Sample records for short stature hypotonia

  1. Microcephaly, microphthalmia, congenital cataract, optic atrophy, short stature, hypotonia, severe psychomotor retardation, and cerebral malformations: a second family with micro syndrome or a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Megarbane, A; Choueiri, R; Bleik, J; Mezzina, M; Caillaud, C

    1999-01-01

    We report on four children of both sexes from a highly inbred family with hypotonia, spastic diplegia, microcephaly, microphthalmia, congenital cataract, optic atrophy, ptosis, kyphoscoliosis, short stature, severe mental retardation, and cerebral malformations. Six other children may also have been affected. The differential diagnosis and the possibility of a second family with the micro syndrome are discussed.???Keywords: autosomal recessive; cataract; consanguinity; mental retardation PMID:10465117

  2. Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children.

    PubMed

    Barstow, Craig; Rerucha, Caitlyn

    2015-07-01

    Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short and tall stature should include a history and physical examination, accurate serial measurements, and determination of growth velocity, midparental height, and bone age. Common normal variants of short stature are familial short stature, constitutional delay of growth and puberty, and idiopathic short stature. Pathologic causes of short stature include chronic diseases; growth hormone deficiency; and genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome. Tall stature has the same prevalence as short stature, but it is a much less common reason for referral to subspecialty care. Common causes of tall stature include familial tall stature, obesity, Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and precocious puberty. Although most children with short or tall stature have variants of normal growth, children who are more than three standard deviations from the mean for age are more likely to have underlying pathology. Evaluation for pathologic etiologies is guided by history and physical examination findings. PMID:26132126

  3. Abnormal Facies, Myopia, and Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Keith, C. G.; Dobbs, R. H.; Shaw, D. G.; Cottrall, K.

    1972-01-01

    Three members of a family are described who have a curious facies due to a severely depressed nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, wide-set eyes, high myopia, and short stature. The facial appearance is due to faulty development of the ethmoid bone, which also causes a short anterior cranial fossa. One member of the family was autistic and had a cleft palate. These cases closely resemble, but are thought to be distinct from, a family described by Marshall (1958) whose members had a similar facies which appeared to be due to a defective maxilla, deafness, myopia, and cataracts which were subject to many complications. One further case is described resembling Marshall's cases even more closely; she is deaf but does not have cataracts. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5086512

  4. Growth hormone, enhancement and the pharmaceuticalisation of short stature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Michael

    2015-04-01

    This paper takes the biological drug human Growth Hormone (hGH) as a case study to investigate processes of pharmaceuticalisation and medicalisation in configuring childhood short stature as a site for pharmaceutical intervention. Human growth hormone is considered to have legitimate applications in treating childhood growth hormone deficiency and short stature associated with other recognised conditions. It is also regarded by bioethicists and others as a form of human biomedical enhancement when applied to children with idiopathic or 'normal' short stature. The purpose of this study is not to evaluate whether treatment of idiopathic short stature is enhancement or not, but to evaluate how some applications of hGH in treating short stature have come to be accepted and stabilised as legitimate 'therapies' while others remain contested as 'enhancements'. A comparative, historical approach is employed, drawing on approaches from medical sociology and Science and Technology Studies (STS) to set out a socio-technical history of hGH in the US and UK. Through this history the relative influence and interplay of drivers of pharmaceuticalisation, including industry marketing and networks of drug distribution, and processes of medicalisation will be employed to address this question and simultaneously query the value of enhancement as a sociological concept. PMID:25455477

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (often ... 2013 What is SHORT syndrome? Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay, commonly ...

  6. Castleman disease in a child with short stature.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Takuya; Okuno, Keisuke; Okada, Shin-ichi; Fujimoto, Masanobu; Kuranobu, Hiroki; Hashida, Yuichiro; Ueyama, Jun-ichi; Murakami, Jun; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2012-10-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy with Castleman disease in this article. He complained of short stature, and his body height was 133.8 cm (<3rd percentile; z score -4.5). There was marked delay in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. He was found to have a remittent fever and a lower mid-abdominal tumor. Blood test revealed microcytic hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein levels were increased. The mass was found to be mixed hyaline vascular and plasma cell type of Castleman disease through a pathological examination. Lymph nodes affected by Castleman disease cause overproduction of IL-6. It decreases IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and serum testosterone levels. As a result of tumorectomy, his short stature and delay in the development of secondary sexual characteristics were improved. PMID:23005908

  7. A subject with abnormally short stature from Imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Ottini, L; Minozzi, S; Pantano, W B; Maucci, C; Gazzaniga, V; Angeletti, L R; Catalano, P; Mariani-Costantini, R

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the rich iconographic and literary documentation from ancient sources, the skeletal evidence concerning individuals of abnormally short stature in the Greco-Roman world is scarce. The necropolis of Viale della Serenissima/Via Basiliano in Rome, mostly referable to the II century AD, recently yielded the skeleton of an individual characterized by proportionate short stature, gracile features suggesting female gender, and delayed epiphysial closure, associated with full maturation of the permanent dentition. These characteristics could be compatible with the phenotype associated with female gonadal dysgenesis. The skeletal individual described here, although poorly preserved, represents the first evidence of a paleopathologic condition affecting skeletal growth documented for the population of ancient Rome. PMID:11508791

  8. Treatment of children and adolescents with idiopathic short stature.

    PubMed

    Ranke, Michael B

    2013-06-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is defined as shortness in childhood without a specific cause. ISS may be familial or nonfamilial and may be associated with or without delay of pubertal development. Treatment can be considered in an attempt to reduce the psychological burden caused by short stature in childhood and adult life. If counselling alone is not sufficient, medical modifications of the growth process can be attempted. In cases with pubertal delay, sex steroids, such as testosterone and oxandrolone, can favourably influence height velocity and growth tempo, although adult height is not affected. Medications that prolong the process of growth--for example, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or aromatase inhibitors--might increase adult height, but findings to date are still experimental. Growth hormone therapy is approved for the treatment of very short children with reduced adult height expectation, as evidence has accumulated that this therapy can increase height in childhood and in adult life. Sensitivity to growth hormone is impaired in patients with ISS; therefore, doses higher than a replacement dose have to be applied. This treatment still needs to be optimized in terms of efficacy, cost-effectiveness and long-term safety. A debate is ongoing concerning the psychological benefit of height increase, with clinicians warning against the medicalization of a deviation in height. PMID:23609338

  9. Unique Deletion in Exon 5 of SHOX Gene in a Patient with Idiopathic Short Stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Shanske; Mala Puri; Barbara Marshall; Paul Saenger

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: It is known that haploinsufficiency for the SHOX gene (short-stature homeobox gene on the X chromosome) is responsible for short stature in Turner syndrome and Leri-Weill dyschondrogenesis, and it has been reported that it is responsible for upwards of 1 in 50 cases of idiopathic short stature. SHOX haploinsufficiency is also associated with various radiographic abnormalities, such as coarse

  10. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature.

    PubMed

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  11. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A.; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G.; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  12. Short stature in a mother and daughter with terminal deletion of Xp22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinger, E.; Kirschstein, M.; Konermann, T. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others] [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    1996-05-03

    Short stature in females is often caused by homozygosity for the terminal portion of Xp due to monosomy X or a deletion. We report on a mother and daughter with short stature as sole phenotypic abnormality and deletion of bands Xp22.32-p22.33 demonstrated by classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis. In both individuals, the deleted X chromosome was late replicating. Molecular analysis suggested that the deletion is terminal and the breakpoint was localized between the STS and DXS7470 loci in Xp22.32. Chromosome analysis is often done on females with short stature to exclude Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Small deletions, terminal or interstitial, are easily missed by conventional cytogenetic investigation; thus molecular analyses are useful to detect those cases. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Triple X Syndrome with Short Stature: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingyan; Zou, Chaochun; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2012-01-01

    Background Triple X syndrome is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy condition characterized by tall stature, microcephaly, hypertelorism, congenital abnormalities, and motor and language delays. It is mainly derived from maternal nondisjunctional errors during meiosis. To highlight the clinical features and diagnosis of triple X syndrome, we present a rare phenotype of the syndrome. Case Presentation A 5.9 year-old girl was admitted to our hospital because of short stature. Both her height and weight were below the 3rd percentile compared to the normal peers. She was found with mild motor and speech delay. Laboratory investigation showed low level of IGF-1 and zinc, elevated estradiol level and normal result of arginine provocation test. Conclusion Our data suggest that triple X syndrome should also be suspected in patients with short stature, elevated estradiol and low level of IGF-1, even with normal result of arginine provocation test. PMID:23056899

  14. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  15. Safety of Growth Hormone Treatment in Pediatric Patients with Idiopathic Short Stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charmian A. Quigley; Anne M. Gill; Brenda J. Crowe; Kristen Robling; John J. Chipman; Susan R. Rose; Judith L. Ross; Fernando G. Cassorla; Anne M. Wolka; Jan M. Wit; T. M. Rekers-Mombarg; Gordon B. Cutler; Eli Lilly

    Context: Recombinant human GH was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2003 for the treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS). However, to date, the safety of GH in this patient population has not been rigorously studied. Objective:The objective of this study was to address the safety of GH treatment in children with ISS compared with GH

  16. Microphthalmia, marked short stature, hearing loss, and developmental delay: extension of the phenotype of GOMBO syndrome?

    PubMed

    Farrell, S A

    1997-10-01

    An adult male with microphthalmia, severe developmental delay, conductive hearing loss, marked short stature of prenatal onset, and radiographic skeletal changes is described. A review of the literature, focusing on his major findings, suggests that his manifestations might be an extension of the phenotype of GOMBO (growth retardation, ocular abnormalities, microcephaly, brachydactyly, oligophrenia) syndrome. PMID:9295068

  17. Parents' perception about child's height and psychopathology in community children with relatively short stature

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun-Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between height and psychopathology in community children with relatively short stature according to the parents' reports. Also, the matter of parental concern about child's height was explored. Methods The child behavior checklist (CBCL), the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI), and the child-health questionnaire-parent form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were administered to 423 parents (from elementary and middle school children's) in Gangnam, South Korea. Subjects were divided into three groups; (1) relatively short (n=30), (2) average stature (n=131), (3) relatively tall (n=153). CBCL, BEPSI, and CHQ-PF50 scores were compared among three groups. Results There were no significant differences in psychosocial burden associated with relatively short stature measured by Korean version of the BEPSI and Korean version of the CBCL scores among three groups. But general health perception score of relatively short was significantly lower than that of nonshort on the CHQ-PF50. Also, they were more used complementary medicines, milk and growth hormone compared to the nonshort. The parents' expected height of their children was 180.6±3.5 cm for boys and 166.7±3.5 cm for girls. This is respectively 90 percentile and 75-90 percentile for the Korean standard adult height. Conclusion Our study shows that in Korea, Parents tended to regard relatively short children as having health problems. Also, the parental expectation for their child's attainable height is unrealistically tall, mostly due to lack of correct medical information.

  18. Osteopathia striata, short stature, and characteristic facies: a previously unknown skeletal dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Nishimura; T. Okada; K. Tachibana; M. Adachi; M. Masuno; K. Imaizumi; N. Aida

    1997-01-01

    We report two sporadic cases of a hitherto undescribed skeletal dysplasia with short stature and characteristic facies. The\\u000a present patients, a 6-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy, were almost equally affected. Craniofacial anomalies included a\\u000a sloping forehead, bitemporal bulging, sparse medial eyebrows, a prominent nasal bridge, hypertelorism, proptosis, a beaked\\u000a nose, hypoplastic alae nasi and a pointed chin. Shallow orbits,

  19. Keratoconus posticus circumscriptus, cleft lip and palate, genitourinary abnormalities, short stature, and mental retardation in sibs

    PubMed Central

    Young, I D; Macrae, W G; Hughes, H E; Crawford, J S

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes two sibs in each of whom Keratoconus posticus circumscriptus is associated with multiple abnormalities. These include short stature, mental retardation, cleft lip and palate, and vertebral anomalies. The authors have been unable to trace any former reports of an identical condition and suggest that the findings in these children may represent a previously unrecognised malformation syndrome showing probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Images PMID:7143385

  20. Short Stature in Partially Corrected X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency- Suboptimal Response to Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    De Ravin, Suk See; Shum, Elaine; Zarember, Kol A.; Rezvani, Geoffrey; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Malech, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    Background X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) results from defects in the common cytokine receptor ? chain (?c) required for signaling by receptors for interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -7, -9, -15, and -21 (1). Following haploidentical bone marrow transplant without myelo-conditioning for XSCID, most patients achieve partial reconstitution(2) often limited to T lymphocytes. Many partially corrected patients manifest extreme short stature (<5th percentile). Previous reports have implicated ?c in growth hormone (GH) receptor signaling, thus severe growth failure in XSCID may be related to the underlying ?c defect. Objective To evaluate the GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axes in 3 children with XSCID and partial immune reconstitution with profound growth failure. Methods The IGF-1 generation test was performed by administering recombinant GH subcutaneously for 5 days, and measuring serum levels for IGF-1 before GH injection, and on days 5 and 8. Results Study of the somatotropic axis revealed profoundly diminished IGF-1 production following rGH challenge in all 3 patients. Conclusion The data indicate that the GH/IGF-1 axes in these partially corrected XSCID patients with severe short stature is profoundly impaired, and supports previous studies suggesting that the underlying ?c defect may contribute to the severe growth failure in XSCID. This supports a role for defective ?c in extreme short stature of XSCID, and raises the possibility of recombinant IGF-1 treatment to bypass this defect. PMID:19189700

  1. MCM9 Mutations Are Associated with Ovarian Failure, Short Stature, and Chromosomal Instability

    PubMed Central

    Wood-Trageser, Michelle A.; Gurbuz, Fatih; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Jeffries, Elizabeth P.; Kotan, L. Damla; Surti, Urvashi; Ketterer, Deborah M.; Matic, Jelena; Chipkin, Jacqueline; Jiang, Huaiyang; Trakselis, Michael A.; Topaloglu, A. Kemal; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is genetically heterogeneous and manifests as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism either as part of a syndrome or in isolation. We studied two unrelated consanguineous families with daughters exhibiting primary amenorrhea, short stature, and a 46,XX karyotype. A combination of SNP arrays, comparative genomic hybridization arrays, and whole-exome sequencing analyses identified homozygous pathogenic variants in MCM9, a gene implicated in homologous recombination and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. In one family, the MCM9 c.1732+2T>C variant alters a splice donor site, resulting in abnormal alternative splicing and truncated forms of MCM9 that are unable to be recruited to sites of DNA damage. In the second family, MCM9 c.394C>T (p.Arg132?) results in a predicted loss of functional MCM9. Repair of chromosome breaks was impaired in lymphocytes from affected, but not unaffected, females in both families, consistent with MCM9 function in homologous recombination. Autosomal-recessive variants in MCM9 cause a genomic-instability syndrome associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and short stature. Preferential sensitivity of germline meiosis to MCM9 functional deficiency and compromised DNA repair in the somatic component most likely account for the ovarian failure and short stature. PMID:25480036

  2. Growth failure starts from early infancy in children with short stature at age 6.

    PubMed

    Noda, Masahiro; Sato, Naoko; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We compared the growth of 183 children with short stature (? 2SD) and 73 children of normal height at age six who were visiting the Tanaka Growth Clinic. We classified these short children as suffering from either idiopathic short stature (ISS, n = 119), GH deficiency (GHD, n = 33) or small-for-gestational-age short stature (SGASS, n = 31) on the basis of subsequent test results and other factors. We also conducted a retrospective study of changes in their height, wt and nutritional intake over time. The mean changes in height SD score from birth to 6 yr were -0.24 SD in normal height children with a normal birth length and +2.27 SD in normal height children with a low birth length. In short children, these changes were -1.93 SD for children with ISS, -2.41 SD for those with GHD and +0.58 for those with SGASS. The mean changes from birth to 6 mo were -0.84 SD, -1.03 SD and +0.38 SD in children with ISS, GHD and SGASS, respectively. The mean change in height SD score from birth to age 1 yr was -1.07 SD, -1.44 SD and +0.35 SD, respectively. The decrease in height SD score from birth to 6 mo accounted for 43.5% of the decrease in height SD score from birth to 6 yr in children with ISS and it accounted for 42.6% of the decrease in children with GHD. Only 19% of short children bottle-fed well, and 53% fed poorly, as opposed to 56% and 16% of normal height children who fed well and poorly, respectively. Post weaning, only 22% of short children ate well, and 56% fed poorly, as opposed to 53% and 17% of normal height children who fed well and poorly, respectively. These findings demonstrated that growth failure started from early infancy in ISS and GHD children. It was suggested that poor nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood was a partial cause of short stature at age 6. PMID:25678754

  3. Short stature

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Achondroplasia Chronic diseases, such as: Asthma Celiac disease Congenital heart disease Cushing disease Diabetes Hypothyroidism Inflammatory bowel disease Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Kidney disease ...

  4. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primary microcephaly, short stature and increased genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Nadine; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Beleggia, Filippo; Isgüven, Pinar; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Steindl, Katharina; Joset, Pascal; Rauch, Anita; Nürnberg, Peter; Wollnik, Bernd; Yigit, Gökhan

    2015-07-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions, which, if not properly repaired, can give rise to genomic instability. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a well-orchestrated, multistep process involving numerous proteins essential for cell viability, represents one major pathway to repair DSBs in mammalian cells, and mutations in different NHEJ components have been described in microcephalic syndromes associated, e.g. with short stature, facial dysmorphism and immune dysfunction. By using whole-exome sequencing, we now identified in three affected brothers of a consanguineous Turkish family a homozygous mutation, c.482G>A, in the XRCC4 gene encoding a crucial component of the NHEJ pathway. Moreover, we found one additional patient of Swiss origin carrying the compound heterozygous mutations c.25delG (p.His9Thrfs*8) and c.823C>T (p.Arg275*) in XRCC4. The clinical phenotype presented in these patients was characterized by severe microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and short stature, but they did not show a recognizable immunological phenotype. We showed that the XRCC4 c.482G>A mutation, which affects the last nucleotide of exon 4, induces defective splicing of XRCC4 pre-mRNA mainly resulting in premature protein truncation and most likely loss of XRCC4 function. Moreover, we observed on cellular level that XRCC4 deficiency leads to hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and defective DSB repair, which results in increased cell death after exposure to genotoxic agents. Taken together, our data provide evidence that autosomal recessive mutations in XRCC4 induce increased genomic instability and cause a NHEJ-related syndrome defined by facial dysmorphism, primary microcephaly and short stature. PMID:25839420

  5. Rare Copy Number Variants Are a Common Cause of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Zahnleiter, Diana; Uebe, Steffen; Ekici, Arif B.; Hoyer, Juliane; Wiesener, Antje; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Reis, André; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Human growth has an estimated heritability of about 80%–90%. Nevertheless, the underlying cause of shortness of stature remains unknown in the majority of individuals. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) showed that both common single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to height variation under a polygenic model, although explaining only a small fraction of overall genetic variability in the general population. Under the hypothesis that severe forms of growth retardation might also be caused by major gene effects, we searched for rare CNVs in 200 families, 92 sporadic and 108 familial, with idiopathic short stature compared to 820 control individuals. Although similar in number, patients had overall significantly larger CNVs (p-value<1×10?7). In a gene-based analysis of all non-polymorphic CNVs>50 kb for gene function, tissue expression, and murine knock-out phenotypes, we identified 10 duplications and 10 deletions ranging in size from 109 kb to 14 Mb, of which 7 were de novo (p<0.03) and 13 inherited from the likewise affected parent but absent in controls. Patients with these likely disease causing 20 CNVs were smaller than the remaining group (p<0.01). Eleven (55%) of these CNVs either overlapped with known microaberration syndromes associated with short stature or contained GWAS loci for height. Haploinsufficiency (HI) score and further expression profiling suggested dosage sensitivity of major growth-related genes at these loci. Overall 10% of patients carried a disease-causing CNV indicating that, like in neurodevelopmental disorders, rare CNVs are a frequent cause of severe growth retardation. PMID:23516380

  6. Pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics in the evaluation and management of short stature.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2007-08-01

    It has long been recognized that growth failure encompasses a diverse spectrum of underlying pathophysiological processes, a characteristic that has significantly impacted both the diagnosis and management of growth disorders. This problem is exacerbated by inherent difficulty in distinguishing the borders between the 'normal range' for stature and defined abnormal growth. Evaluation of GH secretion has proven problematic, both diagnostically and prognostically, except in cases of unequivocal GH deficiency. Measurement of serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS have proven useful in the assessment of GH responsiveness and have contributed to the concept of primary and secondary 'IGF deficiency'. Nevertheless, there is great need for biochemical and/or molecular biomarkers that could: i) predict short- and long-term responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities, such as GH and IGF-I, and ii) predict potential risk for adverse effects of therapy. Candidate proteins and genes identified to date, and worthy of further evaluation, include IGF-I, IGF-I receptor, GH receptor and its variants (such as exon 3-deleted GHR), STAT5b and short stature homeobox. Proteomic analysis of serum samples pre- and post-treatment and correlation with clinical responsiveness should provide additional candidate biomarkers. Molecular studies to consider include: i) sequencing and mutation analysis of known genetic components of the GH-IGF axis; ii) evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes; and iii) identification of new candidate genes. It is proposed that the major target population to study is that of children currently labeled as idiopathic short stature (ISS). These children can be divided into those with: i) primary IGFD, where the focus should be on genes related to GHR, GHR signaling, and IGF-I gene expression, or ii) no IGFD (i.e. 'true ISS'), where the focus should be on genes related to IGFR, IGF signaling and epiphyseal growth. PMID:17785693

  7. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mendley, Susan R.; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Counts, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  8. Short stature with umbilical hernia - Not always due to cretinism: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gadve, Sharvil S; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Uma K

    2012-05-01

    A 7-year-old boy presented with umbilical hernia and short stature. Growth retardation, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and delayed developmental milestones were present from infancy. Umbilical hernia was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. On examination, he had short-trunk dwarfism, large head circumference, coarse facial features, joint stiffness, hepatosplenomegaly, and mild mental retardation. He had normal biochemical parameters, thyroid function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. Radiological evaluation showed that the child had Hunter syndrome with findings of J-shaped sellaturcica, proximal bulleting of metacarpals, spatulated ribs and anterior beaking of lumbar vertebrae. The second case was a 6-year-old girl with umbilical hernia, short stature, normal biochemistry and radiological findings of mucopolysaccharidosis. However, she also had corneal opacity; confirmed by slit-lamp examination, which led to the diagnosis of Hurler-Scheie syndrome. Enzymatic studies could not be done in both the cases, as they are not available at most centers. PMID:22629520

