mirror. Reflected light enters a horizontally mounted 10" diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. Emerging light passes through an Iodine vapor cell providing a local spectral reference and then into a 25-micron air slit of a 4 meter focal length spectrometer with 3,600 l/mm grating. Spectra are recorded with a 640x480x16 bit monochrome video camera and analyzed using the MIDAS astronomical software. Construction completion date: May 2008.

Benn, Douglas K.

2008-05-01

199

A direct approach to control short term population dynamics in time series studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Short term population dynamics is an important issue in several epidemiological studies. Usually, calendar time or dummy variables are used to control indirectly for this confounding. This study tested a direct method. Methods: The study compared as proxy variables of population dynamics the summer 2003 data of cooking gas consumptions, solid urban waste production, and television access for the municipality of Bologna (Italy). Results: Solid urban waste production and television access data showed similar trends. Considerably different were the >65 year olds estimates with respect to total population based on television access. Conclusions: Television access data are probably the best indicator in the estimates of population dynamics in large or densely populated areas, especially because of the possibility of stratifications with respect to age.

Zauli, S; Scotto, F.; Lauriola, P.

2005-01-01

200

Short pulse multi-frequency phase-based time delay estimation.  

PubMed

An approach for time delay estimation, based on phase difference detection, is presented. A multiple-frequency short continuous wave pulse is used to solve the well-known phase ambiguity problem when the maximum distance exceeds a full wavelength. Within an unambiguous range defined with the lowest frequency difference between components, the corresponding phase difference is unique and any distance within this range can be determined. Phase differences between higher frequency components are used to achieve a finer resolution. The concept will be presented and the effectiveness of the approach will be investigated through theoretical and practical examples. The method will be validated using underwater acoustic measurements, simulating noisy environments, demonstrating resolutions better than a 50th of a wavelength, even in the presence of high levels (-5 dB) of additive Gaussian noise. Furthermore, the algorithm is simple to use and can be easily implemented, being based on phase detection using the discrete Fourier transform. PMID:20058978

Assous, Said; Hopper, Clare; Lovell, Mike; Gunn, Dave; Jackson, Peter; Rees, John

2010-01-01

201

Short time administration of antirheumatic drugs - Methotrexate as a strong inhibitor of osteoblast's proliferation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Introduction Due to increasing use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) as first line therapy in rheumatic diseases, dental and maxillofacial practitioner should be aware of drug related adverse events. Especially effects on bone-metabolism and its cells are discussed controversially. Therefore we investigate the in vitro effect of short time administration of low dose methotrexate (MTX) on osteoblasts as essential part of bone remodelling cells. Methods Primary bovine osteoblasts (OBs) were incubated with various concentrations of MTX, related to tissue concentrations, over a period of fourteen days by using a previously established standard protocol. The effect on cell proliferation as well as mitochondrial activity was assessed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, imaging and counting of living cells. Additionally, immunostaining of extracellular matrix proteins was used to survey osteogenic differentiation. Results All methods indicate a strong inhibition of osteoblast`s proliferation by short time administration of low dose MTX within therapeutically relevant concentrations of 1 to 1000nM, without affecting cell differentiation of middle-stage differentiated OBs in general. More over a significant decrease of cell numbers and mitochondrial activity was found at these MTX concentrations. The most sensitive method seems to be the MTT-assay. MTX-concentration of 0,01nM and concentrations below had no inhibitory effects anymore. Conclusion Even low dose methotrexate acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoblast’s proliferation and mitochondrial metabolism in vitro, without affecting main differentiation of pre-differentiated osteoblasts. These results suggest possible negative effects of DMARDs concerning bone healing and for example osseointegration of dental implants. Especially the specifics of the jaw bone with its high vascularisation and physiological high tissue metabolism, suggests possible negative effects of DMARD therapy concerning oral and cranio-maxillofacial bone surgery as could be seen in a similar way in bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

2012-01-01

202

Process development for improved SRC options: short residence time studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPRI Research Projects (RP) 1134-1 and 1134-2 were directed toward the development of an improved coal liquefaction technology. Potential process improvements included short contact time coal liquefaction, critical solvent de-ashing, fractionation of liquefaction products, and the selective recycling of certain product fractions. This work was conducted in the laboratories and on continuous bench-scale units of Conoco Coal Development Company (RP1134-1) and Kerr-McGee Corporation (RP1134-2) over a period of approximately three years. The first two phases of this project on the short residence time (SRT) liquefaction of a midwestern bituminous coal were done by Conoco and have been published in EPRI Interim Report AF-1158. The present report is a final comprehensive report by Conoco that not only summarizes the work in EPRI AF-1158 but also reports on the final phase of the work in which Conoco and Kerr-McGee participated in an integrated program to test the concept of recycling certain product fractions to improve liquefaction performance. In this program, cyclic product shipments between laboratories were necessary to allow the test program to be carried out. The results of parallel work done by Kerr-McGee on critical solvent de-ashing and fractionation will be reported later by Kerr-McGee. This project has shown the benefits of recycling light SRC to enhance coal liquefaction performance in either SRT or conventional SRC modes. It has been demonstrated that the operability of a SRT reactor is dependent on liquefaction solvent quality, and that light SRC addition enhances the quality of the solvent. In addition, it was shown that light SRC promoted reaction at lower temperatures.

Kleinpeter, J.A.; Burke, F.P.; Dudt, P.J.; Jones, D.C.

1980-06-01

203

A new, efficient structure for the short-time Fourier transform, with an application in code-division sonar imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most applications which use the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) temporally downsample the output, some applications exploit a dense temporal sampling of the STFT. One example, coded-division multiple-beam sonar, is discussed. Given a need for the densely sampled STFT, the complexity of the computation can be reduced from O(N log N) for the general short-time FFT structure to O(N) using

M. Covell; J. Richardson

1991-01-01

204

Network Nation Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network Nation Revisited" is an analysis of the predictions made by Hiltz and Turoff in _The Network Nation_, one of the seminal texts (published in 1978) in the field of Computer Mediated Communications.

205

Hierarchical structure of the energy landscape of proteins revisited by time series analysis. II. Investigation of explicit solvent effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series analysis tools are employed on the principal modes obtained from the Calpha trajectories from two independent molecular-dynamics simulations of alpha-amylase inhibitor (tendamistat). Fluctuations inside an energy minimum (intraminimum motions), transitions between minima (interminimum motions), and relaxations in different hierarchical energy levels are investigated and compared with those encountered in vacuum by using different sampling window sizes and intervals.

Burak Alakent; Mehmet C. Camurdan; Pemra Doruker

2005-01-01

206

The Evil Empire Revisited: New York Times Coverage of the Soviet Intervention in and Withdrawal from Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the New York Times coverage of the Soviet intervention and withdrawal from Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989. Changes in coverage are examined in the context of easing tensions between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union. Findings indicate that the treatment of major story elements was consistent with Herman and Chomsky's propaganda framework. However, changes in the

Jothik Krishnaiah; Nancy Signorielli; Douglas M. McLeod

1993-01-01

207

Progenitor delay-time distribution of short gamma-ray bursts: Constraints from observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) have not yet been well identified. The most popular model is the merger of compact object binaries (NS-NS/NS-BH). However, other progenitor models cannot be ruled out. The delay-time distribution of SGRB progenitors, which is an important property to constrain progenitor models, is still poorly understood. Aims: We aim to better constrain the luminosity function of SGRBs and the delay-time distribution of their progenitors with newly discovered SGRBs. Methods: We present a low-contamination sample of 16 Swift SGRBs that is better defined by a duration shorter than 0.8 s. By using this robust sample and by combining a self-consistent star formation model with various models for the distribution of time delays, the redshift distribution of SGRBs is calculated and then compared to the observational data. Results: We find that the power-law delay distribution model is disfavored and that only the lognormal delay distribution model with the typical delay ? ? 3 Gyr is consistent with the data. Comparing Swift SGRBs with T90 > 0.8 s to our robust sample (T90 < 0.8 s), we find a significant difference in the time delays between these two samples. Conclusions: Our results show that the progenitors of SGRBs are dominated by relatively long-lived systems (? ? 3 Gyr), which contrasts the results found for Type Ia supernovae. We therefore conclude that primordial NS-NS systems are not favored as the dominant SGRB progenitors. Alternatively, dynamically formed NS-NS/BH and primordial NS-BH systems with average delays longer than 5 Gyr may contribute a significant fraction to the overall SGRB progenitors.

Hao, Jing-Meng; Yuan, Ye-Fei

2013-10-01

208

Observations of short time scale variability of the Jovian UV aurora and simulation of morphological patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database of far ultraviolet auroral images collected with the Faint Object Camera and Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) on board the Hubble Space Telescope has been constructed over the last five years. Some morphological features are recurrent but significant time variations are also observed. A set of WFPC2 images obtained in May 1997 shows that, within a relatively stable general morphology, variations occur inside the polar cap in 4 minutes or less, implying short timescale acceleration processes. A model simulating Earth view of auroral arcs and diffuse emissions in the north polar region has been developed. Simple geometric cases are described to illustrate the dependence on the altitude, atmospheric scale height and central meridian planetary longitude of an idealized auroral morphology seen from Earth orbit. The numerical simulation makes it possible to assess the importance of limb brightening and the contribution from high altitude auroral emission located behind the planetary limb. As an application, four images obtained with WFPC2 are used to determine the characteristics of their auroral (discrete and diffuse) structures. The apparent brightness distribution along the arcs may only be reproduced if intrinsic longitudinal (or local time) variations are introduced, in addition to the path length effects of the viewing geometry.

Gerard, J. C.; Grodent, D.; Dols, V.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Clarke, J. T.; Ballester, G. E.; Trauger, J.

1997-07-01

209

Asparaginase revisited.  

PubMed

Asparaginase is one of the main drugs used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and certain non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The drug is a bacterial product, and this results in differences in activity, efficacy, and side effects among the various marketed products. Native products originate from either Escherichia coli or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Currently a new product, PEG-asparaginase, is on the market. Recombinant asparaginases will be entering the market in a few years, and development of the incorporation of asparaginase in erythrocytes is progressing. This article reviews the available data on the various asparaginases and current developments. Differences between the various preparations are discussed in relation to pharmacokinetics, i.e. the short half-life of Erwinia preparations and prolonged activity of PEG-asparaginase. Uncertainties in relation to antibody formation and batch related differences of the newer products are discussed. The adverse effects related to origin of a product, mode of action, and antibody formation are also discussed. PMID:21281233

van den Berg, Henk

2011-02-01

210

Revisiting the uniqueness of simple demographics in the US population  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a famous study (10) of the 1990 census data, 87% of the US population can be uniquely identified by gen- der, ZIP code and full date of birth. This short paper revisits the uniqueness of simple demographics in the US population based on the most recent census data (the 2000 census). We oer a detailed, comprehensive and up-to-date

Philippe Golle

2006-01-01

211

Revisiting youthful sexuality: continuities and changes over two decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short article we revisit “Deconstructing virginity” published in Sex and Relationship Therapy in 2000. The article was based on data from two largely qualitative studies of young people's sexuality: the Women Risk and AIDS project and subsequent Men, Risk and AIDS project, which were funded in the late-1980s in the light of the threat of HIV and AIDS.