  9. Large-Scale Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing of 1077 Genes to Identify Genetic Causes of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sophie R.; Carmichael, Heather; Andrew, Shayne F.; Miller, Timothy C.; Moon, Jennifer E.; Derr, Michael A.; Hwa, Vivian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The majority of patients presenting with short stature do not receive a definitive diagnosis. Advances in genetic sequencing allow for large-scale screening of candidate genes, potentially leading to genetic diagnoses. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover genetic variants that contribute to short stature in a cohort of children with no known genetic etiology. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of subjects with short stature. Setting: The setting was a pediatric endocrinology and genetics clinics at an academic center. Patients: A total of 192 children with short stature with no defined genetic etiology and 192 individuals of normal stature from the Framingham Heart Study were studied. Intervention: Pooled targeted sequencing using next-generation DNA sequencing technology of the exons of 1077 candidate genes was performed. Main Outcome Measures: The numbers of rare nonsynonymous genetic variants found in case patients but not in control subjects, known pathogenic variants in case patients, and potentially pathogenic variants in IGF1R were determined. Results: We identified 4928 genetic variants in 1077 genes that were present in case patients but not in control subjects. Of those, 1349 variants were novel (898 nonsynonymous). False-positive rates from pooled sequencing were 4% to 5%, and the false-negative rate was 0.1% in regions covered well by sequencing. We identified 3 individuals with known pathogenic variants in PTPN11 causing undiagnosed Noonan syndrome. There were 9 rare potentially nonsynonymous variants in IGF1R, one of which is a novel, probably pathogenic, frameshift mutation. A previously reported pathogenic variant in IGF1R was present in a control subject. Conclusions: Large-scale sequencing efforts have the potential to rapidly identify genetic etiologies of short stature, but data interpretation is complex. Noonan syndrome may be an underdiagnosed cause of short stature. PMID:23771920

  10. Congenital disorder of fucosylation type 2c (LADII) presenting with short stature and developmental delay with minimal adhesion defect

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Andrew; Ercan, Altan; Lee, Jack; James, Philip; Jacobs, Pieter P.; Ashline, David J.; Wang, Sophie R.; Miller, Timothy; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Sackstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II is a hereditary disorder of neutrophil migration caused by mutations in the guanosine diphosphate-fucose transporter gene (SLC35C1). In these patients, inability to generate key fucosylated molecules including sialyl Lewis X leads to leukocytosis and recurrent infections, in addition to short stature and developmental delay. We report two brothers with short stature and developmental delay who are compound heterozygotes for novel mutations in SLC35C1 resulting in partial in vivo defects in fucosylation. Specifically, plasma glycoproteins including immunoglobulin G demonstrated marked changes in glycoform distribution. While neutrophil rolling on endothelial selectins was partially impeded, residual adhesion proved sufficient to avoid leukocytosis or recurrent infection. These findings demonstrate a surprising degree of immune redundancy in the face of substantial alterations in adhesion molecule expression, and show that short stature and developmental delay may be the sole presenting signs in this disorder. PMID:24403049

  11. Congenital disorder of fucosylation type 2c (LADII) presenting with short stature and developmental delay with minimal adhesion defect.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Ercan, Altan; Lee, Jack; James, Philip; Jacobs, Pieter P; Ashline, David J; Wang, Sophie R; Miller, Timothy; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Nigrovic, Peter A; Sackstein, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II is a hereditary disorder of neutrophil migration caused by mutations in the guanosine diphosphate-fucose transporter gene (SLC35C1). In these patients, inability to generate key fucosylated molecules including sialyl Lewis X leads to leukocytosis and recurrent infections, in addition to short stature and developmental delay. We report two brothers with short stature and developmental delay who are compound heterozygotes for novel mutations in SLC35C1 resulting in partial in vivo defects in fucosylation. Specifically, plasma glycoproteins including immunoglobulin G demonstrated marked changes in glycoform distribution. While neutrophil rolling on endothelial selectins was partially impeded, residual adhesion proved sufficient to avoid leukocytosis or recurrent infection. These findings demonstrate a surprising degree of immune redundancy in the face of substantial alterations in adhesion molecule expression, and show that short stature and developmental delay may be the sole presenting signs in this disorder. PMID:24403049

  12. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32?±?0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of the heights and growth of the children during childhood and the attainment of normal adult heights, the main two aims of treatment. PMID:25075207

  13. New recessive truncating mutation in LTBP3 in a family with oligodontia, short stature, and mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah L; Temme, Renee T; Olson, Rebecca A; Mikhailov, Anna; Law, Rosalind; Mahmood, Huda; Noor, Abdul; Vincent, John B

    2015-06-01

    Latent TGFB-binding protein 3 (LTBP3) is known to increase bio-availability of TGFB. A homozygous mutation in this gene has previously been associated with oligodontia and short stature in a single family. We report on two sisters with homozygous truncating mutations in LTBP3. In addition to oligodontia and short stature, both sisters have mitral valve prolapse, suggesting a link between truncating LTBP3 mutations and mitral valve disease mediated through the TGFB pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25899461

  14. Rathke's cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Deep; Roy, Ajitesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit. PMID:23565402

  15. Using height association studies to gain insights into human idiopathic short and syndromic stature phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lettre, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Variation in adult height is not the most clinically relevant human quantitative trait, yet its study provides the foundation of many quantitative genetics theories and important statistical concepts (e.g. regression). Even today, the analysis of adult height by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) continues to significantly impact human genetics: these studies have led to the discovery of >200 loci associated with variation in adult height and have highlighted the very polygenic nature of human continuous traits. In this brief review, I discuss and provide examples on how such genetic associations, identified in individuals of normal height, could help understand the complex genetics behind such phenotypes as idiopathic short stature (ISS) or extreme/syndromic height phenotypes of unknown cause. PMID:22941042

  16. Translocation (Y;22) resulting in the loss of SHOX and isolated short stature.

    PubMed

    Borie, C; Léger, J; Dupuy, O; Hassan, M; Ledu, N; Lebbar, A; Czernichow, P; Eydoux, P

    2004-03-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving both chromosome Y and chromosome 22 are rare, and may result in a number of different phenotypes. We report on a 4-year-old child with short stature and a dicentric chromosome with a deletion of the distal end of chromosome Yp. The pregnancy was uneventful, until intra-uterine growth retardation was noted. Prenatal karyotyping showed a (Y;22) translocation. No structural fetal abnormality was shown at ultrasound examination, and the pregnancy went to term. A growth-retarded boy with an otherwise normal physical examination was delivered at 39 weeks. At age 4, the child had short stature (-3 SD) without mental retardation. Radiological examination of the wrist was normal. A blood karyotype confirmed the chromosomal rearrangement previously seen on the amniotic fluid cells. C-banding showed a dicentric chromosome, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromeric probes confirmed the presence of both chromosome Y and 22 centromeres on the derivative chromosome. The karyotype was thus 45,X,der(Y;22)(p11;q11)del(Y)(p11p11). Our patient's phenotype and chromosomal rearrangement prompted us to further investigate the distal Yp region. FISH using a subtelomeric probe showed a deletion of the distal Yp region. This technique also revealed that this chromosomal rearrangement resulted in the deletion of SHOX but not SRY. Although haploinsufficiency of SHOX may result in Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis, this diagnosis did not seem obvious in this young patient. This observation confirms the importance of FISH in the investigation of chromosomal abnormalities, and further delineates the phenotype of SHOX deleted patients. PMID:14981722

  17. Severe scoliosis, torticollis and short stature in a woman with Wildervanck Syndrome (WS).

    PubMed

    Laban, N B; Tasic, V B; Danilovski, D; Polenakovic, M; Gucev, Z S

    2015-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Wildervanck syndrome (WS) combines features of Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), sixth nerve palsy, and deafness. This is a case of a 23 year old woman, diagnosed with KFS (a triad of short neck, low posterior hairline and restricted neck movements) at the age of 20 days. The manifestations of the WS in this patient are severe: she has torticollis, and an extremely severe scoliosis. In addition, she is short (-3 SD; parental target height + 0.8SD) and has mixed sensorineural and conductive deafness. She also has ptosis, strabismus and a high myopia. Radiologically, there are multiple coalitions of cervical vertebrae. Intelligence is unaffected (IQ 95), but deafness, strabismus and high myopia forced her early out of school. Karyotype is 46, XX. In brief, this is a patient with severe WS and additional anomalies. Short and/or reduced parental target height is a part of WS. Key words: Wildervanck syndrome, short stature, Duane retraction syndrome, Klippel Feil anomaly, deafness, torticollis, severe scoliosis. PMID:26076792

  18. Alopecia congenita universalis, microcephaly, cutis marmorata, short stature and XY gonadal dysgenesis: variable expression of El-Shanti syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad S. Teebi; Lucie Dupuis; Diane Wherrett; Anthony Khoury; Kenneth J. Zucker

    2004-01-01

    Alopecia congenita, laryngomalacia, and XY gonadal dysgenesis has been reported recently as a new syndrome in two unrelated Arab families from Jordan. We report a 4-year-old girl of first cousin Arab parents who had alopecia, microcephaly, cutis marmorata, short stature and borderline cognitive development. Karyotype analysis revealed a male constitution (46,XY) with no deletion of STSor SRY. She showed entirely

  19. Tbx4 Interacts With the Short Stature Homeobox Gene Shox2 in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Anne; Arora, Ripla; Hoffmann, Sandra; Li, Li; Gretz, Norbert; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Rappold, Gudrun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The short stature homeodomain transcription factors SHOX and SHOX2 play key roles in limb formation. To gain more insight into genes regulated by Shox2 during limb development, we analyzed expression profiles of WT and Shox2?/? mouse embryonic limbs and identified the T-Box transcription factor Tbx4 as a potential downstream target. Tbx4 is known to exert essential functions in skeletal and muscular hindlimb development. In humans, haploinsufficiency of TBX4 causes small patella syndrome, a skeletal dysplasia characterized by anomalies of the knee, pelvis, and foot. Results Here, we demonstrate an inhibitory regulatory effect of Shox2 on Tbx4 specifically in the forelimbs. We also show that Tbx4 activates Shox2 expression in fore- and hindlimbs, suggesting Shox2 as a feedback modulator of Tbx4. Using EMSA studies, we find that Tbx4/TBX4 is able to bind to distinct T-box binding sites within the mouse and human Shox2/SHOX2 promoter. Conclusions Our data identifies Tbx4 as a novel transcriptional activator of Shox2 during murine fore- and hindlimb development. Tbx4 is also regulated by Shox2 specifically in the forelimb bud possibly via a feedback mechanism. These data extend our understanding of the role and regulation of Tbx4 and Shox2 in limb development and limb associated diseases. PMID:24347445

  20. Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

  1. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Pierre M. L.; Nichane, Miloud G.; Lengelé, Benoît G.; Rezsöhazy, René; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. These data confirm the impairment of chondrogenic differentiation by Hoxa2 overexpression. They also show a selective effect of Hoxa2 on endochondral ossification processes since Gdf5 and Gdf10, and Bmp4 or PthrP were up-regulated and unmodified, respectively. Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease. PMID:24129174

  2. Massive pericardial effusion and short stature caused by autoimmune hypothyroidism in a 9-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Gyon, Yun Hee

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-, 11-month-old girl was brought to the Emergency Department for sudden dyspnea caused by massive pericardial effusion. In addition to relative bradycardia despite impending cardiac tamponade, short stature, overweight, and hypercholesterolemia were clues for suspected hypothyroidism. During thyroxine supplementation, catch-up growth was incomplete by rapid skeletal maturation. The use of short-term growth hormone showed increased growth velocity. In conclusion, primary hypothyroidism should be included in the etiologic evaluation of pericardial effusion, especially when it is associated with relative bradycardia. Additional growth promoting therapy should be considered for incomplete catch-up growth in prolonged hypothyroidism during thyroxine supplementation.

  3. How many entities exist for the spectrum of disorders associated with brachydactyly, syndactyly, short stature, microcephaly, and intellectual disability?

    PubMed

    Ravel, Aimé; Chouery, Eliane; Stora, Samantha; Jalkh, Nadine; Villard, Laurent; Temtamy, Samia; Mégarbané, André

    2011-04-01

    We describe a French young man with digital anomalies consisting of brachydactyly, F1-5 bilateral camptodactyly, interdigital webbing, F5 bilateral radial clinodactyly, and partial syndactyly of some fingers and toes. He had psychomotor retardation, short stature, umbilical hernia, a secundum atrial septal defect, seizures, hearing impairment, and dysmorphic features consisting of microcephaly, a prominent metopic ridge, upslanting palpebral fissures, synophrys, enophthalmia, large ears, a bulbous nose, a high palate, a smooth and short philtrum, a low hanging columella, a thin upper vermillion, an everted lower lip, prognathism, pectum excavatum, and supernumerary nipples. Osteotendinous reflexes were brisk. Mild nystagmus, myopia, and astigmatia were also noted. Total body X-rays showed short terminal phalanges of the hands, short middle phalanges of the index and little fingers, clinodactyly of the little fingers, short and fused proximal 4th and 5th metacarpals of the right hand, a short 5th metacarpal of the left hand, a fused left lunate-triquetrum, fused capitate-hamates, a prominent mandibula, and partial sacral agenesis. A thin posterior corpus callosum was apparent by MRI. Differential diagnoses for mainly the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, the Tsukahara syndrome, the Filippi syndrome, the Feingold syndrome, and the Tonoki syndrome are discussed, and the possibility that we might be reporting a novel entity is raised. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21416592

  4. Highland Guatemalan women are extremely short of stature, and no lactation duration effects on body composition are observed in a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oyesiku, Linda; Solomons, Noel W; Doak, Colleen M; Vossenaar, Marieke

    2013-02-01

    Early linear growth in Guatemala has historically been compromised, resulting in adults of short stature. We hypothesized that the rate of short stature among mothers in the Western Highlands would have tracked from their own childhood when younger than 5 years, and that maternal weight declines progressively from delivery through lactation. Maternal weight and height were collected in 542 lactating mothers of infant and toddlers, ranging in age from 15 to 48 years, with subsequent classification of mothers for short stature (relative to the 1977 World Health Organization/National Center for Health Statistics growth curves) and for underweight (body mass index [BMI], <18.5 kg/m²), overweight (BMI, 25-30 kg/m²), or obesity (BMI, ?30 kg/m²). The mean stature for the sample of adult women was 149.3 ± 5.9 cm, with a median of 149.0 cm. Women classified of Mayan descent were significantly (P < .001) shorter (147.0 ± 5.1 cm) than others (150.5 ± 6.0 cm). In terms of height percentiles for the age-specific female reference, 410 (76%) of mothers were below the fifth percentile and only 8 (1.5%) reached the median. Respective partition for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was as follows: 5%, 50%, 36%, and 9%. Variation in BMI with respect to the age of the offspring as the indicator of the duration of lactation was not significant, by analysis of variance or correlation analysis. Insofar as short stature is a risk factor for a series of adverse health consequences, including obesity and obstructed labor at childbirth, among others, it is time to direct public health attention toward resolving the causal factors for short stature in Guatemala. PMID:23399658

  5. Clinical, molecular and histopathological features of short stature syndrome with novel CUL7 mutation in Yakuts: new population isolate in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maksimova, N; Hara, K; Miyashia, A; Nikolaeva, I; Shiga, A; Nogovicina, A; Sukhomyasova, A; Argunov, V; Shvedova, A; Ikeuchi, T; Nishizawa, M; Kuwano, R; Onodera, O

    2007-01-01

    Background In total, 43 patients having short stature syndrome in 37 Yakut families with autosomal recessive prenatal and postnatal nonprogressive growth failure and facial dysmorphism but with normal intelligence have been identified. Methods Because Yakuts are considered as a population isolate and the disease is rare in other populations, genomewide homozygosity mapping was performed using 763 microsatellite markers and candidate gene approach in the critical region to identify the causative gene for the short stature syndrome in Yakut. Results All families shared an identical haplotype in the same region as the identical loci responsible for 3?M and gloomy face syndromes and a novel homozygous 4582insT mutation in Cullin 7 (CUL7) was found, which resulted in a frameshift mutation and the formation of a subsequent premature stop codon at 1553 (Q1553X). Yakut patients with short stature syndrome have unique features such as a high frequency of neonatal respiratory distress and few bone abnormalities, whereas the clinical features of the other Yakut patients were similar to those of 3?M syndrome. Furthermore, abnormal vascularisation was present in the fetal placenta and an abnormal development of cartilage tissue in the bronchus of a fetus with CUL7 mutation. Conclusion These findings may provide a new understanding of the clinical diversity and pathogenesis of short stature syndrome with CUL7 mutation. PMID:17675530

  6. A new recognisable syndrome in three sibs with congenital heart disease, round face with depressed nasal bridge, short stature, and developmental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, T; Ohdo, S; Madokoro, H; Ohba, K

    1988-01-01

    We report three sibs with congenital heart disease, round face with depressed nasal bridge, small mouth, short stature, developmental retardation, relatively dark skin, and high axial triradius. The chromosomes of the three patients were normal and the parents were unrelated, healthy, and of normal intelligence. The mother denied infections, drinking, drug intake, or exposure to known teratogenic agents during each pregnancy. Images PMID:3225826

  7. Lack of expression of XIST from a small ring X chromosome containing the XIST locus in a girl with short stature, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell J Tomkins; Helen L McDonald; Sandra A Farrell; Carolyn J Brown

    2002-01-01

    A 46,X,r(X) karyotype was found in a three and a half year old girl with short stature, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay. The clinical findings were consistent with the phenotype described in a limited number of patients with small ring X chromosomes lacking the XIST locus, a critical player in the process of X chromosome inactivation. Surprisingly, in our patient,

  8. Neuroblastoma amplified sequence gene is associated with a novel short stature syndrome characterised by optic nerve atrophy and Pelger–Huët anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Maksimova, Nadezda; Hara, Kenju; Nikolaeva, Irina; Chun-Feng, Tan; Usui, Tomoaki; Takagi, Mineo; Nishihira, Yasushi; Miyashita, Akinori; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Oyama, Tokuhide; Nogovicina, Anna; Sukhomyasova, Aitalina; Potapova, Svetlana; Kuwano, Ryozo; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2010-01-01

    Background Hereditary short stature syndromes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders and the cause have not been fully identified. Yakuts are a population isolated in Asia; they live in the far east of the Russian Federation and have a high prevalence of hereditary short stature syndrome including 3-M syndrome. A novel short stature syndrome in Yakuts is reported here, which is characterised by autosomal recessive inheritance, severe postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism with senile face, small hands and feet, normal intelligence, Pelger-Huët anomaly of leucocytes, and optic atrophy with loss of visual acuity and colour vision. This new syndrome is designated as short stature with optic atrophy and Pelger-Huët anomaly (SOPH) syndrome. Aims To identify a causative gene for SOPH syndrome. Methods Genomewide homozygosity mapping was conducted in 33 patients in 30 families. Results The disease locus was mapped to the 1.1 Mb region on chromosome 2p24.3, including the neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) gene. Subsequently, 33 of 34 patients were identified with SOPH syndrome and had a 5741G/A nucleotide substitution (resulting in the amino acid substitution R1914H) in the NBAS gene in the homozygous state. None of the 203 normal Yakuts individuals had this substitution in the homozygous state. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the NBAS protein is well expressed in retinal ganglion cells, epidermal skin cells, and leucocyte cytoplasm in controls as well as a patient with SOPH syndrome. Conclusion These findings suggest that function of NBAS may associate with the pathogenesis of short stature syndrome as well as optic atrophy and Pelger-Huët anomaly. PMID:20577004

  9. Clinical Features: Patients with Floating Harbor syndrome [OMIM #136140] typically have short stature, delayed osseous

    E-print Network

    Ober, Carole

    Activator Protein, Cause Floating Harbor Syndrome." (2012) Am J Hum Genet 90(2): 308-313. 2. White S et al1/13 Clinical Features: Patients with Floating Harbor syndrome [OMIM #136140] typically have short of affected individuals include a triangular shaped face, short philtrum, wide mouth, and a long nose

  10. Exome sequencing reveals a novel PTHLH mutation in a Chinese pedigree with brachydactyly type E and short stature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhigang; An, Yu; Wu, Chunxing; Xu, Yunlan; Fu, Qihua; Shen, Yiping; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-06-15

    Brachydactyly includes shortening of digits due to abnormal development of phalanges, metacarpals, or both. It can occur either as an isolated malformation or with other anomalies as part of many congenital syndromes. It is included as one of the dysostosis groups affecting the limbs in the nosology and classification of genetic skeletal disorders. However, brachydactyly usually shows a high degree of phenotypic variability. In this study, we successfully identified a novel heterozygous mutation of the parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) gene by exome sequencing in a Chinese pedigree with brachydactyly and short stature. The PTHLH gene encodes a parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) that is involved in the regulation of endochondral bone development, and mutations in this gene cause the type E form of brachydactyly. The mutation p.L15R occurs at a hydrophobic core region of the signal peptide, suggesting that this variation probably changes the signal peptide cleavage site at the in silico prediction. Further in vitro functional analysis showed that this mutation can lead to the retention of an N-terminal signal peptide fragment after the nascent proteins are translated. PMID:25801215

  11. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Gregory A; McPhee, Ian Bruce; Batch, Jenny; Tomlinson, Francis H

    2007-01-01

    Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort) of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone) treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle) of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6%) of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population) and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8%) of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48%) of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four). An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed. PMID:17316422

  12. [Are short boys disadvantaged as adults? Follow-up of 77 men with constitutional growth delay and (or) familial short stature].

    PubMed

    Holl, R W; Schröder, H; Heinze, E

    1991-06-14

    Out of a total of 119 adult males seen in our clinic for short stature in childhood, but not treated (no organic cause for short stature and no endocrine failure), 77 (mean age 24.5 [20-30] years) were re-evaluated. At initial presentation (mean age 13.7 years) their heights were 2.4 (1.5-4.0) SDs below the mean height for age. The mean final height attained was 167.4 (158.3-181.2) cm, or -1.5 (-2.85 to +0.45) SDs from the population mean. Objective parameters (marital status, number of children, school leaving qualifications, career development) and subjective attitudes of the former patients to their height were assessed. The proportion of subjects who were married (15.6%) and the number of children (a total of 16) did not differ significantly from the population mean (18.1% married, expected number of children = 12. There was a trend towards higher educational achievement (23.4% vs. 19.5% "Abitur" [academic school leaving examination] or "Fachabitur" [technical school leaving examination]). Between 80 and 95% of the former patients reported that their height presented no handicap in daily life, in seeking a partner or in their careers. On the hypothetical question of treatment with a growth accelerator, enthusiasm was negatively correlated with height in childhood and the final height attained (Spearman rank correlation, P less than 0.01). The explanations concerning disordered growth given at the time were seen as useful by only about half of the former patients. PMID:2044460

  13. Effect of Pubertal Suppression on Linear Growth and Body Mass Index; a Two-Year Follow-Up in Girls with Genetic Short Stature and Rapidly Progressive Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Amirhakimi, Anis; Amirhakimi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonists (GnRHa) are used to improve the final adult height in short stature children. There are limited studies which address the potential side effect of these agents: excessive weight gain. We have followed girls with rapidly progressive puberty receiving GnRHa and results were focused on the effect of treatment on final height, weight and body mass index Methods: Thirty girls between 8.5 and 12 years with short stature and predicted adult height of less than 155 cm were enrolled in the study. All had rapidly progressive puberty. Weight and height measurements were done at the beginning of treatment, 6 and 12 months after starting and 6 and 12 months after the cessation of treatment. Bone age and stages of puberty were estimated at the beginning of treatment, after 12 months of starting and 12 months after the treatment was stopped. Findings : Predicted adult height (PAH) changes during treatment were not significant. There was no significant difference between final height and weight according to the body mass index (BMI), PAH or bone age. Conclusion: We conclude that girls with genetic short stature and rapidly progressive puberty will not benefit receiving a one-year course of GnRHa and there is no significant difference between the final height and final weigh among children according to BMI. PMID:25562023

  14. Hypotonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical therapy can improve motor control and overall body strength. Occupational therapy can help relearn ways to address activities of daily living. Speech-language therapy can help breathing, speech, and swallowing difficulties. ...

  15. Mental retardation/shortness of stature/multiple minor anomalies syndrome associated with insertion of 3q material into 18p

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Attia, H.M.; Sedaghatian, M.R. [Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-03-13

    This is a case report of a 16-year-old Arab girl with mental subnormality, shortness of stature and multiple minor phenotypic anomalies. She is obese with normal secondary sexual characteristics, and has a speech deficit. Cytogenetic studies showed a 46,XX,dir ins (18;3)(p11.1;q13.2{yields}q25). The chromosome arrangement appeared balanced. Her condition is not a recognizable specific syndrome; thus, it remained unclear as to whether her condition is attributable to disruption of 3q or 18p or both. Further cytogenetic analysis by molecular biologists is required to solve this problem. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. A syndrome characterized by contractures and pterygia of upper body associated with umbilical hernia, short stature, and distinctive face in an Arabic family.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Stavit A; Spiegel, Ronen; Hall, Judith G

    2005-10-15

    A large Moslem Arabic family from the North of Israel is presented in which nine individuals are affected with short stature (5th centile and below), variable pterygium of neck or short neck with limited range of motion, pterygium of elbows, short palms, and brachydactyly. Other abnormalities of the fingers include syndactyly, camptodactyly, and/or hypermobility of the small joints. The face typically appeared long and myopathic. Ptosis was present with downslanting palpebral fissures, facial movements were reduced and the midface was flat. Umbilical hernia was present together with hypoplasia of the skin in the periumbilical area. The lower body region was unaffected in this family. The family is characterized by multiple consanguineous marriages, and the pedigree is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The phenotype seems to be distinct from other multiple pterygium syndromes because the lower limbs are spared, and the umbilical hernia with hypoplastic skin has not been described previously. PMID:16158430

  17. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Lerner, Shulamit E.; Aranoff, Gaya S.; Sopher, Aviva B.; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. Methods The charts of 27 boys with BA ? 13 and short stature [height ? 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ? 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. Results The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14–30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving < 18 months therapy (n = 7) and Rx group 2 receiving 18–30 months therapy (n = 20). Post-therapy, in Rx group 1 and all subjects, there was no significant change in the PAH, height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, p < 0.02. Eight of them achieved near-final height, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. Conclusions We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height. PMID:24756052

  18. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  19. Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children Hogrel et al. Hogrel et al. BMC Access Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children Jean-Yves Hogrel1* , Valérie and Dominique Simon5 Abstract Background: Children with growth retardation or short stature generally present

  20. Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega

    2006-01-01

    Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

  1. Partial isodisomy for maternal chromosome 7 and short stature in an individual with a mutation at the COL1A2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, L.D.; Sereda, L.; Prockop, D.J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 has been described previously in two individuals with cystic fibrosis. Here, the authors describe a third case that was discovered because the proband was homozygous for a mutation in the COL1A2 gene for type I procollagen, although his mother was heterozygous and his father did not have the mutation. Phenotypically, the proband was similar to the two previously reported cases with uniparental disomy for chromosome 7, in that he was short in stature and growth retarded. Paternity was assessed with five polymorphic markers. Chromosome 7 inheritance in the proband was analyzed using 12 polymorphic markers distributed along the entire chromosome. Similar analysis of the proband's two brothers established the phase of the alleles at the various loci, assuming minimal recombination. The proband inherited only maternal alleles at five loci and was homozygous at all loci examined, except one. He was heterozygous for an RFLP at the IGBP-1 locus at 7p13-p12. The results suggest that the isodisomy was not complete because of a recombination event involving the proximal short arms of two maternal chromosomes. In addition, the phenotype of proportional dwarfism in the proband suggests imprinting of one or more growth-related genes on chromosome 7. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Duplication of the Xq27.3-q28 region, including the FMR1 gene, in an X-linked hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intellectual disability, short stature, and obesity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Scott E; Walters-Sen, Lauren; Mosher, Theresa Mihalic; Pfau, Ruthann B; Pyatt, Robert; Snyder, Pamela J; Sotos, Juan F; Prior, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    In 1979 a "new" syndrome characterized by X-linked inheritance, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intellectual disability, obesity, and short stature was described. The now-36-year-old propositus was recently referred to the genetics clinic for profound intellectual disability. Fragile X testing initially demonstrated a duplication of the FMR1 region, and upon further testing we identified an Xq27.3-q28 8.05 Mb-long duplication responsible for a syndrome. Our report describes the molecular and clinical aspects of the X-linked syndrome. Our results suggest that male patients with intellectual disability, hypogonadism, short stature, and gynecomastia should be further investigated for rearrangements in the Xq27.3-q28 region. In the future, when more cases of the duplication are identified, it may become possible to more accurately determine the specific genes affected by overexpression and responsible for the phenotype. PMID:23897859

  3. Xq13.2q21.1 duplication encompassing the ATRX gene in a man with mental retardation, minor facial and genital anomalies, short stature and broad thorax.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Oudakker, Astrid R; Pfundt, Rolph; Hamel, Ben C J; van Bokhoven, Hans; Bongers, Ernie M H F

    2009-02-15

    In a man with severe mental retardation, minor facial and genital anomalies, disproportionate short stature and a broad thorax, we identified a de novo Xq13.2q21.1 duplication by array CGH. This 7 Mb duplication encompasses 23 known genes, including the X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) genes ATRX and SLC16A2. The phenotype of this patient is similar to that described in more than 10 previously reported patients with overlapping Xq duplications. Detailed comparison of the clinical characteristics and the function of the genes located in the commonly duplicated regions of these patients led us to the hypothesis that an increased dosage of ATRX and perhaps of other genes is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of this XLMR phenotype, including mental retardation, short stature, and genital abnormalities comprising cryptorchidism and/or a small penis. PMID:19291773

  4. Overexpression of Indian hedgehog partially rescues short stature homeobox 2-overexpression?associated congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xihai; Liang, Wenna; Ye, Hongzhi; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Lin, Pingdong; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-09-01

    The role of short stature homeobox 2 (shox2) in the development and homeostasis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been well documented. Shox2 is known to be expressed in the progenitor cells and perichondrium of the developing condyle. A previous study by our group reported that overexpression of shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ via downregulation of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway, which is essential for embryonic disc primordium formation and mandibular condylar growth. To determine whether overexpression of Ihh may rescue the overexpression of shox2 leading to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ, a mouse model in which Ihh and shox2 were overexpressed (Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice) was utilized to assess the consequences of this overexpression on TMJ development during post-natal life. The results showed that the developmental process and expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 and sex determining region Y-box 9 in the TMJ of the Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice were similar to those in wild?type mice. Overexpression of Ihh rescued shox2 overexpression-associated reduction of extracellular matrix components. However, overexpression of Ihh did not inhibit the shox2 overexpression-associated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP9, MMP13 and apoptosis in the TMJ. These combinatory cellular and molecular defects appeared to account for the observed congenital dysplasia of TMJ, suggesting that overexpression of Ihh partially rescued shox2 overexpression?associated congenital dysplasia of the TMJ in mice. PMID:26096903

  5. Clinical and molecular characterization of duplications encompassing the human SHOX gene reveal a variable effect on stature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N Simon; Harvey, John F; Bunyan, David J; Rankin, Julia; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Bruno, Damien L; Tan, Tiong Y; Tomkins, Susan; Hastings, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Deletions of the SHOX gene are well documented and cause disproportionate short stature and variable skeletal abnormalities. In contrast interstitial SHOX duplications limited to PAR1 appear to be very rare and the clinical significance of the only case report in the literature is unclear. Mapping of this duplication has now shown that it includes the entire SHOX gene but little flanking sequence and so will not encompass any of the long-range enhancers required for SHOX transcription. We now describe the clinical and molecular characterization of three additional cases. The duplications all included the SHOX coding sequence but varied in the amount of flanking sequence involved. The probands were ascertained for a variety of reasons: hypotonia and features of Asperger syndrome, Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and a family history of cleft palate. However, the presence of a duplication did not correlate with any of these features or with evidence of skeletal abnormality. Remarkably, the proband with LWD had inherited both a SHOX deletion and a duplication. The effect of the duplications on stature was variable: height appeared to be elevated in some carriers, particularly in those with the largest duplications, but was still within the normal range. SHOX duplications are likely to be under ascertained and more cases need to be identified and characterized in detail in order to accurately determine their phenotypic consequences. PMID:19533800

  6. [The Castillo-Morales method in children with orofacial hypotonia].

    PubMed

    Polásková, B; Nováková, K; Slezáková, E

    1993-09-01

    Recently great attention is paid to hypotonia of the orofacial region because this disorder is a great handicap for mentally normal children. In the submitted paper the authors demonstrate treatment of a girl who suffered from hypotonia of the orofacial region with hypersalivation to the age of four years. After intensive therapy complete normalization of this developmental defect was achieved. PMID:8252656

  7. Determinants of short stature in normal children at the age of two years: a case-control study in a community in Jerusalem.

    PubMed Central

    Geefhuysen, J; Adler, B; Palti, H

    1980-01-01

    Differences were analysed between growth patterns and determinants of physical growth in two groups of normal infants at 24 months. Longitudinal data routinely collected in a mother and child clinic were analysed. At 24 months, 26% of cohort infants were at or below the 10th percentile for length (= 'small' infants); 98 of these were compared with 83 'medium' infants (between the 50th and the 75th percentile, for example). Excessive downward deviation of length percentiles was seen in 80% of 'small' infants. In 20% their birthweight was on the 10th percentile or below; 50% had a mother less than 155 cm tall; maternal stature was closely linked with socioeconomic factors. Of mothers with less than nine years of schooling, 70% had 'small' infants. In 95% of both groups growth attainment at two years could be predicted from data at 12 months. The known factors influencing deviant physical growth overlap with those of mental and social development. Growth deviation by itself may identify infants open to multiple risks, especially if their mothers have a low educational level. Further narrowing of the target group for specialised intervention strategies should be attempted. PMID:7241029

  8. Deletion of Prepl Causes Growth Impairment and Hypotonia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Anna Mari; Leidl, Mathias; McFedries, Amanda K.; Horner, James W.; Creemers, John; Saghatelian, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies of rare diseases can identify genes of unknown function that strongly impact human physiology. Prolyl endopeptidase-like (PREPL) is an uncharacterized member of the prolyl peptidase family that was discovered because of its deletion in humans with hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS). HCS is characterized by a number of physiological changes including diminished growth and neonatal hypotonia or low muscle tone. HCS patients have deletions in other genes as well, making it difficult to tease apart the specific role of PREPL. Here, we develop a PREPL null (PREPL?/?) mouse model to address the physiological role of this enzyme. Deletion of exon 11 from the Prepl gene, which encodes key catalytic amino acids, leads to a loss of PREPL protein as well as lower Prepl mRNA levels. PREPL?/? mice have a pronounced growth phenotype, being significantly shorter and lighter than their wild type (PREPL+/+) counterparts. A righting assay revealed that PREPL?/? pups took significantly longer than PREPL+/+ pups to right themselves when placed on their backs. This deficit indicates that PREPL?/? mice suffer from neonatal hypotonia. According to these results, PREPL regulates growth and neonatal hypotonia in mice, which supports the idea that PREPL causes diminished growth and neonatal hypotonia in humans with HCS. These animals provide a valuable asset in deciphering the underlying biochemical, cellular and physiological pathways that link PREPL to HCS, and this may eventually lead to new insights in the treatment of this disease. PMID:24586561

  9. To Acquire Stature: "To Thine Own Self Be True".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammons, James O.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the impossibility of community colleges acquiring stature based on nearby four-year institutions' perceptions of them. Describes characteristics that contribute to excellence in community colleges (e.g, clarity about purposes, and action plans tied to purposes, goals, and short-term objectives). Offers a rationale for focusing on…

  10. Association between Adult Stature and Energy Expenditure in Low-Income Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Fabiana Cristina Alves; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Florêncio, Telma Maria Menezes Toledo; Hoffman, Daniel; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal undernutrition may lead to important metabolic adaptations in adult life, short stature being the most visible. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between stature and total energy expenditure of low-income women. Method Women aged 19–45 years from low-income communities in Maceió-AL were recruited. A sample of 67 volunteers was selected and divided into either short stature (?152.4 cm; n = 34) or non-short stature (?158.7 cm; n = 33) group. Data on socioeconomic status, anthropometric variables, and hormonal profiles was collected. Total energy expenditure and body composition were assessed by the doubly labeled water technique with multiple points over 14 days. In addition, physical activity levels were measured with triaxial accelerometers and dietary intake data were collected using three 24-hour food records. Results The mean subject age was 30.94 years. Women of short stature had lower body weight and lean body mass compared to non-short women, but there were no differences in thyroid hormone concentrations or daily energy intake between the two groups. Short-stature women showed lower total energy expenditure (P = 0.01) and a significantly higher physical activity level (P = 0.01) compared to non-short women. However, the difference in total energy expenditure was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age, lean body mass, and triiodothyronine concentrations. Conclusion Women with short stature present the same energy intake, but lower total energy expenditure than non-short women, even with a higher physical activity level, which suggests that they are more prone to weight gain. PMID:26147672

  11. Caveman Politics: Evolutionary Leadership Preferences and Stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg R. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Following evolutionary psychology, we argue that physical stature matters in preferences regarding political leadership. Particularly, a preference for physically formidable leaders evolved to promote survivability in the violent human ancestral history. Methods: We present two studies of original data to assess individual attitudes regarding the association between physical stature and political leadership. Analytical methods include ordered probit regression. Results:

  12. Loss of the N-myc oncogene in a patient with a small interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Saal, H.M. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Johnson, R.C.; Carr, A.G.; Samango-Sprouse, C. [George Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others] [George Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); and others

    1996-12-30

    To our knowledge, only four previous cases of distal chromosome 2p deletions exist in the literature. We present a patient with minor facial anomalies who had a distal interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 2, del(2)(p24.2p25.1). This patient had many features seen in other patients with distal 2p deletion including short stature, {open_quotes}rectangular{close_quotes} facies, microcephaly, hypotonia, and mental retardation. This patient also has sensorineural hearing loss which has been described in one other patient with a similar deletion. The N-myc oncogene has been mapped to 2p24. By fluorescence in situ hybridization using a cDNA probe for the N-myc oncogene, this patient was found to have a deletion of the N-myc oncogene. This confirms the previous map location for N-myc. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Turner syndrome presented with tall stature due to overdosage of the SHOX gene

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal disorders. It is caused by numerical or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome and results in short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. The short stature arises from haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene, whereas overdosage contributes to tall stature. This report describes the first Korean case of Turner syndrome with tall stature caused by SHOX overdosage. The patient presented with primary amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism at the age of 17 years. Estrogen replacement therapy was initiated at that time. She displayed tall stature from childhood, with normal growth velocity, and reached a final height of 190 cm (standard deviation score, 4.3) at the age of 30 years. Her karyotype was 46,X, psu idic(X)(q21.2), representing partial monosomy of Xq and partial trisomy of Xp. Analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a duplication at Xp22.3-Xp22.2, encompassing the PPP2R3 gene near the 5'-end of the SHOX gene through the FANCD gene at Xp22.2.

  14. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  15. Stature Estimation Formulae for Indigenous North American Populations

    E-print Network

    Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    tibia and femur length to stature as guides. On the basis of differences in these proportions, three, and a Great Plains group. Sex-specific ordinary least squares regression formulae were developed based of contribu- tory skeletal elements to determine stature as directly as possible; and the ``mathematical

  16. Physical Stature and its Interpretation in Nineteenth Century New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 Physical Stature and its Interpretation in Nineteenth Century New Zealand by Kris Inwood, Les interpretation in nineteenth century New Zealand 24 December 2008 Kris Inwood1 Les Oxley2 Evan Roberts3 Abstract: During the late nineteenth century the physical stature of New Zealand- born men stagnated, despite

  17. Short Communication Stature of Juvenile Trees in Response to

    E-print Network

    Howe, Henry F.

    Deciduous Forest of Central India Sonali Saha and Henry F. Howe Abstract: Fire is an integral component-free environ- ments. Tropical deciduous forests in India have experienced annual anthro- pogenic fires of juvenile trees (1.5 m) in a tropical deciduous forest in central India. Plots burnt for 2 consecutive years

  18. Development of an Evidence-Based Clinical Algorithm for Practice in Hypotonia Assessment: A Proposal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing muscle tone in children is essential during the neurological assessment and is often essential in ensuring a more accurate diagnosis for appropriate management. While there have been advances in child neurology, there remains much contention around the subjectivity of the clinical assessment of hypotonia, which is often the first step in the diagnostic process. Objective In response to this challenge, the objective of the study is to develop and validate a prototype of a decision making process in the form of a clinical algorithm that will guide clinicians during this assessment process. Methods Design research within a pragmatic stance will be employed in this study. Multi-phase stages of assessment, prototyping and evaluation will occur. These will include processes that include a systematic review, processes of reflection and action as well as validation methods. Given the mixed methods nature of this study, use of NVIVO or ATLAS-ti will be used in the analysis of qualitative data and SPSS for quantitative data. Results Initial results from the systematic review revealed a paucity of scientific literature that documented the objective assessment of hypotonia in children. The review identified the need for more studies with greater methodological rigor in order to determine best practice with respect to the methods used in the assessment of low muscle tone in the paediatric population. Conclusions It is envisaged that this proposal will contribute to a more accurate clinical diagnosis of children with low muscle tone in the absence of a gold standard. We anticipate that the use of this tool will ultimately assist clinicians towards moving to evidenced based practice whilst upholding best practice in the care of children with hypotonia. PMID:25485571

  19. Estimation of stature from handprint dimensions in Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Melad G

    2015-08-01

    Handprint in the scene of the crime is one of the most valuable clues in identification of the assailant. There are numerous studies on estimation of stature from direct measures of hand dimensions, but using a handprint instead, there is little research on it. So this study tried to focus on handprint as a tool used in estimation of stature. One hundred right male hands and 91 right female hands were scanned, processed via Photoshop program and handprint measurements were taken using a software program. Our results showed that stature could be estimated from handprint measurements by simple and multiple regression equations with standard error of estimate was the lowest in handprint length ±4.54 cm in male and ±5.38 cm in female. It was concluded that handprint from the scene of the crime could be used for the prediction of the stature of the assailant. PMID:26165660

  20. Nineteenth Century US African-American and White Female Statures: Insight from US Prison Records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Carson

    2010-01-01

    Using a new source of 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological living conditions of comparable US African-American and white female statures during economic development. Black and white female statures varied regionally, and white Southeastern and black Southwestern females reached the tallest statures. White females were consistently taller than black females. Black and white female statures also

  1. Branching enzyme deficiency\\/glycogenosis storage disease type IV presenting as a severe congenital hypotonia: Muscle biopsy and autopsy findings, biochemical and molecular genetic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Taratuto; H. O. Akman; M. Saccoliti; M. Riudavets; N. Arakaki; L. Mesa; G. Sevlever; H. Goebel; S. DiMauro

    2010-01-01

    The fatal infantile neuromuscular presentation of branching enzyme deficiency (glycogen storage disease type IV) due to mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen branching enzyme, is a rare but probably underdiagnosed cause of congenital hypotonia. We report an infant girl with severe generalized hypotonia, born at 33weeks gestation who required ventilatory assistance since birth. She had bilateral ptosis, mild knee

  2. Stature estimation from femur and humerus by regression and autometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Kate; R. D. Mujumdar

    1976-01-01

    Estimation of stature from a single extremity bone is a common forensic practice and many regression equations are given by various workers. In India, Pearson’s formula is the most commonly used method to determine the height. These regression equations were subjected to verification on 194 (97 pairs) femora and 102 (51 pairs) humeri from India. It was seen that the

  3. Latitude and intersocietal variation of human sexual dimorphism of stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda D. Wolfe; J. Patrick Gray

    1982-01-01

    In a recent article Alexander et al.(1979) argue that intersocietal variation in human sexual dimorphism of stature can be explained by differing degrees of male- male competition for mates found in different types of societal marriage systems. In this paper we reexamine their data and suggest that their results may be more simply explained by reference to the latitude of

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIi

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Golgi apparatus is glycosylation, by which sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) are attached to proteins and fats. Glycosylation modifies ... apparatus ; hypotonia ; inherited ; joint ; microcephaly ; muscle tone ; neurological ; oligosaccharides ; protein ; recessive ; sensorineural ; sensorineural hearing loss ; short stature ; ...