Janet Holland; Rachel Thomson

2010-01-01

212

Circulation in Drake Passage revisited using new current time series and satellite altimetry: 2. The Ona Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<span class="hlt">Time</span> series of horizontal velocities were obtained at four mooring sites across the Ona Basin, southern Drake Passage, during 26 months (February 2006 to April 2008). The moorings were located under the Jason satellite ground-track #104, allowing precise comparisons with various other altimetry products. Velocities as high as 0.5 m s-1 at 500 m depth were observed during current pulses. Mean velocity amplitudes at 500 m reached 0.22 m s-1 at 58.5°S and 0.15 m s-1 at 60°S, but were smaller at 59°S and 60.5°S. Mean velocities at 2500 m depth varied between 0.05 and 0.10 m s-1 and were westward on two of the moorings, suggesting recirculation in the center of the basin. Mean velocities were consistent with a general cyclonic circulation in the Ona Basin. The mean velocity vectors were observed to rotate with depth, the sense of rotation depending upon mooring sites. Standard deviation ellipses were close to circular except on the continental slope (60.5°S) where they were stretched in the direction of isobaths. The southernmost mooring was under sea ice in winter, and velocity variations were reduced in amplitude during that period. The horizontal velocities were highly coherent in the vertical. Altimetrically derived surface geostrophic velocities compared well with the in situ velocities and were used to investigate further the flow over the West Scotia Ridge and in the center of the Ona Basin to the East of the highest part of the Shackleton Ridge, which provides some shelter from the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferrari, Ramiro; Provost, Christine; SennéChael, Nathalie; Lee, Jae-Hak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11397771"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-series regression models to study the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term effects of environmental factors on health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Time</span> series regression models are especially suitable in epidemiology for evaluating <span class="hlt">short</span>-term effects of <span class="hlt">time</span>-varying exposures on health. The problem is that potential for confounding in <span class="hlt">time</span> series regression is very high. Thus, it is important that trend and seasonality are properly accounted for. Our paper reviews the statistical models commonly used in <span class="hlt">time</span>-series regression methods, specially allowing for serial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aurelio Tobías; Marc Saez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5678002"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> processes upgrade residual oils and heavy crudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports on new <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> carbon rejection technology developed for upgrading residual oils and converting heavier crudes into high-quality synthetic crudes. The process, called discriminatory destructive distillation, or 3D, has been demonstrated in a Kansas refinery on feedstocks ranging from 13.5 to 30.6{degrees} API. For the past year, Coastal Derby Refining Co. has been operating a revolutionary, according to Bartholic, circulating fluid solids processing apparatus that can be run as either a 3D process unit, to virtually eliminate the residual oil component of crude, or as an MSCC process unit, to upgrade VGO residual oils. Because both of these processes circulate a fluid solid in a manner similar to the well known and commercially accepted fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process, existing FCC-type units can be easily and economically converted to either 3D or MSCC operation. The 3D process is a low-pressure, carbon-rejection residual oil treating process for preparation of gas oils for fluid catalytic cracking (or MSCC), hydrotreating, mild hydrocracking, or full hydrocracking, says Bartholic. The process is also applicable, he says to upgrading heavy crudes or tar sands bitumen to high-quality reconstituted crudes for world markets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zipf's Law in <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Timbral Codings of Speech, Music, and Environmental Sound Signals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Timbre is a key perceptual feature that allows discrimination between different sounds. Timbral sensations are highly dependent on the temporal evolution of the power spectrum of an audio signal. In order to quantitatively characterize such sensations, the shape of the power spectrum has to be encoded in a way that preserves certain physical and perceptual properties. Therefore, it is common practice to encode <span class="hlt">short-time</span> power spectra using psychoacoustical frequency scales. In this paper, we study and characterize the statistical properties of such encodings, here called timbral code-words. In particular, we report on rank-frequency distributions of timbral code-words extracted from 740 hours of audio coming from disparate sources such as speech, music, and environmental sounds. Analogously to text corpora, we find a heavy-tailed Zipfian distribution with exponent close to one. Importantly, this distribution is found independently of different encoding decisions and regardless of the audio source. Further analysis on the intrinsic characteristics of most and least frequent code-words reveals that the most frequent code-words tend to have a more homogeneous structure. We also find that speech and music databases have specific, distinctive code-words while, in the case of the environmental sounds, this database-specific code-words are not present. Finally, we find that a Yule-Simon process with memory provides a reasonable quantitative approximation for our data, suggesting the existence of a common simple generative mechanism for all considered sound sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haro, Martin; Serra, Joan; Herrera, Perfecto; Corral, Alvaro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16740314"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">short-time</span> cross-correlation between frequency bands of event related EEG.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous variations of the event-related power changes (ERD/ERS) are often observed in a number of frequency bands. ERD/ERS measures are usually based on the relative changes of power in a given single frequency band. Within such an approach one cannot answer questions concerning the mutual relations between the band-power variations observed in different frequency bands. This paper addresses the problem of estimating and assessing the significance of the average cross-correlation between ERD/ERS phenomena occurring in two frequency bands. The cross-correlation function in a natural way also provides estimation of the delay between ERD/ERS in those bands. The proposed method is based on estimating the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> cross-correlation function between relative changes of power in two selected frequency bands. The cross-correlation function is estimated in each trial separately and then averaged across trials. The significance of those mean cross-correlation functions is evaluated by means of a nonparametric test. The basic properties of the method are presented on simulated signals, and an example application to real EEG and ECoG signals is given. PMID:16740314</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zygierewicz, J; Mazurkiewicz, J; Durka, P J; Franaszczuk, P J; Crone, N E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/772404"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SHORT</span> CONTACT <span class="hlt">TIME</span> DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION USING A NOVEL BATCH REACTOR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process at the molecular level. Many approaches have been used to study this process including kinetic studies, study of the liquefaction products, study of the effect of reaction variables, such as temperature, solvent type and composition, the changing nature and composition of the coal during liquefaction, and the distribution in the liquefaction products of the hydrogen consumed. While all these studies have contributed to our growing knowledge of the liquefaction process, an adequate understanding of direct liquefaction still eludes us. This is due to many reasons including: the complexity and variable nature of coal itself and the many different chemical reactions which are occurring simultaneously during direct coal liquefaction. We believe that a study of the liquefaction process at the very early stages will avoid the complexities of secondary reactions associated with free radical high temperature processes that are clearly involved in direct coal liquefaction. This prompted us to devise a reactor system which avoids long heat up and cool-down <span class="hlt">times</span> associated with previous kinetic studies, and allows kinetic measurements even at as <span class="hlt">short</span> as the first few seconds of the liquefaction reaction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6826E...2M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical Doppler tomography with <span class="hlt">short-time</span> Fourier transform and Hilbert transform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler principle with Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image both the structure and the flow velocity of moving particles in highly scattering biological tissues. The flow velocity can be determined by measurement of the Doppler shift of the interference fringe frequency with a <span class="hlt">short-time</span> Fourier transform (STFT) or a Hilbert transform. For STFT ODT, velocity resolution varies inversely with the Fourier transform window size at each pixel, while spatial resolution is proportional to the window size. Consequently, velocity resolution and spatial resolution are coupled. For phase-resolved ODT with Hilbert transform, high velocity resolution can be achieved while maintaining a high spatial resolution. However, the maximum determinable Doppler shift is limited by axial-line scanning speed. As a result, STFT ODT and phase-resolved ODT are applicable to measurement of high speed and low speed velocity, respectively. We use these two methods in the established ODT system. An in vitro model using a small circular glass tubule with flowing solution of polystyrene beads inside and an in vivo model of rat's cerebral arterioles are investigated, demonstrating the advantage and disadvantage of STFT ODT and phase-resolved ODT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, Jie; Ding, Zhihua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7964442"> <span id="translatedtitle">A dynamic model of reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> in a <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory task.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article we hypothesized that the trial to trial variability in speed of access to recently presented information is deterministic in nature and that it reflects important properties of immediate memory. Application of analytic techniques emerging from the science of nonlinear dynamical systems to data obtained from the Sternberg (1966, 1970) <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory task corroborates the view. A simple nonlinear difference equation, consistent with fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1992), was then proposed to describe the dynamics underlying reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> (RT) on the Sternberg task. The model posits that RT is a function of the interaction of two control parameters: susceptibility to interference (SI) and episodic activation (EA). Evaluation of the model indicated an exceptionally good fit with the raw empirical observations. Age comparisons of the model parameters revealed that adults exhibited higher levels of SI and EA. Although the finding that adults exhibited higher levels of SI than children runs counter to theory and other empirical results, further analysis revealed that adults exhibited lower levels of SI relative to EA than children. Thus, children may exhibit slower disintegration of verbatim memory traces than adults due to interference; however, adults may be more efficient at redintegrating verbatim memory traces than children. PMID:7964442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooney, J B; Troyer, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.135o4504H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-time</span> rheology and diffusion in suspensions of Yukawa-type colloidal particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive study is presented on the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> dynamics in suspensions of charged colloidal spheres. The explored parameter space covers the major part of the fluid-state regime, with colloid concentrations extending up to the freezing transition. The particles are assumed to interact directly by a hard-core plus screened Coulomb potential, and indirectly by solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. By comparison with accurate accelerated Stokesian Dynamics (ASD) simulations of the hydrodynamic function H(q), and the high-frequency viscosity ??, we investigate the accuracy of two fast and easy-to-implement analytical schemes. The first scheme, referred to as the pairwise additive (PA) scheme, uses exact two-body hydrodynamic mobility tensors. It is in good agreement with the ASD simulations of H(q) and ??, for smaller volume fractions up to about 10% and 20%, respectively. The second scheme is a hybrid method combining the virtues of the ?? scheme by Beenakker and Mazur with those of the PA scheme. It leads to predictions in good agreement with the simulation data, for all considered concentrations, combining thus precision with computational efficiency. The hybrid method is used to test the accuracy of a generalized Stokes-Einstein (GSE) relation proposed by Kholodenko and Douglas, showing its severe violation in low salinity systems. For hard spheres, however, this GSE relation applies decently well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heinen, Marco; Banchio, Adolfo J.; Nägele, Gerhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyD..239.1159P"> <span id="translatedtitle">On complex singularities of the 2D Euler equation at <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study of complex singularities of a two-parameter family of solutions for the two-dimensional Euler equation with periodic boundary conditions and initial conditions ?0(z1,z2)=Fˆ(p)cosp?z+Fˆ(q)cosq?z in the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> asymptotic régime. As has been shown numerically in Pauls et al. [W. Pauls, T. Matsumoto, U. Frisch, J. Bec, Nature of complex singularities for the 2D Euler equation, Physica D 219 (2006) 40-59], the type of the singularities depends on the angle ? between the modes p and q. Thus, the Fourier coefficients of the solutions decrease as G(k,?)˜C(?)k-e- with the exponent ? depending on ?. Here we show for the two particular cases of ? going to zero and to ? that the type of the singularities can be determined very accurately, being characterised by ?=5/2 and ?=3 respectively. In these two cases we are also able to determine the subdominant corrections. Furthermore, we find that the geometry of the singularities in these two cases is completely different, the singular manifold being located “over” different points in the real domain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pauls, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18666818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using <span class="hlt">short</span> exposure <span class="hlt">times</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for <span class="hlt">short</span>, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-<span class="hlt">time</span> instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58999236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neologisms <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oscar Gray, you are a great student of Jimmy's [Fleming James] and since you and I are not the last, but among the last, of his students, it pleased me particularly that you remembered him. Thank you. I also want to thank all my other friends who took the <span class="hlt">time</span> to come here today, and most especially this University, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guido Calabresi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://egon.cheme.cmu.edu/Papers/MaraveliasNewGenCont.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">New General Continuous-<span class="hlt">Time</span> State?Task Network Formulation for <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new continuous <span class="hlt">time</span> MILP model for the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resource (utility) constraints, variable batch sizes and processing <span class="hlt">times</span>, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW), batch mixing\\/splitting, and sequence- dependent changeover <span class="hlt">times</span>. The key features of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/225020"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly report, May 15, 1995--September 15, 1995</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor for coal liquefaction at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction, particularly at <span class="hlt">short</span> reaction <span class="hlt">times</span>, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. This quarterly report covers the status of progress toward these objectives. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48.1094W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating low resolution gravity fields at <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals to reduce temporal aliasing errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has been estimating temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field since its launch in 2002. While it is not yet fully resolved what the limiting source of error is for GRACE, studies on future missions have shown that temporal aliasing errors due to undersampling signals of interest (such as hydrological variations) and errors in atmospheric, ocean, and tide models will be a limiting source of error for missions taking advantage of improved technologies (flying drag-free with a laser interferometer). This paper explores the option of reducing the effects of temporal aliasing errors by directly estimating low degree and order gravity fields at <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals, ultimately resulting in data products with improved spatial resolution. Three potential architectures are considered: a single pair of polar orbiting satellites, two pairs of polar orbiting satellites, and a polar orbiting pair of satellites coupled with a lower inclined pair of satellites. Results show that improvements in spatial resolution are obtained when one estimates a low resolution gravity field every two days for the case of a single pair of satellites, and every day for the case of two polar pairs of satellites. However, the spatial resolution for these cases is still lower than that provided by simply destriping and smoothing the solutions via standard GRACE post-processing techniques. Alternately, estimating daily gravity fields for the case of a polar pair of satellites coupled with a lower inclined pair results in solutions with superior spatial resolution than that offered by simply destriping and smoothing the solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiese, David N.; Visser, Pieter; Nerem, Robert S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/435353"> <span id="translatedtitle">A coordinated approach for real-<span class="hlt">time</span> <span class="hlt">short</span> term hydro scheduling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper describes a coordinated approach to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term hydro scheduling and dispatch that has been developed as a part of the Tasmanian Hydro Electric Commission`s (HEC) new Energy Management System (EMS), which is being delivered by Landis and Gyr Energy Management. Tasmania`s hydro generation system consists of 40 reservoirs in six river catchments. The daily water release for each plant is scheduled using the HEC`s mid-term operation policy. The Hydro Scheduling and Commitment (HSC) function schedules the hydro units on a half hourly basis so that the allocated water release maximizes the energy production. This maximization of energy production is achieved by maximizing the head and this ensures that operation is always as close as possible to maximum efficiency. Mixed Integer Linear Programming is used with a detailed model of the interconnected hydro system to determine the half-hourly operation schedule. The Hydro Economic Dispatch (HED) function is used to implement the schedules produced by HSC in the real-<span class="hlt">time</span> operation. The HED also uses a detailed model of the hydro system with a Linear Programming algorithm to ensure that each unit operates as close as possible to its head-dependent theoretical maximum efficiency point while meeting the desired storage levels specified by the HSC solution. HSC and HED have been tested against a number of operational scenarios and when it is fully integrated within the new EMS it is expected to yield annual stored energy savings up to 0.5% through more efficient hydro-electric system operation. It is expected to also provide additional savings by fostering improvements to the mid-term operating plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tufegdzic, N. [Hydro Electric Commission, Hobart (Australia); Frowd, R.J. [Landis and Gyr Energy Management, San Jose, CA (United States); Stadlin, W.O. [Macro Corp., Horsham, PA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos.ucla.edu/~jbortnik/pubs/Rodger_etal2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Storm <span class="hlt">time</span>, <span class="hlt">short</span>-lived bursts of relativistic electron precipitation detected by subionospheric radio wave propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we report on ground-based observations of <span class="hlt">short</span> bursts of relativistic electron precipitation (REP), detected by a subionospheric propagation sensor in Sodankylä, Finland during 2005. In two ~4 hour case study periods from L = 5.2, around local midnight, several hundred <span class="hlt">short</span>-lived radio wave perturbations were observed, covering a wide range of arrival azimuths. The vast majority (~99%)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craig J. Rodger; Mark A. Clilverd; David Nunn; Pekka T. Verronen; Jacob Bortnik; Esa Turunen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Countertransference <span class="hlt">revisited</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A female patient of mine recounts her week. I listen with interest, waiting for her to arrive at particular conclusions. She has suffered a great deal and still does, but prefers not to dwell on it. My interest turns into patience as she continues to talk but circumvents her discontent. She is adroit at avoidance, but easily offended when I point such things out. "I'd better wait" I think. I grow more aware that I must encourage her digressions. I feel frustrated. Getting further and further away, she skirts the issue with supple grace, then strays off into tangentiality. I forget her point and lose my focus, then get down on myself. The opportunity is soon gone. I glance at the clock as her monologue drones on into banality. I grow more uninterested and distant. There is a subtle irritation to her voice; a whiney indecisive ring begins to pervade my consciousness. I home in on her mouth with aversion, watching apprehensively as this disgusting hole flaps tirelessly but says nothing. It looks carnivorous, voracious. Now she is unattractive, something I have noticed before. I forget who my next patient is. I think about the meal I will prepare for my wife this evening, then glance at the <span class="hlt">time</span> once more. Then I am struck: Why am I looking at the clock? So soon? The session has just begun. I catch myself. What is going on in me, between us? I am detached, but why? Is she too feeling unattuned, disconnected? I am failing my patient. What is her experience of me? I lamentingly confess that I do not feel I have been listening to her, and wonder what has gone wrong between us. I ask her if she has noticed. We talk about our feelings, our impact on one another, why we had lost our sense of connection, what it means to us. I instantly feel more involved, rejuvenated, and she continues, this <span class="hlt">time</span> with me present. Her mouth is no longer odious, but sincere and articulate. She is attractive and tender; I suddenly feel empathy and warmth toward her. We are now very close. I am moved. <span class="hlt">Time</span> flies, the session is soon over; we do not want it to end. PMID:15491945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mills, Jon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38237840"> <span id="translatedtitle">The cardiac cycle <span class="hlt">time</span> effect <span class="hlt">revisited</span>: Temporal dynamics of the central-vagal modulation of heart rate in human reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> tasks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lacey and Lacey (1974) suggested that during reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> tasks higher brain centers dynamically adjust efferent vagal nerve pulses to the sino-atrial node of the heart, inducing phase-dependent heart rate changes. Since then, animal and human neuro-physiological results have provided evidence for this hypothesis. Higher subcortical and cortical brain centers may have reciprocal interactive pathways relating to autonomic control comparable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riek J. M. Somsen; J. Richard Jennings; Molen van der M. W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1650/0010-5422(2007)109[943:PTDTIS]2.0.CO;2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Power to detect trend in <span class="hlt">short</span>-term <span class="hlt">time</span> series of bird abundance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Avian point counts for population monitoring are often collected over a <span class="hlt">short</span> timespan (e.g., 3-5 years). We examined whether power was adequate (power ???0.80) in <span class="hlt">short</span>-duration studies to warrant the calculation of trend estimates. We modeled power to detect trends in abundance indices of eight bird species occurring across three floodplain habitats (wet prairie, early successional forest, and mature forest) as a function of trend magnitude, sample size, and species-specific sampling and among-year variance components. Point counts (5 min) were collected from 365 locations distributed among 10 study sites along the lower Missouri River; counts were collected over the period 2002 to 2004. For all study species, power appeared adequate to detect trends in studies of <span class="hlt">short</span> duration (three years) at a single site when exponential declines were relatively large in magnitude (more than -5% year-1) and the sample of point counts per year was ???30. Efforts to monitor avian trends with point counts in small managed lands (i.e., refuges and parks) should recognize this sample size restriction by including point counts from offsite locations as a means of obtaining sufficient numbers of samples per strata. Trends of less than -5% year-1 are not likely to be consistently detected for most species over the <span class="hlt">short</span> term, but <span class="hlt">short</span>-term monitoring may still be useful as the basis for comparisons with future surveys. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thogmartin, W. E.; Gray, B. R.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J. J.; Knutson, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.1268H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Panspermia <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Panspermia", coined by S. Arrhenius in 1903, suggests that microscopic forms of life, e.g., bacterial spores, can be dispersed in space by the radiation pressure from the Sun thereby seeding life from one planet to another or even beyond our Solar System. Being ignored for almost the rest of the century, the scenario of interplanetary transfer of life has received increased support from recent discoveries, such as the detection of Martian meteorites and the high resistance of microorganisms to outer space conditions. With the aid of space technology and adequate laboratory devices the following decisive step required for viable transfer from one planet to another have been tested: (i) the escape process, i.e. impact ejection into space; (ii) the journey through space over extended periods of <span class="hlt">time</span>; and (iii) the landing process, i.e. non-destructive deposition of the biological material on another planet. In systematic shock recovery experiments within a pressure range observed in Martian meteorites (5-50 GPa) a vital launch window of 5-40 GPa has been determined for spores of Bacillus subtilis and the lichen Xanthoria elegans, whereas this window was restricted to 5-10 GPa for the endolithic cyanobaterium Chroococcidiopsis. Traveling through space implies exposure to high vacuum, an intense radiation regime of cosmic and solar origin and high temperature fluctuations. In several space experiments the biological efficiency of these different space parameters has been tested: extraterrestrial solar UV radiation has exerted the most deleterious effects to viruses, as well as to bacterial and fungal spores; however shielding against this intense insolation resulted in 70 % survival of B. subtilis spores after spending 6 years in outer space. Lichens survived 2 weeks in space, even without any shielding. The entry process of microorganisms has been recently tested in the STONE facility attached to the heat shield of a reentry capsule. The data support the scenario of "Lithopanspermia", which assumes that impact-expelled rocks serve as interplanetary transfer vehicles for microorganisms colonizing those rocks. Literature: St¨ffler D, Horneck G, Ott S, Hornemann, U, Cockell CS, Moeller R, Meyer C, de Vera J-P, o Fritz J, Artemieva NA,.Experimental evidence for the potential impact ejection of viable microorganisms from Mars and Mars-like planets (2007) Icarus, 186, 585-588. Sancho, L.G., de la Torre, R., Horneck, G., Ascaso, C., de los Rios, A., Pintado, A., Wierzchos, J. and Schuster, M. (2007) Lichens survive in space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment. Astrobiology, 7, 443-454. Mileikowsky C, Cucinotta F, Wilson J W, Gladman B, Horneck G, Lindegren L, Melosh J, Rickman H, Valtonen M, Zheng J Q (2000) Natural transfer of viable microbes In space, Part 1: From Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars, Icarus, 145, 391-427. Nicholson WL, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh HJ, and Setlow P (2000) Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, Microb. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64, 548-572.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horneck, Gerda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49405470"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation study of the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Exposure (STE) test to assess the eye irritation potential of chemicals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test in SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) that assesses eye irritation potential following a 5-min chemical exposure. This validation study assessed transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and predictive capacity of STE test in five laboratories (supported by Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments). Sodium lauryl sulfate, calcium thioglycolate, and Tween</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hitoshi Sakaguchi; Naoko Ota; Takashi Omori; Hirofumi Kuwahara; Takashi Sozu; Yumi Takagi; Yutaka Takahashi; Kouko Tanigawa; Miki Nakanishi; Tsuneaki Nakamura; Takashi Morimoto; Shinobu Wakuri; Yuko Okamoto; Mayumi Sakaguchi; Takumi Hayashi; Takayuki Hanji; Shinichi Watanabe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/92/10/4823.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High temperature, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance specifies minimum processing conditions of 72°C for at least 15 s for high temperature, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> (HTST) pasteurized milk products. Currently, many US milk-processing plants exceed these minimum requirements for fluid milk products. To test the effect of pasteurization tem- peratures on bacterial numbers in HTST pasteurized milk, 2% fat raw milk was heated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. L. Ranieri; J. R. Huck; M. Sonnen; D. M. Barbano; K. J. Boor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2332328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gabor Wavelets and the Heisenberg Group: Gabor expansions and <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> Fourier transform from the group theoretical point of view</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract: We study series expansions of signals with respect toGabor wavelets and the equivalent problem of (irregular) sampling ofthe <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> Fourier tranform. Using Heisenberg group techniquesrather than traditional Fourier analysis allows to design stable iterativealgorithms for signal analysis and synthesis. These algorithmsconverge for a variety of norms and are compatible with the timefrequencylocalization of signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. G. Feichtinger; K. Gr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=188118"> <span id="translatedtitle">THERMAL INACTIVATION OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS IN MILK USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> <span class="hlt">TIME</span> PASTEURIZATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> pasteurization (HTST) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 deg C/15 sec) but is inactivated in flow apparatus...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ954491.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the Coordination Exercise Program on School Children's Agility: <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Program during School Recess</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the impact of a <span class="hlt">short-time</span> coordination program conducted during recess periods on improving agility in elementary school students. The subjects consisted of 60 third grade students, who were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 29) and a control group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a coordination program…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yasumitsu, Tatsuo; Nogawa, Haruo; Hatano, Yoshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50104731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Speech enhancement based on minimum mean-square error <span class="hlt">short-time</span> spectral estimation and its realization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper focuses on theory and realization of speech enhancement based on minimum mean square error <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> spectral estimation. It achieves good results well when enhancing speech degraded by stationary additive white Gaussian noise on the condition that only the noisy speech is available. After presenting the ordinary formula of MMSE STSA estimator, its fatal defects in realization especially</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu Zhibin; Xu Naiping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/145696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional modeling of partial oxidation of methane on rhodium in a <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial oxidation of methane in monolithic catalysts at very <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> has recently been shown to offer a promising route to convert natural gas into syngas (CO, H2), which can subsequently be converted to higher alkanes or methanol. Detailed models are needed to understand the complex interaction of transport and kinetics occurring in these reactors. In this work, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olaf Deutschmann; Lanny D. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18834355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study of the <span class="hlt">short</span> pre-arcing <span class="hlt">time</span> in high breaking capacity fuses via an enthalpy formulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to study the <span class="hlt">short</span> pre-arcing <span class="hlt">time</span> in high breaking capacity (HBC) fuses, we use a mathematical model including the phase change of the fuse-element heating coupled with the Laplace equation for the potential and Ohm's law. The thermal model is based on the enthalpy formulation of the heat equation with a source term representing the Joule heating. For</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Rochette; Rachid Touzani; William Bussière</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DPS....31.1208B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Lyapounov Indicators in the Case of a Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-Asteroid System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our previous papers (Sandor et al., 1999a; Sandor et al., 1999b) we have discussed the application of the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> indicators in the planar circular Restricted Three Body Problem (RTBP) and in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body problem (ERTBP) in order to distinguish between chaotic and regular domains of the phase space in theese problems. The method of stretching numbers was introduced by Voglis and Contopoulos (1994). This method allows a quick distinction between ordered and chaotic regions. We also applied the method of stretching numbers to the elliptic restricted three-body problem. As an extension of our investigation, in the present paper we apply the method of stretching numbers to a realistic Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-Asteroid (SJSA) problem. We represent the structure of the phase-space in the a-e plane, where a is the semimajor axis and e is the eccentricity. For an individual <s>N curve, where <s>N is the average value of stretching numbers. The values of the semimajor axis has been taken from the interval [3.2,5.2] (AU) for a fixed value of the eccentricity of the test particle between e=0 and e=0.4. For a good visualization of the regular and chaotic regions in the a-e plane we have processed the curves of average values calculating the absolut value of their ``derivative'' |frac {Delta <s>N}{Delta a}|, where Delta a = a_{i+1}-ai is the difference between two consecutive initial semimajor axis and Delta <s>N is the corresponding change of the average value of stretching numbers. If this derivative is larger than a certain value (in our case 0.002), the corresponding region between two neighbouring initial conditions is classified as chaotic. The usefulness of this method is based on the very fast and effective way how it approximates the location and size of the regular and chaotic regions. We have found that the structure of the phase-space is very similar in the RTBP and in the ERTB but there is a significant difference in the case of the SJSA. The grant OTKA F030147 of the National Research Foundation is acknowledged.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balla, R. F.; Sandor, Zs.