  5. Mitosis, stature and evolution of plant mating systems: low-? and high-? plants

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Douglas G; Schultz, Stewart T

    2005-01-01

    There is a long-recognized association in plants between small stature and selfing, and large stature and outcrossing. Inbreeding depression is central to several hypotheses for this association, but differences in the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding depression associated with differences in stature are rarely considered. Here, we propose and test the ? model of plant mating system evolution, which assumes that the per-generation mutation rate of a plant is a function of the number of mitoses (?) that occur from zygote to gamete, and predicts fundamental differences between low-? (small-statured) and high-? (large-statured) plants in the outcomes of the joint evolution of outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression. Using a large dataset of published population genetic studies of angiosperms and conifers, we compute fitted values of inbreeding depression and deleterious mutation rates for small- and large-statured plants. Consistent with our ? model, we find that populations of small-statured plants exhibit a range of mating systems, significantly lower mutation rates, and intermediate inbreeding depression, while large-statured plants exhibit very high mutation rates and the maximum inbreeding depression of unity. These results indicate that (i) inbred progeny typically observed in large-statured plant populations are completely lost prior to maturity in nearly all populations; (ii) evolutionary shifts from outcrossing to selfing are generally not possible in large-statured species, rather, large-statured species are more likely to evolve mating systems that avoid selfing such as self-incompatibility and dioecy; (iii) destabilization of the mating system—high selfing rate with high-inbreeding depression—might be a common occurrence in large-statured species; and (iv) large-statured species in fragmented populations might be at higher risk of extinction than previously thought. Our results help to unify and simplify a large and diverse field of research, and serve to emphasize the importance that developmental and genetic constraints play in the evolution of plant mating systems. PMID:16543169

  6. Mutations in NALCN cause an autosomal-recessive syndrome with severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Moeenaldeen D; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Albakheet, Albandary; Hakami, Hana; Kenana, Rosan; Al-Yafee, Yusra; Al-Dosary, Mazhor; Qari, Alya; Al-Sheddi, Tarfa; Al-Muheiza, Muhammed; Al-Qubbaj, Wafa; Lakmache, Yamina; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Ghaziuddin, Muhammad; Colak, Dilek; Kaya, Namik

    2013-10-01

    Sodium leak channel, nonselective (NALCN) is a voltage-independent and cation-nonselective channel that is mainly responsible for the leaky sodium transport across neuronal membranes and controls neuronal excitability. Although NALCN variants have been conflictingly reported to be in linkage disequilibrium with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, to our knowledge, no mutations have been reported to date for any inherited disorders. Using linkage, SNP-based homozygosity mapping, targeted sequencing, and confirmatory exome sequencing, we identified two mutations, one missense and one nonsense, in NALCN in two unrelated families. The mutations cause an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by subtle facial dysmorphism, variable degrees of hypotonia, speech impairment, chronic constipation, and intellectual disability. Furthermore, one of the families pursued preimplantation genetic diagnosis on the basis of the results from this study, and the mother recently delivered healthy twins, a boy and a girl, with no symptoms of hypotonia, which was present in all the affected children at birth. Hence, the two families we describe here represent instances of loss of function in human NALCN. PMID:24075186

  7. Demographic, residential, and socioeconomic effects on the distribution of nineteenth-century African-American stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Alan Carson

    2008-01-01

    Nineteenth-century mulattos were taller than their darker-colored African-American counterparts. However, traditional explanations\\u000a that attribute the mulatto stature advantage to only socioeconomic factors are yet to tie taller mulatto statures to observable\\u000a phenomenon. Vitamin D production may also explain part of the nineteenth-century mulatto–black stature differential. Mulattos\\u000a were taller than darker-pigmented blacks across the stature distribution, and higher melanin concentrations in

  8. Adjustment to the light environment in small-statured forbs as a strategy for complementary resource use in mixtures of grassland species

    PubMed Central

    Roscher, Christiane; Kutsch, Werner L.; Kolle, Olaf; Ziegler, Waldemar; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The biological mechanisms of niche complementarity allowing for a stable coexistence of a large number of species in a plant community are still poorly understood. This study investigated how small-statured forbs use environmental niches in light and CO2 to explain their persistence in diverse temperate grasslands. Methods Light and CO2 profiles and the corresponding leaf characteristics of seven small-statured forbs were measured in monocultures and a multi-species mixture within a biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) to assess their adjustment to growth conditions in the canopy. Key Results Environmental conditions near the ground varied throughout the season with a substantial CO2 enrichment (>70 µmol mol?1 at 2 cm, >20 µmol mol?1 at 10 cm above soil surface) and a decrease in light transmittance (to <5 % deep in the canopy) with large standing biomass (>500 g d. wt m?2) in the multi-species assemblage. Leaf morphology, biochemistry and physiology of small-statured forbs adjusted to low light in the mixture compared with the monocultures. However, the net carbon assimilation balance during the period of low light only compensated the costs of maintenance respiration, while CO2 enrichment near the ground did not allow for additional carbon gain. Close correlations of leaf mass per area with changes in light availability suggested that small-statured forbs are capable of adjusting to exploit seasonal niches with better light supply for growth and to maintain the carbon metabolism for survival if light transmittance is substantially reduced in multi-species assemblages. Conclusions This study shows that adjustment to a highly dynamic light environment is most important for spatial and seasonal niche separation of small-statured forb species in regularly mown, species-rich grasslands. The utilization of short-period CO2 enrichment developing in dense vegetation close to the ground hardly improves their carbon balance and contributes little to species segregation along environmental niche axes. PMID:21385779

  9. New identification criteria for the Chilean population: Estimation of sex and stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann H. Ross; María José Manneschi

    2011-01-01

    In the analysis of human skeletal or otherwise unidentifiable remains the assessment of sex is an initial vital element when rendering a biological profile. As such other aspects of the biological profile are sex-specific (e.g. stature and age) and cannot be successfully determined without this preliminary assessment. In addition, the estimation of stature is an essential parameter of the biological

  10. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kewal Krishan; Abhilasha Sharma

    2007-01-01

    In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh – a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these

  11. Human size evolution: no evolutionary allometric relationship between male and female stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Gustafsson; Patrik Lindenfors

    2004-01-01

    In many animal groups, sexual size dimorphism tends to be more pronounced in species with large body size. Similarly, in a previous cross-cultural analysis, male and female stature in humans were shown to be positively allometrically related, indicating a similar relationship where populations with larger stature were more dimorphic. In this study, we re-examine the hypothesis of an allometric relationship

  12. Geography, insolation, and vitamin D in nineteenth century US African-American and white statures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Alan Carson

    2009-01-01

    Using a new source of nineteenth century US state prison records I contrast the biological living conditions of comparable African-Americans and whites. Although blacks and whites today in the US reach similar terminal statures, nineteenth century African-American statures were consistently shorter than those of whites. Greater insolation (vitamin D production) is shown to be associated with taller black and white

  13. A syndrome of hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, seizures, delayed and dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and congenital fibre type disproportion.

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Q H; Markouizos, D; Rao, C; Sheikh, T; Beller, E; Kula, R

    1994-01-01

    Three unrelated Puerto Rican boys, ranging in age from 3 to 4 years, had marked, central, non-progressive hypotonia, chronic constipation, severe psychomotor retardation, seizures or abnormal electroencephalograph or both, abnormal dermatoglyphics, delayed bone age, dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and preponderance and larger size of type 2 muscle fibres. Additional findings included narrow, high arched palate, prominent nasal root, long philtrum, distended abdomen, and drooling from open mouth. Two of the three patients also had undescended testes, hypertelorism, and tapered fingers. Birth weight, postnatal physical growth, and head size were average. Family and gestational histories and laboratory evaluations were normal. The combination of features observed in the three boys appears to be distinct and to represent a new syndrome. Images PMID:8064821

  14. Mutation in NDUFA13/GRIM19 leads to early onset hypotonia, dyskinesia and sensorial deficiencies, and mitochondrial complex I instability.

    PubMed

    Angebault, Claire; Charif, Majida; Guegen, Naig; Piro-Megy, Camille; Mousson de Camaret, Benedicte; Procaccio, Vincent; Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Hebrard, Maxime; Manes, Gael; Leboucq, Nicolas; Rivier, François; Hamel, Christian P; Lenaers, Guy; Roubertie, Agathe

    2015-07-15

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiencies are causing debilitating neurological diseases, among which, the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Leigh Syndrome are the most frequent. Here, we describe the first germinal pathogenic mutation in the NDUFA13/GRIM19 gene encoding a CI subunit, in two sisters with early onset hypotonia, dyskinesia and sensorial deficiencies, including a severe optic neuropathy. Biochemical analysis revealed a drastic decrease in CI enzymatic activity in patient muscle biopsies, and reduction of CI-driven respiration in fibroblasts, while the activities of complex II, III and IV were hardly affected. Western blots disclosed that the abundances of NDUFA13 protein, CI holoenzyme and super complexes were drastically reduced in mitochondrial fractions, a situation that was reproduced by silencing NDUFA13 in control cells. Thus, we established here a correlation between the first mutation yet identified in the NDUFA13 gene, which induces CI instability and a severe but slowly evolving clinical presentation affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25901006

  15. Estimation of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions by regression analysis in Indo-Mauritian population.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Arun Kumar; Kachhwaha, Smita; Googoolye, Krishna; Allock, Anishta

    2011-05-01

    Determination of stature from fragmented human remains is vital part of forensic investigation for the purpose of identification. The present study was aimed to modelling the stature both for male and female separately on the basis of craniofacial dimensions. The study was conducted on 150 young and healthy students (75 males and 75 females) in the age group ranging from 20 to 28 years. The stature and fourteen cephalo-facial dimensions were measured on each subject by using standard anthropometric instruments. It is remarked that the stature and craniofacial measurements of males were significantly higher than that of females, except for nasal height where no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05). The correlation coefficients (r) of all cephalo-facial dimensions were less than 0.5. It means the estimation of stature is not reliable with the help of cephalo-facial dimensions. PMID:21550566

  16. Combined deficiency of peroxisomal ?-oxidation and ether lipid synthesis in mice causes only minor cortical neuronal migration defects but severe hypotonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Krysko; Astrid Bottelbergs; Paul Van Veldhoven; Myriam Baes

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic factors causing cortical neuronal migration defects, hypotonia and malformation of cerebellum in patients and mice with severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders are still not identified. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that the combined inactivity of peroxisomal ?-oxidation and ether lipid biosynthesis could be at the origin of these pathologies. Double MFP2\\/DAPAT knockout mice were generated and

  17. An Ethics Primer: A Few Short Ethics Cases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).

  18. Tall stature as presenting symptom in a girl with triple X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, B U; Rohrer, T R; Singer, H; Doerr, H G

    2003-02-01

    An 11 year-old girl presented with 47,XXX karyotype. Our report emphasizes the fact that triple X syndrome has also to be considered in girls presenting with tall stature that is not explained by parental heights. PMID:12713263

  19. Branching enzyme deficiency/glycogenosis storage disease type IV presenting as a severe congenital hypotonia: muscle biopsy and autopsy findings, biochemical and molecular genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Taratuto, A L; Akman, H O; Saccoliti, M; Riudavets, M; Arakaki, N; Mesa, L; Sevlever, G; Goebel, H; DiMauro, S

    2010-12-01

    The fatal infantile neuromuscular presentation of branching enzyme deficiency (glycogen storage disease type IV) due to mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen branching enzyme, is a rare but probably underdiagnosed cause of congenital hypotonia. We report an infant girl with severe generalized hypotonia, born at 33 weeks gestation who required ventilatory assistance since birth. She had bilateral ptosis, mild knee and foot contractures and echocardiographic evidence of cardiomyopathy. A muscle biopsy at 1 month of age showed typical polyglucosan storage. The autopsy at 3.5 months of age showed frontal cortex polymicrogyria and polyglucosan bodies in neurons of basal ganglia, thalamus, substantia innominata, brain stem, and myenteric plexus, as well as liver involvement. Glycogen branching enzyme activity in muscle was virtually undetectable. Sequencing of the GBE1 gene revealed a homozygous 28 base pair deletion and a single base insertion at the same site in exon 5. This case confirms previous observations that GBE deficiency ought to be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital hypotonia and that the phenotype correlates with the 'molecular severity' of the mutation. PMID:20833045

  20. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ?2 (all P < 0.001); bone and bone mineral mass scaled to height with powers > 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ?2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  1. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  2. De Sanctis-Caccione syndrome: xeroderma pigmentosum with oligophrenia, short stature and neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Niederauer, H H; Bohnert, E; Altmeyer, P; Jung, E G

    1992-01-01

    A 6 year-old boy with de Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome is reported. This syndrome is characterized by the triad xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), mental deficiency and neurological disturbances. The patient's cells were assigned to genetic complementation group A by use of the cell fusion technique. DNA repair capacity as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was drastically reduced to 7.5%, compared with 100% of the controls. The rate of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), an indicator of the hypermutability in XP, was clearly elevated after ultraviolet radiation of skin fibroblasts of the patient. PMID:1612905

  3. Head-body ratio as a visual cue for stature in people and sculptural art.

    PubMed

    Mather, George

    2010-01-01

    Body size is crucial for determining the outcome of competition for resources and mates. Many species use acoustic cues to measure caller body size. Vision is the pre-eminent sense for humans, but visual depth cues are of limited utility in judgments of absolute body size. The reliability of internal body proportion as a potential cue to stature was assessed with a large sample of anthropometric data, and the ratio of head height to body height (HBR) was found to be highly correlated with stature. A psychophysical experiment was carried out to investigate whether the cue actually influences stature judgments. Participants were shown pairs of photographs of human figures in which HBR had been manipulated systematically, and asked to select the figure that appeared taller. Results showed that figures with a relatively small HBR were consistently perceived as taller than figures with a relatively large HBR. Many classical statues such as Michelangelo's David depart from the classical proportions defined in Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. A supplementary experiment showed that perceived stature in classical statues also depends on HBR. Michelangelo's David was created with the HBR of a man 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall. PMID:21180359

  4. MILITARY STATURE VARIATION DURING THE 19TH CENTURY: NAPOLEONIC VERSUS GERMAN SOLDIERS OF WORLD WAR1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rimantas Jankauskas

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT AsEurope experienced industrial transition in the 19, century, it had a profound ,impact on the ,standards of living ,and it was reflected in the marked changes of demographic indices. One could expect certain reflections in the stature of military conscripts as well. Well-documented skeletal samples ,could serve as an independent source to validate this hypothesis. The aim of this

  5. NINETEENTH CENTURY MEXICAN STATURES IN THE UNITED STATES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH INSOLATION AND VITAMIN D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT ALAN CARSON

    2010-01-01

    Summary. The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in economics. However, there are still some popu- lations, places and times for which the comparison across groups remains unclear. One example is 19th century Mexicans in the US. This study demonstrates that after comparing the statures of Mexicans born in Mexico and the US

  6. A male-specific quantitative trait locus on 1p21 controlling human stature

    PubMed Central

    Sammalisto, S; Hiekkalinna, T; Suviolahti, E; Sood, K; Metzidis, A; Pajukanta, P; Lilja, H; Soro-Paavonen, A; Taskinen, M; Tuomi, T; Almgren, P; Orho-Melander, M; Groop, L; Peltonen, L; Perola, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Many genome-wide scans aimed at complex traits have been statistically underpowered due to small sample size. Combining data from several genome-wide screens with comparable quantitative phenotype data should improve statistical power for the localisation of genomic regions contributing to these traits. Objective: To perform a genome-wide screen for loci affecting adult stature by combined analysis of four previously performed genome-wide scans. Methods: We developed a web based computer tool, Cartographer, for combining genetic marker maps which positions genetic markers accurately using the July 2003 release of the human genome sequence and the deCODE genetic map. Using Cartographer, we combined the primary genotype data from four genome-wide scans and performed variance components (VC) linkage analyses for human stature on the pooled dataset of 1417 individuals from 277 families and performed VC analyses for males and females separately. Results: We found significant linkage to stature on 1p21 (multipoint LOD score 4.25) and suggestive linkages on 9p24 and 18q21 (multipoint LOD scores 2.57 and 2.39, respectively) in males-only analyses. We also found suggestive linkage to 4q35 and 22q13 (multipoint LOD scores 2.18 and 2.85, respectively) when we analysed both females and males and to 13q12 (multipoint LOD score 2.66) in females-only analyses. Conclusions: We strengthened the evidence for linkage to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stature and also found significant evidence of a novel male-specific QTL on 1p21. Further investigation of several interesting candidate genes in this region will help towards characterisation of this first sex-specific locus affecting human stature. PMID:15827092

  7. [Nemaline myopathy as a cause of neonatal hypotonia - with emphasis on personal experiences. Report of a family with two brothers affected].

    PubMed

    Bojdo, Agata; Obersztyn, Ewa; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma; Laing, Nigel; Davis, Mark; Ku?akowska, Zofia

    2009-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a heterogenous form of congenital myopathy characterised by a variable spectrum of clinical features, predominated in the severe form by profound muscle hypotonia and weakness accompanied by respiratory insufficiency. The clinical variability, with differing age of onset and severity of symptoms makes the diagnosis of nemaline myopathy difficult in some cases. Severe forms of nemaline myopathy may be caused by mutation of a number of different genes: skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1), nebulin (NEB) and alpha-tropomyosin (TPM3), all of which encode components of the sarcomeric thin filaments of skeletal muscle. We describe the severe form of nemaline myopathy diagnosed in two brothers who died at the age of 12 days and 9 months, due to respiratory insufficiency caused by severe muscle weakness. Polyhydramnios and weakness of foetal movements in the IIIrd trimester of pregnancy, as well as variable clinical severity were noted in both cases. Microscopically visible significant immaturity of muscle fibers was found in the skeletal muscle biopsy performed in one of the brothers. The diagnosis of nemaline myopathy was confirmed by the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in sections stained using the Gomori trichrome method. Molecular studies of DNA isolated from blood leucocytes showed no mutation in the ACTA1 or the TPM3 genes. Linkage analysis with polymorphic markers did not rule out linkage to part of the NEB gene locus. Results of the clinical evaluation and the investigations performed in the family members confirm that it is essential to consider congenital myopathies in the differential diagnosis of neonatal and infantile hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency. Molecular verification of the clinical diagnosis is also important for genetic counselling of the families. PMID:19648653

  8. Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Ansar, Muhammad; Oudakker, Astrid R; van Caam, Arjan P M; Bakker, Brenda; Vitters, Elly L; van der Kraan, Peter M; de Bruijn, Diederik R H; Janssen, Sanne M; Kuipers, Arthur J; Huibers, Manon M H; Maliepaard, Eliza M; Walboomers, X Frank; Benevento, Marco; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Zhou, Huiqing; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2014-02-15

    Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent studies have been focused on the role of EHMT1 in learning and memory, linked to the ID phenotype of KS patients. In this study we used the Ehmt1(+/-) mouse model, and investigated whether the core features of KS were mimicked in these mice. When comparing Ehmt1(+/-) mice to wildtype littermates we observed delayed postnatal growth, eye opening, ear opening, and upper incisor eruption, indicating a delayed postnatal development. Furthermore, tests for muscular strength and motor coordination showed features of hypotonia in young Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Lastly, we found that Ehmt1(+/-) mice showed brachycephalic crania, a shorter or bent nose, and hypertelorism, reminiscent of the craniofacial dysmorphisms seen in KS. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA levels of Runx2 and several other bone tissue related genes in P28 Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Runx2 immunostaining also appeared to be increased. The mRNA upregulation was associated with decreased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels, the epigenetic mark deposited by Ehmt1, in the promoter region of these genes. Together, Ehmt1(+/-) mice indeed recapitulate KS core features and can be used as an animal model for Kleefstra syndrome. The increased expression of bone developmental genes in the Ehmt1(+/-) mice likely contributes to their cranial dysmorphisms and might be explained by diminished Ehmt1-induced H3K9 dimethylation. PMID:24362066

  9. Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Stature and gender determination and their correlation using odontometry and skull anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Devi Charan; Wadhwan, Vijay; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2014-01-01

    Background: When the body has been mutilated, it is common to have the extremities or head amputated from the trunk. In concern with forensic odontology, an estimate must have been made based on the correlation of osteometry along with odontometry in determining sex, race and stature. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate and correlate height and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, I.T.S Center for Dental studies and Research, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad (UP) with the representative study subjects of 60 patients as 30 males and 30 females in the age group of 15-25 years. The selected parameters were measured and then correlated to investigate stature and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Results: On linear regression analysis, the selected parameters were found to be statistically significant predictor of height. It was also established by Karl Pearson's coefficient correlation that the left mandibular canine index for female was statistically significant to show sexual dimorphism. Conclusion: In the emerging field of forensic odontology, skull anthropometry, odontometry exhibits stature determination and strong sexual dimorphism. PMID:25125917

  11. Nineteenth century African-American and white US statures: the primary sources of vitamin D and their relationship with height

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Alan Carson

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D is vital in all vertebrates because it allows them to absorb more calcium from their diets, contributing to stronger\\u000a skeletal systems, and taller statures. Using a source of 19th century US state prison records, this study contrasts the statures\\u000a of comparable African-Americans and whites by the primary sources of vitamin D production: time exposed to solar radiation,\\u000a skin

  12. De Barsy syndrome—an autosomal recessive, progeroid syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kunze; F. Majewski; Ph. Montgomery; A. Hockey; I. Karkut; Th. Riebel

    1985-01-01

    We report two families with seven siblings with de Barsy syndrome. Characteristic features include severe mental retardation, hypermobility with athetoid movements, grimacing, muscular hypotonia, laxity of small joints and brisk deep tendon reflexes, progeroid aspect with cutis laxa, atrophy of skin with hyperpigmentation, isolated depigmentations, reduction of subcutaneous fatty tissue, translucent vein pattern, short stature, frontal bossing in the young

  13. Sensory Motor and Functional Skills of Dizygotic Twins: One with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and a Twin Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michaele R.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), the result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2, is a disorder that may include minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, speech delays, cognitive deficits, signs of peripheral neuropathy, scoliosis, and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive…

  14. Decreasing Birth Weight Is Associated with Adverse Metabolic Profile and Lower Stature in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association of birth weight SDS with insulin resistance, blood pressure, and auxology in children and adolescents born 23–42 weeks of gestation. Methods We studied 143 singleton children and adolescents aged 9.3 ± 3.3 years (range 2.0–17.9 years). Clinical assessments included insulin resistance measured by HOMA2-IR, auxology, and blood pressure from sphygmomanometer measurements. Continuous associations were examined, and stratified analyses carried out. For the latter, participants were divided into those of below-average birth weight (BABW, <0 SDS) and above-average birth weight (AABW, ?0 SDS). Results Irrespective of gestational age, lower birth weight SDS was associated with progressively greater HOMA2-IR (p<0.0001) and higher fasting insulin concentrations (p<0.0001). Decreasing birth weight SDS was associated with higher systolic (p = 0.011) and diastolic (p = 0.006) blood pressure. Lower birth weight SDS was also associated with decreasing stature (p<0.010). The BABW group was ~40% more insulin resistant than AABW participants (p = 0.004), with the former also displaying fasting insulin concentrations 37% higher (p = 0.004). BABW participants were 0.54 SDS shorter than those of higher birth weight (p = 0.002). On average, BABW participants had not met their genetic potential, tending to be shorter than their parents (p = 0.065). As a result, when corrected for parents' heights, BABW participants were 0.62 SDS shorter than those born of higher birth weight (p = 0.001). Sub-group analyses on participants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (n = 128) showed that associations of birth weight SDS with both insulin resistance and stature remained (although attenuated). Conclusion Decreasing birth weight SDS (even within the normal range) is associated with adverse metabolic profile and lower stature in children and adolescents. PMID:25760717

  15. Pachygyria, seizures, hypotonia, and growth retardation in a patient with an atypical 1.33Mb inherited microduplication at 22q11.23.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiazhen; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Chen; Peng, Ying; Xia, Yan; Tang, Guizhi; Bai, Ting; Zhang, Yanghui; Ma, Ruiyu; Guo, Ruolan; Mei, Libin; Liang, Desheng; Cao, Qinying; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-09-10

    22q11.2 microduplication syndrome was recently described as a new disorder with variable clinical features that ranged from normal to mental retardation and with congenital defects. According to published reports, majority of patients with 22q11.2 duplications inherit these from unaffected parents rather than by de novo mutations, which is different from most microduplication/microdeletion syndromes. In this study, we report a patient that carried a paternally inherited atypical 1.33Mb duplication at 22q11.23. The proband (or proposita) presented with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, intractable epilepsy, hearing disability, and pachygyria. A pachygyria phenotype had not been previously reported to be associated with a 22q11 microduplication syndrome. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses based on standard G-banding, SNP array, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed for the proband and her parents. An atypical 1.33Mb duplication at 22q11.23 was detected in both the proband and her father. Thus, our findings verify the pathogenicity and diverse phenotypes of 22q11.2 microduplication and expand its phenotypic spectrum. PMID:26099517

  16. Cyclist drag in team pursuit: influence of cyclist sequence, stature, and arm spacing.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart; Carmeliet, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In team pursuit, the drag of a group of cyclists riding in a pace line is dependent on several factors, such as anthropometric characteristics (stature) and position of each cyclist as well as the sequence in which they ride. To increase insight in drag reduction mechanisms, the aerodynamic drag of four cyclists riding in a pace line was investigated, using four different cyclists, and for four different sequences. In addition, each sequence was evaluated for two arm spacings. Instead of conventional field or wind tunnel experiments, a validated numerical approach (computational fluid dynamics) was used to evaluate cyclist drag, where the bicycles were not included in the model. The cyclist drag was clearly dependent on his position in the pace line, where second and subsequent positions experienced a drag reduction up to 40%, compared to an individual cyclist. Individual differences in stature and position on the bicycle led to an intercyclist variation of this drag reduction at a specific position in the sequence, but also to a variation of the total drag of the group for different sequences. A larger drag area for the group was found when riding with wider arm spacing. Such numerical studies on cyclists in a pace line are useful for determining the optimal cyclist sequence for team pursuit. PMID:24149940

  17. A syndrome of congenital ichthyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Eyer, D

    1999-01-01

    Rud syndrome formerly was considered as a genetically heterogeneous but distinct clinical entity with the manifestations of ichtyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, mental retardation, epilepsy and, infrequently, retinitis pigmentosa. The existence of such a syndrome has recently been dismissed based on a new understanding of the ichthyoses. We report on the clinical history of a 14-year-old boy with congenital ichthyosis, small stature, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism, nystagmus, kypho-scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy. He was diagnosed as Rud syndrome but developed neither seizures nor mental retardation. However a cousin was mentally retarded. The ichthyosis was familial as five relatives had ichthyosis but no other features of Rud syndrome. The patient had a deletion of the steroid-sulfatase gene. He had neither chondrodysplasia punctata, nor Kallmann syndrome, two conditions which are part of the contiguous gene syndrome of the Xp22.3 region. Most case reports previously reported as Rud syndrome can now be reassigned under a contemporary ichthyosis classification that does not include Rud syndrome as a distinct entity. This case was clearly distinct from Refsum disease, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and any of the other ichthyosis disorders that have been suggested as a replacement for Rud syndrome. Thus the case reported here appears distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome. PMID:10214507

  18. Small-stature emergent macrophytes and crepuscular sprinkler disturbance reduce mosquito abundance in wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Popko, David A; Walton, William E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of emergent macrophyte species and crepuscular sprinkler disturbance on mosquito abundance over a 2-year period was measured in wetland mesocosms. Mosquito oviposition and abundance of immature mosquitoes and aquatic invertebrates were monitored in monotypic plots of small-stature (height of mature stands <1.5 m) alkali bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and large-stature (height of mature stands > 2 m) California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) without or with daily sprinkler showers to deter mosquito egg laying. Relative to wetlands without operational sprinklers, oviposition by culicine mosquitoes was reduced by > 99% and immature mosquito abundance was reduced by > 90% by crepuscular sprinkler applications. Mosquito abundance or distribution in wetlands did not differ between the two bulrush species subjected to the sprinkler treatment. Alkali bulrush wetlands without daily sprinkler treatments contained more egg rafts but significantly fewer mosquito larvae than did California bulrush wetlands. Predaceous damselfly naiads were 3-5 times more abundant in alkali bulrush than in California bulrush. Stem density, rate of spread, and autumnal mortality of alkali bulrush were higher than for California bulrush. Replacement of large emergent macrophytes by smaller species may enhance the efficacy of integrated mosquito management programs to reduce mosquito-transmitted disease cycles associated with multipurpose constructed wetlands used worldwide for water reclamation and habitat restoration. PMID:24581369

  19. Stature, migration and human welfare in South China, 1850-1930.

    PubMed

    Ward, W Peter

    2013-12-01

    This paper offers new evidence on human stature in south China during the second half of the 19th century and early part of the 20th. It is based on the records kept by the Government of Canada of 97,123 Chinese immigrants who were required to pay an entry tax between 1885 and 1949. While the study population included both sexes and all ages from infancy to old age, it was largely male, with most ages falling between 12 and 50. The data reveal an increase of over 4cm in the adult heights of both sexes between 1850 and 1930. They also indicate an upward trend of over 5cm in the heights of adolescent males. The mean heights of male immigrants fall in the lower range of those reported in other studies of stature in south China. The rising trends contrast with a pattern of stagnation and decline reported in other recent findings but are consistent with other recent evidence of increasing economic growth, real wages, and life expectancy in south China during this period. One likely cause of improved well-being is the influence of the migrants' remittances on socioeconomic change in south China. PMID:23200182

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass of low-stature Arctic shrubs with terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, H.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.; Boelman, N.; Griffin, K. L.; Magney, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems appear to be responding to rapid climatic warming via changes in vegetation composition and increased woody biomass, which may induce significant shifts in ecosystem structure and function. Although understanding these shifts is important for predicting ecosystem trajectories, establishing methods for quantifying and scaling woody plant biomass in low-stature biomes is challenging. We used LiDAR data from a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) to estimate harvested biomass and leaf area of two dominant low-stature (<1.5 m) Arctic shrub species (Salix pulchra Cham. and Betula nana L.) in small (0.64 m2) plots. We explored two biomass estimation approaches (volumetric surface differencing and voxel counting) applied to point clouds obtained from either close-range (2 m) or variable-range (<50 m) TLS scans. Relationships between harvested biomass and laser scan metrics were strong for all combinations of approaches. Voxel counting provided a marginally better result than surface differencing for close-range scans (R2 = 0.94 vs 0.92; RMSE = 102 g vs 117 g), while surface differencing proved stronger than voxel counting for variable-range scans (R2 = 0.90 vs 0.79; RMSE = 128 g vs 184 g). Strong relationships between total harvested biomass and total leaf dry mass (R2 = 0.93; RMSE = 13.4 g), and between leaf dry mass and leaf wet area (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 9.01 cm2) justify estimation of shrub leaf area from TLS-derived shrub biomass. Our results show that rapidly acquired, repeatable terrestrial laser scans taken from multiple distance ranges can be processed using simple algorithms to yield aboveground biomass and leaf area estimates for low-stature shrubs at fine spatial scales (sub-meter to 50 + meters). These data have the fidelity required to monitor small but ecologically meaningful changes in tundra structure, and could be employed as ground reference data for broader scale remote sensing data collection to provide shrub biomass and leaf-area estimates at fine resolution over large spatial extents.

  1. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  2. A missense mutation in PPP1R15B causes a syndrome including diabetes, short stature and microcephaly

    E-print Network

    Abdulkarim, Baroj; Nicolino, Marc; Esteve, Mariana Igoillo; Daures, Mathilde; Romero, Sophie; Philippi, Anne; Senée, Valérie; Lopes, Miguel; Cunha, Daniel A.; Harding, Heather P.; Derbois, Céline; Bendelac, Nathalie; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Eizirik, Décio L.; Ron, David; Cnop, Miriam; Julier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    of phosphate metabolism were normal: PTH (19 pg/ml; N:10- 55); serum phosphate (1.54 mmol/l; N:1.30-1.85); alkaline phosphatase (320 U/l; N:210- Page 11 of 81 For Peer Review Only Diabetes 12 830). Urinary calcium to creatinine ratio was also normal (0.33; N... achieved (Tanner stage 5) with adult genitalia and complete epiphyseal closure on bone age X-ray. Biochemical measurements in serum showed low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (55 nmol/l; N:75-340), but normal levels of calcium, IGF-1 and thyroxine. Markers...

  3. Plant stature of aromatic rice genotypes in the environment of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, S M; Hanafi, M M; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Hakim, M A; Karim, M R

    2011-11-01

    Plant stature of a rice crop is an important selection criterion. As plant height is a quantitative trait it is influenced by environmental conditions. A field experiment was conducted with 40 rice genotypes to assess the fluctuation and stability of plant height in a series of 16 environmental situations. The effects of genotype (G), environment (E) and all the components of GxE interaction were highly significant. Among the genotypes, Jamai sohagi was extremely sensitive (bi = 1.37) to environmental changes, and indicating lowest adaptability over the environments. Plant height of seven genotypes viz. Basmati PNR346, Benaful, BRRIdhan28, BRRIdhan38, BRRIdhan39, Gandho kasturi and Neimat, having the bi values between 0.59 and 0.72, showed high stability against environmental changes. The otherseven genotypes viz. Badshabhog, Basmati Tapl-90, Kamini soru, Khazar, Laljira, Sarwati and Ukni madhu expressed only nonlinear sensitivity (S2di = 90-181)) and thus unpredictable fluctuation. Twenty one genotypes indicated their average stability (bi = 0.91-1.15) over the environments. PMID:22471222

  4. Stature Prediction Equations for Elderly non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American Persons Developed from NHANES III Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. CAMERON CHUMLEA; SHUMEI S GUO; KEVIN WHOLIHAN; DAVID COCKRAM; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; CLIFFORD L JOHNSON

    1998-01-01

    Objective To develop new, nationally representative equations to predict stature for racial\\/ethnic groups of the elderly population in the United States.Design Anthropometric data for stature, knee height, and sitting height for adults aged 60 years or older were collected from a sample of persons in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), a national probability sample of the

  5. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Peter K; Esko, Tonu; Mattsson, Hannele; Eklund, Niina; Gandin, Ilaria; Nutile, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Schurmann, Claudia; Smith, Albert V; Zhang, Weihua; Okada, Yukinori; Stan?áková, Alena; Faul, Jessica D; Zhao, Wei; Bartz, Traci M; Concas, Maria Pina; Franceschini, Nora; Enroth, Stefan; Vitart, Veronique; Trompet, Stella; Guo, Xiuqing; Chasman, Daniel I; O'Connel, Jeffrey R; Corre, Tanguy; Nongmaithem, Suraj S; Chen, Yuning; Mangino, Massimo; Ruggiero, Daniela; Traglia, Michela; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Kacprowski, Tim; Bjonnes, Andrew; van der Spek, Ashley; Wu, Ying; Giri, Anil K; Yanek, Lisa R; Wang, Lihua; Hofer, Edith; Rietveld, Cornelius A; McLeod, Olga; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Pattaro, Cristian; Verweij, Niek; Baumbach, Clemens; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Warren, Helen R; Vuckovic, Dragana; Mei, Hao; Bouchard, Claude; Perry, John R B; Cappellani, Stefania; Mirza, Saira S; Benton, Miles C; Broeckel, Ulrich; Medland, Sarah E; Lind, Penelope A; Malerba, Giovanni; Drong, Alexander; Yengo, Loic; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhi, Degui; van der Most, Peter J; Shriner, Daniel; Mägi, Reedik; Hemani, Gibran; Karaderi, Tugce; Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Tian; Demuth, Ilja; Zhao, Jing Hua; Meng, Weihua; Lataniotis, Lazaros; van der Laan, Sander W; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Wood, Andrew R; Bonnefond, Amelie; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Hall, Leanne M; Salvi, Erika; Yazar, Seyhan; Carstensen, Lisbeth; de Haan, Hugoline G; Abney, Mark; Afzal, Uzma; Allison, Matthew A; Amin, Najaf; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Bakker, Stephan J L; Barr, R Graham; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Campbell, Archie; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chan, Yingleong; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Constance; Chen, Y-D Ida; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John; Correa, Adolfo; Cupples, L Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; Dörr, Marcus; Ehret, Georg; Ellis, Stephen B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Ford, Ian; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy M; Friedrich, Nele; Geller, Frank; Scotland, Generation; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Gottesman, Omri; Graff, Misa; Grodstein, Francine; Gu, Charles; Haley, Chris; Hammond, Christopher J; Harris, Sarah E; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hocking, Lynne J; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hysi, Pirro G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Joensuu, Anni; Johansson, Åsa; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kerr, Shona M; Khan, Nazir M; Koellinger, Philipp; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kooner, Manraj K; Kubo, Michiaki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J; Lea, Rodney A; Lehne, Benjamin; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C M; Lind, Lars; Loh, Marie; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; London, Stephanie J; Loomis, Stephanie J; Loukola, Anu; Lu, Yingchang; Lumley, Thomas; Lundqvist, Annamari; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Masciullo, Corrado; Matchan, Angela; Mathias, Rasika A; Matsuda, Koichi; Meigs, James B; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Mentch, Frank D; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montasser, May E; Montgomery, Grant W; Morrison, Alanna; Myers, Richard H; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Nieminen, Markku S; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connor, George T; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmas, Walter R; Pankow, James S; Patarcic, Inga; Pavani, Francesca; Peyser, Patricia A; Pietilainen, Kirsi; Poulter, Neil; Prokopenko, Inga; Ralhan, Sarju; Redmond, Paul; Rich, Stephen S; Rissanen, Harri; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rose, Richard; Sala, Cinzia; Salako, Babatunde; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Saxena, Richa; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Laura J; Scott, William R; Sennblad, Bengt; Seshadri, Sudha; Sever, Peter; Shrestha, Smeeta; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Soranzo, Nicole; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Southam, Lorraine; Stanton, Alice V; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Strauch, Konstantin; Strawbridge, Rona J; Suderman, Matthew J; Tandon, Nikhil; Tang, Sian-Tsun; Taylor, Kent D; Tayo, Bamidele O; Töglhofer, Anna Maria; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; van Setten, Jessica; Vasankari, Tuula; Vedantam, Sailaja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Vozzi, Diego; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ware, Erin B; Wentworth-Shields, William; Whitfield, John B; Wild, Sarah; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yao, Jie; Zaza, Gianluigi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Salem, Rany M; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Samani, Nilesh J; Cusi, Daniele; Mackey, David A

    2015-07-23

    Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been. PMID:26131930

  6. De Barsy syndrome--an autosomal recessive, progeroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kunze, J; Majewski, F; Montgomery, P; Hockey, A; Karkut, I; Riebel, T

    1985-11-01

    We report two families with seven siblings with de Barsy syndrome. Characteristic features include severe mental retardation, hypermobility with athetoid movements, grimacing, muscular hypotonia, laxity of small joints and brisk deep tendon reflexes, progeroid aspect with cutis laxa, atrophy of skin with hyperpigmentation, isolated depigmentations, reduction of subcutaneous fatty tissue, translucent vein pattern, short stature, frontal bossing in the young child, large prominent ears with dysplastic helices and corneal clouding or cataracts. The syndrome probably has autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:4076251

  7. Abstract Populations of grasses exposed to grazing by vertebrates often exhibit reduced stature, increased tille-

    E-print Network

    Kotanen, Peter M.

    Bouteloua gracilis is related to varia- tion in their responses to grazing. Eleven genotypes dif- fering for defoliation resistance. Key words Bouteloua gracilis · Grazing · Morphology · Resistance · Shortgrass steppe sug- gest that for B. gracilis clipped in simulation of natural grazing, defoliation has few short

  8. Buschke-ollendorff syndrome in a grande multipara: A case report and short review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Al Attia; A. M. Sherif

    1998-01-01

    A 36-year-old short-statured grande multipara (gravida 10, para 8) with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia was incidentally found to have Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (osteopoikilosis and dermatofibrosis lenticularis disseminata). The pelvis and hips, followed by the knees, were the sites mainly affected by the osteopoikilosis. The lumbosacral spine was also affected. She had a single connective tissue naevus on the right thigh. Apart

  9. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    PubMed

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    Pion, JA, Fransen, J, Deprez, DN, Segers, VI, Vaeyens, R, Philippaerts, RM, and Lenoir, M. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1480-1485, 2015-It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball. PMID:25436627

  10. Growth retardation, general hypotonia, and loss of acquired neuromotor skills in the infants of mothers with cobalamin deficiency and the possible role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency can cause metabolic, hematological, and neurological abnormalities. Adequate levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) cannot be synthesized from methylmalonyl-CoA because of the decreased activity of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme that uses Cbl as the cofactor. Succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency leads to decreased heme synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The reason of growth retardation can be gluconeogenesis deficiency together with heme synthesis deficiency whereas the reason of the neurological abnormalities can be glycine increase in the tissue due to decreased heme synthesis. We present 7 infants diagnosed with severe nutritional Cbl deficiency and discuss the role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the possible pathogenesis in this article. Patients brought to our clinic with a complaint of growth retardation and diagnosed with nutritional Cbl deficiency were included in the study. There were 5 females and 2 males. The mean age was 11?±?2.30 (range 6-13) months. All patients had general muscular hypotonia and 4 had growth retardation. Neuromotor growth retardation was found in 4 of the children who had previously shown normal neuromotor development for age. The mean Cbl level was 83.8?±?27.6 (45.6-114)?pg/mL. The mean Cbl level of the mothers was 155?±?56.6 (88-258)?pg/mL. Six of the patients had anemia and 1 had thrombocytopenia. Mean corpuscular volume value was 91.5?±?12.2?fL. Following treatment, the muscle tonus of the patients improved, the anemia and growth retardation decreased, and the lost neuromotor abilities were recovered. Severe nutritional Cbl deficiency is an important nutritional disease where complications can be prevented with early treatment. When evaluating the pathogenesis, it should be noted that nutritional Cbl deficiency is a succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency. PMID:25738478

  11. Body height preferences and actual dimorphism in stature between partners in two non-Western societies (Hadza and Tsimane').

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Stulp, Gert; Huanca, Tomas; Fink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Body height influences human mate preferences and choice. A typical finding in Western societies is that women prefer men who are taller than themselves and, equivalently, men prefer women who are shorter than themselves. However, recent reports in non-Western societies (e.g., the Himba in Namibia) challenge the view on the universality of such preferences. Here we report on male and female height preferences in two non-Western populations-the Hadza (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia)-and the relationships between body height preferences and the height of actual partners. In the Hadza, most individuals preferred a sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) with the man being much taller than the woman. Preferences for SDS and actual partner SDS were positively and significantly correlated in both men and women, suggesting that people who preferred larger height differences also had larger height differences with their partners. In the Tsimane', the majority of men preferred an SDS with the man being taller than the woman, but women did not show such a preference. Unlike in the Hadza, SDS preference was not significantly correlated to actual partner SDS. We conclude that patterns of height preferences and choices in the Hadza and Tsimane' are different than those observed in Western societies, and discuss possible causes for the observed differences between non-Western and Western societies. PMID:26079105

  12. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

  13. Relationships between an index of body fat distribution (based on waist and hip circumferences) and stature, and biochemical complications in obese children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Asayama; K Hayashi; H Hayashibe; N Uchida; T Nakane; K Kodera; S Nakazawa

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical utility of a new age-adjusted measure of body fat distribution (based on waist and hip circumferences) and stature, in relation to biochemical complications in obese children.DESIGN: Cross-sectional, clinical study. The formula to calculate the common standard deviation score (SDS) of waist-to-hip ratio\\/height (WHR\\/Ht) was obtained from the data of control children. The relationship between WHR\\/Ht

  14. Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, I.; El Kayal, W.; Prasath, D.; Fernández, H.; Bouzayen, M.; Svircev, A. M.; Jayasankar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting ‘Early Golden’ (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA4) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a ‘GA overdose’ phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus. PMID:22080981

  15. Partial deletion 21: case report with biochemical studies and review.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, N J; Mayes, J S; Say, B; Wilson, D P

    1987-01-01

    An unbalanced translocation of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 21 to the short arm of chromosome 4 resulted in a partial deletion of chromosome 21 (pter----q21.05) and in the loss of the telomere of 4p. The phenotype of the child included asymmetrical facies, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation associated with frequent infections. Normal SOD-1 activity in red blood cells and fibroblasts and normal cystathionine beta synthase activity in fibroblasts suggest that these gene loci are distal to 21q21.05. Images PMID:3430548

  16. Adiposity and growth: relationship of stature at fourteen years with relative body weight at different ages and several measures of adiposity and body bulk.

    PubMed

    Amador, M; Bacallao, J; Hermelo, M

    1992-03-01

    A non-probabilistic sample of 354 healthy adolescents (182 boys and 172 girls) with ages ranging from 13.6 to 14.5 years was studied. Measurements of mid-arm muscle, thigh and leg circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and records of body weight and height at one, four, six and twelve years of age were available. The sexual maturation stage of all subjects was also determined. Height at fourteen years was found to be significantly associated with relative body weight at different ages in both sexes, and particularly with the relative weight at twelve months. Height is more strongly related with indicators of lean body mass than with indicators of adiposity, especially in boys. The stage of sexual development is also an important determinant of stature at fourteen years of age. The results seem to support the hypothesis that the same factors which increase fat deposition, contribute to increase lean tissues and linear growth. PMID:1559526

  17. Inversion duplication of the short arm of chromosome 8: Clinical data on seven patients and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Engelen, J.J.M.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M. [Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    We report on clinical and cytogenetic data on 5 children and 2 adults with a de novo inverted duplication of the short arm of chromosome 8, and we give a review of 26 patients from the literature. The clinical picture in young children is characterized by minor facial anomalies, hypotonia, and severe developmental delay. In older patients the facial traits are less characteristic, spastic paraplegia develops, and severe orthopedic problems are frequent. Psychomotor retardation is always severe-to-profound. Duplication of 8p21-p22 results in a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome. It is shown that in all patients examined, the duplication was accompanied by a deletion of the most terminal part of 8p. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Mitral and tricuspid valve surgery for Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohashi, Takeki; Furui, Masato; Kageyama, Souichirou; Kodani, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hirai, Yasutaka; Sakakura, Reo

    2015-05-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, short stature, and hypotonia. An 18-year-old man with morphologic features characteristic of Coffin-Lowry syndrome was referred to our institution for valve disease surgery for worsening cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe mitral valve regurgitation associated with tricuspid valve regurgitation. Mitral valve implantation with a biological valve and tricuspid annular plication with a ring was performed. The ascending aorta was hypoplastic. Both the mitral papillary muscle originating near the mitral annulus and the chordae were shortened. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and his cardiac failure improved. PMID:23873216

  19. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in a child with chromosome 18q deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, C M; Lam, W W; Hayward, C; Grace, E; Maher, E R; FitzPatrick, D R

    1998-01-01

    Molecular genetic investigation of a female infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) showed loss of IGF2 imprinting but no evidence of uniparental disomy. In addition, a deletion of chromosome 18q22.1 was identified in this infant without clinical features of 18q-syndrome (microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia). The association of a chromosome 18 deletion and BWS may be coincidental or may indicate the location of a trans activating regulator element for maintenance of IGF2 imprinting. Images PMID:9507400

  20. Contiguous gene syndromes due to deletions in the distal short arm of the human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Ballabio, A.; Andria, G. (Univ. of Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy)); Bardoni, B.; Fraccaro, M.; Maraschio, P.; Zuffardi, O.; Guioli, S.; Camerino, G. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy)); Carrozzo, R. (Univ. of Naples (Italy)); Bick, D.; Campbell, L. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (USA)); Hamel, B. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); Gimelli, G. (G. Gaslini Institute, Genoa (Italy))

    1989-12-01

    Mendelian inherited disorders to deletions of adjacent genes on a chromosome have been described as contiguous gene syndromes. Short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and Kallmann syndrome have been found as isolated entities or associated in various combination in 27 patients with interstitial and terminal deletions involving the distal short are of the X chromosome. The use of cDNA and genomic probes from the Xp22-pter region allowed us to identify 12 different deletion intervals and to confirm, and further refine, the chromosomal assignment of X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata and Kallmann syndrome genes. A putative pseudoautosomal gene affecting height and an X-linked nonspecific mental retardation gene have been tentatively assigned to specific intervals. The deletion panel described is a useful tool for mapping new sequences and orienting chromosome walks in the region.