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41281877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of honey high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> heating on parameters related to quality, crystallisation phenomena and fungal inhibition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of a unique high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> heating treatment on natural honeys to produce both a fungi inhibition and a crystallisation delay simultaneously was evaluated. As responses to treatments, hydroxymethylfurfural content, diastase activity, fungi and yeast development, and crystallisation starting <span class="hlt">time</span> were measured. Besides, moisture, fructose, glucose and acidity were determined.Heating can produce a decrease in honey quality, which is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Tosi; E. Ré; H. Lucero; L. Bulacio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39071"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new continuous-<span class="hlt">time</span> state task network formulation for <span class="hlt">short</span> term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new continuous-<span class="hlt">time</span> MILP model for the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants is presented. The proposed model relies on the idea of the State Task Network (STN) and addresses the general problem of batch scheduling, accounting for resources other than equipment (utilities), variable batch sizes and processing <span class="hlt">times</span>, various storage policies (UIS\\/FIS\\/NIS\\/ZW) and batch splitting\\/mixing. Compared to other general</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christos T. Maravelias; Ignacio E. Grossmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23311742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of H 2 from catalytic partial oxidation of H 2S in a <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial oxidation of H2S over alumina catalysts in a <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> reactor (SCTR) has been shown to yield hydrogen, sulfur and water as the predominant products. At a set temperature of 400 °C and a contact <span class="hlt">time</span> of 13 ms, the conversion of H2S is 64.6% with a H2 selectivity of 20.8%, while the amount of SO2 in the products was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. D. Clark; N. I. Dowling; M. Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=identity+AND+formation&pg=2&id=EJ910631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span> Perspective and Identity Formation: <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Longitudinal Dynamics in College Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a <span class="hlt">short</span>-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luyckx, Koen; Lens, Willy; Smits, Ilse; Goossens, Luc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30217240"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centric scan SPRITE for spin density imaging of <span class="hlt">short</span> relaxation <span class="hlt">time</span> porous materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The single-point ramped imaging with T1 enhancement (SPRITE) imaging technique has proven to be a very robust and flexible method for the study of a wide range of systems with <span class="hlt">short</span> signal lifetimes. As a pure phase encoding technique, SPRITE is largely immune to image distortions generated by susceptibility variations, chemical shift and paramagnetic impurities. In addition, it avoids the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quan Chen; Meghan Halse; Bruce J. Balcom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=291184"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cultural techniques for altering the flowering <span class="hlt">time</span> and double-cropping <span class="hlt">short</span>-day varieties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">July-plugged transplants of <span class="hlt">short</span>-day cv. Strawberry Festival (Fragaria x ananassa), flowered in October and November even though they were grown under long photoperiods and warm temperatures (greater than 21 degrees C) in July and August. These unexpected results were attributed to a high plant de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57711467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Memorable Messages of Hard <span class="hlt">Times</span>: Constructing <span class="hlt">Short</span> and Long-Term Resiliencies Through Family Communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We take a communicative and life course theory approach to understanding how resilience is constructed in families. Drawing upon interviews with 20 fathers, 16 mothers, and 23 children who dealt with financial hardship during the 1980s recession, we analyze the messages families communicated about finances when their children were young and how these messages contributed to the development of <span class="hlt">short</span>-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kristen Lucas; Patrice M. Buzzanell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29330795"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparent dose-dependence of chloroquine pharmacokinetics due to limited assay sensitivity and <span class="hlt">short</span> sampling <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have shown that apparent nonlinearities in the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and wide variability in reported kinetic values are possibly artefacts of experimental design. We have used simulated data based on linear equations to demonstrate that chloroquine kinetics may appear to be dose-dependent if samples are collected over a <span class="hlt">short</span> period or if they are assayed with a method of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. E. Tett; D. J. Cutler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212801M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of sediment flux at <span class="hlt">short</span>, middle and long <span class="hlt">time</span> scale in alpine torrents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediments management has become an important issue in the alpine regions since all deposits of material must be removed from sediment traps to keep their efficiency. However, this is not sustainable to evacuate those deposits over long distances. The goals of this work is to quantify the sediment supply of alpine torrents and active gullies in order to make suatinable management over the long term. From a case study situated in the region of Zinal, Valais, Switzerland, we will try to give general recommendation. Several approaches are tested to create a model able to estimate the sediment budget at <span class="hlt">short</span>, middle and long <span class="hlt">time</span> scale. After a general analysis of the catchment rendering a geomorphological map (process and location), a quantitative assessment of sediment production is performed. Besides, a qualitative representation of sediment transport processes is created that enable the modelling of sediment cascade. Several new methods are tested combining field work and remote sensing data (DEM, Lidar acquisition and aerial photos). The torrent activity (maximum erosion volume) is estimated with the Slope Local Base Level (SLBL) constrained with field observations (e.g. presence of outcrop). Downstream and cross-sectional topographic profiles along the streams enable to determine their overall dynamics. The model is then composed of homogeneous sections of the torrent. Erosion rates are defined according to the activity observed on <span class="hlt">time</span> series of aerial photos, historical data, etc. The climate forcing is also considered for assessing torrential dynamics in the prospective sediment balances. The preliminary conclusion is that 6 sets of information implemented in the model enable estimating the quantity of sediments transport by the torrents ((1) the geomorphologic map, (2) the division of the torrent in homogeneous sections, (3) the longitudinal profile of the torrent, (4) the calculation of the maximum volume mobilized by the torrent (with the SLBL), (5) the estimation of the overall dynamics of the torrent (erosion and deposition areas), (6) the estimation of erosion rate.). The results obtained using the SLBL allowed us to force the maximum erosion of the stream bed to avoid too extreme values. An advantage of this method is the use of the three dimensions for each meter of the torrent, which is not possible with traditional methods such as calculating by sections of torrent. Then, we find that the dynamic of the torrents (erosion, deposition) is strongly correlated with the level difference between the theoretical profile and the topographic profile along the streams. This characteristic also permits to quantify the total amount of solid material that can potentially be filled by section of stream. In order to determine the proportion of sediment deposited by section (as % of the total volume transported), this result is coupled to an deposition index (slope, width and Epot of the section torrent). This approach provides, compared to the average value of erosion at a regional level commonly used, a local estimation of the sediments transport for each streams analysed. Indeed, a modelling of sediment cascade allows knowing the amount of sediment transported and especially to know when these amounts could cause problems in their management. It will be useful for different project of sediment management like in-situ storage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazotti, Benoît.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Loye, Alexandre; Bardou, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20227792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">short</span> training sessions on hand hygiene effective in preventing hospital-acquired MRSA? A <span class="hlt">time</span>-series analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We tested the impact of <span class="hlt">short</span> hand hygiene training sessions and bed occupancy rates on the spread of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a multivariate <span class="hlt">time</span>-series analysis. According to our model, bed occupancy rates within general ward and intensive care unit settings correlated positively with the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA, whereas alcohol-based hand rub use and MRSA showed a negative correlation. Furthermore, our model shows that 2 hand hygiene campaigns based on <span class="hlt">short</span> training sessions effected a long-run reduction in the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA. PMID:20227792</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conrad, Andreas; Kaier, Klaus; Frank, Uwe; Dettenkofer, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49370994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synchronization of oestrus and ovulation by <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> combined FGA, PGF 2?, GnRH, eCG treatments for natural service or AI fixed-<span class="hlt">time</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were conducted in ewes in order to develop an oestrus–ovulation <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> synchronization protocol based on combined FGA, PGF2?, GnRH, eCG treatments, for use in dairy sheep before natural service (Experiment 1) or for fixed-<span class="hlt">time</span> artificial insemination (Experiment 2), during the breeding season. In Experiment 1 seventy-five non-lactating dairy ewes were subdivided into 5 treatment groups (N=15): (1)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Martemucci; A. G. D’Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light&pg=6&id=EJ985093"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hydrostatic Paradox <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper <span class="hlt">revisits</span> a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ganci, Salvatore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22a%22&pg=2&id=EJ985093"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hydrostatic Paradox <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper <span class="hlt">revisits</span> a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ganci, Salvatore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/186826"> <span id="translatedtitle">CLP(Intervals) <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design and implementation of constraint logic programming (CLP) languagesover intervals is <span class="hlt">revisited</span>. Instead of decomposing complex constraints in termsof simple primitive constraints as in CLP(BNR), complex constraints are manipulatedas a whole, enabling more sophisticated narrowing procedures to be appliedin the solver. This idea is embodied in a new CLP language Newton whose operationalsemantics is based on the notion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frédéric Benhamou; David A. Mcallester; Pascal Van Hentenryck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+of+AND+education&pg=3&id=EJ791945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concept Image <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article <span class="hlt">revisits</span> concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22bats%22&pg=2&id=EJ858639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In <span class="hlt">revisiting</span> Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolozky, Shmuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6098453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Google Scholar <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of Google Scholar. Findings – The Google Books project has given a massive and valuable boost to the already rich and diverse content of Google Scholar. The downside of the growth is that significant gaps remain for top ranking</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Péter Jacsó</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bats&pg=3&id=EJ858639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">revisiting</span> Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bolozky, Shmuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=198247"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Bioaccumulation Criteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of workgroup 5 was to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nek.lu.se/publications/workpap/Papers/WP07_2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imperfect Tagging <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Parsons' 1996 article about disability insurance with imperfect tagging in a two type-economy -- individuals are either able or disabled. Here Parsons' analysis is extended in several directions. The model is generalized to allow for different utility functions over work status. The analysis extends to three different cases of a two-type economy. Finally Parsons' model is extended to three</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Rehn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3108161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Kidney Injury: Controversies <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper addresses the epidemiology of AKI specifically in relation to recent changes in AKI classification and <span class="hlt">revisits</span> the controversies regarding the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of initiation of dialysis and the use of peritoneal dialysis as a renal replacement therapy for AKI. In summary, the new RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI have facilitated more uniform diagnosis of AKI and clinically significant risk stratification. Regardless, the issue of <span class="hlt">timing</span> of dialysis initiation still remains unanswered and warrants further examination. Furthermore, peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality for AKI remains underutilised in spite of potential beneficial effects. Future research should be directed at identifying early reliable biomarkers of AKI, which in conjunction with RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI could facilitate well-designed large randomised controlled trials of early versus late initiation of dialysis in AKI. In addition, further studies of peritoneal dialysis in AKI addressing dialysis dose and associated complications are required for this therapy to be accepted more widely by clinicians.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yong, Kenneth; Dogra, Gursharan; Boudville, Neil; Pinder, Mary; Lim, Wai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">short</span> annealing <span class="hlt">times</span> on the magnetoelectronic properties of Co/Pd-based pseudo-spin-valves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">short</span> annealing <span class="hlt">times</span> on the magnetoelectronic properties of pseudo-spin-valves (PSV) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy based on Co/Pd multilayers using a contact hot plate. In order to study the <span class="hlt">time</span> scale at which the degradation of film properties occurs for possible application in perpendicular MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ), the results were compared against our previous study of Co/Pd PSV based on vacuum annealing. With contact annealing for up to 90 s, no significant changes to the current-in-plane giant magnetoresistance (CIP-GMR), interlayer coupling, sheet resistance and layer coercivities were observed for up to 200 degrees C. At 350 degrees C, a 39 to 46% decrease in CIP-GMR was observed for annealing <span class="hlt">times</span> of 30 to 90 s, respectively, slightly lower than that observed for vacuum annealing at 230 degrees C for 1 h. Similar results were also obtained for interlayer coupling, sheet resistance and layer coercivities, indicating that <span class="hlt">short</span> annealing <span class="hlt">times</span> allow for reduced interlayer diffusion at higher temperatures. However, it is clear that significant degradation of GMR performance occurs at 350 degrees C and above even for annealing <span class="hlt">times</span> as <span class="hlt">short</span> as 30 s, indicating the potential difficulty of realizing Co/Pd-based perpendicular MgO-MTJ. PMID:21449449</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tahmasebi, Taiebeh; Law, Randall; Sbiaa, Rachid; Piramanayagam, S N; Chong, Tow Chong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5385R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term pollution forecasts based on linear and nonlinear methods of <span class="hlt">time</span> series analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban air pollution is a complex mixture of toxic components, which may induce acute and chronic responses from sensitive groups, such as children and people with previous heart and respiratory insufficiencies. However, air pollution, presents a highly chaotic and non-linear behavior. In this work we analyzed several pollutants <span class="hlt">time</span> series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period. Linear and nonlinear methods were applied in order to assess NO2, PM10 and O3 main trends and fluctuations and finally, to produce daily forecasts of the referred pollutants. Here we evaluate the potential of linear and non-linear neural networks (NN) to produce <span class="hlt">short</span>-term forecasts, and also the contribution of meteorological variables (daily mean temperature, radiation, wind speed and direction, boundary layer height, humidity) to pollutants dispersion. Additionally, we assess the role of large-scale circulation patterns, usually referred as Weather types (WT) (from the ERA40/ECMWF and ECMWF SLP database) towards the occurrence of critical pollution events identified previously. The presence and importance of trends and fluctuation is addressed by means of two modelling approaches: (1) raw data modelling; (2) residuals modelling (after the removal of the trends from the original data). The relative importance of two periodic components, the weekly and the monthly cycles, is addressed. For the three pollutants, the approach based on the removal of the weekly cycle presents the best results, comparatively to the removal of the monthly cycle or to the use of the raw data. The best predictors are chosen independently for each monitoring station and pollutant through an objective procedure (backward stepwise regression). The analysis reveals that the most significant variables in predicting NO2 concentration are several NO2 measures, wind direction and speed and global radiation, while for O3 correspond to several O3 measures, O3 precursors and WT classification. Finally, for PM10, several PM10 measures, NO2 and CO, maximum temperature, wind direction, humidity and BLH, i.e., pollutants related to road traffic emissions and meteorological variables related to atmospheric stability. Moreover, validation results showed that non-linear NN models, on average, perform as well or worse as linear models for NO2, O3 and PM10. The results attained with an independent sample reveal a very good correlation between the predicted and observed values which confirms that linear models generalize well for independent data. The applied methods permit producing, in a simple and cost efficient way, different results for each monitoring station, which allows a good spatial resolution for Lisbon's urban area. Consistent with the performance measures, high pollutants' peak values were reproduced in most cases by each model. The attained results raises good prospects for urban air quality characterization, allowing further developments in order to produce an integrated air quality surveillance system for the area of Lisbon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/ps/people/JWearden/JWSTMarticlewithSylvie.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term memory for <span class="hlt">time</span> in children and adults: A behavioral study and a model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This experiment investigated the effect of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants’ task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention interval of 500ms, 5s, or 10s, with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sylvie Droit-Volet; John Wearden; Maria Delgado-Yonger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39839157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability and change in subjective well-being over <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> periods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has reported high stability for subjective well-being over periods as long as 9 years, concluding that well-being is essentially unaffected by environmental change. Other research has suggested well-being is responsive to change in life circumstances, and appropriate for use as an adaptational outcome variable. The present research examined the stability of well-being over <span class="hlt">short</span> periods (3–6 months) using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerry Chamberlain; Sheryl Zika</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short--time</span>-scale evidence for strong Langmuir turbulence during hf heating of the ionosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of <span class="hlt">short</span>-pulse, low--duty-cycle hf-heating experiments areshown to agree with predictions of a model of correlated, localized cavitonswhich undergo cycles of nucleation, collapse, and burnout. Predicted''free-mode'' spectral features associated with the radiation of Langmuir wavesfrom collapsing cavitons are observed. Single radar pulse data provide evidencethat temporal correlations between caviton events are present at early timesfollowing the onset of heating.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheung, P. Y.; Wong, A. Y.; Tanikawa, T.; Santoru, J.; DuBois, D. F.; Rose, H. A.; Russell, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59672278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Visual Feedback for Learning to Perform <span class="hlt">Short</span> Rhythms with Variations in <span class="hlt">Timing</span> and Loudness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to learning theories and empirical observations, communication between teachers and students is a crucial factor in effective learning of musical expressions. One possibility for improving this communication could be the introduction of visual feedback (VFB) in the lesson. In the current study, a new type of real-<span class="hlt">time</span> VFB is proposed, which represents changes in acoustical parameters (loudness and <span class="hlt">timing</span>)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Sadakata; D. Hoppe; A. Brandmeyer; R. Timmers; P. W. M. Desain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42294245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Visual Feedback for Learning to Perform <span class="hlt">Short</span> Rhythms with Expressive Variations in <span class="hlt">Timing</span> and Loudness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to learning theories and empirical observations, communication between teachers and students is a crucial factor in effective learning of musical expressions. One possibility for improving this communication could be the introduction of visual feedback (VFB) in the lesson. In the current study, a new type of real-<span class="hlt">time</span> VFB is proposed, which represents changes in acoustical parameters (loudness and <span class="hlt">timing</span>)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Makiko Sadakata; David Hoppe; Alex Brandmeyer; Renee Timmers; Peter Desain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1726"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> Contact <span class="hlt">Time</span> Direct Coal Liquefactionn Using a Novel Batch Reactor. Quarterly Report. May 16 - August 15, 1996</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at <span class="hlt">short</span> reaction <span class="hlt">times</span> and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction of Illinois #6 bituminous coal, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, and Pittsburgh #8 bituminous coal. The thermodynamic characteristics of the extraction stage at the start of the liquefaction process in the liquefaction of Illinois #6 coal is also discussed. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/119868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly progress report, January 1--May 15, 1995</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor for coal liquefaction at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at <span class="hlt">short</span> reaction <span class="hlt">times</span>, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Experimental progress is reported for uncatalyzed liquefactions, catalyzed liquefactions, liquefaction in the presence of solvents other than tetralin, and kinetics of gas formation during coal liquefaction. Analytical methods were developed for the determination of the boiling range of coal liquids by thermogravimetric analysis and the determination of phenolic hydroxyl in coal, coal liquids, and coal residues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhA...40.5783F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Levy sections theorem <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper <span class="hlt">revisits</span> the Levy sections theorem. We extend the scope of the theorem to <span class="hlt">time</span> series and apply it to historical daily returns of selected dollar exchange rates. The elevated kurtosis usually observed in such series is then explained by their volatility patterns. And the duration of exchange rate pegs explains the extra elevated kurtosis in the exchange rates of emerging markets. In the end, our extension of the theorem provides an approach that is simpler than the more common explicit modelling of fat tails and dependence. Our main purpose is to build up a technique based on the sections that allows one to artificially remove the fat tails and dependence present in a data set. By analysing data through the lenses of the Levy sections theorem one can find common patterns in otherwise very different data sets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram; Matsushita, Raul; Da Silva, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2129687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting the <span class="hlt">short</span> - term and long - term channel properties in space and <span class="hlt">time</span>: Eigenbeamforming concepts for the BS in WCDMA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The deployment of adaptive antennas at base stations considerably increases the spectral efficiency of wireless communication systems. To reduce the computational complexity and increase performance of space-<span class="hlt">time</span> (ST) processing, processing may take place in reduced dimension, i.e., pre-filtering takes place which is related to linear estimation theory based on second order statistics. To this end, long-term and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term channel estimates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher Brunner; Wolfgang Utschick; Josef A. Nossek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51333158"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-Varying Lags between <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Period and Very Long Period Strombolian Eruption Seismic Signals at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Erebus volcano constitutes a seasonably accessible natural laboratory for long-term monitoring and investigation of Strombolian eruptive behavior. We examine broadband seismograms of 2,244 similar Strombolian eruptions from the Erebus lava lake spanning six years (2003-09). Detailed cross-correlation analysis of eruption waveforms shows systematically changing lags (of up to several seconds) between the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of <span class="hlt">short</span> period (SP) signals and accompanying</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. A. Knox; J. A. Chaput; R. C. Aster; P. R. Kyle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1522403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design for velocity saturated, <span class="hlt">short</span>-channel CMOS drivers with simultaneous switching noise and switching <span class="hlt">time</span> considerations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Design guidelines for velocity-saturated, <span class="hlt">short</span>-channel CMOS drivers are presented in this paper based on approximating the package inductance by an effective, lumped, power-supply bus parasitic inductance. A worst-case maximum simultaneous switching noise VGM and gate propagation delay <span class="hlt">time</span> tD,1\\/2 are treated as performance constraints for which driver design tradeoffs between driver geometry, the maximum number of simultaneously switched drivers, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yaochao Yang; John R. Brews</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60364878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expanded bed hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal (SRC) and <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> (SCT) extracts. Final technical progress report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Process Development Unit studies have been made to demonstrate the use of Lummus\\/Cities-Fining (LC-Fining) expanded bed hydroprocessing technology to upgrade solvent-refined coal extract (SRC). Three SRC and two <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> (SCT) extracts, defined as 850°F+ materials, were processed. One SRC, which initially contained 0.8% sulfur and 2.0 wt % nitrogen, was upgraded to distillate products which contain < 100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Potts; R. S. Chillingworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_375.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of High-Temperature <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Treatment of Wheat Flour on Gluten Vitality and Structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cereal Chem. 73(3):375-378 The effect of high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> (HTST) applications on changes in the extrinsic fluorescence (8-aniline-l-naphthalene sulfonate gluten in its natural flour environment was investigated. Changes occur- (ANS) binding) revealed enhanced surface hydrophobicity, which how- ring in HTST-treated samples during storage and in samples subjected to ever, regressed on storage. Consistent with these observations was the severe thermal denaturation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NICOLETTA GUERRIERI; PAOLO CERLETTI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29305429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Change from three <span class="hlt">times</span> a week on-line hemodiafiltration to <span class="hlt">short</span> daily on-line hemodiafiltration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Change from three <span class="hlt">times</span> a week on-line hemodiafiltration to <span class="hlt">short</span> daily on-line hemodiafiltration.BackgroundDaily dialysis has shown excellent clinical results because a higher frequency of dialysis is more physiologic. On-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is a HDF technique that combines diffusion with high convection in which the dialysis fluid itself is used as a reinfusion solution. The aim of this study was to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francisco Maduell; Victor Navarro; Eduardo Torregrosa; Asunción Rius; Fernando Dicenta; Maria Carmen Cruz; J. Antonio Ferrero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41318459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in mushrooms in a high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> process controlled by a thermoresistometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degradation of ascorbic acid was studied in mushrooms heated at temperatures between 110 and 140°C, high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> conditions, in a five-channel computer-controlled thermoresistometer. The kinetics parameters were calculated on the assumption that there are 2 degradation mechanisms, one aerobic (during the first few seconds of the process) and the other anaerobic. The 2 stages followed first-order reaction kinetics, with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R Blasco; M. J Esteve; A Fr??gola; M Rodrigo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/fwnhudylcfa5txv5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reliable genotyping of <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat loci without an allelic ladder using <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight mass spectrometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">DNA separations which traditionally have been performed by slab gel or capillary electrophoresis, may now be conducted via\\u000a <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The advantages of using a mass spectrometry approach for <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat (STR)\\u000a characterization include a dramatic increase in both the speed of analysis and the accuracy of mass measurements. We report\\u000a here typing of the STR loci</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Butler; J. Li; T. A. Shaler; J. A. Monforte; C. H. Becker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/968.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> behavior of the implied volatility for jump-diffusion models with stochastic volatility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we use Malliavin calculus techniques to obtain an expression for the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew for a generalization of the Bates model, where the volatility does not need to be neither a difussion, nor a Markov process as the examples in section 7 show. This expression depends on the derivative of the volatility</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elisa Alòs; Jorge A. León; Josep Vives</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67f2901A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long- and <span class="hlt">short-time</span> analysis of heartbeat sequences: Correlation with mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze RR heartbeat sequences with a dynamic model that satisfactorily reproduces both the long- and the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> statistical properties of heart beating. These properties are expressed quantitatively by means of two significant parameters, the scaling ? concerning the asymptotic effects of long-range correlation, and the quantity 1-? establishing the amount of uncorrelated fluctuations. We find a correlation between the position in the phase space (?,?) of patients with congestive heart failure and their mortality risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allegrini, P.; Balocchi, R.; Chillemi, S.; Grigolini, P.; Hamilton, P.; Maestri, R.; Palatella, L.; Raffaelli, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33028526"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Killing Activity of PovidoneIodine (Isodine® Gargle) in the Presence of Oral Organic Matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to estimate the clinical efficacy of a povidone-iodine oral antiseptic (PVP-I) on oral bacterial infectious diseases, we studied the effect of oral organic matter on the in vitro killing activity of PVP-I. In addition, we compared the in vitro <span class="hlt">short-time</span> killing activity of PVP-I with those of other oral antiseptics using mouth-washing and gargling samples collected from healthy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akiko Yoneyama; Masaki Shimizu; Makiko Tabata; Junko Yashiro; Toshihiko Takata; Muneo Hikida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60409398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integration of <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> liquefaction and critical solvent deashing with gasification through methanol-to-gasoline</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coal is processed by liquefying the coal with a hydrogen-donor solvent under a <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> liquefaction, separating the coal liquid effluent into liquid phases of distinct polarity and an undissolved coal residue, upgrading a portion of the liquid phase, gasifying the residue and high polarity coal liquid to produce a synthesis gas which is used to form methanol. The methanol is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. J. Derbyshire; P. Varghese; D. D. Whitehurst</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49423628"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alumina-supported nickel catalysts for catalytic partial oxidation of methane in <span class="hlt">short</span>-contact <span class="hlt">time</span> reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work was the development and performance evaluation of alumina supported nickel catalysts for partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a self-sustained <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> fixed bed reactor using pure oxygen or air. It was also verified the attainment of relative constant temperatures in an appropriate range (750–1050°C) along the catalytic fixed bed independently of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luigi D. Vella; Stefania Specchia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.130h4503G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure and <span class="hlt">short-time</span> dynamics in suspensions of charged silica spheres in the entire fluid regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an experimental study of <span class="hlt">short-time</span> diffusion properties in fluidlike suspensions of monodisperse charge-stabilized silica spheres suspended in dimethylformamide. The static structure factor S(q), the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> diffusion function D(q), and the hydrodynamic function H(q) have been probed by combining x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments with static small-angle x-ray scattering. Our experiments cover the full liquid-state part of the phase diagram, including de-ionized systems right at the liquid-solid phase boundary. We show that the dynamic data can be consistently described by the renormalized density fluctuation expansion theory of Beenakker and Mazur over a wide range of concentrations and ionic strengths. In accordance with this theory and Stokesian dynamics computer simulations, the measured <span class="hlt">short-time</span> properties cross over monotonically, with increasing salt content, from the bounding values of salt-free suspensions to those of neutral hard spheres. Moreover, we discuss an upper bound for the hydrodynamic function peak height of fluid systems based on the Hansen-Verlet freezing criterion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gapinski, J.; Patkowski, A.; Banchio, A. J.; Buitenhuis, J.; Holmqvist, P.; Lettinga, M. P.; Meier, G.; Nägele, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23771440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">short-time</span> aerobic digestion on bioflocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">short-time</span> aerobic digestion on bioflocculation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. Bioflocculation of the EPS was found to be enhanced by 2?6 h of WAS aerobic digestion under the conditions of natural sludge pH (about 7), high sludge concentration by gravity thickening, and dissolved oxygen of about 2 mg/L. With the same EPS extraction method, the total suspended solid content reduction of 0.20 and 0.36 g/L and the volatile suspended solid content reduction of 0.19 and 0.26 g/L were found for the WAS samples before and after aerobic digestion of 4 h. It indicates that more EPS is produced by <span class="hlt">short-time</span> aerobic digestion of WAS. The scanning electron microscopy images of the WAS samples before and after aerobic digestion of 4 h showed that more EPS appeared on the surface of zoogloea by aerobic digestion, which reconfirmed that WAS aerobic digestion induced abundant formation of EPS. By WAS aerobic digestion, the flocculating rate of the EPS showed about 31 % growth, almost consistent with the growth of its yield (about 34 %). The EPSs obtained before and after the aerobic digestion presented nearly the same components, structures, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. These results revealed that <span class="hlt">short-time</span> aerobic digestion of WAS enhanced the flocculation of the EPS by promoting its production. PMID:23771440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiao; Zhao, Jianfu; Xia, Siqing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale approach combining nonadiabatic dynamics with long-<span class="hlt">time</span> radiative and non-radiative decay: dissociative ionization of heavy rare-gas tetramers <span class="hlt">revisited</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multiscale approach is proposed to address <span class="hlt">short-time</span> nonadiabatic dynamics and long-<span class="hlt">time</span> decay. We show the role of both radiative and non-radiative processes in cluster decay mechanisms on examples of rare-gas cluster fragmentation after electron impact ionization. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics is used as an efficient tool for theoretical study on femto- and picosecond scales and a multiscale approach based on kinetic rates of radiative as well as non-radiative transitions, both considered as parallel reaction channels, is used for the analysis of the long-<span class="hlt">time</span> system relaxation spanning <span class="hlt">times</span> over microseconds to infinity. While the radiative processes are typically slow, the system relaxation through non-radiative electronic transitions connected with electron-nuclear interchange of energy may, on the other hand, significantly vary in kinetic rates according to kinetic couplings between relevant adiabatic states. While the predictions of picosecond molecular dynamics themselves fail, the results of the multiscale model for the electron-impact post-ionization fragmentation of krypton and xenon tetramers are in agreement with experiment, namely, in leading to the conclusion that charged monomers prevail. More specifically, on microsecond and longer scales, mainly slow radiative processes are substantial for krypton cluster decay, while for xenon the radiative and slow non-radiative processes compete. In general, the role of slow decay processes through non-radiative transitions is comparable with the role of radiative decay mechanism. The novel multiscale model substantially improves theoretical predictions for the xenon tetramer decay and also further improves the good agreement between theory and experiment we reached previously for krypton. PMID:23387580</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jane?ek, Ivan; Jan?a, Tomáš; Naar, Pavel; Kalus, René; Gadea, Florent Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.138d4303J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale approach combining nonadiabatic dynamics with long-<span class="hlt">time</span> radiative and non-radiative decay: Dissociative ionization of heavy rare-gas tetramers <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multiscale approach is proposed to address <span class="hlt">short-time</span> nonadiabatic dynamics and long-<span class="hlt">time</span> decay. We show the role of both radiative and non-radiative processes in cluster decay mechanisms on examples of rare-gas cluster fragmentation after electron impact ionization. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics is used as an efficient tool for theoretical study on femto- and picosecond scales and a multiscale approach based on kinetic rates of radiative as well as non-radiative transitions, both considered as parallel reaction channels, is used for the analysis of the long-<span class="hlt">time</span> system relaxation spanning <span class="hlt">times</span> over microseconds to infinity. While the radiative processes are typically slow, the system relaxation through non-radiative electronic transitions connected with electron-nuclear interchange of energy may, on the other hand, significantly vary in kinetic rates according to kinetic couplings between relevant adiabatic states. While the predictions of picosecond molecular dynamics themselves fail, the results of the multiscale model for the electron-impact post-ionization fragmentation of krypton and xenon tetramers are in agreement with experiment, namely, in leading to the conclusion that charged monomers prevail. More specifically, on microsecond and longer scales, mainly slow radiative processes are substantial for krypton cluster decay, while for xenon the radiative and slow non-radiative processes compete. In general, the role of slow decay processes through non-radiative transitions is comparable with the role of radiative decay mechanism. The novel multiscale model substantially improves theoretical predictions for the xenon tetramer decay and also further improves the good agreement between theory and experiment we reached previously for krypton.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jane?ek, Ivan; Jan?a, Tomáš; Naar, Pavel; Kalus, René; Gadea, Florent Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54699549"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Stellar Ages and Masses of <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-ray Burst Host Galaxies: Investigating the Progenitor Delay <span class="hlt">Time</span> Distribution and the Role of Mass and Star Formation in the <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-ray Burst Rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present multi-band optical and near-infrared observations of 19 <span class="hlt">short</span> gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies, aimed at measuring their stellar masses and population ages. The goals of this study are to evaluate whether <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the stellar mass distribution of galaxies, to investigate the progenitor delay <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution, and to explore any connection between long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB progenitors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. N. Leibler; E. Berger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://college.holycross.edu/RePEc/eej/Archive/Volume30/V30N2P311_331.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Hirschman on Development Assistance and Unbalanced Growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is useful from <span class="hlt">time</span> to <span class="hlt">time</span> to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the pioneers in a field. The richness of their original thought is often diminished as new specialists in a field are educated or, rather, trained. Stylized caricatures and toy models out-compete nuanced multidisciplinary narratives in the competition for shelf-space in textbooks. After the students ingest the textbooks and go forth in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Ellerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.124a4902L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A mode coupling theory description of the <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">time</span> dynamics of nematogens in the isotropic phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experimental data are pre-sented on nematogens 4-(trans-4'-n-octylcyclohexyl)isothiocyanatobenzene (8-CHBT), and 4-(4'-pentyl-cyclohexyl)-benzonitrile (5-PCH) in the isotropic phase. The 8-CHBT and 5-PCH data and previously published data on 4'-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (5-CB) are analyzed using a modification of a schematic mode coupling theory (MCT) that has been successful in describing the dynamics of supercooled liquids. At long <span class="hlt">time</span>, the OHD-OKE data (orientational relaxation) are well described with the standard Landau-de Gennes (LdG) theory. The data decay as a single exponential. The decay <span class="hlt">time</span> diverges as the isotropic to nematic phase transition is approached from above. Previously there has been no theory that can describe the complex dynamics that occur at <span class="hlt">times</span> <span class="hlt">short</span> compared to the LdG exponential decay. Earlier, it has been noted that the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> nematogen dynamics, which consist of several power laws, have a functional form identical to that observed for the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> behavior of the orientational relaxation of supercooled liquids. The temperature-dependent orientational dynamics of supercooled liquids have recently been successfully described using a schematic mode coupling theory. The schematic MCT theory that fits the supercooled liquid data does not reproduce the nematogen data within experimental error. The similarities of the nematogen data to the supercooled liquid data are the motivation for applying a modification of the successful MCT theory to nematogen dynamics in the isotropic phase. The results presented below show that the new schematic MCT theory does an excellent job of reproducing the nematogen isotropic phase OHD-OKE data on all <span class="hlt">time</span> scales and at all temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jie; Cang, Hu; Andersen, Hans C.; Fayer, M. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/955118435g74027p.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span> does not cause forgetting in <span class="hlt">short</span>-term serial recall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-based theories expect memory performance to decline as the delay between study and recall of an item increases. The assumption\\u000a of <span class="hlt">time</span>-based forgetting, central to many models of serial recall, underpins their key behaviors. Here we compare the predictions\\u000a of <span class="hlt">time</span>-based and event-based models by simulation and test them in two experiments using a novel manipulation of the delay\\u000a between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephan Lewandowsky; Matthew Duncan; Gordon D. A. Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dea.brunel.ac.uk/cmsp/home_esfandiar/papers/eusipco_06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SPEECH ENHANCEMENT WITH KALMAN FILTERING THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-TIME</span> DFT TRAJECTORIES OF NOISE AND SPEECH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency estimator for en- hancement of noisy speech in the DFT domain. The <span class="hlt">time</span>- varying trajectories of the DFT of speech and noise in each channel are modelled by low order autoregressive processes incorporated in the state equation of Kalman filters. The parameters of the Kalman filters are estimated recursively from the signal and noise in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esfandiar Zavarehei; Saeed Vaseghi; Qin Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26925702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Particulate Matter Events by Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Single Particle Mass Spectrometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single particle measurements were made in Baltimore, Maryland from March to December 2002 using a real-<span class="hlt">time</span> single particle mass spectrometer, RSMS-3. Particle composition classes were identified that indicated how the aerosol composition changed with <span class="hlt">time</span>. The results were compared with collocated instruments giving particle number concentrations and size distributions, sulfate, nitrate, organic, and elemental carbon mass concentrations and total mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael P. Tolocka; Melissa S. Reinard; Derek A. Lake; John M. Ondov; Anthony S. Wexler; Murray V. Johnston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=71507"> <span id="translatedtitle">FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> NOISY <span class="hlt">TIME</span> SERIES. (R828745)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy <span class="hlt">time</span> series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the <span class="hlt">time</span> series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39657115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Males with <span class="hlt">short</span> horns spent more <span class="hlt">time</span> mating in the Japanese horned beetle Allomyrina dichotoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the relationships between male body and horn sizes and mating duration in the Japanese horned beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma. Smaller males possessing shorter horns spent more <span class="hlt">time</span> for copulation with a female and mounting the female without copulation. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the horn length is a determining factor for the <span class="hlt">time</span> spent by the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Karino; H. Niiyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://w3.ualg.pt/~mchichar/REBURIAL%20TIME%20Fish%20Res%2059%202002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> communication Reburial <span class="hlt">time</span> and indirect mortality of Spisula solida clams caused by dredging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clam-dredging results in the exposure of Spisula solida individuals not caught by the dredge. Subsequent survival depends on clam damage, reburial <span class="hlt">time</span>, and the <span class="hlt">time</span> needed by predators to reach the impacted area. We analyse these variables and discuss the importance of predation on exposed S. solida caused by dredge fishing. Sampling was performed in July 2000 off the southern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Chicharo; M. Chicharo; M. Gaspar; F. Alves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gospel+AND+of+AND+luke&id=EJ983492"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Dialogues and Monologues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kvernbekk, Tone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2011.09.015"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term sandbar variability based on video imagery: Comparison between <span class="hlt">Time</span>-Average and <span class="hlt">Time</span>-Variance techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-exposure intensity (averaged) images are commonly used to locate the nearshore sandbar position (xb), based on the cross-shore locations of maximum pixel intensity (xi) of the bright bands in the images. It is not known, however, how the breaking patterns seen in Variance images (i.e. those created through standard deviation of pixel intensity over <span class="hlt">time</span>) are related to the sandbar locations. We investigated the suitability of both <span class="hlt">Time</span>-exposure and Variance images for sandbar detection within a multiple bar system on the southern coast of Brazil, and verified the relation between wave breaking patterns, observed as bands of high intensity in these images and cross-shore profiles of modeled wave energy dissipation (xD). Not only is <span class="hlt">Time</span>-exposure maximum pixel intensity location (xi-Ti) well related to xb, but also to the maximum pixel intensity location of Variance images (xi-Va), although the latter was typically located 15m offshore of the former. In addition, xi-Va was observed to be better associated with xD even though xi-Ti is commonly assumed as maximum wave energy dissipation. Significant wave height (Hs) and water level (??) were observed to affect the two types of images in a similar way, with an increase in both Hs and ?? resulting in xi shifting offshore. This ??-induced xi variability has an opposite behavior to what is described in the literature, and is likely an indirect effect of higher waves breaking farther offshore during periods of storm surges. Multiple regression models performed on xi, Hs and ?? allowed the reduction of the residual errors between xb and xi, yielding accurate estimates with most residuals less than 10m. Additionally, it was found that the sandbar position was best estimated using xi-Ti (xi-Va) when xb was located shoreward (seaward) of its mean position, for both the first and the second bar. Although it is unknown whether this is an indirect hydrodynamic effect or is indeed related to the morphology, we found that this behavior can be explored to optimize sandbar estimation using video imagery, even in the absence of hydrodynamic data. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V..</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guedes, R. M. C.; Calliari, L. J.; Holland, K. T.; Plant, N. G.; Pereira, P. S.; Alves, F. N. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23882848"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominant formation of the microsized carbon coils by a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> SF6 flow incorporation during the initial deposition stage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By SF6 gas incorporation for relatively <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> during the initial deposition stage, carbon coils could be formed on nickel catalyst layer-deposited silicon oxide substrate using C2H2 and H2 as source gases under thermal chemical vapor deposition system. The characteristics (formation density and morphology) of as-grown carbon coils were investigated as a function of SF6 flow injection <span class="hlt">time</span>. 5-min SF6 flow injection <span class="hlt">time</span> is appropriate to produce the dominant microsized geometry for carbon coils without the appearance of the nanosized carbon coils. The geometry for the microsized carbon coils follows a typical double-helix structure and the shape of the rings constituting the coils is a flat-type. Fluorine's intrinsic etching characteristics for the nanosized carbon coils during the initial deposition stage seems to be the cause for the dominant formation of the microsized carbon coils in the case of 5-min SF6 flow injection <span class="hlt">time</span>. PMID:23882848</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeon, Young-Chul; Yi, Soung Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30207836"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spin-echo versus gradient-echo fMRI with <span class="hlt">short</span> echo <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blood-oxygen level dependent signal changes in the visual cortex were investigated as a function of echo <span class="hlt">time</span> with spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI at 1.5 T and 3 T. The linear relationship between the fractional signal change and the echo <span class="hlt">time</span> was apparent in all cases. Relaxation rate changes determined from the slope of this linear relation agree with published values,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. W Stroman; V Krause; U. N Frankenstein; K. L Malisza; B Tomanek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23307539"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> residence <span class="hlt">time</span> graphitization of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of graphitization <span class="hlt">time</span> and temperature on the properties of three mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers have been characterized. Graphitization temperatures studied were 2400, 2700, and 3000 °C and residence <span class="hlt">times</span> ranged from 0.7 to 3600 s. Helium pycnometry, measurements of fiber tow resistance, and X-ray diffraction were employed to study fiber properties. As anticipated, substantial variations in fiber properties</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. L. Greene; R. W. Schwartz; J. W. Treleaven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26716539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a pulse-injection <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> coal liquefaction flow reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A well-mixed reactor was developed to study the initial reaction pathways and mechanisms of direct coal liquefaction. This pulse-injection flow vessel exploits the reactor residence <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution to obtain an isothermal series of samples of well-defined holding <span class="hlt">times</span> from 10 to 900 s. The reactor design also allowed for quick and efficient procurement of optimally spaced and sized samples. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. C. Foley; W. D. Provine; N. D. Porro; C. LaMarca; M. T. Klein; C. G. Scouten; D. C. Cronauer; A. M. Tait</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...22040603C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eclipse <span class="hlt">Timing</span> Variations of <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Period Binaries in the Kepler Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2165 eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field have been identified and characterized by Prsa et al. (2011) and Slawson et al. (2011). Due to Kepler's essentially uninterrupted observing, we are presented with an opportunity to precisely measure eclipse <span class="hlt">timings</span> and detect any underlying signals due to third bodies, apsidal motion, dynamical interaction, etc. Orosz et al. (2012; in prep.) are focusing on eclipse <span class="hlt">timing</span> variations of binaries with periods longer than about 1 day. For shorter period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure <span class="hlt">time</span> causes significant smearing of lightcurves and may induce spurious signal for binaries of near-commensurate periods. These effects, along with imperfections in the detrending process, can result in systematic artifacts. To compute eclipse <span class="hlt">timing</span> variations, we fit a polynomial chain to the phased lightcurve data and slide this function across each eclipse to find the corresponding <span class="hlt">time</span> that minimizes the residuals. We tested this method on synthetic data and apply it to Kepler data. We present statistical results on eclipse <span class="hlt">timings</span> and discuss our findings. This project is supported through the Kepler Participating Scientist Award NSR303065.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, A.; Orosz, J.; Welsh, W.; Kepler Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002iaf..confE.925J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> Planning Turn-Around <span class="hlt">Time</span> and High Flexibility of the Swedish Astronomy/Aeronomy Satellite Odin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Swedish small satellite Odin combines two different scientific disciplines, astronomy and atmospheric research. It has a 3-axis stabilized, zero momentum, attitude control system that operates in two different modes, an inertial pointing astronomy mode and an atmospheric mode providing pointing/scanning of the Earth limb. The reference attitude for the atmospheric mode is created by a versatile reference attitude generator, providing also capability for observing and tracking any celestial or solar system objects. The absolute pointing requirements in the scientific modes are 15 arc-seconds inertial pointing and 1.2 arc-minutes in atmospheric mode reconstructed attitude. One part of the Odin mission is to observe the formation of the ozone holes at the poles in spring and fall and another is to observe moving celestial objects such as comets. The unpredictability of when such observation opportunities occur together with rapidly changing scientific demands put high requirements on a <span class="hlt">short</span> turn- around <span class="hlt">time</span> for the Operations Cycle - science demand, planning and command generation, reconstruction of attitude history, feedback and delivery to scientists. A small efficient team, including also members that was deeply involved with and responsible for the design and development of the system, has been a key to provide this a <span class="hlt">short</span> turn-around <span class="hlt">time</span> for the Operations Cycle. It is possible to safely reconfigure the satellite for either of two disciplines with <span class="hlt">short</span> notice and have a reconstructed attitude available to the users <span class="hlt">shortly</span> after the observations have been done. The small efficient team together with modular software based on MATLAB also facilitates in rapidly meeting new demands on the planning and attitude reconstruction from the users.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakobsson, B.; Karlsson, T.; Nylund, M.; Olsson, T.; Vinterhav, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10933"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical study of <span class="hlt">short</span> residence <span class="hlt">time</span> FCC riser flows with a new flow/kinetics modeling technique.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) technology is the most important process used by the refinery industry to convert crude oil to valuable lighter products such as gasoline. New and modified processes are constantly developed by refinery companies to improve their global competitiveness and meet more stringent environmental regulations. <span class="hlt">Short</span> residence <span class="hlt">time</span> FCC riser reactor is one of the advanced processes that the refining industry is actively pursuing because it can improve the yield selectivity and efficiency of an FCC unit. However, as the residence <span class="hlt">time</span> becomes shorter, the impact of the mixing between catalyst and feed oil at the feed injection region on the product yield becomes more significant. Currently, most FCC computer models used by the refineries perform sophisticated kinetic calculations on simplified flow field and can not be used to evaluate the impact of fluid mixing on the performance of an FCC unit. Argonne National Laboratory (AFL) is developing a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ICRKFLO for FCC riser flow modeling. The code, employing hybrid hydrodynamic-chemical kinetic coupling techniques, is used to investigate the effect of operating and design conditions on the product yields of FCC riser reactors. Numerical calculations were made using the code to examine the impacts of the operating and design conditions on the product yields. The controlling parameters under investigation include the residence <span class="hlt">time</span>, reaction temperature, and catalyst/oil ratio. This paper describes the CFD code, presents computation results, and discusses the effects of operating conditions on the performance of <span class="hlt">short</span> residence <span class="hlt">time</span> FCC riser reactors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, S. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21702064"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> echo-<span class="hlt">time</span> 3D radial gradient-echo MRI using concurrent dephasing and excitation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrashort echo-<span class="hlt">time</span> imaging and sweep imaging with Fourier transformation are powerful techniques developed for imaging ultrashort T(2) species. However, it can be challenging to implement them on standard clinical MRI systems due to demanding hardware requirements. In this article, the limits of what is possible in terms of the minimum echo-<span class="hlt">time</span> and repetition <span class="hlt">time</span> with 3D radial gradient-echo sequences, which can be readily implemented on a standard clinical scanner, are investigated. Additionally, a new 3D radial gradient-echo sequence is introduced, called COncurrent Dephasing and Excitation (CODE). The unique feature of CODE is that the initial dephasing of the readout gradient is performed during RF excitation, which allows CODE to effectively achieve echo-<span class="hlt">times</span> on the order of ?0.2 ms and larger in a clinical setting. The minimum echo-<span class="hlt">time</span> achievable with CODE is analytically described and compared with a standard 3D radial gradient-echo sequence. CODE was implemented on a clinical 3 T scanner (Siemens 3 T MAGNETOM Trio), and both phantom and in vivo human knee images are shown for demonstration. PMID:21702064</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jang-Yeon; Moeller, Steen; Goerke, Ute; Auerbach, Edward; Chamberlain, Ryan; Ellermann, Jutta; Garwood, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Geo....33..837C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> scales of magmatic assimilation from diffusion modeling of multiple elements in olivine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Open-system processes have a large capacity to modify magma compositions during differentiation. Obtaining the rates of such processes is essential to understanding and constraining the evolution of magmatic systems. Here we quantify the <span class="hlt">time</span> scales for magmatic assimilation of hydrous mafic to ultramafic cumulates by ascending basalts using the zoning patterns of olivine xenocrysts. Robust diffusion modeling results have been obtained by treating multiple compositional profiles for multiple elements (Fe-Mg, Ni, Mn, Ca) on multiple crystals from multiple flows. We find that the <span class="hlt">time</span> between assimilation and eruption ranges from a few months to ˜25 yr, although 80% of the results are <10 yr. These ranges are shorter than either magma transport <span class="hlt">times</span> from the mantle to the surface or typical repose periods of arc volcanoes. Thus, modification of the geochemical and mineralogical features of basalts by assimilation of plutonic rocks is a fast and probably unavoidable magmatic process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Costa, Fidel; Dungan, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1265..497G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and <span class="hlt">Time</span> Coincidence Detection of the Decay Chain of <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Lived Radioactive Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantum counting position sensitive pixel detector Timepix with per-pixel energy and <span class="hlt">time</span> resolution enables to detect radioactive ions and register the consecutive decay chain by simultaneous position-and <span class="hlt">time</span>-correlation. This spatial and <span class="hlt">timing</span> coincidence technique in the same sensor is demonstrated by the registration of the decay chain 8He-->? 8Li and 8Li-->?- 8Be-->?+? and by the measurement of the ? decay half-lives. Radioactive ions, selectively obtained from the Lohengrin fission fragment spectrometer installed at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble, are delivered to the Timepix silicon sensor where decays of the implanted ions and daughter nuclei are registered and visualized. We measure decay lifetimes in the range >= ?s with precision limited just by counting statistics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Köster, Ulli; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21343413W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Scale Variability of MWC349 in Optical and Radio Domains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our multi-year monitoring of MWC349 in optical domain (VRI) and in mm radio domain (hydrogen recombination lines and continuum) revealed long-term variability with the <span class="hlt">time</span> scales from months to years, amplitudes of a few tens of a magnitude in optical and a factor of 2 in radio, and some vague signs of possible periodicity. Looking for potential shorter-<span class="hlt">time</span> scale variability, we have closely monitored the star for several months in the spring and summer of 2008, in VRI and in R alone. During a part of this <span class="hlt">time</span>, we observed the star quasi-simultaneously in R and in the masing recombination line H35?, at 2mm. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) Apparently non-periodic, sporadic drops and rises of brightness of up to 0.1m in R occur on <span class="hlt">time</span> scales from a month to a few days; (2) The amplitude of the variations slightly increases toward shorter wavelengths; and (3) There is correlation of optical (R) and maser radiation on a <span class="hlt">time</span> scale of days, but the amplitude of the maser variations is greater. This behavior is compatible with the model, according to which the H35? maser in the circumstellar disk of MWC349 is pumped by the UV radiation of the central star and is unsaturated. The <span class="hlt">time</span> scale of the optical variability does not put severe constraints on the size of the emitting region (? 300 A.U.) This project was supported by the NSF/REU grant AST-0354056 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, Gary E.; Sperling, E.; Strelnitski, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11779682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting glaucomatous visual field deterioration through <span class="hlt">short</span> multivariate <span class="hlt">time</span> series modelling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In bio-medical domains there are many applications involving the modelling of multivariate <span class="hlt">time</span> series (MTS) data. One area that has been largely overlooked so far is the particular type of <span class="hlt">time</span> series where the dataset consists of a large number of variables but with a small number of observations. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel computational method based on genetic algorithms that bypasses the size restrictions of traditional statistical MTS methods, makes no distribution assumptions, and also locates the order and associated parameters as a whole step. We apply this method to the prediction and modelling of glaucomatous visual field deterioration. PMID:11779682</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swift, Stephen; Liu, Xiaohui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34404564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal-order judgment and reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> for <span class="hlt">short</span> and long stimuli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of intensity on visual latency was investigated. Visual latency was measured by two methods: simple motor reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> (RT) and temporalorder judgment (TOJ). It was found, in accordance with previous studies, that the changes in RT were larger than TOJ latency when measured in the same range of intensity. Moreover, the relationship between TOJ latency and intensity was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piotr Ja?kowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46566206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of wavelet and <span class="hlt">short-time</span> Fourier transform sonograms of normal and diabetic subjects’ electrogastrogram</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrogastrography (EGG) is a noninvasive way to record gastric electrical activity of stomach muscle by placing electrodes on the abdominal skin. Our goal was to investigate the frequency of abnormalities of the EGG in real clinical diabetic gastroparesis patients using WT method and to compare performance of STFT and WT methods in the case of <span class="hlt">time</span>–frequency resolution. The results showed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fatma Dirgenali; Sad?k Kara; ?ükrü Okkesim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9025811"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods for Probing Quasi-Periodic Oscillations on <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Scales.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal filter analysis techniques are employed in order to set constraints on the nature of possible relationships between Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in GX5-1 on <span class="hlt">time</span> scales near the QPO coherence length. Simulations...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Norris P. Hertz K. S. Wood B. A. Vaughan P. F. Michelson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..86...51B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of impulse response of Earth's climate system at <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is described for restoration of the impulse response h(t) of the Earth's climate system (ECS), which is regarded as a <span class="hlt">time</span>-invariant linear dynamic system whose input is the change in solar constant, and output—the global mean surface temperature anomalies. Search for solution of the ill-posed inverse problem is carried out on a compact set of non-negative, monotonically non-increasing, convex downward functions. This suggests that ECS may be a first-order dynamic system or a set of similar independent subsystems with different <span class="hlt">time</span> constants. Results of restoration of h(t) at <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals up to 100 months show that it is a rapidly decreasing function, which does not differ from zero for t>3 months. An estimate of the equivalent <span class="hlt">time</span> constant gives the average value of 1.04±0.17 months. The sensitivity of the ECS to changes in radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere is equal to 0.41±0.05 K W-1 m2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bogdanov, M. B.; Efremova, T. Yu.; Katrushchenko, A. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://165.124.30.8/Rymer/pubs/suresh%20ellis%20moore%20heckman.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Excitatory synaptic potentials in spastic human motoneurons have a <span class="hlt">short</span> rise-<span class="hlt">time</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed whether changes in size or <span class="hlt">time</span>-course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating spastic muscle could induce a greater synaptic response, and thereby contribute to reflex hyperexcitability. We compared motor unit (MU) firing patterns elicited by tendon taps applied to both spastic and contralateral (nonspastic) biceps brachii muscle in hemiparetic stroke subjects. Based on recordings of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nina L. Suresh; Michael D. Ellis; Jennifer Moore; Heather Heckman; William Zev Rymer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4277315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gaussian Mixture Modeling Using <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Fourier Transform Features for Audio Fingerprinting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In audio fingerprinting, an audio clip must be recognized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of previously computed fingerprints. The fingerprints should reduce the dimensionality of the input significantly, provide discrimination among different audio clips, and at the same <span class="hlt">time</span>, invariant to the distorted versions of the same audio clip. In this paper, we design fingerprints addressing the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arunan Ramalingam; Sridhar Krishnan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4439550"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gaussian Mixture Modeling of <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Fourier Transform Features for Audio Fingerprinting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In audio fingerprinting, an audio clip must be recognized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of previously computed fingerprints. The fingerprints should reduce the dimensionality of the input significantly, provide discrimination among different audio clips, and, at the same <span class="hlt">time</span>, be invariant to distorted versions of the same audio clip. In this paper, we design fingerprints addressing the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arunan Ramalingam; Sridhar Krishnan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36979350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preventive Effects of Lamaze Training for First-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Parents: A <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Longitudinal Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate whether Lamaze Childbirth Preparation prevents negative effects on the marital relationship typically experienced by first-<span class="hlt">time</span> parents, 39 couples who participated in Lamaze training and 37 couples who did not completed questionnaires 3 months before birth, 1 week after birth, and 9–10 weeks after birth. Results indicated that the Lamaze group reported approximately the same levels of marital satisfaction,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard J. Markman; Frederick S. Kadushin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=first+AND+time+AND+parents&pg=5&id=EJ348863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preventive Effects of Lamaze Training for First-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Parents: A <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Longitudinal Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-<span class="hlt">time</span> parents completed questionnaires 3 months before childbirth and 1 and 9-10 weeks after birth. Found that 39 Lamaze-trained couples reported similar levels of marital satisfaction, state anxiety, and birth-related problems at all testings, while 37 non-Lamaze trained couples showed decreases in marital satisfaction and increases in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markman, Howard J.; Kadushin, Frederick S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4105038T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Events, Coherence, and Structural Dynamics in Photochemistry of Aqueous Halogenated Transition Metal Dianions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved x-ray absorption, and computational photochemistry elucidate the photochemical pathway of hexabromoplatinate dianions that propagates through distortions of nascent penta-bromoplatinate anions caused by Jahn-Teller conical intersections and terminates at aquated product complexes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarnovsky, A. N.; Zheldakov, I. L.; El-Khoury, P. Z.; Pal, S. K.; Mereshchenko, A. S.; Ryazantsev, M. N.; Butaeva, E. V.; Pascher, T.; Uhlig, J.; Milne, C. J.; Johnson, S. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6063301"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Model to <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Power Load Forecasting Combining Chaotic <span class="hlt">Time</span> Series and SVM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate forecasting of electricity load has been one of the most important issues in the electricity industry. Recently, along with power system privatization and deregulation, accurate forecast of electricity load has received increasing attention. According to the chaotic and non-linear characters of power load data, the model of support vector machines (SVM) based on Lyapunov exponents was established. The <span class="hlt">time</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36508180"> <span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Time</span> Is of the Essence: Averaging, Aspiration, and the <span class="hlt">Short</span> Run</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of experiments have demonstrated that people's choices among gambles differ according to whether the gamble is to be played just once (the unique case) or multiple <span class="hlt">times</span> (the repeated case). The reason for this difference appears to be that people are acting in each case so as to increase the likelihood that the chosen alternative will leave them</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lola L. Lopes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52482752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> scale variability of the Jovian UV aurora and simulation of morphological patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A database of far ultraviolet auroral images collected with the Faint Object Camera and Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) on board the Hubble Space Telescope has been constructed over the last five years. Some morphological features are recurrent but significant <span class="hlt">time</span> variations are also observed. A set of WFPC2 images obtained in May 1997 shows that, within a relatively stable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Gerard; D. Grodent; V. Dols; G. R. Gladstone; J. H. Waite; J. T. Clarke; G. E. Ballester; J. Trauger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55538413"> <span id="translatedtitle">V405 Andromeda <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a multi-epoch <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved high-resolution optical spectroscopy study of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-period (P orb = 11.2 hr) eclipsing M0V+M5V RS CVn binary V405 Andromeda. By means of indirect imaging techniques, namely Doppler imaging, we study the surface activity features of the M0V component of the system. A modified version of a Doppler imaging code, which takes into account the tidal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Ribeiro; R. Baptista; S. Kafka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-day and partial sleep deprivation on <span class="hlt">short</span>-term maximal performances of judo competitors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed the effects of partial sleep deprivation on <span class="hlt">short</span>-term maximal performances of judokas in the morning and afternoon of the following day. In a randomized design, 12 judokas completed the maximal voluntary contraction, the handgrip, and the Wingate tests before and after a judo combat. Measurements were performed at 09:00 and 16:00 hours after a reference-normal sleep night and 2 conditions of 4-hour partial sleep deprivation <span class="hlt">timed</span> at the beginning (SDB) or at the end of the night (SDE). The results showed that muscle power and strength were significantly higher at 16:00 than 09:00 hours (p < 0.05). These diurnal variations disappeared after SDB and SDE and after the combat. In addition, SDE resulted in significant decreases of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term maximal performance in the afternoon (p < 0.01). In conclusion, SDE decreased muscle strength and power at 16:00 hours and, therefore, might have blunted the diurnal variations of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term maximal exercise. Thus, early rising is more detrimental than late bedtime to muscle strength and power for judo athletes when competitions are scheduled in the afternoon hours. PMID:23974210</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Souissi, Nizar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Dogui, Mohamed; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IAUS..271..288J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> delays influence the variability of the solar cycle?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the effects of introducing results of 3D MHD simulations of buoyant magnetic fields in the solar convection zone in 2D mean-field Babcock-Leighton models. In particular, we take into account the <span class="hlt">time</span> delay introduced by the rise <span class="hlt">time</span> of the toroidal structures from the base of the convection zone to the solar surface. We find that the delays produce large temporal modulation of the cycle amplitude even when strong and thus rapidly rising flux tubes are considered. The study of a reduced model reveals that aperiodic modulations of the solar cycle appear after a sequence of period doubling bifurcations typical of non-linear systems. We also discuss the memory of such systems and the conclusions which may be drawn concerning the actual solar cycle variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jouve, Laurène; Proctor, Michael R. E.; Lesur, Geoffroy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhLB..368..244A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Test of the exponential decay law at <span class="hlt">short</span> decay <span class="hlt">times</span> using tau leptons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantum mechanics predicts an exponential distribution for the decay <span class="hlt">time</span> of massive particles. However, deviations are expected for decay <span class="hlt">times</span> shorter than about 10-13 s in models conjecturing the existence of hidden variables. Following a recent proposal, the decay length distribution of 5843 ? leptons decaying into 3 charged particles was analyzed in search of such a deviation. The deviation from an exponential distribution with respect to the number of decays present within the exponential form, expressed as the relative weight of an excess at zero decay length, was measured to be 1.1% +/- 1.4% +/- 3.5%. This result is consistent with zero deviation and leads to an upper limit of 8.5% and a lower limit of -6.3% at the 95% confidence level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Ametewee, K.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Beaudoin, G.; Bechtluft, J.; Beck, G. A.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A. N.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bloomer, J. E.; Bock, P.; Bosch, H. M.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B. T.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Bürgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang Y., C.; Charlesworth, C.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; L. Chu, S.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clowes, S. G.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Darling, C.; de Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; Dixit, M. S.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dunwoody, U. C.; Edwards, J. E. G.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Evans, H. G.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbro, B.; Fath, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fischer, H. M.; Folman, R.; Fong, D. G.; Foucher, M.; Fukui, H.; Fürtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gaidot, A.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Geddes, N. I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hilse, T.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Howard, R.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; King, B. J.; King, J.; Kirk, J.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W. P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Layter, J. G.; Lee, A. M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lewis, C.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Luig, A.; Malik, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Matthews, W.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McNab, A. I.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Müller, U.; Nellen, B.; Nijjhar, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oldershaw, N. J.; Omori, T.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Palazzo, M.; Pálinkás, J.; Palmonari, F. M.; Pansart, J. P.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Pearce, M. J.; Phillips, P. D.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Pritchard, T. W.; Przysiezniak, H.; Rees, D. E.; Rigby, D.; Rison, M. G.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A. M.; Rosvick, M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Rylko, R.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sasaki, M.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schröder, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Schulz, M.; Schütz, P.; Schwiening, J.; Scott, W. G.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Starks, M.; Stegmann, C.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Strom, D.; Strumia, F.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Takeda, H.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Tecchio, M.; Tesch, N.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Towers, S.; Tscheulin, M.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Utzat, P.; van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Vikas, P.; Vincter, M.; Vokurka, E. H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, D. L.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Ward, J. J.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wlodek, T.; Wolf, G.; Wotton, S.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xella, S.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of long and <span class="hlt">short</span> relaxation <span class="hlt">times</span> of particle interactions in dense and slow granular flows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, dense granular flows are numerically simulated using a discrete element method. The interaction of a pair of colliding particles is modeled as a parallel connection of a linear spring and a linear dashpot. Although the force model for particle interactions is simplistic for many practical problems, a significant amount of meaningful new physics can be extracted from the numerical simulations by studying the behavior of particle interaction <span class="hlt">time</span> and its probability distribution. For instance, it is found that the probability distribution of particle contact ages is exponential for long-term contacts. The <span class="hlt">time</span> scale of the exponential decay of the contact age probability is related to the rheological properties of the dense granular medium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, D. Z. (Duan Z.); Rauenzahn, Rick M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~nagaraja/J25.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> Fourier transform algorithm for wind response control of buildings with variable stiffness TMD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new semi-active variable stiffness tuned mass damper (SAIVS-TMD) system, developed by the authors, is capable of continuously varying its stiffness and retuning its frequency in real <span class="hlt">time</span>. The tuned mass damper (TMD) system can only be tuned to a fixed frequency, which is the first mode frequency of the building. The SAIVS-TMD system is robust to changes in building</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satish Nagarajaiah; Nadathur Varadarajan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biophysics.com/pages/pubs/pdf/March2008/haibo_article.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> communication Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential <span class="hlt">time</span>-domain spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used terahertz differential <span class="hlt">time</span>-domain spectroscopy (THz-DTDS) to measure minute changes of bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells (BLMVEC) in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These changes were reflected by alterations in THz wave attenuations and THz dielectric properties of the treated cells. The VEGF-induced THz attenuations of cell monolayers correlated well with changes in transendothelial resistance, as measured</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hai-Bo Liu; George Plopper; Sarah Earley; Yunqing Chen; Bradley Ferguson; X.-C. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30209389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiotherapy with thrice-a-day fractionation in a <span class="hlt">short</span> overall <span class="hlt">time</span>: clinical experiences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forty-seven patients with head and neck cancer were treated with thrice-a-day fractionation (200 rad Co⁶° three <span class="hlt">times</span> per day, 5 days per week) to a total tumor dose of 4800 to 5400 rad over 9 to 11 days. Of this group, 22 advanced oral and pharyngo-laryngeal cancer patients had a 24-month follow-up. While early tolerance and skin reaction were quite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giuseppe Peracchia; Cesare Salti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40191074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic study of thermal inactivation of potato peroxidase during high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal inactivation curves for peroxidase in potato extracts were determined in the range of 100 to 140°C for 10 to 100 sec.\\u000a The capillary tube method was used to obtain isothermal conditions. The come-up <span class="hlt">time</span> for the capillary tubes was accurately\\u000a calculated by analysis method by which thermal inactivation kinetics of enzymes in relation to high temperature processing\\u000a would be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bo Yu; Zhengyu Jin; Li Deng; Xueming Xu; Lifeng He; Jinpeng Wang; Yaoqi Tian; Hanqing Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/6a2tf4g46634a5j8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span> estimation in Parkinson's disease: normal long duration estimation despite impaired <span class="hlt">short</span> duration discrimination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been claimed that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are deficient in estimating and reproducing <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals\\u000a in the range of seconds. This deficit is more severe when subjects are requested to count internally during the demanded intervals,\\u000a and when the rate of internal counting is fast. The observed deficit might therefore reflect slow internal counting, i. e.\\u000a motor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jürg M. Riesen; Armin Schnider</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51190561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spurious-Free <span class="hlt">Time</span>-to-Digital Conversion in an ADPLL Using <span class="hlt">Short</span> Dithering Sequences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose an enhancement to the digital phase detection mechanism in an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) by randomization of the frequency reference using carefully chosen dither sequences. This dithering renders the digital phase detector, realized as a <span class="hlt">time</span>-to-digital converter (TDC), free from any phase domain spurious tones generated as a consequence of an ill-conditioned sampling of the feedback variable oscillator</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khurram Waheed; Robert Bogdan Staszewski; Fikret Dulger; Mahbuba S. Ullah; Socrates D. Vamvakos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhL..91s3901M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound surgery with a toric transducer allows the treatment of large volumes over <span class="hlt">short</span> periods of <span class="hlt">time</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal ablation by physical agents is widely used in clinical settings, but it generally results in a small coagulated volume. Here, we report that a technologically advanced high intensity focused ultrasound transducer can significantly enlarge the coagulated volume over <span class="hlt">short</span> periods of <span class="hlt">time</span>. Eight ultrasound emitters were created by sectioning a single toric piezocomposite transducer. A single thermal lesion is created when the eight emitters perform alternative and consecutive 5 s ultrasound exposures. This paper presents in vivo evidence that the coagulated volume obtained from a 40 s total exposure in the liver was 8.6+/-4.8 cm3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melodelima, David; N'djin, William A.; Parmentier, Hubert; Chesnais, Sabrina; Rivoire, Michel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10193781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Progress report, May 16, 1994--September 15, 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). This reactor is simple enough and low enough in cost to serve as a suitable replacement for the traditional tubing-bomb reactors for many coal liquefaction and other high-pressure, high-temperature reaction studies. The liquefaction of selected Argonne Premium coals and the role of organic oxygen components of the coal and their reaction pathways at very low conversions are being investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16241281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long- and <span class="hlt">short-time</span> analysis of heartbeat sequences: correlation with mortality risk in congestive heart failure patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze RR heartbeat sequences with a dynamic model that satisfactorily reproduces both the long- and the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> statistical properties of heart beating. These properties are expressed quantitatively by means of two significant parameters, the scaling delta concerning the asymptotic effects of long-range correlation, and the quantity 1-pi establishing the amount of uncorrelated fluctuations. We find a correlation between the position in the phase space (delta, pi) of patients with congestive heart failure and their mortality risk. PMID:16241281</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allegrini, P; Balocchi, R; Chillemi, S; Grigolini, P; Hamilton, P; Maestri, R; Palatella, L; Raffaelli, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PlST...14.1116L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study on Performance Parameters of the Plasma Source for a <span class="hlt">Short-Conduction-Time</span> Plasma Opening Switch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plasma source performance parameters, including plasma ejection density and velocity, greatly affect the operation of a <span class="hlt">short-conduction-time</span> plasma opening switch (POS). In this paper, the plasma source used in the POS of Qiangguang I generator is chosen as the study object. At first the POS working process is analyzed. The result shows that the opening performance of the POS can be improved by increasing the plasma ejection velocity and decreasing the plasma density. The influence of the cable plasma gun structure and number on the plasma ejection parameters is experimentally investigated with two charge collectors. Finally a semi-empirical model is proposed to describe the experimental phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Weixi; Zeng, Zhengzhong; Wang, Liangping; Lei, Tianshi; Hu, Yixiang; Huang, Tao; Sun, Tieping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6877951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integration of <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> liquefaction and critical solvent deashing with gasification through methanol-to-gasoline</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coal is processed by liquefying the coal with a hydrogen-donor solvent under a <span class="hlt">short-contact-time</span> liquefaction, separating the coal liquid effluent into liquid phases of distinct polarity and an undissolved coal residue, upgrading a portion of the liquid phase, gasifying the residue and high polarity coal liquid to produce a synthesis gas which is used to form methanol. The methanol is catalytically converted to gasoline products. Solvents for liquefaction and effluent separation can be derived from the upgraded liquid phase, methanol and gasoline products. Hydrogen for liquefaction, methanol synthesis and upgrading is derived from the synthesis gas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Derbyshire, F.J.; Varghese, P.; Whitehurst, D.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-04-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554808"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal <span class="hlt">short-time</span> acquisition schemes in high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work investigates the possibilities of applying high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging- (HARDI-) based methods in a clinical setting by investigating the performance of non-Gaussian diffusion probability density function (PDF) estimation for a range of b-values and diffusion gradient direction tables. It does so at realistic SNR levels achievable in limited <span class="hlt">time</span> on a high-performance 3T system for the whole human brain in vivo. We use both computational simulations and in vivo brain scans to quantify the angular resolution of two selected reconstruction methods: Q-ball imaging and the diffusion orientation transform. We propose a new analytical solution to the ODF derived from the DOT. Both techniques are analytical decomposition approaches that require identical acquisition and modest postprocessing <span class="hlt">times</span> and, given the proposed modifications of the DOT, can be analyzed in a similar fashion. We find that an optimal HARDI protocol given a stringent <span class="hlt">time</span> constraint (<10?min) combines a moderate b-value (around 2000?s/mm(2)) with a relatively low number of acquired directions (>48). Our findings generalize to other methods and additional improvements in MR acquisition techniques. PMID:23554808</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pr?kovska, V; Achterberg, H C; Bastiani, M; Pullens, P; Balmashnova, E; Ter Haar Romeny, B M; Vilanova, A; Roebroeck, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CaJPh..84..311M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure on <span class="hlt">short</span>-sprint race <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind-gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in <span class="hlt">times</span> (0.01 s per 10 degrees C increment in the 100 m), while relative humidity contributes the least (under 0.01 s for all realistic conditions for 100 m). Barometric pressure variations at a particular venue can also introduce fluctuations in performance <span class="hlt">times</span> on the order of a 0.01 s for this race. The combination of all three variables is essentially additive, and is more important for head-wind conditions that for tail-winds. As expected, calculated corrections in the 200 m are magnified due to the longer duration of the race. The overall effects of these factors on sprint <span class="hlt">times</span> can be considered a ``second order'' adjustment to previous methods that rely strictly on a venue's physical elevation, but can become important in extreme conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mureika, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/110983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and butane over monoliths at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The autothermal production of olefins from propane or n-butane by oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking in air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure over noble metal coated ceramic foam monoliths at contact <span class="hlt">times</span> of {approximately}5 milliseconds has been studied. On Pt, synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) dominates near its stoichiometry, while olefin production dominates at higher fuel-to-oxygen ratios. No carbon buildup is observed, and catalysts exhibit no deactivation over at least several days. On Rh, primarily synthesis gas is produced under these conditions, while on Pd, carbon deposition rapidly deactivates the catalyst. The authors observed up to 65% selectivity to olefins at nearly 100% conversion of propane or n-butane with a catalyst contact <span class="hlt">time</span> of 5 ms. Ethylene selectivity is maximized by increasing the reaction temperature, either by preheating the reactants or by using oxygen enriched air. Propylene selectivity is maximized by lower temperature and shorter catalyst contact <span class="hlt">time</span>. Very small amounts alkanes and higher molecular weight species are obtained, suggesting that a homogeneous pyrolysis mechanism is not occurring. A very simple reaction mechanism appears to explain the observed product distribution. Reactions are initiated by oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane by adsorbed oxygen to form a surface alkyl. On Pt, {beta}-hydrogen and {beta}-alkyl elimination reactions of adsorbed alkyl dominate which lead to olefin production rather than cracking to C{sub s} and H{sub s}. 24 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ESASP.296..557N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods for probing quasi-periodic oscillations on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optimal filter analysis techniques are employed in order to set constraints on the nature of possible relationships between Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in GX5-1 on <span class="hlt">time</span> scales near the QPO coherence length. Simulations afford comparison with theory and calibrate the high noise bias. Models in which LFN shots modulate sinusoidal QPOs are explored for shot rates approx. 400 Hz and shot clustering fractions approx. 50 percent. The models are found to be incompatible with the data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norris, J. P.; Hertz, P.; Wood, K. S.; Vaughan, B. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Dotani, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21356140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Picosecond <span class="hlt">time</span> scale dynamics of <span class="hlt">short</span> pulse laser-driven shocks in tin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dynamics of high strain rate shock waves driven by a subnanosecond laser pulse in thin tin slabs have been investigated. These shocks, with pressure up to 1 Mbar, have been diagnosed with an 800 nm wavelength ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe configuration, which measured reflectivity and two-dimensional interferometry of the expanding rear surface. <span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved rear surface expansion data suggest that we reached pressures necessary to shock melt tin upon compression. Reflectivity measurements, however, show an anomalously high drop in the tin reflectivity for free standing foils, which can be attributed to microparticle formation at the back surface when the laser-driven shock releases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigsby, W.; Bowes, B. T.; Dalton, D. A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Bless, S.; Downer, M. C.; Taleff, E.; Ditmire, T. [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, University Of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1510, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Colvin, J. [Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4878642"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between economic development and business ownership <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper <span class="hlt">revisits</span> the two-equation model of Carree, van Stel, Thurik and Wennekers (2002) where deviations from the ‘equilibrium’ rate of business ownership play a central role in determining both the growth of business ownership and that of economic development. Two extensions of the original set-up are addressed: using longer <span class="hlt">time</span> series of averaged data of 23 OECD countries (up</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Carree; André Van Stel; Roy Thurik; Sander Wennekers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925691"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> term effect of rainfall on suspected malaria episodes at Magaria, Niger: a <span class="hlt">time</span> series study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epidemiological patterns of malaria are influenced by different kinds of climate. In Sahelian countries, the link between climatic factors and malaria is still insufficiently quantified. The aim of this work was to conduct a <span class="hlt">time</span>-series study of rainfall to estimate the increased risk of malaria morbidity. Daily suspected malaria episodes among subjects of all ages were collected retrospectively in three health care facilities between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2003 at Magaria, Niger. These daily numbers were analysed with <span class="hlt">time</span>-series methods, using generalized additive models with a negative binomial family. The impact of rainfall 40 days before occurrence of suspected malaria episodes was studied using a distributed lag model. More than 13 000 suspected malaria episodes were registered corresponding to an annual cumulative incidence rate of 7.4%. The overall excess risk of suspected malaria episodes for an increase of 1mm of rainfall after 40 days of exposure was estimated at 7.2%. This study allowed to specify the excess risk of rainfall on the occurrence of suspected malaria episodes in an intermediate rainfall area located in the Sahelian region in Niger. It was a first step to a health impact assessment. PMID:21925691</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jusot, Jean-François; Alto, Oumarou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/ScoutReport/2007/scout-070720#1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Despite strong lobbying, congestion pricing falls <span class="hlt">short</span> for the <span class="hlt">time</span> being in New York City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terror police to track capital's carshttp://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article2091023.eceTransportation Alternatives: Congestion Pricinghttp://www.transalt.org/campaigns/sensible/congestion.htmlImplementing Road and Congestion Pricing-Lessons From Singapore (2005) [pdf]http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-71464.htmlStraphangers Campaignhttp://www.straphangers.org/Annals of Transport: There and Back Againhttp://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/04/16/070416fa_fact_paumgartenCongestion of the vehicular sort is a problem that continues to vex major cities across the world. Whether it be a long line of cars moving like slow-moving maple syrup off an exit from a so-called "expressway" or a phalanx of delivery trucks double-parked, congestion results in lost productivity and at <span class="hlt">times</span>, even maddening frustration. Some cities, such as London and Singapore, have adopted congestion pricing schemes for vehicles entering certain roadways, districts, tunnels, or bridges during peak travel <span class="hlt">times</span>. London has had a scheme in place like this since 2003, and Singapore has had one since 1975. Mayor Michael Bloomberg of New York was rather keen on starting one as part of the city's long-term sustainability plan, but it was shelved earlier this week. Appropriately enough, Bloomberg floated the congestion pricing idea on Earth Day 2007, but legislators in the state capitol of Albany said that Bloomberg didn't address a number of rather basic questions about his proposal. After the proposal failed to pass this past Monday, Bloomberg commented, "I heard a lot of talk about the politics of congestion pricing, and all I kept thinking about was some people have guts, and some don't." To enter the world of congestion pricing, visitors should start by reading through the first link, which happens to be a piece on the recent debate over introducing such a measure in New York which appeared in this Tuesday's New York <span class="hlt">Times</span>. The second link will take interested parties to a piece from the <span class="hlt">Times</span> of London which talks about how the congestion charge cameras in London will be used to address the "enduring threat" of terrorist car bombings. Moving on, the third link leads to a primer on congestion pricing offered by the Transportation Alternatives organization. The fourth link will whisk users away to a paper and presentation on the subject of implementing road and congestion pricing authored by Jeremy Yap, who serves as the deputy director for Singapore's Ministry of Transport. The fifth link leads to the homepage of New York's famed Straphangers Campaign, which has been advocating for the city's subway and bus riders since 1979. Here visitors can view awards as the "Pokeys" (slowest buses in the city) and lists of "The Unreliables", which are buses that tend to arrive in bunches or with big gaps during the day. Of course, there are also polls, reports, and a "Fun & Games" section. The last link leads to a very nice article from the April 16, 2007 New Yorker. This article documents, in great detail, what can only be described as "extreme commuting" on the part of stoic individuals in San Jose, Atlanta, and other regions around the US.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ArRMA.181..449A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation Dynamics: <span class="hlt">Short-time</span> Existence and Uniqueness of the Solution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study a mathematical model describing dislocation dynamics in crystals. We consider a single dislocation line moving in its slip plane. The normal velocity is given by the Peach-Koehler force created by the dislocation line itself. The mathematical model is an eikonal equation with a velocity which is a non-local quantity depending on the whole shape of the dislocation line. We study the special case where the dislocation line is assumed to be a graph or a closed loop. In the framework of discontinuous viscosity solutions for Hamilton-Jacobi equations, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for small <span class="hlt">time</span>. We also give physical explanations and a formal derivation of the mathematical model. Finally, we present numerical results based on a level-sets formulation of the problem. These results illustrate in particular the fact that there is no general inclusion principle for this model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez, Olivier; Hoch, Philippe; Bouar, Yann Le; Monneau, Régis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChJCP..25....5M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Raman Scattering at Resonant or Near-Resonant Conditions: A Generalized <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Approximation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the dynamics of resonant Raman scattering in the course of the frequency detuning. The dephasing in the <span class="hlt">time</span> domain makes the scattering fast when the photon energy is tuned from the absorption resonance. This makes frequency detuning to act as a camera shutter with a regulated scattering duration and provides a practical tool of controlling the scattering <span class="hlt">time</span> in ordinary stationary measurements. The theory is applied to resonant Raman spectra of a couple of few-mode model systems and to trans-1,3,5-hexatriene and guanine-cytosine (G-C) Watson-Crick base pairs (DNA) molecules. Besides some particular physical effects, the regime of fast scattering leads to a simplification of the spectrum as well as to the scattering theory itself. Strong overtones appear in the Raman spectra when the photon frequency is tuned in the resonant region, while in the mode of fast scattering, the overtones are gradually quenched when the photon frequency is tuned more than one vibrational quantum below the first absorption resonance. The detuning from the resonant region thus leads to a strong purification of the Raman spectrum from the contamination by higher overtones and soft modes and purifies the spectrum also in terms of avoidance of dissociation and interfering fluorescence decay of the resonant state. This makes frequency detuning a very useful practical tool in the analysis of the resonant Raman spectra of complex systems and considerably improves the prospects for using the Raman effect for detection of foreign substances at ultra-low concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Sun, Yu-Ping; Miao, Quan; Ågren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8776206"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span> course of anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditure during <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exhaustive running in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the present study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">time</span> course of aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during supramaximal exhaustive running on the treadmill in sprint and endurance athletes. In addition, the relationships between O2 deficit, excess post-exercise O2 consumption (EPOC) and peak post-exercise blood lactate concentration (peak BLa) values were examined, Oxygen uptake during the exhaustive run and 15 min recovery period was measured using a breath-by-breath method. The accumulated O2 deficit was calculated by an extrapolation procedure. Total running <span class="hlt">time</span> was the same for eight male sprint runners (49.5 +/- 6.0s) and for six male endurance athletes (49.4 +/- 5.3 s). The sprint group had significantly higher O2 deficit (p < 0.01) during the run as well as higher peak BLa (p < 0.05) and EPOC (p < 0.01) after the run than the endurance group. The relative contribution of anaerobic energy yield decreased from 80% to 60% during the first 15 s of the exhaustive run in both groups. The VO2 peaked and was almost unchanged from 25th to 40th s of the run in both groups, although only 79% of their VO2max was attained. The relative contribution of aerobic energy yield was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the endurance (54-63%) than in the sprint group (43-47%) during the second half of the run. No correlation was found between the O2 deficit and EPOC but peak BLa correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with the O2 deficit (r = 0.53) and EPOC (r = 0.53). In conclusion, the energy release of the sprint and endurance athletes was different only during the second half of the exhaustive supramaximal run, when the sprinters used more the anaerobic and endurance athletes aerobic pathways for energy production. PMID:8776206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nummela, A; Rusko, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPYO5009E"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-Resolved X-Ray Brightness Measurements from <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Pulse, Laser-Irradiated Thin Foils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The production of soft x rays (˜keV) from high-intensity, <span class="hlt">short</span>-pulse laser plasmas is important for future applications such as backlighting cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The physics of <span class="hlt">short</span>-pulse laser--plasma interactions and the coupling of laser energy into both the thermal plasma and fast electrons were studied to optimize x-ray production from mass-limited aluminum foil targets. Foil targets of various sizes from 50 to 500 ?m were irradiated with picosecond pulse duration laser pulses at intensities similar to OMEGA area backlighter schemes (10^18 to >10^19 W/cm^2). The <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved x-ray emission was measured with a conically curved crystal coupled with an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. The He? and the Ly? line emission from aluminum foils was spectrally measured and temporally resolved. In addition, the x-ray source was characterized with a calibrated <span class="hlt">time</span>-integrated spectrograph and spatially resolved images were taken with a spherically curved Bragg crystal. The combination of these measurements allows the brilliance of the x-ray line source to be inferred. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eichman, B.; Theobald, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Sangster, T. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhLA..286..217B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic and geometric analysis of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> series: a new comparative approach to cell-based biosensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Letter describes two approaches for sensing changes in spiking cells when only a limited amount of spike data is available. The first method detects changes in dynamically constructed local expansion rates, and the other uses spike area distributions. These two methods were tested on <span class="hlt">time</span> series from cultured neurons. Over-sampled data was generated from experiments on single cells before and after being treated with a small concentration of channel blocker, but relatively few spikes were recorded. In the spontaneously spiking cells, the local expansion rates showed a sensitivity that correlated with the channel concentration level, while the driven cells showed no such correlation. Spike area distributions showed measurable differences between control and treated conditions for both types of spiking, and a much higher degree of sensitivity. Because these methods are based on analysis of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> series analysis, they might provide novel means for cell drug and toxin detection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Billings, L.; Schwartz, I. B.; Pancrazio, J. J.; Schnur, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784418"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Isochronous <span class="hlt">Time</span>-of-Flight Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Lived Projectile Fragments in the ESR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method for precise mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short</span>-lived hot nuclei is presented. These nuclei were produced via projectile fragmentation, separated with the FRS and injected into the storage ring ESR being operated in the isochronous mode. The revolution <span class="hlt">time</span> of the ions is measured with a <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight detector sensitive to single particles. This new method allows access to exotic nuclei with half-lives in the microsecond region. First results from this novel method obtained with measurements on neutron-deficient fragments of a chromium primary beam with half-lives down to 50 ms are reported. A precision of {delta}m/m {<=} 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -6} has been achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stadlmann, J.; Geissel, H.; Hausmann, M.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Schatz, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Falch, M.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Kerscher, Th.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Loebner, K.E.G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Steck, M.; Sun, Z.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and <span class="hlt">time</span> is <span class="hlt">short</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over <span class="hlt">time</span>, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare. PMID:24101975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3790532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and <span class="hlt">time</span> is <span class="hlt">short</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over <span class="hlt">time</span>, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdRS....8..167H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and realization of a broadband single-side-band mixer with a very <span class="hlt">short</span> settling <span class="hlt">time</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To achieve high range resolution in synthetic aperture radar imaging a frequency synthesizer with high bandwidth is a possible solution. To operate in the required frequency band an LF-signal usually has to be upconverted. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a broadband Single-Side-Band Mixer with a very <span class="hlt">short</span> settling <span class="hlt">time</span> between frequency steps of arbitrary length inside a high bandwidth. Compared to already existing SSB-Mixers, our novel concept has three major advantages: At first, the mixer could be used in combination with an arbitrary signal source. Due to a modular circuit concept it is possible to use the system for different input frequency ranges. Moreover, just by changing single modules, the output frequency-range can be adapted to individual requirements. Thirdly, as a main advantage, the system is able to generate a high frequency output span with a very fast settling <span class="hlt">time</span> between frequency steps. Even with applied steps up to 400 MHz, the settling <span class="hlt">time</span> remains below 3 ?s, which is more than 5 <span class="hlt">times</span> faster than the settling <span class="hlt">time</span> of similar synthesizers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haßler, S.; Reichthalhammer, T.; Biebl, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885383"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY05 LDRD Final Report<span class="hlt">Time</span>-Resolved Dynamic Studies using <span class="hlt">Short</span> Pulse X-Ray Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Established techniques must be extended down to the ps and sub-ps <span class="hlt">time</span> domain to directly probe product states of materials under extreme conditions. We used <span class="hlt">short</span> pulse ({le} 1 ps) x-ray radiation to track changes in the physical properties in tandem with measurements of the atomic and electronic structure of materials undergoing fast laser excitation and shock-related phenomena. The sources included those already available at LLNL, including the picosecond X-ray laser as well as the ALS Femtosecond Phenomena beamline and the SSRL based sub-picosecond photon source (SPPS). These allow the temporal resolution to be improved by 2 orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art, which is {approx} 100 ps. Thus, we observed the manifestations of dynamical processes with unprecedented <span class="hlt">time</span> resolution. <span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray scattering were used to study phase changes in materials with sub-picosecond <span class="hlt">time</span> resolution. These experiments coupled to multiscale modeling allow us to explore the physics of materials in high laser fields and extreme non-equilibrium states of matter. The ability to characterize the physical and electronic structure of materials under extreme conditions together with state-of-the-art models and computational facilities will catapult LLNL's core competencies into the scientific world arena as well as support its missions of national security and stockpile stewardship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, A; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Budil, K; Sadigh, B; Gilmer, G; Falcone, R; Lee, R; Ng, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21714102L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Stellar Ages and Masses of <span class="hlt">Short</span> GRB Host Galaxies: Investigating the Progenitor Delay <span class="hlt">Time</span> Distribution and the Role of Mass and Star Formation in the <span class="hlt">Short</span> GRB Rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present multi-band optical and near-infrared observations of 19 <span class="hlt">short</span> ?-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies, aimed at measuring their stellar masses and population ages. The goals of this study are to evaluate whether <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the stellar mass distribution of galaxies, to investigate the progenitor delay <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution, and to explore any connection between long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB progenitors. Comparing the distribution of stellar masses found using a single-stellar population model to the general galaxy mass function, we find that <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the cosmic stellar mass distribution only if the late-type hosts generally have maximal masses. However, there is an apparent dearth of early-type <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB hosts compared to the equal contribution of early- and late-type galaxies to the cosmic stellar mass budget. These results suggest that stellar mass may not be the sole parameter controlling the <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB rate, and raise the possibility of a two-component model with both mass and star formation playing a role (reminiscent of the case for Type Ia supernovae). If <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies indeed track star formation activity, the resulting typical delay <span class="hlt">time</span> is 0.2 Gyr, while those in early-type hosts have a typical delay of 3 Gyr. Using the same stellar population models to fit 22 long GRB host galaxies in a similar redshift range we find that they have significantly lower masses and younger population ages. Most importantly, the two GRB host populations remain distinct even if we consider only the star-forming hosts of <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs, supporting our previous findings (based on star formation rates and metallicities) that the progenitors of long GRBs and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies are distinct. This work was partially supported by Swift AO5 grant #5080010 and AO6 grant #6090612. Additional support was provided by the Harvard College Research Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leibler, Camille N.; Berger, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPA51A0806K"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Distributed Web-based Solution for Ionospheric Model Real-<span class="hlt">time</span> Management, Monitoring, and <span class="hlt">Short</span>-term Prediction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the widespread availability of the Internet today, many people can monitor various scientific research activities. It is important to accommodate this interest providing on-line access to dynamic and illustrative Web-resources, which could demonstrate different aspects of ongoing research. It is especially important to explain and these research activities for high school and undergraduate students, thereby providing more information for making decisions concerning their future studies. Such Web resources are also important to clarify scientific research for the general public, in order to achieve better awareness of research progress in various fields. Particularly rewarding is dissemination of information about ongoing projects within Universities and research centers to their local communities. The benefits of this type of scientific outreach are mutual, since development of Web-based automatic systems is prerequisite for many research projects targeting real-<span class="hlt">time</span> monitoring and/or modeling of natural conditions. Continuous operation of such systems provide ongoing research opportunities for the statistically massive validation of the models, as well. We have developed a Web-based system to run the University of Alaska Fairbanks Polar Ionospheric Model in real-<span class="hlt">time</span>. This model makes use of networking and computational resources at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center. This system was designed to be portable among various operating systems and computational resources. Its components can be installed across different computers, separating Web servers and computational engines. The core of the system is a Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Management module (RMM) written Python, which facilitates interactions of remote input data transfers, the ionospheric model runs, MySQL database filling, and PHP scripts for the Web-page preparations. The RMM downloads current geophysical inputs as soon as they become available at different on-line depositories. This information is processed to provide inputs for the next ionospheic model <span class="hlt">time</span> step and then stored in a MySQL database as the first part of the <span class="hlt">time</span>-specific record. The RMM then performs synchronization of the input <span class="hlt">times</span> with the current model <span class="hlt">time</span>, prepares a decision on initialization for the next model <span class="hlt">time</span> step, and monitors its execution. Then, as soon as the model completes computations for the next <span class="hlt">time</span> step, RMM visualizes the current model output into various <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (about 1-2 hours) forecasting products and compares prior results with available ionospheric measurements. The RMM places prepared images into the MySQL database, which can be located on a different computer node, and then proceeds to the next <span class="hlt">time</span> interval continuing the <span class="hlt">time</span>-loop. The upper-level interface of this real-<span class="hlt">time</span> system is the a PHP-based Web site (http://www.arsc.edu/SpaceWeather/new). This site provides general information about the Earth polar and adjacent mid-latitude ionosphere, allows for monitoring of the current developments and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term forecasts, and facilitates access to the comparisons archive stored in the database.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kulchitsky, A.; Maurits, S.; Watkins, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Chaos..15b4102S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of coupling between oscillators from <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> series via phase dynamics modeling: Limitations and application to EEG data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate in numerical experiments that estimators of strength and directionality of coupling between oscillators based on modeling of their phase dynamics [D. A. Smirnov and B. P. Bezruchko, Phys. Rev. E 68, 046209 (2003)] are widely applicable. Namely, although the expressions for the estimators and their confidence bands are derived for linear uncoupled oscillators under the influence of independent sources of Gaussian white noise, they turn out to allow reliable characterization of coupling from relatively <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> series for different properties of noise, significant phase nonlinearity of the oscillators, and nonvanishing coupling between them. We apply the estimators to analyze a two-channel human intracranial epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with the purpose of epileptic focus localization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smirnov, D. A.; Bodrov, M. B.; Velazquez, J. L. Perez; Wennberg, R. A.; Bezruchko, B. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1622288"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria monocytogenes in milk exposed to high-temperature, <span class="hlt">short-time</span> pasteurization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of prior heat shock (48 degrees C for 15 min) on the thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes at the minimal high-temperature, <span class="hlt">short-time</span> (71.7 degrees C for 15 s) parameters required by the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance was examined. The mean D71.7 degrees C value for heat-shocked L. monocytogenes was 4.6 +/- 0.5 s (control D = 3.0 +/- 1.0 s); the ratio of D to control D was 1.5. The increased thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria cells was not significant and appeared unlikely to have practical implications, in terms of risk assessment, for the safety of pasteurized milk. PMID:1622288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bunning, V K; Crawford, R G; Tierney, J T; Peeler, J T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.422.1601K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> and long <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale variability in magnetic cataclysmic variables: long-term monitoring of polars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present long-term observations of the magnetic cataclysmic variables AM Her, AN UMa, AR UMa, DP Leo and V1309 Ori. Analyses of both <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-period light variations are presented. For the first <span class="hlt">time</span>, as far as we know, long-period variations of AN UMa and AR UMa have been studied and multiple frequencies obtained. Fourier analysis indicates 170-, 218- and 180-d variations for AM Her, AN UMa and AR UMa, respectively. These periodicities may be due to modulation of the mass-transfer rate resulting from magnetic cycles in the secondary stars. In addition, we collect the physical parameters of polars from the literature and estimate their mass-transfer rates and orbital period variation and give a rough estimation of the donor magnetic fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalomeni, Belinda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27623555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-Resolved Spectroscopy of the 3 Brightest and Hardest <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with the FGST Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From July 2008 to October 2009, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board\\u000athe Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST) has detected 320 Gamma-Ray Bursts\\u000a(GRBs). About 20% of these events are classified as <span class="hlt">short</span> based on their T90\\u000aduration below 2 s. We present here for the first <span class="hlt">time</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved\\u000aspectroscopy at timescales as <span class="hlt">short</span> as 2 ms for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sylvain Guiriec; Michael S. Briggs; Valerie Connaugthon; Erin Kara; Frederic Daigne; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Alexander J. van der Horst; William Paciesas; Charles A. Meegan; P. N. Bhat; Suzanne Foley; Elisabetta Bissaldi; Michael Burgess; Vandiver Chaplin; Roland Diehl; Gerald Fishman; Melissa Gibby; Misty Giles; Adam Goldstein; Jochen Greiner; David Gruber; Andreas von Kienlin; Marc Kippen; Sheila McBreen; Robert Preece; Arne Rau; Dave Tierney; Colleen Wilson-Hodge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17070700"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span> and frequency domain responses of the mechanomyogram and electromyogram during isometric ramp contractions: a comparison of the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> Fourier and continuous wavelet transforms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purposes of this study were to examine the mechanomyographic (MMG) and electromyographic (EMG) <span class="hlt">time</span> and frequency domain responses of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during isometric ramp contractions and compare the <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency of the MMG and EMG signals generated by the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Nineteen healthy subjects (mean+/-SD age=24+/-4 years) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) before and after completing 2-3, 6-s isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 100% MVC with the right leg extensors. MMG and surface EMG signals were recorded from the VL and RF muscles. <span class="hlt">Time</span> domains were represented as root mean squared amplitude values, and <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency representations were generated using the STFT and CWT. Polynomial regression analyses indicated cubic increases in MMG amplitude, MMG frequency, and EMG frequency, whereas EMG amplitude increased quadratically. From 5% to 24-28% MVC, MMG amplitude remained stable while MMG frequency increased. From 24-28% to 76-78% MVC, MMG amplitude increased rapidly while MMG frequency plateaued. From 76-78% to 100% MVC, MMG amplitude plateaued (VL) or decreased (RF) while MMG frequency increased. EMG amplitude increased while EMG frequency changed only marginally across the force spectrum with no clear deflection points. Overall, these findings suggested that MMG may offer more unique information regarding the interactions between motor unit recruitment and firing rate that control muscle force production during ramp contractions than traditional surface EMG. In addition, although the STFT frequency patterns were more pronounced than the CWT, both algorithms produced similar <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency representations for tracking changes in MMG or EMG frequency. PMID:17070700</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T; Egan, Alison D; Hartman, Michael J; Herda, Trent J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=partition+AND+coefficients&id=EJ895140"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Interpretation of Canonical Correlation Analysis: A Tutorial and Demonstration of Canonical Commonality Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the face of multicollinearity, researchers face challenges interpreting canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results. Although standardized function and structure coefficients provide insight into the canonical variates produced, they fall <span class="hlt">short</span> when researchers want to fully report canonical effects. This article <span class="hlt">revisits</span> the interpretation of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.; Gates, Michael S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDG27007L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inherent Variability in <span class="hlt">Short-time</span> Wind Turbine Statistics from Turbulence Structure in the Atmospheric Surface Layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral and moderately convective atmospheric boundary layers (NBL, MCBL), we analyze the impact of coherent turbulence structure of the atmospheric surface layer on the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> statistics that are commonly collected from wind turbines. The incoming winds are conditionally sampled with a filtering and thresholding algorithm into high/low horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuation coherent events. The <span class="hlt">time</span> scales of these events are ˜5 - 20 blade rotations and are roughly twice as long in the MCBL as the NBL. Horizontal velocity events are associated with greater variability in rotor power, lift and blade-bending moment than vertical velocity events. The variability in the industry standard 10 minute average for rotor power, sectional lift and wind velocity had a standard deviation of ˜ 5% relative to the ``infinite <span class="hlt">time</span>'' statistics for the NBL and ˜10% for the MCBL. We conclude that turbulence structure associated with atmospheric stability state contributes considerable, quantifiable, variability to wind turbine statistics. Supported by NSF and DOE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Kinzel, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11144856"> <span id="translatedtitle">L'enfant et les sortilèges <span class="hlt">revisited</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author discusses 'L'Enfant et les sortilèges', an opera by Ravel based on a <span class="hlt">short</span> story by Colette, which traces the trials and tribulations of a young boy whose bad behaviour leads to his being sent to his room, left alone and given only tea and bread until dinner. His progression from anger to persecution and fear, the various defences he employs to protect himself from feeling overwhelmed and his despair are graphically illustrated through words and music. The author considers the opera in relation to Klein's theory of the paranoidschizoid position and the struggle involved in maintaining contact with good objects, externally and internally. <span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> the opera in light of Meltzer's contribution to psychoanalytic thinking provides a wider perspective in which to explore what he has termed the aesthetic conflict and its place in relation to the depressive position and developmental processes. PMID:11144856</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hindle, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/883685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isn't It About <span class="hlt">Time</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Time</span> plays a key role in all aspects of the intelligence analysis process, from data ingest through analysis methods to the cognitive processes that create intelligence products; however, the concept of <span class="hlt">time</span> is difficult to grasp and not yet fully understood. Today's analytic tools fall <span class="hlt">short</span> of satisfying the needs of analysts; these tools do not significantly facilitate an analyst's cognitive process when assembling the pieces of a puzzle together since opportunities for analysts to exploit the <span class="hlt">time</span> dimension of their data are curtailed by the implicit representation of <span class="hlt">time</span> found in these tools and their visualizations. There is a need to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> and understand how <span class="hlt">time</span> plays a role. In this paper, we briefly discuss why <span class="hlt">time</span> is hard, the need for visualizations and interactions to deal with <span class="hlt">time</span>, and conclude with some thoughts about a temporal analytic discourse. Overall, <span class="hlt">time</span> cannot be left as an afterthought when developing visualizations; <span class="hlt">time</span> must instead be well represented and highly interactable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuchar, Olga A.; Hoeft, TJ J.; Havre, Susan L.; Perrine, Kenneth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3578335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacy School Survey Standards <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a series of 3 papers on survey practices published from 2008 to 2009, the editors of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education presented guidelines for reporting survey research, and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal’s Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools. In addition, observations are offered about surveying of small "universes" like that comprised of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. The reason for <span class="hlt">revisiting</span> this issue is the authors’ concern that, despite the best of intentions, overly constraining publication standards might discourage research on US colleges and schools of pharmacy at a <span class="hlt">time</span> when the interest in the growth of colleges and schools, curricular content, clinical education, competence at graduation, and other areas is historically high. In the best traditions of academia, the authors share these observations with the community of pharmacy educators in the hope that the publication standards for survey research about US pharmacy schools will encourage investigators to collect and disseminate valuable information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barnett, Mitchell J.; Lenth, Russell V.; Knapp, Katherine K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74.1807P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron temperature determination and subsequent analysis of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale variation of plasma parameters in ISTTOK discharges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of the electron temperature using standard diagnostics, like electron cyclotron emission or soft x-ray diagnostics, tend to be inadequate due to the natural limitations of these methods at low-toroidal magnetic field (B0<=0.5 T) and plasma density [ne~(1-5)×1018 m-3] in the typical discharges of the ISTTOK tokamak. On the other hand, the presence of a noticeable population of the suprathermal (runaway) electrons often causes a significant discrepancy between the values of the electron temperature yielded by different diagnostics. A numerical code was developed for the determination of the electron temperature from the measured macroscopic plasma parameters in discharges with and without runaway electrons. Simultaneous reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">time</span> variation of the electron temperature and the runaway electron characteristics was carried out self-consistently using plasma power-energy balance calculations with the inclusion of the runaway process. Runaway electron instability caused the <span class="hlt">short-time</span> relaxations of the plasma parameters detected by the ISTTOK data acquisition system. Analysis of the plasma parameters evolution during relaxations was used for the verification of the reconstruction procedure. The developed algorithm of the experimental data analysis was investigated in relation to its possible use for modeling of the runaway generation during a thermal quench in large-scale tokamak disruptions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plyusnin, V. V.; Cabral, J. A. C.; Figueiredo, H.; Varandas, C. A. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/902883"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Bayesian method for characterizing distributed micro-releases: II. inference under model uncertainty with <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-series data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern after the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the <span class="hlt">time</span> of infection, and the average dose received, is important when planning a medical response. We address this question of characterization by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To be of relevance to response planning, we limit ourselves to 3-5 days of data. In tests performed with anthrax as the pathogen, we find that these data are usually sufficient, especially if the model of the outbreak used in the inverse problem is an accurate one. In some cases the scarcity of data may initially support outbreak characterizations at odds with the true one, but with sufficient data the correct inferences are recovered; in other words, the inverse problem posed and its solution methodology are consistent. We also explore the effect of model error-situations for which the model used in the inverse problem is only a partially accurate representation of the outbreak; here, the model predictions and the observations differ by more than a random noise. We find that while there is a consistent discrepancy between the inferred and the true characterizations, they are also close enough to be of relevance when planning a response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marzouk, Youssef; Fast P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Kraus, M. (Peterson AFB, CO); Ray, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9608586"> <span id="translatedtitle">New approach for quantitation of <span class="hlt">short</span> echo <span class="hlt">time</span> in vivo 1H MR spectra of brain using AMARES.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span> echo <span class="hlt">time</span> in vivo STEAM 1H MR spectra (4.7 T, TE = 16 ms) of normal rat brain were fitted in the <span class="hlt">time</span> domain using a VARPRO-like algorithm called AMARES which allows an inclusion of a large amount of prior knowledge. The prior knowledge was derived from phantom spectra of pure metabolite solutions measured under the same experimental conditions as the in vivo spectra. The prior knowledge for the in vivo spectra was constructed as follows: for each VARPRO-fitted phantom spectrum one peak (the most prominent one in the in vivo spectrum) was chosen and left unconstrained in the AMARES fitting while all the other peaks in the metabolite spectrum (i.e. their corresponding parameters--amplitudes, damping factors, frequencies and phases) were fixed to the parameter values of the unconstrained peak via amplitude and damping ratios and frequency and phase shifts. Including N-acetyl-aspartate, glutamate, total creatine, cholines, glucose and myo-inositol into the fits provided results which were in agreement with published data. An inclusion of glutamine into the set of fitted metabolites was also investigated. PMID:9608586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mierisová, S; van den Boogaart, A; Tkác, I; Van Hecke, P; Vanhamme, L; Liptaj, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10697221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of LCModel for quality control and quantitative in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy by <span class="hlt">short</span> echo <span class="hlt">time</span> STEAM sequence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The linear combination of model spectra (LCModel) calculation of a parameter for long-term quality control, kT, was introduced, representing the ratio of the temporal and nominal intensities of CH3 groups of lactate and acetate in a quality control phantom. This procedure is a part of the quality assurance of the scanner using fully automatic measurement and calculation of kT parameters, and utilizing Shewhart regulation control charts for continuous evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner setting. The application of the kT parameter for the correction of in vivo data increases the precision of molar concentration determination by about 4%. This was tested by the quantitative in vivo MR determination of the molar concentrations of 13 prominent metabolites (N-acetylaspartate (NAA), N-acetylaspartylglutamate, creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, glutamate, glucose, lactate, alanine, taurine) in the white matter and hippocampus of the brain in groups of volunteers, using a <span class="hlt">short</span> echo <span class="hlt">time</span> stimulated echo acquisition mode sequence (echo <span class="hlt">time</span> = 10 ms) and the LCModel technique. The repeatability of the measurement of prominent metabolites such as NAA, Cr and Cho was found to be around 10% (relative standard deviation, n = 6); precision in a group of volunteers (n = 20 and 28, respectively) was in the range of approximately 13-20%. For other metabolites, which are measured with a lower signal-to-noise ratio, the precision can be much lower. PMID:10697221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hájek, M; Burian, M; Dezortová, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1769W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long and <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> variability of the global and the hemisphere temperature anomalies -Application of the Cochrane-Orcutt method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change holds a key position in science and policy today. A central issue to discuss in the scientific publications is the question how much humans contribute to the climate warming. To get answers in the last decades a lot of efforts were made to model the processes determining the climate, to make forecasts under defined conditions for the development of the society (climate projections). Another scientific tendency to find a more probable right answer consists in the application and development of the statistics to study responses of different climate forcings. Here a classical statistical method -the linear regression -is applied to examine the parts of the global and hemisphere warming due to different radiation forcings, by the use of their long and <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> variabilities. The residuals of the regressions are significantly auto-correlated. Therefore the Cochrane-Orcutt method is applied to test the statistical significances. By multiple regression it is found that the main part of the temperature variability is caused by CO2. The impact of the total solar irradiance during the examined <span class="hlt">time</span> period of 1866 up to 2000 is at the critical level of significance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitare; Danov, Dimitar; Goranova, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1114P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topside and ground based vertical sounding as a powerful tool for registration of <span class="hlt">short-time</span> earthquake precursors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main portion of information on the variations of the electron concentration on different ionospheric heights was obtained with the help of vertical ionospheric sounding. The first serious impulse for the studies of ionospheric precursors of strong earthquakes was given by the famous Alaska e rthquake in 1964. It wasa followed by the extended period of ground based observations associated with the ionospheric precursors. After the launch of Inetrcosmos-19 satellite giving possibility of the ionosphere mapping the great progress was reached in ionospheric precursors studies, opening opportunity to reveal the main phenomenological features of the ionospheric precursors. Basing on the topside and ground based sounding studies, as well as on accompanying satellite and ground based measurements of other parameters of the atmosphere and near Earth plasma the physical model of the seismo -ionospheric coupling was developed. Having in hands the physics and morphology of the phenomena the application tools started to be developed basing on the statistical parameters of the ionospheric precursors, as well as on their specific physical properties. To check these tools the dedicated experiments are necessary. The special dedicated small satellite platform was developed which will be used for verification of the elaborated physical mechanism of seismo -ionospheric coupling, as well as for real <span class="hlt">time</span> monitoring of the <span class="hlt">short</span>- <span class="hlt">time</span> ionospheric precursors. The examples of ground based and topside sounding measurements of ionospheric precursors will be presented together with techniques of statistical processing of the ionospheric data. The main characteristics of the dedicated small satellite will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pulinets, S.; Legen Ka, A.; Gaivoronskaya, T.; Jason, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvB..72e4119S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep inelastic neutron scattering from orthorhombic ordered HCl: <span class="hlt">Short-time</span> proton dynamics and anomalous neutron cross sections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements from orthorhombic ordered HCl are presented and analyzed in order to clarify the problem of an anomalous deficit in the neutron-proton cross section found in previous experiments on various materials. A reliable model for the HCl <span class="hlt">short-time</span> single-particle dynamics, including atomic vibrational anisotropies and deviations from the impulsive approximation, is set up. The model HCl response function is transformed into simulated <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight spectra, taking carefully into account the effects of instrumental resolution and the filter absorption profile used for neutron energy analysis. Finally, the experimental values of the anomalous reduction factor for the neutron-proton cross section are extracted by comparing simulated and experimental data. Results show a 34% reduction of the H cross section, varying with the scattering angle in a range centered at 53°. In addition, the same approximate procedure used in earlier studies is also employed, providing results in reasonable agreement with the more rigorous ones, and confirming the substantial reliability of the past work on this subject.