  1. Stature and pubertal stage assessment in American boys: the 1988–1994 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1 1 The full text of this article is available via JAH Online at http:\\/\\/www.elsevier.com\\/locate\\/jahonline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam M Karpati; Carol H Rubin; Stephanie M Kieszak; Michele Marcus; Richard P Troiano

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To describe current stature and pubertal development in North American boys, and to compare these measures with measures observed approximately 30 years ago.Methods: We analyzed data (i.e., height, weight, and Tanner Stage) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted between 1988–1994, and compared it to the National Health Examination Survey, Cycles II and III

  2. Tall Stature, Insulin Resistance, and Disturbed Behavior in a Girl with the Triple X Syndrome Harboring Three SHOX Genes: Offspring of a Father with Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome but with Two Maternal X Chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein; Sophia Kitsiou; Ariadni Mavrou; Lela Stamoyannou; Aggeliki Kolialexi; Kyriaki Kekou; Magda Liakopoulou; George Chrousos

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the tall stature and its possible underlying mechanism in a Caucasian girl (age 12 years and 10 months) with 46,XX (28%)\\/47,XXX (72%) mosaicism and to identify the parental origin of her extra X chromosome. Methods: The fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio was studied. The karyotypes of the girl and her parents as well as the presence of SHOX copies

  3. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Context: The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. Aims: To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members’ myopia and parents’ socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Results: Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P < 0.001). The myopia shift was correlated to axial length change (P = 0.000) but not correlated to height change. Using multiple regression test, near work was the only significant risk factor for myopia progression (P = 0.022). Conclusions: Our study showed that body height increment was correlated to axial length elongation but not to myopia shift in children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression. PMID:25230963

  4. Truncal ataxia, hypotonia, and motor delay with isolated rhombencephalosynapsis.

    PubMed

    Kruer, Michael C; Blasco, Peter A; Anderson, James C; Bardo, Dianna M E; Pinter, Joseph D

    2009-09-01

    We report on a 16-month-old girl with developmental motor delay, microcephaly, and mild truncal ataxia who was revealed to have rhombencephalosynapsis on magnetic resonance imaging. The child was nonsyndromic and exhibited normal cognitive and social abilities for her age, despite neuroimaging findings. As this case demonstrates, motor skills in children with isolated rhombencephalosynapsis may be relatively mildly affected, and cognition may be normal despite the presence of a major central nervous system anomaly. Neuroimaging may be helpful in defining the nature of a child's deficits at an early age, particularly when associated with microcephaly and abnormalities on neurologic examination. PMID:19664545

  5. Body Mass Index, Weight-for-age, and Stature-for-age Indices in Iranian School Children in Relation to Weight and Growth Disorders: A Population-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Fakhri, Maryam; Fatemi, Sayed Azim; Heidari, Kamal; Bagheri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of grades of nutritional status comprising underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity as well as other measurable anthropometric indicators of body mass index (BMI) in regard to gender, educational level, and living area among students settled in Isfahan province. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 4700 individuals (2349 females and 2351 males) being from 9 to 15 years old, while they were students of either primary school or junior high school. Random cluster method was applied in both urban (84%) and rural (16%) areas of Isfahan province. BMI values were measured and then categorized using reference growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000). Weight-for-age and stature-for-age indices were assessed as well in accordance with CDC growth charts. Results: The overall prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 13.9, 10.4, and 5.7%, respectively. Boys and students of urban areas showed a higher tendency of obesity and overweight in comparison with girls and rural students respectively. Furthermore, rural students had poorer status in both weight-for-age and stature-for-age indices. In addition, educational level was the only statistically efficacious factor. Conclusions: This study and previous ones demonstrated that children and adolescents’ nutritional status, which strongly affect general health status of individuals, should receive more exquisite attention.

  6. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction in Children and Adolescents with Growth Hormone Deficiency or Idiopathic Short Stature – Part 1: A Critical Evaluation of Available Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Levke Brütt; David E. Sandberg; John Chaplin; Hartmut Wollmann; Meinolf Noeker; Monika Bullinger

    2009-01-01

    The concept of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) reflects the subjective perception of health and includes aspects of well-being and functioning in physical, emotional, mental and social life domains. Nowadays, HrQoL has become a relevant treatment outcome from epidemiological and clinical perspectives and is also broadly employed in health economic analyses. To assess HrQoL generic as well as condition-specific instruments

  7. 6 Short bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Lander

    1998-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome has significant morbidity and is potentially lethal especially when intestinal loss is extensive. The pathophysiology of short bowel syndrome, its aetiology, prognosis and our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation are reviewed. Management by a multi-disciplinary nutritional care team is advocated and should be directed to the maintenance of growth and development, the promotion of intestinal adaptation,

  8. A case report of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD)

    PubMed Central

    Lampret, Barbka Repic; Murko, Simona; Debeljak, Marusa; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Fister, Petja

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a rare inherited mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder associated with variations in the ACADS (Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain) gene. SCADD has highly variable biochemical, genetic and clinical characteristics. Phenotypes vary from fatal metabolic decompensation to asymptomatic individuals. Subject and methods A Romani boy presented at 3 days after birth with hypoglycaemia, hypotonia and respiratory pauses with brief generalized seizures. Afterwards the failure to thrive and developmental delay were present. Organic acids analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS/MS) in urine and acylcarnitines analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in dried blood spot were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from blood and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed for all exons. Sequence analysis of all exons and flanking intron sequences of ACADS gene was performed. Results Organic acids analysis revealed increased concentration of ethylmalonic acid. Acylcarnitines analysis showed increase of butyrylcarnitine, C4-carnitine. C4-carnitine was 3.5 times above the reference range (<0.68 µmol/L). Confirmation analysis for organic acids and acylcarnitine profile was performed on the second independent sample and showed the same pattern of increased metabolites. Sequence analysis revealed 3-bp deletion at position 310-312 in homozygous state (c.310_312delGAG). Mutation was previously described as pathogenic in heterozygous state, while it is in homozygous state in our patient. Conclusions In our case clinical features of a patient, biochemical parameters and genetic data were consistent and showed definitely SCAD deficiency. PMID:26110041

  9. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience ... helpful in cases of bacterial pneumonia, while anti-anxiety medications are used to treat patients with anxiety ...

  10. Proposal Writing Short Course

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Foundation Center (Foundation Center)

    2012-01-04

    This is an online, open-access, multilingual short course on how to write a proposal. This course includes instruction on composing the executive summary, statement of need, project description, and budget.

  11. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a recurrent unbalanced translocation (4;21) (p16.3;q22.1): Relevance to the Wolf-Hirschhorn and Down syndrome critical regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastio, G.; Perone, L.; Guzzetta, V. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy)] [and others] [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy); and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on an aneuploidy syndrome due to the unbalanced segregation of a familial translocation (4;21)(p16.3;q22.1) causing a partial 4p monosomy and a partial 21q trisomy. The three affected children presented with severe failure to thrive, short stature, microcephaly, profound hypotonia, and mental retardation. The face, very similar in the three children, is characterized by frontal bossing, upslanting of the palpebral fissures, short nose, and deep set ears, giving the overall appearance of the Down syndrome. The molecular study has defined the aneuploid segment on both 4p and 21q. Most of the Down syndrome critical region was found to be trisomic, while only part of the candidate Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region was deleted, suggesting that this region is not critical for the major malformations characteristic for WHS. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Cell Metabolism Short Article

    E-print Network

    Chanfreau, Guillaume

    sphingolipid synthesis and signaling is sufficient to allow yeast cells to grow in otherwise toxic ironCell Metabolism Short Article Sphingolipid Signaling Mediates Iron Toxicity Yueh-Jung Lee,1 Xinhe: guillom@chem.ucla.edu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2012.06.004 SUMMARY Iron constitutes a major source

  13. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman Omer; Khalaf Khatatneh

    Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues incre ase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compre ssion scheme would allow users

  14. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

  15. Short Period Seismic Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Manchee

    1972-01-01

    HERE I describe a method of utilizing the recognized differences in the short period (SP) spectra of earthquakes and underground explosions to aid in their discrimination. The method produces a dramatic increase in the separation between a suite of Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosion events and earthquakes in the Gulf of California area over that obtainable by the TMF (Third

  16. UNCORRECTED SHORT COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Kocher, Thomas D.

    UNCORRECTED PROOF SHORT COMMUNICATION Identification of a sex-determining region in Nile tilapia Center for Genome Studies, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Summary Sex determination in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

  17. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  18. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  19. Short sea shipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Mulligan; Gary A. Lombardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the potential environmental benefit of short sea shipping. Critical strategic issues relevant to formulating\\u000a public policy are developed. Coastal shipping has traditionally been a major sector of the maritime industry. This continues\\u000a to be the case in the European Union, but the sector has diminished in relative importance in North America as the transport\\u000a industry has become

  20. Severe osteogenesis imperfecta Type-III and its challenging treatment in newborn and preschool children. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Ojaniemi, Marja; Lehenkari, Petri; Serlo, Willy

    2015-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders, of which Type III is the most severe among survivors. The disease is characterised in particular by bone fragility, decreased bone mass and increased incidence of fractures. Other usual findings are muscle hypotonia, joint hypermobility and short stature. Fractures and weak bones may consequently cause limb and spinal deformity and chronic physical disability. Bisphosphonates have revolutionised the treatment of newborn children with severe OI type III. Surgery is still needed in most patients due to high frequency of the fractures. In this systematic review we describe the present state-of-art in treating the most severe type of OI in newborn and preschool children with their bone fractures. PMID:25943292

  1. Treatment of a Prader-Willi Patient with Recurrent Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Poser, Hana M.; Trutia, Alexandru E.

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi is a genetic disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hyperphagia, short stature, hypogonadism, and mental delay. This disorder can result from multiple mechanisms, most commonly a deletion of paternal chromosome 15, leaving a single maternally derived chromosome 15. Individuals who have a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have a higher risk for developing psychosis compared to other forms of Prader-Willi. The following report details the treatment course of a 24-year-old female with Prader-Willi and recurrent catatonia. The patient initially had a positive lorazepam challenge test but subsequently failed treatment with benzodiazepines. She then received eight electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments after which she showed improvement from initial catatonic state. However, the resolution in her symptoms did not follow a linear course but would show periods of improvement followed by a return of catatonic features. This case provides an example of the complexity of treatment of a patient with a genetic disorder and recurrent catatonia.

  2. Prader–Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Suzanne B; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a highly variable genetic disorder affecting multiple body systems whose most consistent major manifestations include hypotonia with poor suck and poor weight gain in infancy; mild mental retardation, hypogonadism, growth hormone insufficiency causing short stature for the family, early childhood-onset hyperphagia and obesity, characteristic appearance, and behavioral and sometimes psychiatric disturbance. Many more minor characteristics can be helpful in diagnosis and important in management. PWS is an example of a genetic condition involving genomic imprinting. It can occur by three main mechanisms, which lead to absence of expression of paternally inherited genes in the 15q11.2–q13 region: paternal microdeletion, maternal uniparental disomy, and imprinting defect. PMID:18781185

  3. Short-term and long-term sequelae in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    PubMed

    Longo, Stefania; Bollani, Lina; Decembrino, Lidia; Di Comite, Amelia; Angelini, Mauro; Stronati, M

    2013-02-01

    Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) is defined as a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of the fetus (for that particular gestational age). Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is defined infant born following IUGR, with a weight at birth below the 10th percentile.Suboptimal fetal growth occurring in IUGR fetuses is an important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The acute neonatal consequences of IUGR include metabolic and hematological disturbances, and disrupted thermoregulation; in addition, respiratory distress (RDS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may contribute to perinatal morbidity. Metabolic disturbances are related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism. It is well-known that individuals who display poor growth in utero are at significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (the so-called metabolic syndrome, MS). MS ultimately leads to the premature development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, short stature in children and adults, premature adrenarche, and the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are endocrinological sequelae of IUGR. (8) Early onset growth delay and prematurity significantly increase the risk for neurological sequelae and motor and cognitive delay.Future prospective studies need to investigate risk factors for infants who are SGA. If reliable prediction can be achieved, there is potential to reduce future perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long term consequences among SGA babies. PMID:23030765

  4. Temple syndrome: improving the recognition of an underdiagnosed chromosome 14 imprinting disorder: an analysis of 51 published cases.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Yiannis; Lokulo-Sodipe, Kemi; Mackay, Deborah J G; Davies, Justin H; Temple, I Karen

    2014-08-01

    Chromosome 14 harbours an imprinted locus at 14q32. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, paternal deletions and loss of methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) result in a human phenotype of low birth weight, hypotonia, early puberty and markedly short adult stature. The analysis of the world literature of 51 cases identifies the key features that will enhance diagnosis and potentially improve treatment. We found a median birth weight SD score (SDS) of -1.88 and median adult final height of -2.04 SDS. Hypotonia and motor delay were reported in 93% and 83% of cases, respectively. Early puberty was reported in 86% of cases with the mean age of menarche at 10?years and 2?months of age. Small hands and feet were reported frequently (87% and 96%, respectively). Premature birth was common (30%) and feeding difficulties frequently reported (n?=?22). There was evidence of mildly reduced intellectual ability (measured IQ 75-95). Obesity was reported in 49% of cases, and three patients developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two patients were reported to have recurrent hypoglycaemia, and one of these patients was subsequently demonstrated to be growth hormone deficient and started replacement therapy. We propose the use of the name 'Temple syndrome' for this condition and suggest that improved diagnosis and long-term monitoring, especially of growth and cardiovascular risk factors, is required. PMID:24891339

  5. Black Holes with Short Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Brown, J.; Husain, Viqar

    We present spherically symmetric black hole solutions for Einstein gravity coupled to anisotropic matter. We show that these black holes have arbitrarily short hair, and argue for stability by showing that they can arise from dynamical collapse. We also show that a recent "no short hair" theorem does not apply to these solutions.

  6. Short Stories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Carole L., Ed.; Kratzke, Peter, Ed.

    Examining how teachers help students respond to short fiction, this book presents 25 essays that look closely at "teachable" short stories by a diverse group of classic and contemporary writers. The approaches shared by the contributors move from readers' first personal connections to a story, through a growing facility with the structure of…

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone in Chronically Ill Children

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2006-02-01

    - Hurler Syndrome (MPS-1) With Short Stature and Muscle Wasting; - Cerebral Palsy With Muscle Wasting; - Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis With Muscle Wasting and Short Stature; - Crohn’s Disease; - HIV Infection.

  8. No Improvement of Adult Height in Non-growth Hormone (GH) Deficient Short Children with GH Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Fujieda, Kenji; Yokoya, Susumu; Shimatsu, Akira; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tanizawa, Takakuni; Teramoto, Akira; Nagai, Toshiro; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hanew, Kunihiko; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Takada, Goro; Miyashita, Masao; Ohno, Tadashi; Komatsu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    It is still in doubt whether the standard-dose growth hormone (GH) used in Japan (0.5 IU/kg/week, 0.167?mg/kg/week) for growth hormone deficiency is effective for achieving significant adult height improvement in non-growth hormone deficient (non-GHD) short children. We compared the growth of GH-treated non-GHD short children with that of untreated short children to examine the effect of standard-dose GH treatment on non-GHD short children. GH treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was started before the age of 11 yr in 64 boys and 76 girls with non-GHD short stature registered at the Foundation for Growth Science who have now reached their adult height. In 119 untreated boys and 127 untreated girls whose height standard deviation score (SDS) was below –2 SD at the age of 6 yr, height growth was followed until 17 yr. Height SDS was significantly lower before GH treatment in the GH-treated group than at the age of 6 yr in the untreated group, in both sexes. Adult height and adult height SDS were significantly greater in the untreated group than in the GH-treated group, in both sexes, although the change in height SDS did not differ significantly. Height SDS was significantly lower before GH treatment in the GH-treated group than at the age of 6 yr in the untreated group, so 57 boys and 57 girls whose height SDS at the age of 6 yr in the untreated group closely matched the height SDS before GH treatment in the GH-treated group were chosen for comparison. Height SDS did not differ significantly between the GH-treated group before GH treatment and the untreated group at the age of 6 yr, nor were there differences between these subgroups in adult height, adult height SDS, or height SDS change, in either sex. The effect of GH treatment is reported to be dose-dependent and doses over 0.23?mg/kg/week are reported to be necessary to improve adult height in non-GHD short children. Currently, the GH dose is fixed at 0.175?mg/kg/week in Japan, and we expected to find, and indeed concluded, that ordinary GH treatment in Japanese, non-GHD short children does not improve adult height. PMID:24790315

  9. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  10. Short implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ?10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ?7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ?7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ?7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ?7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

  11. Genotype–phenotype correlations in patients with retinoblastoma and interstitial 13q deletions

    PubMed Central

    Mitter, Diana; Ullmann, Reinhard; Muradyan, Artur; Klein-Hitpaß, Ludger; Kanber, Deniz; Õunap, Katrin; Kaulisch, Marc; Lohmann, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Patients with an interstitial 13q deletion that contains the RB1 gene show retinoblastoma and variable clinical features. Relationship between phenotypic expression and loss of specific neighboring genes are unresolved, yet. We obtained clinical, cytogenetic and molecular data in 63 patients with an interstitial 13q deletion involving RB1. Whole-genome array analysis or customized high-resolution array analysis for 13q14.11q14.3 was performed in 38 patients, and cytogenetic analysis was performed in 54 patients. Deletion sizes ranged between 4.2?kb and more than 33.43?Mb; breakpoints were non-recurrent. Sequence analysis of deletion junctions in five patients revealed microhomology and insertion of 2–34 base pairs suggestive of non-homologous end joining. Milder phenotypic expression of retinoblastoma was observed in patients with deletions larger than 1?Mb, which contained the MED4 gene. Clinical features were compared between patients with small (within 13q14), medium (within 13q12.3q21.2) and large (within 13q12q31.2) deletions. Patients with a small deletion can show macrocephaly, tall stature, obesity, motor and/or speech delay. Patients with a medium deletion show characteristic facial features, mild to moderate psychomotor delay, short stature and microcephaly. Patients with a large deletion have characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism, short stature, microcephaly, mild to severe psychomotor delay, hypotonia, constipation and feeding problems. Additional features included deafness, seizures and brain and heart anomalies. We found no correlation between clinical features and parental origin of the deletion. Our data suggest that hemizygous loss of NUFIP1 and PCDH8 may contribute to psychomotor delay, deletion of MTLR1 to microcephaly and loss of EDNRB to feeding difficulties and deafness. PMID:21505449

  12. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

  13. Short-term action plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report identifies specific actions to meet TVA`s customer needs from 1996-2002. The short-term action plan is derived from the portfolio of options presented in the long-term action plan presented in the previous chapter. The short-term plan relies heavily on flexible supply-side and demand-side resources. These resources meet Energy Vision 2020 criteria and manage risk by providing flexibility in the face of uncertain load growth and other factors. The short-term action plan will need revisions as TVA learns more about the future. The long-term action plan provides the flexibility to do this.

  14. Short Manual Software Modules for

    E-print Network

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1 Short Manual Software Modules for Format Conversion, Transformation, and Synthesis 1 Introduction-level transformation and high-level synthesis software tools. For theoretical background and realization details take. Design flow and software modules. VHDL BLIF KISS + datapath controller CDFG HW/SW codesign high

  15. Short Signatures Without Random Oracles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Boneh; Xavier Boyen

    2004-01-01

    We describe a short signature scheme which is existentially unforgeable under a chosen message attack without using random ora- cles. The security of our scheme depends on a new complexity assumption we call the Strong Die-Hellman assumption. This assumption has sim- ilar properties to the Strong RSA assumption, hence the name. Strong RSA was previously used to construct signature schemes

  16. SHORT REVIEW Butterfly genomics eclosing

    E-print Network

    Beldade, Patrícia

    SHORT REVIEW Butterfly genomics eclosing P Beldade1 , WO McMillan2 and A Papanicolaou3 1 Section to an explosion of genomic data and the emergence of new research avenues. Evolutionary and ecological functional genomics, with its focus on the genes that affect ecological success and adaptation in natural populations

  17. AUTHOR'S PROOF! 3 SHORT NOTE

    E-print Network

    Segraves, Kari A.

    AUTHOR'S PROOF! U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F 1 2 3 SHORT NOTE 4 Mycorrhizal colonization it is known that a number of factors 11 have predictable effects on mycorrhizal colonization, deter- 12 mining yielded contradictory results. 16 Here, we assess the impact of fire on mycorrhizal coloniza- 17 tion

  18. A Short Introduction to Boosting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Freund; Robert E. Schapire

    1999-01-01

    Boosting is a general method for improving the accuracy of any given learning algorithm. This short overview paper introduces the boosting algorithm AdaBoost, and explains the un- derlying theory of boosting, including an explanation of why boosting often does not suffer from overfitting as well as boosting's relationship to support-vector machines. Some examples of recent applications of boosting are also

  19. Electromagnetic neutrino: a short review

    E-print Network

    Alexander I. Studenikin

    2014-11-09

    A short review on selected issues related to the problem of neutrino electromagnetic properties is given. After a flash look at the theoretical basis of neutrino electromagnetic form factors, constraints on neutrino magnetic moments and electric millicharge from terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations are discussed. We also focus on some recent studies of the problem and on perspectives.

  20. Short-term load forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gross; F. D. Galiana

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load forecasting (STLF), that is, the prediction of the system load over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. The paper reviews the important role of STLF in the on-line scheduling and security functions of an energy management system (EMS). It then discusses the nature of the load

  1. Cell Host & Microbe Short Article

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    Cell Host & Microbe Short Article TH17-Based Vaccine Design for Prevention of Streptococcus vaccines exist, a less expensive serotype-independent protein-based pneumococcal vaccine offers a major. The identified anti- gens also elicited IL-17A secretion from colonized mouse splenocytes and human PBMCs

  2. Primes in short arithmetic progressions

    E-print Network

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We give a large sieve type inequality for functions supported on primes. As application we prove a conjecture by Elliott, and give bounds for short character sums over primes. The proves uses a combination of the large sieve and the Selberg sieve.

  3. Short-term energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Deeper look into short strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Valatka, Saulius

    2012-03-01

    Using a recent conjecture of Basso we compute three leading nontrivial coefficients in the strong coupling expansion of the anomalous dimensions of short operators in the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] sector of AdS/CFT. We show that our results are consistent with the numerical results obtained using the Y-system and TBA approach earlier thus providing further support to the Y-system conjecture.

  5. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ?18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  6. Orogeny can be very short.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John F

    2005-10-25

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc-continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted approximately 18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10(-15). Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Mucopolysaccharidosis type III

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the loss of previously acquired skills (developmental regression). In later stages of the disorder, people with ... incidence ; inguinal ; inherited ; joint ; macrocephaly ; nervous system ; recessive ; regression ; respiratory ; short stature ; stature ; sulfate ; syndrome You may ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Andersen-Tawil syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transports positively charged atoms (ions) of potassium into muscle cells. The movement of potassium ions through these channels ... ions ; long QT syndrome ; lower jaw ; micrognathia ; molecule ; muscle cells ; mutation ; potassium ; protein ; scoliosis ; short stature ; stature ; syncope ; ...

  9. TOXIC MODELING SYSTEM SHORT-TERM (TOXST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxic Modeling System Short-Term (TOXST) addresses the problem of estimating expected exceedances of specified short-term health effects thresholds in the vicinity of continuous and intermittent toxic releases. Certain industrial facilities emit airborne toxic chemicals known...

  10. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  11. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  12. Texas Watershed Planning Short Course Final Report

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Kevin

    registration fee of $500 was charged to short course participants. Dave Rosgen of Wildland Hydrology delivered an Applied Fluvial Geomorphology Short Course (AFG) on January 28-February 1, 2008 with participant accommodations at the Mayan Ranch. Prior... of the course, likelihood of application of knowledge gained, and interest in attending other short courses put on by Dave Rosgen in the future. Participants responded as follows: 1. Overall Short Course Evaluation 4.8 2. Dave Rosgen Lectures 4.6 3...

  13. Errors In Short Distance Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. G.; Moermann, J. J. B.

    1982-02-01

    The errors involved in the short-distance photometry of projectors are evaluated and the same conclusions have been shown to apply to general purpose luminaires. The mathematical analysis from which the equations were derived has been published in Lighting Research and Technology (1981). The illuminance at a short distance from the projector does not follow the inverse square law; the errors depend on the angular subtense of the aperture of the projector relative to the divergence of the beam, and on the distribution of luminance across the aperture of the projector. At any particular distance, the errors are least in directions in which the curvature of the intensity distribution curve is least; the errors may therefore be greatest in the axial direction or in the direction of a shoulder on the curve, and they may change sign where the intensity distribution curve changes from convex to concave. In any particular direction, the error is greater if the outer zones of the projector have higher luminance or give a narrower relative spread; the worst case is a ring-shaped luminaire. If the relative error is less than 10 per cent, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of measurement. For general guidance, a nomogram relates the maximum likely percentage error to the beam divergence and to the relative distance of measurement; an empirical reference distance, to be known as the Beam Cross-over Distance, is suggested to replace the traditional 'cross-over distance' of a projector.

  14. Arch fingerprints, hypotonia, and areflexia associated with X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, R E; Häne, B; Arena, J F; May, M; Lawrence, L; Lubs, H A; Schwartz, C E

    1997-01-01

    A syndrome with distinctive facies, poor muscle tone, absent deep tendon reflexes, tapered fingers, excessive fingerprint arches, genu valgum and mild-moderate mental retardation has occurred in four males in two generations of a white family of European ancestry. The facies are characterised by square configuration, tented upper lip, and thickening of the helices, upper eyelids, and alae nasi. At birth and at maturity, growth (head circumference, height, weight) of affected males is comparable to or greater than unaffected male sibs. Moderate impairment of cognitive function was documented (IQ scores between 40-51). Carriers show no heterozygote manifestations. This X linked condition appears to be different from other syndromes with mental retardation, although there are certain similarities with the alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Linkage analysis found tight linkage to DXS1166 and DXS995 in Xq13 and Xq21 respectively. Images PMID:9192265

  15. Two cases of rickets presenting with poor growth, hypotonia, and respiratory problems.

    PubMed

    Wouters, E; Wojciechowski, M; de Vries, E

    2015-06-01

    Rickets is a rare disease in developed countries. In children, it is a disease which affects growing bone. Depending on the severity, it can present with a wide variety of symptoms. Because it is such a rare disease in developed countries, symptoms suggesting rickets are often not easily recognized. This can cause a delay in diagnosing and treating rickets. Often unnecessary and sometimes invasive investigations are performed. First leading clues to rickets on physical examination are poor growth, especially length, thickening of wrists, bow legs, and craniotabes. At further examination, special attention should be paid to osteopenia and cupping and fraying at the metaphyses on X-rays. Laboratory results suggestive for rickets are elevated alkaline phosphatase and disturbances in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In this report, we present two cases presenting with poor growth, severe pain, and respiratory problems secondary to calcipenic rickets. PMID:25443772

  16. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  17. Leica-Inverted-2 -1-Short instructions Short instructions for the Leica-Inverted-2

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Leica-Inverted-2 -1- Short instructions Short instructions for the Leica-Inverted-2 Version 230307 off the system Page 8 8. Trouble shooting Page 10 #12;Leica-Inverted-2 -2- Short instructions 1. Laser;Leica-Inverted-2 -3- Short instructions 2. General guidelines 1. Lab rules: This room is a S2 laboratory

  18. Leica-Inverted-MP -1-Short instructions Short instructions for the Leica-Inverted-MP

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Leica-Inverted-MP -1- Short instructions Short instructions for the Leica-Inverted-MP Version Page 11 #12;Leica-Inverted-MP -2- Short instructions 1. Laser safety Safety notes for operating be completely switched off. 11. Do not remove the microscope condenser. #12;Leica-Inverted-MP -3- Short

  19. Independent Lens Online Shorts Festival

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since its creation a few years ago, the Independent Lens series has worked with various filmmakers and producers to create thoughtful portraits. These portraits have included subjects such as the life of Billy Strayhorn, people living with dystonia, and the world of Ethiopian coffee growers. Recently, they also embarked on yet another ambitious project: an online shorts festival. Visitors to this site can partake of all ten of these films at their leisure. Included are a film that explores a Parisian secret from 1951, a meditation of growing old, and an artist who created a monument out of mud, old paint, and adobe. After viewing the films, visitors are also welcome to leave their comments in the "Talkback" section, submit a film or find out more about the members of the jury for this online film festival.

  20. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.

  1. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  2. Short text compression for smart devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Islam; S. A. Ahsan Rajon; Anonda Podder

    2008-01-01

    Short text compression is a great concern for data engineering and management. The rapid use of small devices especially, mobile phones and wireless sensors have turned short text compression into a demand-of-the-time. In this paper, we propose an approach of compressing short English text for smart devices. The prime objective of this proposed technique is to establish a low-complexity lossless

  3. A secure short message communication protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia

    2008-01-01

    According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication\\u000a protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public\\u000a key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission\\u000a and dynamic key agreement between mobile

  4. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  5. [Short-acting insulin analogs].

    PubMed

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Heine, R J

    1998-02-21

    Patients with diabetes mellitus type I usually are treated with a multiple injection regimen comprising rapid-acting insulin before meals and intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime. Recently, the rapid-acting insulin analogue insulin LISPRO was introduced on the Dutch market. This form of insulin is very rapidly taken up into the bloodstream from the subcutaneous tissue. The advantages of the use of insulin LISPRO are the comfort of injecting the insulin just before a meal, the more rapid correction of incidental hyperglycaemia and the slightly lower incidence of (nocturnal) hypoglycaemia in comparison with conventional rapid-acting insulin. There is no argument in favour of switching diabetics to insulin LISPRO if they are well-controlled with normal rapid-acting insulin and have few episodes of hypoglycaemia. In some persons the duration of action of insulin LISPRO may be too short, leading to preprandial hyperglycaemia. This can be avoided by using a second injection of intermediate-acting insulin, either before breakfast or before lunch. PMID:9562773

  6. MRI Biosensors: A Short Primer

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    Interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging of biological function experienced a surge of excitement approximately 20 years ago with the development of the first activatable contrast agents that could act as biosensors and turn “on” in response to a specific biological activity. This brief tutorial, based on a short course lecture from the 2011 ISMRM meeting, provides an overview of underlying principles governing the design of biosensing contrast agents. We describe mechanisms by which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent can be made into a sensor for both T1 and T2 types contrast agents. Examples of biological activities that can interact with a contrast agent are discussed using specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate the primary mechanisms of action that have been utilized to achieve activation. MRI sensors for pH, ion binding, enzyme cleavage, and oxidation-reduction are presented. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but an illustrative primer to explain how activation can be achieved for an MRI contrast agent. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is not covered as these agents were covered in a separate lecture. PMID:23996662

  7. Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results. PMID:23758764

  8. Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene mutation (c.319C>T) presents with clinical heterogeneity and is candidate founder mutation in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish origin.

    PubMed

    Tein, Ingrid; Elpeleg, Orly; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Korman, Stanley H; Lossos, Alexander; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Vockley, Jerry; Berry, Gerard T; Lamhonwah, Anne-Marie; Matern, Dietrich; Roe, Charles R; Gregersen, Niels

    2008-02-01

    We report 10 children (7 male, 3 female), 3 homozygous for c.319C>T mutation and 7 heterozygous for c.319C>T on one allele and c.625G>A variant on the other in the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene (ACADS). All were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin in which group we found a c.319C>T heterozygote frequency of 1:15 suggesting the presence of a founder mutation or selective advantage. Phenotype was variable with onset from birth to early childhood. Features included hypotonia (8/10), developmental delay (8/10), myopathy (4/10) with multicore changes in two and lipid storage in one, facial weakness (3/10), lethargy (5/10), feeding difficulties (4/10) and congenital abnormalities (3/7). One female with multiminicore myopathy had progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and cardiomyopathy with pneumonia and respiratory failure. Two brothers presented with psychosis, pyramidal signs, and multifocal white matter abnormalities on MRI brain suggesting additional genetic factors. Two other infants also had white matter changes. Elevated butyrylcarnitine (4/8), ethylmalonic aciduria (9/9), methylsuccinic aciduria (6/7), decreased butyrate oxidation in lymphoblasts (2/4) and decreased SCAD activity in fibroblasts or muscle (3/3) were shown. Expression studies of c.319C>T in mouse liver mitochondria showed it to be inactivating. c.625G>A is a common variant in ACADS that may confer disease susceptibility. Five healthy parents were heterozygous for c.319C>T and c.625G>A, suggesting reduced penetrance or broad clinical spectrum. We conclude that the c.319C>T mutation can lead to wide clinical and biochemical phenotypic variability, suggesting a complex multifactorial/polygenic condition. This should be screened for in individuals with multicore myopathy, particularly among the Ashkenazim. PMID:18054510

  9. The Short Story as HyperStory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Charles E.

    A software application called HyperStory is a reading program for short fiction which has proved to be effective in the classroom. In 3 years of use, over 300 students have tried it out. Part of the reason for its suitability for helping students develop short story reading skills lies in the relationship between the computer technology known as…

  10. MMPI Short Forms: Caution and a Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that short forms of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory may not be accurate substitutes for the standard form in predicting objective measures of psychopathology. Newmark et al, however, reassert their findings that short forms are indeed accurate substitutes. (Author/BEF)

  11. Short-pulse laser propagation through tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Champak Das; Ashish Trivedi; Kunal Mitra; Tuan Vo-Dinh

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study is performed to analyze short pulse laser propagation through tissue phantoms without and with inhomogeneities \\/ tumors imbedded in it. Short pulse laser probing techniques has distinct advantages over conventional very large pulse width or cw lasers primarily due to the additional information conveyed about the tissue interior by the temporal variation of the observed

  12. Are Short Telomeres Hallmarks of Cancer Recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Exposure to radiation and some chemotherapeutic agents is associated with an increased risk of developing second cancers. Short telomeres are almost universally associated with malignant cancer progression. An unanswered question is whether inherited short telomeres or therapy related telomere shortening is a biomarker of development of second malignant neoplasms. PMID:24366690

  13. Comparing paper and electronic short loan collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Gadd

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a comparative cost-benefit analysis of the paper short loan collection and the ACORN electronic short loan collection at Loughborough University. Describes the tasks associated with the creation and maintenance of each collection; analyses those tasks for related costs, drawing particularly on the experiences of Project ACORN; and then compares the advantages of each collection type. Concludes that although

  14. Cryptanalysis of `Less Short' RSA Secret Exponents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Verheul; Henk C. A. Van Tilborg

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener (6), describes a technique to use continued frac- tions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a 'short' secret exponent. Let n = p q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that G = gcd(p 1;q 1)

  15. Biomass estimation procedures in short rotation forestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo Verwijst; Björn Telenius

    1999-01-01

    Biomass estimation procedures in short rotation forestry vary in their methodology, complexity and time demand depending on the specific aim of the estimation operation. In commercial short rotation forestry, estimates of harvestable biomass often are used to decide on harvest timing or continued management and to calculate economic gains under the actual market situation. For research purposes, weight estimates of

  16. SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW Enerag Division

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    water two phase critical flow [1-6]. In the air conditioning and refrigeration field, short tubes-tube subcritical flow. For short tubes used as refrigerant expansion devices, the orifice model is found inadequate due to the wide variation of the upstream and downstream conditions. In a previous paper [7

  17. The Equilibration of Short Baroclinic Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balasubramanian Govindasamy; S. T. Garner

    1997-01-01

    The life cycles of short baroclinic waves are investigated with the intention of completing a simple classification of nonlinear equilibration scenarios. Short waves become important in moist environments as latent heating reduces the scale of maximum baroclinic instability. Long-wave life cycles (wavenumber 6) were previously found to depend on details of the low-level momentum fluxes established during the earliest stages

  18. D. Grossi and P. Turrini Short Sight in Extensive Games Short Sight in Extensive Games

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    D. Grossi and P. Turrini Short Sight in Extensive Games Short Sight in Extensive Games Davide attempts to relax the strong assumptions underpinning game- theoretical models, such as common knowledge_TechRep.tex, January 31, 2012 1 #12;D. Grossi and P. Turrini Short Sight in Extensive Games issue of unawareness seems

  19. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  20. Short-Distance Structure of Nuclei

    E-print Network

    D. W. Higinbotham; E. Piasetzky; S. A. Wood

    2009-08-02

    One of Jefferson Lab's original missions was to further our understanding of the short-distance structure of nuclei. In particular, to understand what happens when two or more nucleons within a nucleus have strongly overlapping wave-functions; a phenomena commonly referred to as short-range correlations. Herein, we review the results of the (e,e'), (e,e'p) and (e,e'pN) reactions that have been used at Jefferson Lab to probe this short-distance structure as well as provide an outlook for future experiments.

  1. A multidisciplinary approach to short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denegri, Andrea; Paparo, Francesco; Denegri, Roberto; Revelli, Matteo; Frascio, Marco; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Fornaro, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a complex clinical picture, characterized by signs and symptoms of malabsorption and subsequent malnutrition, which often occurs after extensive bowel resections. Short bowel syndrome's treatment must begin together with the planning of the first surgery, especially for disease that may need multiple interventions. Patients with short bowel should be individually managed because they all are different in diagnosis, length of the remaining bowel and in psychosocial characteristics. For all these reasons, a multidisciplinary approach between the various specialists is therefore needed. PMID:24393697

  2. Connecting scaling with short-range correlations

    E-print Network

    Berardo, D.

    We reexamine several issues related to the physics of scaling in electron scattering from nuclei. A basic model is presented in which an assumed form for the momentum distribution having both long- and short-range contributions ...

  3. Online Courses: NSTA Online Short Course: Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers inte

  4. Short Communication Differential decomposition of arbuscular mycorrhizal

    E-print Network

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    ; received in revised form 30 October 2002; accepted 4 November 2002 Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Soil carbon; Arbuscular mycorrhiza Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous endosymbiontsShort Communication Differential decomposition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and glomalin

  5. Online Short Course: The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp

  6. CDU Short Courses Charles Darwin University

    E-print Network

    to be added to the Short Courses mailing list Title: First Name: Surname: Organisation: Not for Profit Org: First Name: Surname: Position: Organisation: Postal Address: Suburb: State: Post Code: Phone: Fax

  7. Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) desired to develop short-range communications links whose ranges are intentionally limited to very short distances. These links support tactical missions such as LAN Backbone, Wideband Data Link, and Company Radio. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of detection and intercept (LPD/LPI). Since the detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location and allow him to take countermeasures, the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be LPD by their very nature. The Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC) project at the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) RDT&E Division (NRaD) is pursuing feasibility studies for these USMC missions based on such technologies as ultraviolet (LTV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) at radio frequencies.

  8. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Troy M; Marschall, Elizabeth A; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  9. SEISMIC REHABILITATION OF SHORT RECTANGULAR RC COLUMNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. GHOBARAH; K. ELMANDOOH GALAL

    2004-01-01

    Non-ductile response of structural elements, particularly columns, has been the cause of numerous documented failures during earthquakes. The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the non-linear behaviour of non-ductile reinforced concrete short columns under lateral cyclic deformations and to evaluate rehabilitation schemes. Three reinforced concrete short columns were tested under cyclic lateral loads and constant axial load. The

  10. Physically short crack propagation in metals during high cycle fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Santus; D. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    In metals, during high cycle fatigue on plain specimens, almost the entire fatigue life is spent as short crack initiation and propagation. The fatigue short crack life can be schematically divided into two subsequent phases: microstructurally short crack and physically short crack. Recently, Chapetti proposed a physically short crack threshold and propagation driving force model [Chapetti MD. Fatigue propagation threshold

  11. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events. PMID:17293336

  12. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...

  16. Can short sellers predict accounting restatements and foresee their severity 

    E-print Network

    Efendi, Jap

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation investigates whether short sellers establish short positions prior to accounting restatement announcements and whether the levels of short interest are related to the severity of restatements. Using 565 firms with restatement...

  17. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-02-12

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented.

  18. 47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and...

  20. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  1. The quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design concepts, performance capabilities, and projected applications of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) are discussed. The propulsive lift system of the QSRA provides the lift required for short field operations at low community noise levels. This system consists of four high bipass ratio, geared turbofan engines mounted so that the engine exhaust flows across the upper surface of the wing (upper surface blowing). Large specially shaped flaps behind each engine control the direction of the flow for each phase of flight. A 95 passenger short haul transport based on this technology could operate out of a 2500 foot runway with a combined takeoff and landing 90 EPNdB footprint area of 2.7 sq mi.

  2. Short-pulse laser propagation through tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Champak; Trivedi, Ashish; Mitra, Kunal; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-07-01

    An experimental and numerical study is performed to analyze short pulse laser propagation through tissue phantoms without and with inhomogeneities / tumors imbedded in it. Short pulse laser probing techniques has distinct advantages over conventional very large pulse width or cw lasers primarily due to the additional information conveyed about the tissue interior by the temporal variation of the observed signal. Both the scattered temporal transmitted and reflected optical signals are measured experimentally using a streak camera for samples irradiated with a short pulse laser source. Parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities as well as the detector position and orientation is performed. The temporal and spatial profiles of the scattered optical signals are compared with the numerical modeling results obtained by solving the transient radiative transport equation using discrete ordinates technique.

  3. Short communication Short-term depression of synaptic transmission from rat lateral

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yi-Feng

    Short communication Short-term depression of synaptic transmission from rat lateral geniculate Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jingzhai Road, Hefei-term synaptic plasticity, paired-pulse depression (PPD) and frequency depression, were prominent in the adult

  4. Tensile properties of short-glass-fiber- and short-carbon-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-Y Fu; B Lauke; E Mäder; C.-Y Yue; X Hu

    2000-01-01

    Composites of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with short glass fibers (SGF) and short carbon fibers (SCF) were prepared with extrusion compounding and injection molding techniques. The tensile properties of these composites were investigated. It was noted that an increase in fiber volume fraction led to a decrease in mean fiber length as observed previously. The relationship between mean fiber length and

  5. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares, C.

    1991-07-09

    Method and apparatus, including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO{sub 2} aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor having a transparent window, by hydrogen and CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 6} gas mixtures, and exposed to radiation from a light source external to the reactor, to produce the short chain hydrocarbons.

  6. Short-Term Farm Credit in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Lee, Virgil P.

    1927-01-01

    EXPERIIfiENT STATION LIBRARY, 1 BWftbIRGI 188-127-18.M-L180 TEYAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 351 MARCH, 1927 DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS SHORT-TERM FARM... coop~rsct~on wlth U. S. Department of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS This Bulletin contains analysis of information on short-term farm credit received from 455 farmers, 52 bankers, and 279 merchants. The study indicates that about 69 per cent of the farmers...

  7. Shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomason, W.H. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Evans, S. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Rippon, I.J. (Conoco Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Maurin, A.E. III (Conoco Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The benefits of shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection (CP) systems for the external protection of subsea pipelines based on data from operations in the Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, North Sea, and Indonesia are discussed. Shorting, as opposed to traditional electrical isolation, is cost effective because CP surveys and future retrofits are greatly simplified. Jacket CP systems can provide protection of coated pipelines for distances much greater than normally anticipated. Some simple modeling of jacket/pipeline CP systems is used to illustrate the effect of various design parameters.

  8. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  9. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

    1994-08-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  10. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, R.

    1994-08-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FEL's, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  11. Wear 262 (2007) 220224 Short communication

    E-print Network

    Sawyer, Wallace

    2007-01-01

    Wear 262 (2007) 220­224 Short communication Tribological behavior of PEEK components with compositionally graded PEEK/PTFE surfaces David L. Burris, W. Gregory Sawyer Department of Mechanical in revised form 6 March 2006; accepted 21 March 2006 Available online 26 May 2006 Abstract PEEK is a high

  12. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  13. Electromagnetic scattering from short branching vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsenchieh Chiu; Kamal Sarabandi

    2000-01-01

    A polarimetric coherent electromagnetic scattering model for short branching vegetation is developed. With the realistic structures that reasonably describe the relative positions of the particles, this model is able to consider the coherent effect due to the phase difference between the scattered fields from different particles, and account for the second-order, near-field interaction between particles, to which the relative positions

  14. A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A short history of chemical shifts in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and Mossbauer spectroscopy, which are useful for chemical studies, is described. The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element would all undergo resonance at the…

  15. A Short Introduction to Stabilizer Codes

    E-print Network

    Klappenecker, Andreas

    A Short Introduction to Stabilizer Codes Andreas Klappenecker Department of Computer Science Texas of Errors Consider errors E = En · · · E1 Ei {I, X, Y, Z} X = 0 1 1 0 , Z = 1 0 0 -1 , Y = XZ = 0 -1 1 0 . The weight of E is the number of Ei = I. If a code Q corrects errors E of weight

  16. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short Communication

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2307 LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Short Communication Cold fusion in a dense electron gas R. Balian, J in metallic palladiun are required in order to bring the cold fusion rate to an observable value. 'Ibme 50 N are known to yield observable rates for "cold fusion" in ddp-molecules [1-3]. One may also notice

  17. SHORT REVIEW Ecological genomics: understanding gene and

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Glennis A.