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Senesi, R.; Colognesi, D.; Pietropaolo, A.; Abdul-Redah, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EPJAS..25..511D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extended pairing model <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mean-field plus extended pairing model proposed by the authors for describing well-deformed nuclei (F. Pan, V.G. Gueorguiev, J.P. Draayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 112503 (2004)) is <span class="hlt">revisited</span>. Eigenvalues of the model can be determined by solving a single transidental equation. Results to date show that even through the model includes many-body interactions, the one- and two-body terms continue to dominate the dynamics for small values of the pairing strength; however, as the strength of the pairing interaction grows, the higher-order terms grow in importance and ultimately dominate. Attempts to extend the theory to the prediction of excited zero plus states did not produce expected results and therefore requires additional consideration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Draayer, J. P.; Pan, Feng; Gueorguiev, V. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.520B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite failures <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989DSRA...36.1111S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-series measurements of particulate organic carbon flux and sediment community oxygen consumption in the North Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC), a measure of organic carbon demand, and particulate organic carbon flux (POCF), a measure of organic carbon supply to the benthic boundary layer, were measured concurrently for <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> intervals (2-14 days) over periods up to 49 days at two abyssal mud-bottom stations in the North Pacific. One station was located in the eutrophic eastern North Pacific off southern California (Sta. F, 4400 m depth) and the other in the oligotrophic central gyre (Sta. CNP, 5800 m depth). Measurements were conducted during two seasons: spring, which was previously characterized by higher and variable rates of SCOC and POCF, and autumn, which was characterized by lower, more consistent rates at both stations. SCOC was measured with a 4-chambered free vehicle grab respirometer, and POCF was determined from sinking particulate matter collected with sediment traps moored at 600 m above the bottom. There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) between SCOC rates measured at the same station in the same season. Fluctuations in POCF were not reflected in SCOC at either station, and the intra-deployment variability in SCOC was as great as the interdeployment variability. Rates of SCOC were higher than POCF during both seasons at Sta. F but only in the spring at Sta. CNP. There was no appearance of synchronous or phased fluctuations in POCF and SCOC to suggest pelagic-benthic coupling on these <span class="hlt">time</span> scales. Either long-term <span class="hlt">time</span>-series measurements of SCOC and POCF or timedmeasurements to coincide with surface-water blooms are needed to identify coupling between passively sinking particulate organic carbon and the mineralization of organic matter by the deep-sea sediment community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, K. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.C11A..02N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic observations of <span class="hlt">short-time</span>-scale changes in glacier flow at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, East Greenland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence obtained by several workers during the past few years has shown that the major outlet glaciers in Greenland can both accelerate and decelerate more rapidly than previously appreciated. Some abrupt accelerations at the largest outlet glaciers, including Jakobshavn Isbrae and Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, have been linked to large-scale calving events and glacial earthquakes (Nettles et al., 2008; Amundson et al., 2008). Many questions regarding the dynamics of these glaciers remain unresolved, including the nature and cause of rapid deceleration events and the influence of surface melting and hydrology on variations in glacier speed. We have operated a GPS network on the surface of Helheim Glacier during the four summers of 2006--2009, as well as during the fall of 2008, late spring of 2009, and fall of 2009. Several auxiliary geophysical sensors have also been operated nearby. This <span class="hlt">short</span> four-year period has revealed both glacier acceleration and deceleration, occurring on interannual to sub-hour timescales. The number of glacial earthquakes observed during this <span class="hlt">time</span> period has also varied significantly. During the summer of 2009, we also operated a GPS network on Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, obtaining a full season of high-<span class="hlt">time</span>-resolution observations of glacier motion and deformation. The GPS data acquired during 2009 come primarily from a low-cost GPS receiver system designed by the authors to provide data security and near-real-<span class="hlt">time</span> data delivery via a combination of radio and satellite telemetry. Here, we present results from the extended 2008/2009 seasons at Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq in the context of our previous observations and longer-term observations of other workers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nettles, M.; Elosegui, P.; Larsen, T.; Davis, J. L.; Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; Andersen, M. L.; de Juan, J.; Malikowski, E.; Gonzalez, I.; Okal, M.; Johns, B.; Ekstrom, G.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Stenseng, L.; Khan, S. A.; Schild, K. M.; Forsberg, R.; Veitch, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17582103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, <span class="hlt">short-time</span> pasteurization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> pasteurization (HTST) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees C/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees C with holding <span class="hlt">times</span> of 2 to 3 s. It was the intent of this study to determine whether HTST pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial operation would enhance FMDV inactivation in milk. Cows were inoculated in the mammary gland with the field strain of FMDV (01/UK). Infected raw whole milk and 2% milk were then pasteurized using an Arm-field pilot-scale, continuous-flow HTST pasteurizer equipped with a plate-and-frame heat exchanger and a holding tube. The milk samples, containing FMDV at levels of up to 10(4) plaque-forming units/mL, were pasteurized at temperatures ranging from 72 to 95 degrees C at holding <span class="hlt">times</span> of either 18.6 or 36 s. Pasteurization decreased virus infectivity by 4 log10 to undetectable levels in tissue culture. However, residual infectivity was still detectable for selected pasteurized milk samples, as shown by intramuscular and intradermal inoculation of milk into naïve steers. Although HTST pasteurization did not completely inactivate viral infectivity in whole and 2% milk, possibly because a fraction of the virus was protected by the milk fat and the casein proteins, it greatly reduced the risk of natural transmission of FMDV by milk. PMID:17582103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F; Konstance, R P; Gregg, D; Boettcher, S; Baxt, B; Rodriguez, L L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and <span class="hlt">Time</span> since Rain Drive Divergent <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Responses by Desert Biota</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of <span class="hlt">time</span> of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of <span class="hlt">time</span>, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and <span class="hlt">timing</span> for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota respond to grazing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49371113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction\\/synchronization of oestrus and ovulation in dairy goats with different <span class="hlt">short</span> term treatments and fixed <span class="hlt">time</span> intrauterine or exocervical insemination system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were carried out on Ionica dairy goats in order to test the efficiency of: (1) <span class="hlt">short</span> term-5-day combined progestogen-PGF2?-GnRH treatments on induction\\/synchronization of oestrus and fertility after natural mating in lactating goats and during the transition period (Experiment 1); (2) <span class="hlt">short</span> term-9-day FGA-PGF2?-eCG treatments on synchronizing oestrus and ovulation (Experiment 2.1) and artificial insemination (AI) fixed <span class="hlt">time</span> system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Martemucci; A. G. D’Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987ApJ...323..575G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The properties of bursts with <span class="hlt">short</span> recurrence <span class="hlt">times</span> from the transient X-ray source EXO 0748-676</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On January 13/14 1986 Exosat performed a 11.3-hr observation of the transient X-ray burst source EXO 0748-676. The source was in a low state and emitted 11 type I X-ray bursts, of which 10 were analyzed in detail. The properties of the bursts were similar to those found in previous low-state observations reported in Gottwald et al. (1986). The total energy emitted in the persistent flux between bursts divided by the total energy emitted in the following burst was about 25 with a constant apparent blackbody radius during the burst decay of 4.4 km. A regular burst pattern was identified where long and <span class="hlt">short</span> recurrence intervals followed each other. The wait <span class="hlt">time</span> to a burst and the total emitted energy in that burst displayed a linear relation but with an offset energy of 0.3 x 10 to the-7th ergs/sq cm at zero burst interval. This behavior is discussed in context of incomplete consumption of fuel and its subsequent reconsumption in the following bursts. The amount of unburned fuel was found to be about 10-15 percent of the total available nuclear energy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gottwald, Manfred; Haberl, Frank; Parmar, Arvind N.; White, Nick E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutron dosimetry with the {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co reaction at <span class="hlt">short</span>-decay <span class="hlt">times</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co reaction is a very attractive choice for use as shown a neutron fluence monitor foil in reactor irradiations. The most important drawback to this reaction is the interference from the 9.15-h half-life {sup 58m}Co metastable state. A methodology is presented in this paper to allow the {sup 58g}Co ground-state activity to be read at <span class="hlt">short</span> decay <span class="hlt">times</span> and to be converted into the total {sup 58t}Co activity with no significant increase in the measurement uncertainty. This methodology involves modeling the {sup 58m}Co/{sup 58t}Co population ratio. Both theoretical and experimental estimates of the energy dependence of this ratio are presented. A method is presented to accurately measure this ratio. An empirical model of the energy dependence of this ratio is presented to allow simple estimates of the ratio to be made prior to a measurement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffin, P.J.; Holm, C.V.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9894769"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Timing</span> of breast cancer surgery within the menstrual cycle: tumor proliferative activity, receptor status and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term clinical outcome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We verified the variations of primary tumour steroid receptor status and proliferative activity at different <span class="hlt">times</span> and phases (follicular vs luteal) of the menstrual cycle and their relationship with <span class="hlt">short</span> clinical outcome in a cohort of 248 N- breast cancer patients. Steroid receptor content (ER and PgR) was evaluated by DCC assay and proliferative activity by 3H-Thymidine autoradiographic assay (TLI). Median age was 44 years, 60% of tumors were T1, and cytohistological grade was G1-2 in 54% of cases. At surgery, 57% were in the luteal phase while 43% were in the follicular phase. No significant variations were found in mean TLI or ER and PgR characteristics of the primary tumors surgically treated in different periods of the menstrual cycle; however, the ER level resulted significantly higher in 4th with respect to the 3rd week of menstrual cycle, while PgR level was higher in PgR+ cases treated during the 3rd week. The number of relapses and disease-free survival curves after 36 months median follow-up did not differ significantly for patients treated in different periods of the menstrual cycle (12% and 9% of disease relapses in luteal and follicular phases; p=n.s.). We can conclude, therefore, that TLI, ER and PgR expressions could vary significantly during menstrual cycle only in certain specific tumor subgroups. PMID:9894769</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mangia, A; De Lena, M; Barletta, A; Marzullo, F; Attolico, M; Stea, B; Petroni, S; Labriola, A; Cellamare, G; Digiesi, G; Altieri, R; Schittulli, F; Paradiso, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.430L..49M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale AGN X-ray variability with EXOSAT: black hole mass and normalized variability amplitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The old EXOSAT medium energy measurements of high-frequency (HF) active galactic nuclei (AGN) power spectral normalization are re-examined in the light of accurate black hole mass determinations which were not available when these data were first published by Green et al. It is found that the normalized variability amplitude (NVA), measured directly from the power spectrum, is proportional to M?, where ? ˜ -0.54 ± 0.08. As NVA is the square root of the power, these observations show that the normalization of the HF power spectrum for this sample of AGN varies very close to inversely with black hole mass. Almost the same value of ? is obtained whether the quasar 3C 273 is included in the sample or not, suggesting that the same process that drives X-ray variability in Seyfert galaxies applies also to 3C 273. These observations support the work of Gierli?ski et al. who show that an almost exactly linear anticorrelation is required if the normalizations of the HF power spectra of AGN and X-ray binary systems are to scale similarly. These observations are also consistent with a number of studies showing that the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale variance of AGN X-ray light curves varies approximately inversely with mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHardy, I. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA239368"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> v. The Kingdom of the Netherlands Is It <span class="hlt">Time</span> to Renegotiate the NATO Status of Forces Agreement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial contents: <span class="hlt">Short</span> and Soering- -The background to the NATO SOFA problem; (<span class="hlt">Short</span> vs. The Kingdom of the Netherlands and The Soering Case); The United States position- -Reliance on 'Black Letter' International Law (A brief history of the NATO SOFA; Th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Lepper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.york.ac.uk/res/wml/Henson%20et%20al03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective interference with verbal <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory for serial order information: A new paradigm and tests of a <span class="hlt">timing</span>-signal hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many recent computational models of verbal <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory postulate a separation between processes supporting memory for the identity of items and processes supporting memory for their serial order. Furthermore, some of these models assume that memory for serial order is supported by a <span class="hlt">timing</span> signal. We report an attempt to find evidence for such a <span class="hlt">timing</span> signal by comparing an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Henson; Tom Hartley; Neil Burgess; Graham Hitch; Brenda Flude</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3792950"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Revolving Door Phenomenon <span class="hlt">Revisited</span>: <span class="hlt">Time</span> to Readmission in 17'415 Patients with 37'697 Hospitalisations at a German Psychiatric Hospital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Despite the recurring nature of the disease process in many psychiatric patients, individual careers and <span class="hlt">time</span> to readmission rarely have been analysed by statistical models that incorporate sequence and velocity of recurrent hospitalisations. This study aims at comparing four statistical models specifically designed for recurrent event history analysis and evaluating the potential impact of predictor variables from different sources (patient, treatment process, social environment). Method The so called Andersen-Gil counting process model, two variants of the conditional models of Prentice, Williams, and Peterson (gap <span class="hlt">time</span> model, conditional probability model), and the so called frailty model were applied to a dataset of 17’415 patients observed during a 12 years period starting from 1996 and leading to 37’697 psychiatric hospitalisations. Potential prognostic factors stem from a standardized patient documentation form. Results Estimated regression coefficients over different models were highly similar, but the frailty model best represented the sequentiality of individual treatment careers and differing velocities of disease progression. It also avoided otherwise likely misinterpretations of the impact of gender, partnership, historical <span class="hlt">time</span> and length of stay. A widespread notion of psychiatric diseases as inevitably chronic and worsening could be rejected. <span class="hlt">Time</span> in community was found to increase over historical <span class="hlt">time</span> for all patients. Most important protective factors beyond diagnosis were employment, partnership, and sheltered living situation. Risky conditions were urban living and a concurrent substance use disorder. Conclusion Prognostic factors for course of diseases should be determined only by statistical models capable of adequately incorporating the recurrent nature of psychiatric illnesses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frick, Ulrich; Frick, Hannah; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hajak, Goran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2709L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of pluri-annual electrical <span class="hlt">time</span> laps survey to the understanding of <span class="hlt">short</span> and long term landslide dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "Vence" landslide (0.8 million m3, south eastern France) is active since the 1970s and develops in a sandy-clay Eocene layer overlying a highly fractured and faulted Jurassic limestone. This peculiar geology explains the complex hydrology of the site which plays a key-role in the destabilization of the slope (water circulation within the sliding mass, fluid exchanges between superficial layers and deep karstic aquifer through faults). To understand fluid circulations within the unstable slope, a 4 years multi-parametric survey was set up. The survey combines Electrical Resistivity Tomography (2 daily acquisitions) and rainfall records since 2006, four boreholes monitoring groundwater levels as well as clinometers and temperature measurements since 2009. Our first approach was to study the evolution of the mean apparent resistivity. This method does not require <span class="hlt">time</span>-consuming inversions (especially for 4 years of data) and is not affected by accuracy problems link to the inversion process. Results show that, at <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale, the correlation between the rainfall rate, the piezometric elevation and the mean resistivity variations is representative of two hydrogeological answers to rainfalls events: small resistivity variations related to subsurface water infiltrations with a delay of few hours after the rain, strong resistivity variations with a delay of few days after the rain highlighting the influence of the drained limestone fault systems in the landslide water supply. Results also show the need to consider the landslide answer at longer <span class="hlt">time</span> scale, since the amplitude of deformation is strongly dependent on the massif state prior the rainfall event (e.g. piezometric levels). However, the complex link between apparent resistivity variations and real subsurface processes restricts a quantitative behavior characterization of the various geological units (drainage zones, weathered superficial layer…) and does not allow their location. To achieve better resolution, we propose a clustering analysis on both apparent resistivity data and inverted data based on a hierarchical clustering algorithm which construct agglomerative clusters using the correlation coefficient between the different resistivity measurements. A special attention was paid to data filtering as the method needs a good signal to noise ratio to be conclusive. We also carefully chose the strategy for the inversion of the apparent resistivities in order to best accommodate gaps in the data (representing about 20 percent of the survey duration). Without making any assumption on the local geology, we were able to locate geological units displaying different behaviors. Comparatively, the method applied to inverted data will probably allow quantifying fluids circulation within the unstable slope. This late information is of major importance to the improvement of landslide modeling and will help to forecast landslide re-activation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levy, C.; Zerathe, S.; Lebourg, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synchronization of oestrus and ovulation by <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> combined FGA, PGF(2?), GnRH, eCG treatments for natural service or AI fixed-<span class="hlt">time</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were conducted in ewes in order to develop an oestrus-ovulation <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> synchronization protocol based on combined FGA, PGF(2?), GnRH, eCG treatments, for use in dairy sheep before natural service (Experiment 1) or for fixed-<span class="hlt">time</span> artificial insemination (Experiment 2), during the breeding season. In Experiment 1 seventy-five non-lactating dairy ewes were subdivided into 5 treatment groups (N=15): (1) Group Fe - control, which received FGA vaginal sponges (14 days)+eCG (Day 14); (2) Group FPe, FGA (5 days)+PGF(2?) (Day 5)+eCG (Day 5); (3) Group PFe, PGF(2?) (Day 0)+FGA (5 days)+eCG (Day 5); (4) Group PFG, PGF(2?) (Day 0)+FGA (5 days)+GnRH (30h after sponge removal, s.r.); (5) Group GPe, GnRH (Day 0)+PGF(2?) (Day 5)+eCG (Day 5). Ewes were checked for oestrus and hand-mated. <span class="hlt">Time</span> of ovulation was recorded by laparoscopy for 10 animals from each treatment. The percentages of female in oestrus and the interval to oestrus (h after treatment), fertility and prolificacy rate were recorded. There were no treatment differences in the percentage of females in oestrus. The interval to oestrus was earlier in Fe Group and delayed in FPe Group (P<0.01). Ovulation <span class="hlt">time</span> was earlier in GPe Group compared to FPe Group (P<0.05). Fertility rates were significantly different (P<0.05) between the PFe and the FPeG Groups compared with the PFG Group. No significant differences were observed in prolificacy among the treatments. In Experiment 2, sixty dry ewes were subdivided (N=20) into the following three experimental treatment groups: (1) Group FP, FGA (5 days)+PGF(2?) (Day 5); (2) Group FPG, FGA (5 days)+PGF(2?) (Day 5)+GnRH (30hs.r.); (3) Group FPeG, FGA (5 days)+PGF(2?) (Day 5)+eCG (Day 5)+GnRH (30hs.r.). These were further subdivided into two groups (N=10) corresponding to 52 and 60hs.r. fixed-<span class="hlt">time</span> insemination. Laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed with frozen semen (80×10(6)spermatozoa/dose) and ovulation <span class="hlt">time</span> was recorded in a subgroup (N=10). GnRH resulted in an earlier ovulation <span class="hlt">time</span> (P<0.05) in FPG and FPeG Groups (53.0h vs 61.6h). Fertility rate was higher in FPeG treated ewes inseminated at 60hs.r. (60%, 6/10). In FP and FPG Groups fertility rates were higher following insemination at 52hs.r. (50.0 and 40.0%). PMID:21176867</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martemucci, G; D'Alessandro, A G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30503664"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> the circulation <span class="hlt">time</span> of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation <span class="hlt">time</span> and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients. METHODS: Data were used from clinical trials from East Africa. The first trial compared non-artemisinin combination</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teun Bousema; Lucy Okell; Seif Shekalaghe; Jamie T Griffin; Sabah Omar; Patrick Sawa; Colin Sutherland; Robert Sauerwein; Azra C Ghani; Chris Drakeley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42794244"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> the UK Muslim diasporic public sphere at a <span class="hlt">time</span> of terror: from local (benign) invisible spaces to seditious conspiratorial spaces and the ‘failure of multiculturalism’ discourse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Public exposés of hidden spaces where diasporic Muslims allegedly enunciate extreme anti?Western rhetoric or plot sedition, highlight an ironic shift from a <span class="hlt">time</span>, analysed in my earlier work, when the Pakistani diasporic public sphere in Britain was invisible and local while nevertheless being regarded as relatively benign: a space of expressive rhetoric, ceremonial celebration and local power struggles. Suicide bombings</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pnina Werbner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27099622"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Wide-Dynamic-Range CMOS Image Sensor Based on Multiple <span class="hlt">Short</span> Exposure-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Readout With Multiple-Resolution Column-Parallel ADC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A wide-dynamic-range CMOS image sensor based on synthesis of one long and multiple <span class="hlt">short</span> exposure-<span class="hlt">time</span> signals is proposed. A high-speed, high-resolution column-parallel integration type analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a nonlinear slope is crucial for this purpose. A prototype wide-dynamic-range CMOS image sensor that captures one long and three <span class="hlt">short</span> exposure-<span class="hlt">time</span> signals has been developed using 0.25-mum 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaaki Sasaki; Mitsuhito Mase; Shoji Kawahito; Yoshiaki Tadokoro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/224445"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> contact <span class="hlt">time</span> direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1995--January 15, 1996</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) f or coal liquefaction at <span class="hlt">short</span> contact <span class="hlt">times</span> (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at <span class="hlt">short</span> reaction <span class="hlt">times</span>, and to investigate the role of the organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved and others are still in progress. This quarterly report covers further progress toward those objectives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762797"> <span id="translatedtitle">High temperature, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance specifies minimum processing conditions of 72 degrees C for at least 15 s for high temperature, <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> (HTST) pasteurized milk products. Currently, many US milk-processing plants exceed these minimum requirements for fluid milk products. To test the effect of pasteurization temperatures on bacterial numbers in HTST pasteurized milk, 2% fat raw milk was heated to 60 degrees C, homogenized, and treated for 25 s at 1 of 4 different temperatures (72.9, 77.2, 79.9, or 85.2 degrees C) and then held at 6 degrees C for 21 d. Aerobic plate counts were monitored in pasteurized milk samples at d 1, 7, 14, and 21 postprocessing. Bacterial numbers in milk processed at 72.9 degrees C were lower than in milk processed at 85.2 degrees C on each sampling day, indicating that HTST fluid milk-processing temperatures significantly affected bacterial numbers in fluid milk. To assess the microbial ecology of the different milk samples during refrigerated storage, a total of 490 psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria were identified using DNA sequence-based subtyping methods. Regardless of processing temperature, >85% of the isolates characterized at d 0, 1, and 7 postprocessing were of the genus Bacillus, whereas more than 92% of isolates characterized at d 14 and 21 postprocessing were of the genus Paenibacillus, indicating that the predominant genera present in HTST-processed milk shifted from Bacillus spp. to Paenibacillus spp. during refrigerated storage. In summary, 1) HTST processing temperatures affected bacterial numbers in refrigerated milk, with higher bacterial numbers in milk processed at higher temperatures; 2) no significant association was observed between genus isolated and pasteurization temperature, suggesting that the genera were not differentially affected by the different processing temperatures; and 3) although typically present at low numbers in raw milk, Paenibacillus spp. are capable of growing to numbers that can exceed Pasteurized Milk Ordinance limits in pasteurized, refrigerated milk. PMID:19762797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranieri, M L; Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Barbano, D M; Boor, K J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23418047"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> window to profit from protection of blood-induced cartilage damage by IL-4 plus IL-10.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. IL-4 plus IL-10 prevents blood-induced cartilage damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether cartilage damage can still be averted by addition of IL-4 plus IL-10 when added after the onset of a bleed and whether aspiration of blood prior to addition of IL-4 plus IL-10 is of additive protective value. Methods. Healthy canine hip and human shoulder cartilage was exposed to whole blood for 4 days. IL-4 plus IL-10 was administered directly or after a delay of several hours up to 2 days. Furthermore, blood was aspirated after 1 or 2 days and subsequently IL-4 plus IL-10 was added. IL-1? concentration and cartilage matrix proteoglycan turnover were determined. Results. Exposure of canine and human cartilage to blood decreased the proteoglycan synthesis rate and content and increased proteoglycan release. IL-4 plus IL-10 only prevented blood-induced damage of canine cartilage when added directly, not after 4 h or later. For human cartilage, IL-4 plus IL-10 limited blood-induced damage as well as IL-1? production when administered within 4-8 h after the onset of a bleed, but not thereafter. Aspiration of blood within 24 h fully prevented cartilage damage. Subsequent addition of IL-4 plus IL-10 was not of additive value. Conclusion. For humans, there is a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> window after onset of a joint bleed in which IL-4 plus IL-10 can limit blood-induced cartilage damage. Furthermore, aspiration of a joint to shorten blood exposure fully prevents cartilage damage. Both options can be considered in the treatment of a joint haemorrhage. PMID:23418047</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Meegeren, Monique E R; Roosendaal, Goris; van Veghel, Karin; Mastbergen, Simon C; Lafeber, Floris P J G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57719904"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> learning difficulties in biology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">When students from Scottish schools were surveyed 15 years ago about their difficulties in learning biology, two main topic areas stood out as high in perceived difficulty: water transport in plants and genetics. In the interim, curricular changes have been made in which cognisance was taken of these findings. The present study was a <span class="hlt">revisit</span> to ascertain the changes in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Bahar; A. H. Johnstone; M. H. Hansell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aeefi.com/RePEc/pdf/defi10-02-final.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> Rose's common currency debate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main objective of this research is to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the estimation of the effect of a common currency on international trade by applying the new methodology proposed by Helpman, Melitz and Rubistein (2008) and incorporating tourism to the theoretical framework. Rose (2000) estimates an empirical model of bilateral trade, finding a significant coefficient for a currency union variable of 1.2,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">María Santana-Gallego; Francisco J. Ledesma-Rodríguez; Jorge V. Pérez-Rodríguez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atlantisjournal.org/Papers/27_2/015-026%20Aguilera.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemingway and Gender: Biography <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reviews a number of biographies on Hemingway with the aim of <span class="hlt">revisiting</span> the issue of gender and its relationship to life writing. Since biography has been defined as the best arena in which to fight unexamined assumptions and prejudiced notions, postmodernist biographical research into Hemingway has invariably pursued the explosion of the myth of masculinity by asserting that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mauricio D. Aguilera Linde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhLB..702....5L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dark energy perturbations <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this Letter we study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the presence of dynamical dark energy, and <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the issue of dark energy perturbations. For a generally parameterized equation of state (EoS) such as w(z)=w+wz1+z (for a single fluid or a single scalar field), the dark energy perturbation diverges when its EoS crosses the cosmological constant boundary w=-1. In this Letter we present a method of treating the dark energy perturbations during the crossing of the w=-1 surface by imposing matching conditions which require the induced 3-metric on the hypersurface of w=-1 and its extrinsic curvature to be continuous. These matching conditions have been used widely in the literature to study perturbations in various models of early universe physics, such as Inflation, the Pre-Big-Bang and Ekpyrotic scenarios, and bouncing cosmologies. In all of these cases the EoS undergoes a sudden change. Through a detailed analysis of the matching conditions, we show that ? and ? are continuous on the matching hypersurface. This justifies the method used (Zhao et al., 2005, 2007; Xia et al., 2006, 2008) [1-4] in the numerical calculation and data fitting for the determination of cosmological parameters. We discuss the conditions under which our analysis is applicable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Mingzhe; Cai, Yifu; Li, Hong; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang, Xinmin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/943975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Searle's"Dualism <span class="hlt">Revisited</span>"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent article in which John Searle claims to refute dualism is examined from a scientific perspective. John Searle begins his recent article 'Dualism <span class="hlt">Revisited</span>' by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective. Scientific physical theories contain two kinds of descriptions: (1) Descriptions of our empirical findings, expressed in an every-day language that allows us communicate to each other our sensory experiences pertaining to what we have done and what we have learned; and (2) Descriptions of a theoretical model, expressed in a mathematical language that allows us to communicate to each other certain ideas that exist in our mathematical imaginations, and that are believed to represent, within our streams of consciousness, certain aspects of reality that we deem to exist independently of their being perceived by any human observer. These two parts of our scientific description correspond to the two aspects of our general contemporary dualistic understanding of the total reality in which we are imbedded, namely the empirical-mental aspect and the theoretical-physical aspect. The duality question is whether this general dualistic understanding of ourselves should be regarded as false in some important philosophical or scientific sense.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P., Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDM27001Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streaming potential <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Streaming-potential phenomena refer to the generation of bulk electric fields by imposed relative motion between a charged solid and the Debye layer adjacent to it. Realistic scenarios are adequately described by the thin-Debye-layer limit ?->0 (? denoting the dimensionless Debye thickness), which has been addressed by Cox (1997). Cox's analysis has established that the perturbation to the flow, neglected in the earlier investigations, gives rise to an O(4?) force that dominates that contributed by Maxwell stresses. Cox's theory is founded upon the assumption of O(1) Hartmann and P'eclet numbers. We demonstrate that the product of these numbers is actually O(&-2circ;) and accordingly <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the generic problem of streaming-potential. Electric-current matching between the Debye layer and the bulk provides an inhomogeneous Neumann condition governing the electric field in the latter. This field, in turn, results in a velocity perturbation animated by a Smoluchowski-type slip condition. Owing to dominant convection, the present analysis yields an asymptotic structure considerably simpler than that of Cox (1997): the electro-viscous effect now already appears at O(2?) and is contributed by both Maxwell and viscous stresses. The present paradigm is illustrated for the prototypic problem of a sphere sedimenting in an unbounded fluid, with the resulting drag correction differing from that calculated by Cox (1997).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory; Frankel, Itzchak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2700..122Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short-time</span> rapid thermal annealing processes for periodically domain-inverted structures with nearly straight domain walls in proton-exchanged LiTaO3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-period domain inverted gratings with considerable inversion depth can be formed on the -z face of LiTaO3 by proton exchange in benzoic rather than pyrophosphoric acid followed by rapid thermal annealing at temperatures around 540 - 610 degree(s)C. This procedure allows the fabrication and characterization of first- second-, and third-order domain- inverted gratings for quasi-phase-matching blue-light generation. Annealing for extremely <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> (approximately 6 - 12 s) is crucial for achieving domain-inverted structures with near-straight domain walls and least lateral expansion. Lateral domain expansion can be effectively suppressed by pre-annealing at low temperatures (<EQ 480 degree(s)C) combined with <span class="hlt">short-time</span> (approximately 5 s) annealing at high temperatures (approximately 600 degree(s)C) allowing to fabricate <span class="hlt">short</span>-period (approximately 3.7 micrometers ) domain- inverted structures. The mechanism of this pre-annealing process is discussed in relation to the inside-field model proposed by Yamamoto et al. Second-harmonic generation of blue light has been demonstrated in a quasi-phase matching planar waveguide fabricated by <span class="hlt">short-time</span> rapid thermal annealing. The measured normalized conversion efficiency confirms that good domain-inverted structures have been formed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Cangsang; Engelmann, Reinhart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461152"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long microsatellite alleles in Drosophila melanogaster have a downward mutation bias and <span class="hlt">short</span> persistence <span class="hlt">times</span>, which cause their genome-wide underrepresentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microsatellites are <span class="hlt">short</span> tandemly repeated DNA sequence motifs that are highly variable in most organisms. In contrast to mammals, long microsatellites (>15 repeats) are extremely rare in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. To investigate this paucity of long microsatellites in Drosophila, we studied 19 loci with exceptionally long microsatellite alleles. Inter- and intraspecific analysis showed that long microsatellite alleles arose in D. melanogaster only very recently. This lack of old alleles with many repeats indicated that long microsatellite alleles have <span class="hlt">short</span> persistence <span class="hlt">times</span>. The size distribution of microsatellite mutations in mutation-accumulation lines suggests that long alleles have a mutation bias toward a reduction in the number of repeat units. This bias causes the <span class="hlt">short</span> persistence <span class="hlt">times</span> of long microsatellite alleles. We propose that species-specific, size-dependent mutation spectra of microsatellite alleles may provide a general mechanism to account for the observed differences in microsatellite length between species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harr, B; Schlotterer, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AJ....142..106R"> <span id="translatedtitle">V405 Andromeda <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a multi-epoch <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved high-resolution optical spectroscopy study of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-period (P orb = 11.2 hr) eclipsing M0V+M5V RS CVn binary V405 Andromeda. By means of indirect imaging techniques, namely Doppler imaging, we study the surface activity features of the M0V component of the system. A modified version of a Doppler imaging code, which takes into account the tidal distortion of the surface of the star, is applied to the multi-epoch data set in order to provide indirect images of the stellar surface. The multi-epoch surface brightness distributions show a low intensity "belt" of spots at latitudes ±40° and a noticeable absence of high latitude features or polar spots on the primary star of V405 Andromeda. They also reveal slow evolution of the spot distribution over ~4 yr. An entropy landscape procedure is used in order to find the set of binary parameters that lead to the smoothest surface brightness distributions. As a result, we find M 1 = 0.51 ± 0.03 M sun, M 2 = 0.21 ± 0.01 M sun, R 1 = 0.71 ± 0.01 R sun, and an inclination i = 65° ± 1°. The resulting systemic velocity is distinct for different epochs, raising the possibility of the existence of a third body in the system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro, T.; Baptista, R.; Kafka, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=372962"> <span id="translatedtitle">The bacterial nucleoid <span class="hlt">revisited</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review compares the results of different methods of investigating the morphology of nucleoids of bacteria grown under conditions favoring <span class="hlt">short</span> generation <span class="hlt">times</span>. We consider the evidence from fixed and stained specimens, from phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy of growing bacteria, and from electron microscopy of whole as well as thinly sectioned ones. It is concluded that the nucleoid of growing cells is in a dynamic state: part of the chromatin is "pulled out" of the bulk of the nucleoid in order to be transcribed. This activity is performed by excrescences which extend far into the cytoplasm so as to reach the maximum of available ribosomes. Different means of fixation provide markedly different views of the texture of the DNA-containing plasm of the bulk of the nucleoid. Conventional chemical fixatives stabilize the cytoplasm of bacteria but not their protein-low chromatin. Uranyl acetate does cross-link the latter well but only if the cytoplasm has first been fixed conventionally. In the interval between the two fixations, the DNA arranges itself in liquid-crystalline form, supposedly because of loss of supercoiling. In stark contrast, cryofixation preserves bacterial chromatin in a finely granular form, believed to reflect its native strongly negatively supercoiled state. In dinoflagellates the DNA of their permanently visible chromosomes (also low in histone-like protein) is natively present as a liquid crystal. The arrangement of chromatin in Epulocystis fishelsoni, one of the largest known prokaryotes, is briefly described. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinow, C; Kellenberger, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=869184"> <span id="translatedtitle">Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra <span class="hlt">short</span> laser pulses in a real <span class="hlt">time</span>, on line manner</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ultra <span class="hlt">short</span> (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra <span class="hlt">short</span> pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra <span class="hlt">short</span> pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90.degree. angle of incidence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interrupted+AND+time+AND+series+AND+educational+AND+research&id=EJ670639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using "<span class="hlt">Short</span>" Interrupted <span class="hlt">Time</span>-Series Analysis To Measure the Impacts of Whole-School Reforms: With Applications to a Study of Accelerated Schools.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduces an new approach for measuring the impact of whole school reforms. The approach, based on "<span class="hlt">short</span>" interrupted <span class="hlt">time</span>-series analysis, is explained, its statistical procedures are outlined, and how it was used in the evaluation of a major whole-school reform, Accelerated Schools is described (H. Bloom and others, 2001). (SLD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bloom, Howard S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AdSpR...1...97N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experiment of the observation of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term <span class="hlt">time</span>-variation of the hard X-ray region in Circinus X-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A balloon-borne experiment has been planned for the observation of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term <span class="hlt">time</span> variation of the hard X-ray region in Cir X-1, a black hole candidate. This paper describes the details of the experiment, with emphasis on the instrumentation and the positioning of the balloon gondola.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakagawa, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22fluid%22&pg=4&id=EJ991995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6709785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores by a Combination of Biocides and Heating under High-Temperature <span class="hlt">Short-Time</span> Pasteurization Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature <span class="hlt">short-time</span> (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sa Xu; Theodore P. Labuza; Francisco Diez-Gonzalez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4265413"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Additional Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Sales of Digital Micro-products over <span class="hlt">Time</span>: A Longitudinal Analysis of Amazon <span class="hlt">Shorts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this research was to conduct a longitudinal study of the impacts of additional reviews on sales of digital micro-products. Following daily sales of 121 digital micro-products - Amazon's <span class="hlt">Shorts</span> - over a period of five months, we performed individual <span class="hlt">time</span> series analyses and aggregated our individual findings with logistic regression. We have found that not all reviews</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naveen Amblee; Tung X. Bui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bicycle&pg=5&id=EJ906352"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Children's Perception-Action Tuning over <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Scales: Bicycling across Traffic-Filled Intersections in a Virtual Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This investigation examined <span class="hlt">short</span>-term changes in child and adult cyclists' gap decisions and movement <span class="hlt">timing</span> in response to general and specific road-crossing experiences. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults rode a bicycle through a virtual environment with 12 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic and waited for gaps…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Recker, Kara M.; Strutt, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49950870"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> pulse scattering by finite periodic flat strip arrays: hybrid (wavefront)-(<span class="hlt">time</span> domain Floquet mode)-(MOM) algorithm and its GTD interpretation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a companion paper (see ibid., p.675-8, 1992), the authors analyzed <span class="hlt">time</span>-harmonic plane wave scattering by finite periodic arrays of thin perfectly conducting infinite flat strips placed on the z =0 plane of a rectangular coordinate frame. In the presented paper, they address scattering from these arrays when the incident plane wave has a <span class="hlt">short</span> pulse transient profile. <span class="hlt">Time</span> domain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. B. Felsen; L. Carin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49014274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of TPOX <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat locus with matrix-associated laser desorption\\/ionization <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight-based restriction fragment mass polymorphism assay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Short</span> tandem repeat (STR) loci are routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. However, this method has several disadvantages, including long operational <span class="hlt">time</span>, low throughput, and inaccuracy. As a result of the introduction of matrix-associated laser desorption\\/ionization <span class="hlt">time</span>-of-flight (MALDI–TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI), mass spectrometry has become an alternative method for genotyping polymorphic STR loci. Here we established a restriction fragment mass</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoon Seok Cha; Suh Hee Choi; Joo-Hyoung Lee; Soo-Kyung Shin; Seung Hwan Lee; Soong Deok Lee; Soo-Ok Kim; Sun Pyo Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43094069"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-Resolved Spectroscopy of RS CVn <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Period Systems.I.CG CYG, BH VIR, and ER VUL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first results of our program of spectroscopic observations with orbital phase resolution of <span class="hlt">short</span>-period active binaries. We have collected simultaneous data in the lines Halpha, Hbeta, and the infrared triplet (IRT) of Ca II (8498 and 8542 A). In this paper we discuss the methods used to analyze the spectra and describe the results obtained for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Lazaro; M. J. Arevalo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol13-sec1-6074-2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 1.6074-2 - <span class="hlt">Time</span> for filing declarations by corporations in case of a <span class="hlt">short</span> taxable year.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...before April 1, 1965 (the 1st day of the 4th month), the declaration of estimated...before April 15, 1965 (the 15th day of the 4th month). Example 2. If, in...filed for the <span class="hlt">short</span> taxable year. (c) Amendment of declaration â(1) Taxable...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nbb.be/doc/ts/publications/wp/wp133En.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term forecasting of GDP using large monthly datasets: a pseudo real-<span class="hlt">time</span> forecast evaluation exercise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper evaluates different models for the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term forecasting of real GDP growth in ten selected European countries and the euro area as a whole. Purely quarterly models are compared with models designed to exploit early releases of monthly indicators for the nowcast and forecast of quarterly GDP growth. Amongst the latter, we consider small bridge equations and forecast equations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karim Barhoumi; Szilard Benk; Riccardo Cristadoro; Ard Den Reijer; Audrone Jakaitiene; Piotr Jelonek; António Rua; Gerhard Rünstler; C. Van Nieuwenhuyze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Connor&pg=5&id=EJ753986"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Grade Writers <span class="hlt">Revisit</span> Their Work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this article, the author focuses on first grade readers and writers who <span class="hlt">revisit</span> their work and describes what first-graders do when they <span class="hlt">revisit</span> their writing about science and literature and review collections of their work. The first-graders discussed here are in Elaine O'Connor's classroom at Clark Elementary School in Charlottesville. In a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hansen, Jane A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...725.1202L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Stellar Ages and Masses of <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-ray Burst Host Galaxies: Investigating the Progenitor Delay <span class="hlt">Time</span> Distribution and the Role of Mass and Star Formation in the <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-ray Burst Rate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present multi-band optical and near-infrared observations of 19 <span class="hlt">short</span> ?-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies, aimed at measuring their stellar masses and population ages. The goals of this study are to evaluate whether <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the stellar mass distribution of galaxies, to investigate the progenitor delay <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution, and to explore any connection between long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB progenitors. Using single stellar population models we infer masses of log(M */M sun) ? 8.8-11.6, with a median of langlog(M */M sun)rang ? 10.1, and population ages of ?* ? 0.03-4.4 Gyr with a median of lang?*rang ? 0.3 Gyr. We further infer maximal masses of log(M */M sun) ? 9.7-11.9 by assuming stellar population ages equal to the age of the universe at each host's redshift. Comparing the distribution of stellar masses to the general galaxy mass function, we find that <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the cosmic stellar mass distribution only if the late-type hosts generally have maximal masses. However, there is an apparent dearth of early-type hosts compared to the equal contribution of early- and late-type galaxies to the cosmic stellar mass budget. Similarly, the <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB rate per unit old stellar mass appears to be elevated in the late-type hosts. These results suggest that stellar mass may not be the sole parameter controlling the <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB rate, and raise the possibility of a two-component model with both mass and star formation playing a role (reminiscent of the case for Type Ia supernovae). If <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies indeed track the star formation activity, the resulting typical delay <span class="hlt">time</span> is ~0.2 Gyr, while those in early-type hosts have a typical delay of ~3 Gyr. Using the same stellar population models, we fit the broadband photometry for 22 long GRB host galaxies in a similar redshift range and find that they have significantly lower masses and younger population ages, with langlog(M */M sun)rang ? 9.1 and lang?*rang ? 0.06 Gyr, respectively; their maximal masses are similarly lower, langlog(M */M sun)rang ? 9.6, and as expected do not track the galaxy mass function. Most importantly, the two GRB host populations remain distinct even if we consider only the star-forming hosts of <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs, supporting our previous findings (based on star formation rates and metallicities) that the progenitors of long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies are distinct. Given the much younger stellar populations of long GRB hosts (and hence of long GRB progenitors), and the substantial differences in host properties, we caution against the use of Type I and II designations for GRBs since this may erroneously imply that all GRBs which track star formation activity share the same massive star progenitors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leibler, C. N.; Berger, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21474375"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE STELLAR AGES AND MASSES OF <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES: INVESTIGATING THE PROGENITOR DELAY <span class="hlt">TIME</span> DISTRIBUTION AND THE ROLE OF MASS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> GAMMA-RAY BURST RATE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present multi-band optical and near-infrared observations of 19 <span class="hlt">short</span> {gamma}-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies, aimed at measuring their stellar masses and population ages. The goals of this study are to evaluate whether <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the stellar mass distribution of galaxies, to investigate the progenitor delay <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution, and to explore any connection between long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB progenitors. Using single stellar population models we infer masses of log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) {approx} 8.8-11.6, with a median of (log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun})) {approx} 10.1, and population ages of {tau}{sub *} {approx} 0.03-4.4 Gyr with a median of ({tau}{sub *}) {approx} 0.3 Gyr. We further infer maximal masses of log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) {approx} 9.7-11.9 by assuming stellar population ages equal to the age of the universe at each host's redshift. Comparing the distribution of stellar masses to the general galaxy mass function, we find that <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs track the cosmic stellar mass distribution only if the late-type hosts generally have maximal masses. However, there is an apparent dearth of early-type hosts compared to the equal contribution of early- and late-type galaxies to the cosmic stellar mass budget. Similarly, the <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB rate per unit old stellar mass appears to be elevated in the late-type hosts. These results suggest that stellar mass may not be the sole parameter controlling the <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB rate, and raise the possibility of a two-component model with both mass and star formation playing a role (reminiscent of the case for Type Ia supernovae). If <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies indeed track the star formation activity, the resulting typical delay <span class="hlt">time</span> is {approx}0.2 Gyr, while those in early-type hosts have a typical delay of {approx}3 Gyr. Using the same stellar population models, we fit the broadband photometry for 22 long GRB host galaxies in a similar redshift range and find that they have significantly lower masses and younger population ages, with (log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun})) {approx} 9.1 and ({tau}{sub *}) {approx} 0.06 Gyr, respectively; their maximal masses are similarly lower, (log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun})) {approx} 9.6, and as expected do not track the galaxy mass function. Most importantly, the two GRB host populations remain distinct even if we consider only the star-forming hosts of <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs, supporting our previous findings (based on star formation rates and metallicities) that the progenitors of long and <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs in late-type galaxies are distinct. Given the much younger stellar populations of long GRB hosts (and hence of long GRB progenitors), and the substantial differences in host properties, we caution against the use of Type I and II designations for GRBs since this may erroneously imply that all GRBs which track star formation activity share the same massive star progenitors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leibler, C. N.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.casact.org/library/astin/vol36no2/521.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE MEAN SQUARE ERROR OF PREDICTION IN THE CHAIN LADDER RESERVING METHOD (MACK AND MURPHY <span class="hlt">REVISITED</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the famous Mack formula (2), which gives an estimate for the mean square error of prediction MSEP of the chain ladder claims reserving method: We define a <span class="hlt">time</span> series model for the chain ladder method. In this <span class="hlt">time</span> series framework we give an approach for the estimation of the conditional MSEP. It turns out that our approach leads</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MARKUS BUCHWALDER; H ANS BÜHLMANN; M ICHAEL MERZ; MARIO V. W ÜTHRICH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA429275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Putting Armor Back into the 82nd Airborne Division: <span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> the AGS Decision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Army <span class="hlt">Times</span> has reported that the Chief of Staff of the Army, General Peter Schoomaker, has directed the army to pursue more effective organizational structures. Since that is the case, now is the perfect <span class="hlt">time</span> to <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the decision to remove armor fr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. D. Preston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44996122"> <span id="translatedtitle">To Die Laughing and to Laugh at Dying: <span class="hlt">Revisiting</span> The Awakening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Time</span> has come to reread The Awakening. In new <span class="hlt">times</span>, it might be worth giving our texts another chance, let them run another risk. We might learn to open our ears to other things, familiar things that nevertheless might ring otherwise. The present reading <span class="hlt">revisits</span> this well-known novel through a reconsideration of the apparently familiar notion of awakening. An encounter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anca Parvulescu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac anatomy <span class="hlt">revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In tomorrow's world of clinical medicine, students will increasingly be confronted by anatomic displays reconstructed from tomographically derived images. These images all display the structure of the various organs in anatomical orientation, this being determined in <span class="hlt">time</span>-honoured fashion by describing the individual in the ‘anatomical position’, standing upright and facing the observer. It follows from this approach that all adjectives used to describe the organs should be related to the three orthogonal planes of the body. Unfortunately, at present this convention is not followed for the heart, even though most students are taught that the so-called ‘right chambers’ are, in reality, in front of their ‘left’ counterparts. Rigorous analysis of the tomographic images already available, along with comparison with dissected hearts displayed in attitudinally correct orientation, calls into question this continuing tendency to describe the heart in terms of its own orthogonal axes, but with the organ positioned on its apex, so that the chambers can artefactually be visualized with the right atrium and right ventricle in right-sided position. Although adequate for describing functional aspects, such as ‘right-to-left’ shunting across intracardiac communications, this convention falls <span class="hlt">short</span> when used to describe the position of the artery that supplies the diaphragmatic surface of the heart. Currently known as the ‘posterior descending artery’, in reality it is positioned inferiorly, and its blockage produces inferior myocardial infarction. In this review, we extend the concept of describing cardiac structure in attitudinally correct orientation, showing also how access to tomographic images clarifies many aspects of cardiac structure previously considered mysterious and arcane. We use images prepared using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography, and compare them with dissection of the heart made in <span class="hlt">time</span>-honoured fashion, along with cartoons to illustrate contentious topics. We argue that there is much to gain by describing the components of the heart as seen in the anatomical position, along with all other organs and structures in the body. We recognize, nonetheless, that such changes will take many years to be put into practice, if at all.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Robert H; Razavi, Reza; Taylor, Andrew M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40285540"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-integrating radon gas measurements in domestic premises: comparison of <span class="hlt">short</span>-, medium- and long-term exposures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To identify the most applicable technology for the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term assessment of domestic radon levels, comparative assessments of a number of integrating detector types, including track-etch, electret and activated charcoal were undertaken. Thirty-four unremediated dwellings in a high-radon area were monitored using track-etch detectors exposed for one-month and three-month periods. In parallel, one-week measurements were made in the same homes at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Groves-Kirkby; A. R. Denman; R. G. M. Crockett; P. S. Phillips; A. C. Woolridge; G. K. Gillmore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/reprint/27/7/1412.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">3T 1H-MR Spectroscopy in Grading of Cerebral Gliomas: Comparison of <span class="hlt">Short</span> and Intermediate Echo <span class="hlt">Time</span> Sequences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">RESULTS: At <span class="hlt">short</span> TE, Cho\\/Cr and Cho\\/NAA ratios were significantly lower, and LL\\/Cr and mIns\\/Cr were significantly higher, compared with those at intermediate TE, regardless of tumor grade. Lactate inversion at intermediate TE was found in only 2 patients. At both TEs, there were significant differences in Cho\\/Cr and LL\\/Cr ratios between low- and high-grade gliomas. Diagnostic accuracy was slightly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K.-H. Chang; D. G. Na; I. C. Song; B. J. Kwon; M. H. Han; K. Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=185428"> <span id="translatedtitle">EPISTATIC INTERACTIONS OF THREE LOCI REGULATE FLOWERING <span class="hlt">TIME</span> UNDER <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> AND LONG DAYLENGTHS IN A BACKCROSS POPULATION OF RICE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short</span>-day plant rice varies greatly in photoperiod sensitivity (PS) for flowering. The hybrid F1 from a cross between the day-neutral pure line EM93-1 and the weedy rice accession SS18-2 had stronger PS than SS18-2. Some BC1 (EM93-1/ F1) segregates were even more sensitive to photoperiod than th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59319971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of instrumental delivery in theatre on <span class="hlt">short</span>-term neonatal outcomes: is it <span class="hlt">time</span> for new standards?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundDecision to delivery intervals (DDI) are widely used in obstetric practice to audit emergency Caesarean sections. However, there is limited data available regarding DDI for instrumental deliveries, and there are no recommendations. The authors investigated DDI and <span class="hlt">short</span> term neonatal outcomes in a large tertiary referral centre in the UK.MethodsThe authors investigated instrumental deliveries for 1 year in a tertiary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CL Tower; N Caine; S Vause</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22611595"> <span id="translatedtitle">An activation analysis system for <span class="hlt">short</span>-lived radioisotopes including automatic dead-<span class="hlt">time</span> corrections with a microcomputer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system based on an IBM-PC microcomputer coupled to a Canberra Series 80 multichannel analyser has been developed for activation analysis with <span class="hlt">short</span>-lived radioisotopes. The data transfer program can store up to 77 gamma-ray spectra on a floppy disk. A spectrum analysis program, DVC, has been written to determine peak areas interactively, to correct the counting losses, and to calculate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Kennedy; J. Marcotte; L. Zikovsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2927876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anticancer agents against malaria: <span class="hlt">time</span> to <span class="hlt">revisit</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The emergence of artemisinin resistance could adversely impact the current strategy for malaria treatment; thus, new drugs are urgently needed. A possible approach to developing new antimalarials is to find new uses for old drugs. Some anticancer agents such as methotrexate and trimetrexate are active against malaria. However, they are commonly perceived to be toxic and thus not suitable for malaria treatment. In this opinion article, we examine how the toxicity of anticancer agents is just a matter of dose or ‘only dose makes the poison’, as coined in Paracelsus’ law. Thus, the opportunity exists to discover new antimalarials using the anticancer pharmacopoeia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Becker, Ruy Perez; Chilengi, Roma; Lang, Trudie; Niehues, Tim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59001156"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negotiating the People's Capital <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Editor's Note: What follows is the second part of an unofficial transcript of an off-the-record conversation among three of the labor movement's leading strategists. (The first installment appeared under the title “Strategy for Labor,” 22 J. Labor Research 569 (Summer 2001), and has been updated as “Strategy for Labor <span class="hlt">Revisited</span>,” available www.ssrn.com). This second meeting was also convened by C,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samuel Estreicher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48776805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secret Public Key Protocols <span class="hlt">Revisited</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret\\u000a public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line\\u000a password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we <span class="hlt">revisit</span> the concept and introduce\\u000a the notion of identity-based secret public</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoon Lim; Kenneth Paterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing <span class="hlt">short</span>-term and long-term information with a combination of polynomial approximation techniques and <span class="hlt">time</span>-delay neural networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neural networks are often used to process temporal information, i.e., any kind of information related to <span class="hlt">time</span> series. In many cases, <span class="hlt">time</span> series contain <span class="hlt">short</span>-term and long-term trends or behavior. This paper presents a new approach to capture temporal information with various reference periods simultaneously. A least squares approximation of the <span class="hlt">time</span> series with orthogonal polynomials will be used to describe <span class="hlt">short</span>-term trends contained in a signal (average, increase, curvature, etc.). Long-term behavior will be modeled with the tapped delay lines of a <span class="hlt">time</span>-delay neural network (TDNN). This network takes the coefficients of the orthogonal expansion of the approximating polynomial as inputs such considering <span class="hlt">short</span>-term and long-term information efficiently. The advantages of the method will be demonstrated by means of artificial data and two real-world application examples, the prediction of the user number in a computer network and online tool wear classification in turning. PMID:19628457</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuchs, Erich; Gruber, Christian; Reitmaier, Tobias; Sick, Bernhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36049779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term outcomes for aggressive spine rehabilitation delivered two versus three <span class="hlt">times</span> per week</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background context: Rehabilitation services using intensive exercise for the treatment of chronic spinal pain have traditionally been scheduled at a frequency of three <span class="hlt">times</span> per week.Purpose: In an attempt to reduce the cost of rehabilitation services, this study was designed to determine whether treatment offered two <span class="hlt">times</span> per week could produce similar outcomes when compared with an established three <span class="hlt">times</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Rainville; Cristin A Jouve; Carol Hartigan; Eugenio Martinez; Mark Hipona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31370593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human cortical responses during one-bit <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory. A high-resolution EEG study on delayed choice reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> tasks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: We investigated whether a very simple <span class="hlt">short</span>-term memory (STM) demand induces a visible change of EEG rhythms over the two hemispheres.Methods: High-resolution EEG was obtained in young adults during two delayed choice reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> tasks. In the STM condition, a simple cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5–5.5 s). The task was visuo-spatial in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudio Babiloni; Fabio Babiloni; Filippo Carducci; Stefano F. Cappa; Febo Cincotti; Claudio Del Percio; Carlo Miniussi; Davide Vito Moretti; Simone Rossi; Katiuscia Sosta; Paolo Maria Rossini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43131850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Independence of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> scale fluctuations of quasi-periodic oscillations and low-frequency noise in GX 5-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">time</span>-scale variability in the X-ray flux of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and low-frequency noise (LFM) in GX 5-1 is examined, using data from Ginga observations and simulations of the GX 5-1 power spectrum, with the purpose of determining whether there is an association between the LFN and the QPO in GX 5-1 on the horizontal branch (i.e., whether</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Norris; P. Hertz; K. S. Wood; B. A. Vaughan; P. F. Michelson; K. Mitsuda; T. Dotani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47345893"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Short</span> term effects of temperature on risk of myocardial infarction in England and Wales: <span class="hlt">time</span> series regression analysis of the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) registry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To examine the <span class="hlt">short</span> term relation between ambient temperature and risk of myocardial infarction.Design Daily <span class="hlt">time</span> series regression analysis.Setting 15 conurbations in England and Wales.Participants 84 010 hospital admissions for myocardial infarction recorded in the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project during 2003-6 (median 57 events a day).Main outcome measures Change in risk of myocardial infarction associated with a 1°C</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnan Bhaskaran; Shakoor Hajat; Andy Haines; Emily Herrett; Paul Wilkinson; Liam Smeeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48817265"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical use of an epinephrine-reduced (1\\/400,000) articaine solution in <span class="hlt">short-time</span> dental routine treatments—a multicenter study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The addition of epinephrine in dental local anaesthesia results in a longer and deeper anaesthesia under almost ischemic conditions.\\u000a For <span class="hlt">short-time</span> dental treatments, epinephrine-reduced anaesthetics may offer shorter and more individual anaesthesia with\\u000a reduced potential side effects. The aim of this study was a clinical evaluation of anaesthetic potency and adverse effects\\u000a of an epinephrine-reduced articaine formulation in dental patients</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monika Daubländer; Peer W. Kämmerer; Brita Willershausen; Michael Leckel; Hans-Christoph Lauer; Siegmar Buff; Benita Rösl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div>