    SHORT REVIEW Ecological genomics: understanding gene and genome function in the natural environment MC Ungerer, LC Johnson and MA Herman Division of Biology, Ecological Genomics Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA The field of ecological genomics seeks to understand the genetic mechanisms

  18. Online Short Course: Earth, Sun, and Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Care to take a different view? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: Earth, Sun and Moon. This course explores the phenomena that can be explained by the position and motion of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. The focus is on topics supporting Standa

  19. Online Short Course: Earth, Sun, and Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Care to take a different view? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: Earth, Sun and Moon . This course explores the phenomena that can be explained by the position and motion of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. The focus i

  20. Short Wave Echoes and the Aurora Borealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Størmer

    1928-01-01

    ON Feb. 29 of this year I received a letter from Engineer Jørgen Hals, Bygdø, Oslo, in which he says: ``I herewith have the honour to advise you that at the end of the summer 1927 I repeatedly heard signals from the Dutch short-wave transmitter station PCJJ (Eindhoven). At the same time as I heard the telegraph-signals I also heard

  1. Channel estimation using short training sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Rizaner; Hasan A. Amca; K. Hacioglu; A. H. Ulusoy

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of the impulse responses of time-variant mobile radio channels is a challenging issue in mobile communication systems. For CDMA systems, it is generally assumed that the receiver knows the corresponding spreading sequences. A maximum likelihood channel estimation method, which uses the known spreading sequences together with short training sequences, is considered for synchronous CDMA systems

  2. Compression of Short Text on Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Rein; Clemens Gühmann; Frank H. P. Fitzek

    2006-01-01

    The paper details a scheme for lossless com- pression of short data series larger than 50 Bytes. The method uses arithmetic coding and context modeling with a low-complexity data model. A data model that takes 32 kBytes of RAM already cuts the data size in half. The compression scheme just takes a few pages of source code, is scalable in

  3. Low-Complexity Compression of Short Messages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Rein; Clemens Gühmann; Frank H. P. Fitzek

    2006-01-01

    We describe a low-complexity scheme for lossless compression of short text mes- sages. The method uses arithmetic coding and a specific statistical context model for prediction of single symbols. Our particular contribution is a simple yet effective ap- proach for storing highly complex statistics in a succinct yet effective data model that can easily be trained by text data. The

  4. Short Specialist Review Gene structure prediction

    E-print Network

    Brendel, Volker

    as well as genome-survey sequencing is in progress for dozens of plant species, all of which appearShort Specialist Review Gene structure prediction in plant genomes Volker Brendel Iowa State prediction in vertebrates. The second reason is pragmatic. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing and whole-genome

  5. Designing Short-Term Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Floyd T.; And Others

    The Experiences and research data in this volume result from the authors' involvement in Corpsmember Training Institutes (CMTIs) and Pilot Trainer Workshops (PTWs) established to train teacher interns beginning their Teacher Corps internship. Six articles are presented on: administration of short-term instructional programs, workshop design,…

  6. The Identity Management Problem --A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Guibas, Leonidas J.

    The Identity Management Problem -- A Short Survey Leonidas J. Guibas Computer Science Department Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A. Email: guibas@cs.stanford.edu Abstract--The identity and target identities, based on observations made by sen- sors. Updates of the belief state can happen

  7. Aligning short sequencing reads with Bowtie

    PubMed Central

    Langmead, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This unit shows how to use the Bowtie package to align short sequencing reads, such as those output by second-generation sequencing instruments. It also includes protocols for building a genome index and calling consensus sequences from Bowtie alignments using SAMtools. PMID:21154709

  8. Is the Atomic Second too short?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ci-yuan Liu

    2001-01-01

    The definition of the length of the Atomic Second is based on measurements of the Earth's rotation made during the past 300 years. It has become too short because of the long-term deceleration of the Earth's rotation, making it necessary to add more and more leap seconds to UTC. By defining a longer Atomic Second and enlarging the limit of

  9. Neural network based short term load forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-N. Lu; H.-T. Wu; S. Vemuri

    1993-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) technique for short-term load forecasting (STLF) has been proposed previously. In order to evaluate ANNs as a viable technique for STLF, one has to evaluate the performance of ANN methodology for practical considerations of STLF problems. The authors make an attempt to address these issues. The results of a study to investigate whether the ANN

  10. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  11. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  12. Downside risk for short and long hedgers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R?za Demirer; Donald Lien

    2003-01-01

    This paper assumes that each individual attempts to minimize the downside risk measured by the lower partial moments (LPMs). Optimal hedge ratios and the resultant hedging performance are compared for short versus long hedgers across 10 different markets. It is found that long hedgers tend to be more active in futures trading (particularly in commodity markets) and provide better hedging

  13. Short pulse laser propagation in underdense plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Feit; J. C. Garrison; A. M. Rubenchik

    1996-01-01

    Propagation of an intense laser pulse in an underdense plasma is modeled by treating the electrons as a cold relativistic fluid. For sufficiently short pulses, the ion motion is negligible. The disparities between the optical, plasma, and propagation length scales are dealt with by using a multiple scales technique to derive approximate equations averaged over successively larger length scales. This

  14. Short tandem repeat polymorphism evolution in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Calafell; A Shuster; WC Speed; JR Kidd; KK Kidd

    1998-01-01

    Forty-five dinucleotide short tandem repeat polymorphisms were typed in ten large samples of a globally distributed set of populations. Although these markers had been selected for high heterozygosity in European populations, we found them to be sufficiently informative for linkage analysis in non-Europeans. Heterozygosity, mean number of alleles, and mean number of private alleles followed a common trend: they were

  15. A Student-Centered Short Story Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Maggie; Frazier, Stefan

    The outline for a reading course based on both intensive and extensive reading of short stories is presented. The 11-week course focuses on five stories, three selected by the teacher and two selected by the students as a class. A course overview details the sequence of reading and classroom activities, and the procedures for a typical four-week…

  16. Short Multipath Insensitive Code Loop Discriminator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Jardak; Nel Samama

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that one of the most significant errors in GPS pseudo-range measurement is the multipath error. Many researchers have been involved in this major issue, and promising results have been achieved in mitigating multipath errors. Most of these studies, however, do not really improve the tracking error in presence of short multipath. A novel code loop discriminator,

  17. Short Term Earthquake Forecasts at Koyna, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Gupta; D. Shashidhar; K. Mallika; N. Purnachandra Rao; D. Srinagesh; H. Satyanarayana; S. Saha; R. T. Naik

    2010-01-01

    At the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning form August 2005, earthquake activity is monitored in real time, and successful short term forecasts have been made of M~ 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5 to

  18. LONG TERM IMPACTS OF SHORT TERM VOLUNTEERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor Loudon

    2004-01-01

    Our lives are busy. Many people find that while they may be aware of issues such as climate change, species extinction, and cultural homogeny, they feel powerless to be of any real help. Short term volunteering can be the catalyst that shifts that view, with impacts that change people lives and change the world. Founded in the US in 1971,

  19. GSFC short pulse radar, JONSWAP-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Walton, W. T.; Eckerman, J.; Kutz, R. L.; Dombrowski, M.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In September 1975, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a short pulse radar during ocean wave measuring experiments off the coast of West Germany in the North Sea. The experiment was part of JONSWAP-75. The radar system and operations during the experiment are described along with examples of data.

  20. A Long Look at the Short Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  1. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  2. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  3. AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF ESSAYS AND SHORT ANSWERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Burstein; Claudia Leacock; Richard Swartz

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Essay questions designed to measure writing ability, along with open - ended questions requiring short answers, are highly - valued components of effective assessment programs, but the expense and logistics of scoring them reliably often present a barrier to their use Extensive research and development efforts at Educational Testing Service (ETS) over the past several years (see http:\\/\\/www ets

  4. Short Distance Freedom of Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Gaurav Narain; Ramesh Anishetty

    2012-04-01

    Fourth order derivative gravity in 3+1-dimensions is perturbatively renormalizable and is shown to describe a unitary theory of gravitons in a limited coupling parameter space. The running gravitational constant which includes graviton contribution is computed. Generically, gravitational Newton's constant vanishes at short distances in this perturbatively renormalizable and unitary theory.

  5. Short-range gravity and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Quentin G.; Kostelecký, V. Alan; Xu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few searches have been performed for violations of local Lorentz invariance in the pure-gravity sector. We show that tests of short-range gravity are sensitive to a broad class of unconstrained and novel signals that depend on the experimental geometry and on sidereal time.

  6. Analysis of Synchronous Machine Short Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Camburn; Eric T. B. Gross

    1950-01-01

    Representation has been made of synchronous machines and power systems by ¿-, ??-, and 0-networks which are basic for the analysis of various types of short circuits. New expressions for the characteristic synchronous machine reactances in ¿-, ??-, 0-components, or Clarke components, are derived. It is found that these characteristic reactances are constant so that the use of Clarke component

  7. Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    1985-08-26

    Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

  8. Gastrointestinal manifestations in diploid/triploid mixoploidy.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Farida K; Elsner, Garrett L; Lebel, Robert Roger; Beg, Mirza B

    2015-06-01

    A girl infant was delivered by cesarean section at 32 weeks of gestation because of growth arrest and poor movement patterns. The infant had feeding problems, which were based on gastroesophageal reflux, laryngomalacia, and decreased gut motility. Hypotonia was notable from the outset, and the patient eventually displayed significant delays in both motor and cognitive milestones. Meanwhile, lymphocytes had yielded a normal karyotype (46,XX), but at 2 years of age the patient underwent a skin biopsy and mosaicism because a 68,XX cell line was discovered in fibroblasts. At the age 6.4 years, the patient is short of stature below the 3rd percentile but has a weight at the 42nd percentile and head circumference above the 97th percentile. Other phenotypic features include low-set ears, piebald irides and scalp hair, eyelid ptosis, strabismus, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nares, upswept eyebrows, hypoplastic teeth, pectus excavatum, hypoplastic labia, scoliosis, 3-4 finger syndactyly, and 2-3 toe syndactyly. We present this case with a review of the literature for mixoploidy (the rare event of mosaicism for diploid and triploid cell lines). We add to the existing data on the clinical features of diploid/triploid mixoploidy. The complexities of the gastrointestinal problems make this case unusual. PMID:25373857

  9. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting) are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR), gamete complementation (GC), monosomy rescue (MR), and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit). Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH) receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS. PMID:22844316

  10. Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. PMID:24788350

  11. Novel KDM6A (UTX) mutations and a clinical and molecular review of the X-linked Kabuki syndrome (KS2).

    PubMed

    Banka, S; Lederer, D; Benoit, V; Jenkins, E; Howard, E; Bunstone, S; Kerr, B; McKee, S; Lloyd, I C; Shears, D; Stewart, H; White, S M; Savarirayan, R; Mancini, G M S; Beysen, D; Cohn, R D; Grisart, B; Maystadt, I; Donnai, D

    2015-03-01

    We describe seven patients with KDM6A (located on Xp11.3 and encodes UTX) mutations, a rare cause of Kabuki syndrome (KS2, MIM 300867) and report, for the first time, germ-line missense and splice-site mutations in the gene. We demonstrate that less than 5% cases of Kabuki syndrome are due to KDM6A mutations. Our work shows that similar to the commoner Type 1 Kabuki syndrome (KS1, MIM 147920) caused by KMT2D (previously called MLL2) mutations, KS2 patients are characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulties during infancy and poor postnatal growth and short stature. Unlike KS1, developmental delay and learning disability are generally moderate-severe in boys but mild-moderate in girls with KS2. Some girls may have a normal developmental profile. Speech and cognition tend to be more severely affected than motor development. Increased susceptibility to infections, join laxity, heart, dental and ophthalmological anomalies are common. Hypoglycaemia is more common in KS2 than in KS1. Facial dysmorphism with KDM6A mutations is variable and diagnosis on facial gestalt alone may be difficult in some patients. Hypertrichosis, long halluces and large central incisors may be useful clues to an underlying KDM6A mutation in some patients. PMID:24527667

  12. A hybrid short read mapping accelerator

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of short read datasets poses a new challenge to the short read mapping problem in terms of sensitivity and execution speed. Existing methods often use a restrictive error model for computing the alignments to improve speed, whereas more flexible error models are generally too slow for large-scale applications. A number of short read mapping software tools have been proposed. However, designs based on hardware are relatively rare. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been successfully used in a number of specific application areas, such as the DSP and communications domains due to their outstanding parallel data processing capabilities, making them a competitive platform to solve problems that are “inherently parallel”. Results We present a hybrid system for short read mapping utilizing both FPGA-based hardware and CPU-based software. The computation intensive alignment and the seed generation operations are mapped onto an FPGA. We present a computationally efficient, parallel block-wise alignment structure (Align Core) to approximate the conventional dynamic programming algorithm. The performance is compared to the multi-threaded CPU-based GASSST and BWA software implementations. For single-end alignment, our hybrid system achieves faster processing speed than GASSST (with a similar sensitivity) and BWA (with a higher sensitivity); for pair-end alignment, our design achieves a slightly worse sensitivity than that of BWA but has a higher processing speed. Conclusions This paper shows that our hybrid system can effectively accelerate the mapping of short reads to a reference genome based on the seed-and-extend approach. The performance comparison to the GASSST and BWA software implementations under different conditions shows that our hybrid design achieves a high degree of sensitivity and requires less overall execution time with only modest FPGA resource utilization. Our hybrid system design also shows that the performance bottleneck for the short read mapping problem can be changed from the alignment stage to the seed generation stage, which provides an additional requirement for the future development of short read aligners. PMID:23441908

  13. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  14. ACS Internal CTE Monitor and Short Darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This is a continuation of Program 13156 and is to be executed once a cycle for internal CTE and short darks, respectively.INTERNAL CTE MONITOR:The charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of the ACS CCD detectors will decline as damage due to on-orbit radiation exposure accumulates. This degradation will be monitored once a cycle to determine the useful lifetime of the CCDs. All the data for this program is acquired using internal targets {lamps} only, so all of the exposures should be taken during Earth occultation time {but not during SAA passages}. This program emulates the ACS pre-flight ground calibration and post-launch SMOV testing {program 8948}, so that results from each epoch can be directly compared. Extended Pixel Edge Response {EPER} data will be obtained over a range of signal levels for the Wide Field Channel {WFC}. The signal levels are 125, 500, 1620, 5000, 10000, and 60000 electrons at gain 2.Since Cycle 18, this monitoring program was reduced {compared to 11881} considering that there is also an external CTE monitoring program.SHORT DARKS:To improve the pixel-based CTE model at signals below 10 DN, short dark frames are needed to obtain a statistically useful sample of clean, warm pixel trails. This program obtains a set of dark frames for each of the following exposure times: 66 s {60 s for some subarrays} and 339 s. These short darks and the 1040 s darks obtained from the CCD Daily Monitor will sample warm and hot pixels over logarithmically increasing brightness. Subarray short darks were added in Cycle 19 to study CTE tails in different subarray readout modes.

  15. Stature and status: Height, ability, and labor market outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

    2009-01-01

    The well-known association between height and earnings is often thought to reflect factors such as self esteem, social dominance, and discrimination. We offer a simpler explanation: height is positively associated with cognitive ability, which is rewarded in the labor market. Using data from the US and the UK, we show that taller children have higher average cognitive test scores, and that these test scores explain a large portion of the height premium in earnings. Children who have higher test scores also experience earlier adolescent growth spurts, so that height in adolescence serves as a marker of cognitive ability. PMID:19603086

  16. Development of short forms of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-Short) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ-Short)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Wakabayashi; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Nigel Goldenfeld; Joe Delaney; Debra Fine; Richard Smith; Leonora Weil

    2006-01-01

    The empathizing–systemizing (E–S) theory has been tested using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). The present study tested n=1761 students with these instruments, to determine if short versions of these scales could be constructed. This would be desirable both for faster assessment and to establish which are the key items on each scale. Principal component analysis and

  17. Short-living supermassive magnetar model for the early X-ray flares following short GRBs

    E-print Network

    W. H. Gao; Y. Z. Fan

    2006-09-14

    We suggest a short-living supermassive magnetar model to account for the X-ray flares following short $\\gamma-$ray bursts. In this model, the central engine of the short $\\gamma-$ray bursts is a supermassive millisecond magnetar. The X-ray flares are powered by the dipole radiation of the magnetar. When the magnetar has lost a significant part of its angular momentum, it collapses to a black hole and the X-ray flares disappear abruptly. Two important predictions of this model are (i) X-ray flares much more energetic than that detected in GRB 050724 may be detectable in the coming months and years by the XRT onboard {\\it Swift}. (ii) The short GRBs with X-ray flares may occur outside of their host galaxy.

  18. Why are very short times so long and very long times so short in elastic waves?

    E-print Network

    Parravicini, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In the study of elastic waves, physicists commonly understand that when the given period is very short, waves are isentropic because heat conduction does not set in, while if the given period is very long waves are isothermal because there is enough time for thermalization to be thoroughly accomplished. On the other hand, the mathematical inspection of the complete thermoelastic wave equation shows that if the period is very short, much shorter than a characteristic time of the material, the wave is isothermal, while if it is very long, much longer than the characteristic time, the wave is isentropic, a fact that is supported by experiments. The authors show that there is no contradiction between the physicists' understanding and the mathematical treatment of the elastic wave equation: for thermal effects very long periods are so short and very short periods are so long.

  19. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  20. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  1. The QT syndromes: long and short.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroshi; Wu, Jiashin; Zipes, Douglas P

    2008-08-30

    This Seminar presents the most recent information about the congenital long and short QT syndromes, emphasising the varied genotype-phenotype association in the ten different long QT syndromes and the five different short QT syndromes. Although uncommon, these syndromes serve as a Rosetta stone for the understanding of inherited ion-channel disorders leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Ionic abnormal changes mainly affecting K(+), Na(+), or Ca(2+) currents, which either prolong or shorten ventricular repolarisation, can create a substrate of electrophysiological heterogeneity that predisposes to the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. The understanding of the genetic basis of the syndromes is hoped to lead to genetic therapy that can restore repolarisation. Presently, symptomatic individuals are generally best treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Clinicians should be aware of these syndromes and realise that drugs, ischaemia, exercise, and emotions can precipitate sudden death in susceptible individuals. PMID:18761222

  2. Fecal lactate and short bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bustos; S. Pons; J. C. Pernas; H. Gonzalez; M. I. Caldarini; K. Ogawa; J. A. De Paula

    1994-01-01

    In patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS), the carbohydrate overload to the colon may disturb the normal pattern of colonic fermentation with production ofd-lactic acid and subsequent development of a metabolicd-lactic acidosis. We measuredd-lactic acid in blood, urine, and feces, as well as the composition of fecal water and fecal reducing substances from 11 patients with SBS, comparing the results

  3. Management of the Short Bowel Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. DiBaise

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from extensive intestinal resection. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality,\\u000a a reduced quality of life and a high rate of health care resource utilization. The management of patients with SBS requires\\u000a a multidisciplinary approach that includes dietary, fluid and pharmacological management, co-morbid disease management and,\\u000a occasionally, surgery. An understanding of the physiological alterations

  4. Science Shorts: Plants on the Move

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Damonte

    2005-04-01

    A person gets goose bumps or shivers when they are cold. A rabbit darts down a hole at a loud noise. These two actions are examples of a living things responding to its environment. All living things respond to their environment. Although you might not think of a plant having a response, in this month's Science Shorts you will examine some of the types of responses that plants can have to their environment. This article includes a corresponding activity.

  5. EMITTANCE CONTROL FOR VERY SHORT BUNCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K

    2004-07-20

    Many recent accelerator projects call for the production of high energy bunches of electrons or positrons that are simultaneously short, intense, and have small emittances. Examples of such projects are the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL's, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). A major challenge is keeping in check forces that increase beam emittances in accelerator components, such as: wakefields of accelerator structures and surface roughness, and coherent synchrotron radiation. We describe such forces and discuss emittance control.

  6. Short term earthquake forecasts at Koyna, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harsh Gupta; D. Shashidhar; K. Mallika; N. Purnachandra Rao; D. Srinagesh; H. V. S. Satyanarayana; Satish Saha; R. T. B. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake activity is monitored in real time at the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning from August 2005 and successful\\u000a short term forecasts have been made of M ? 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that\\u000a precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5

  7. Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Adams

    2006-12-01

    Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

  8. Long life of a short film.

    PubMed

    Wadia, R V

    2000-01-01

    What follows is an account of my personal experiences as an independent Indian film director who had the fortune to make the country's first openly gay film, the short BOMgAY That said, I would like this essay to be accepted as, rather than a critical appraisal of Indian cinema, a humbly autobiographical account of one individual caught in the hectic throes of political (and cinematic) visibility. PMID:11133141

  9. Short Columella Nasolabial Complex in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aldo Mottura

    2001-01-01

    .   Many papers describe different approaches for short columella in cleft lip or Negroid noses. Very little has been found in\\u000a international literature related to these aesthetic rhinoplasties. The scarce skin of the columella, the firm union between\\u000a the nasal tip and the lip, due to the hypertrophy of the depressor septi nasi muscle, and the low projection of the

  10. Evaluation of ultra-short dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Trafford; P Sharpstone; R Evans; R Ireland

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the effects of three dialysis regimens of different durations. Nineteen patients dialysed over 1975--7 for an average of only 11.2 hours per week were compared with nine dialysed for 24 hours per week (1974--6) and 10 dialysed for 27 hours (1971--3). Clinical, biochemical, and haematological results showed that the short dialysis regimen was

  11. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Soo Kim; Arun Yethiraj

    2009-01-01

    The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice\\/water interface is observed

  12. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains comprehensive information relating to forensic DNA analysis. It has material from an introductory to an advanced level on forensic DNA technology. The material provides general information on DNA markers that are of interest to human identification. The site contains both introductory and in-depth discussions of short tandem repeats (STRs) and other DNA markers currently used by the forensic community. Powerpoint and PDF presentations on STR training material are available and can be readily downloaded.

  13. Allergens from short ragweed leaf tissue cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shafiee; E. J. Staba

    1973-01-01

    Summary  Short ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L.) leaf cells were grown as callus and suspension cultures. Immunodiffusion tests against anti-pollen crude extract and anti-antigen\\u000a E sera did not detect antigen E in the tissue cultures. However, two allergenically active fractions were isolated from the\\u000a tissue cultures by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Two fractions\\u000a isolated (Sephadex G-100, fractions II

  14. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N. (2417 Kilkare Rd., Sunol, CA 94586); Sweeney, Donald W. (5020 Canyon Crest Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583)

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  15. The Long and the Short of It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-Ray bursts, the extreme explosions that mark the birth of black holes, come in two flavors, long bursts lasting a few seconds or more, and short bursts lasting for less than a second. The mechanisms giving rise to these two types of bursts were, for a long time, unknown to astronomers. But a series of breakthroughs starting with BeppoSAX, HETE, and Swift gave astronomers some clues and confidence about the nature of long and short bursts. Long bursts mark the collapse of a young, extremely massive star into a black hole; short bursts mark the formation of a black hole by a merger of neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star with a black hole to form a larger black hole). But a new observation has clouded this clear dichotomy. The picture above is an X-ray image of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 060614, taken by Swift's X-ray Telescope. This burst lasted more than 100 seconds, clearly showing that it's a long burst. But follow-up observations of the burst did not show the tell-tale signatures of a supernova explosion which should be produced by the collapse of a large star. Furthermore this burst occurred in a galaxy which has very few extremely massive stars. Does this hybrid burst represent an entirely new mechanism behind these titanic explosions? The hunt is on.

  16. An assessment of short-acting hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, W B; Jain, B

    1995-10-01

    Insomnia, the experience of poor quality or quantity of sleep, is a very common complaint. Approximately 65 million adults (36% of the American population) complain of poor sleep, and of this group, 25% have insomnia on a chronic basis. These chronic insomniacs not only report higher rates of difficulty with concentration, memory and the ability to cope with minor irritations but also have 2.5 times more fatigue-related automobile accidents than do good sleepers. Despite its ubiquity, insomnia is often either untreated or inadequately treated. Short-acting hypnotics are advocated for transient insomnia, which lasts less than 3 weeks, and in patients with chronic insomnia as an adjunctive treatment where nonpharmacological treatment is not sufficient to alleviate insomnia and the related daytime detrimental effects. The putative adverse effects of hypnotics must be weighted against the severe health effects caused by continued sleep impairment. If hypnotic agents are used, they should be taken nightly only for brief use, or intermittently in longer term use. Benzodiazepines, zolpidem and zopiclone (in countries where the latter is available) remain the recommended hypnotic agents, although in the past few years there has been much criticism in lay magazines and on television about the use of benzodiazepines. However, this review of the efficacy and tolerability data of the short-acting hypnotics suggests that triazolam is comparable with other short-acting hypnotics at equipotent doses while taking into consideration that for every hypnotic, different study populations display different degrees of efficacy. In addition, contrary to previous suggestions that such adverse effects are rebound insomnia and anterograde amnesia are unique to triazolam, hypnotically equivalent doses of tirazolam have not been shown to produce these effects more frequently than other short-acting hypnotics. The newer nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics seem to be equally efficacious as the short-acting benzodiazepines; whether they will truly have a better adverse effect profile will be determined as more clinical experience accumulates. Despite the availability, relative safety and efficacy of these newer hypnotic agents, they should not be perceived as the sole treatment for insomnia and should be used in conjunction with nonpharmacological techniques (such as adherence to good sleep hygiene, sleep restriction, stimulus control and biofeedback therapy). PMID:8573298

  17. Microbial production of short-chain alkanes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-10-24

    Increasing concerns about limited fossil fuels and global environmental problems have focused attention on the need to develop sustainable biofuels from renewable resources. Although microbial production of diesel has been reported, production of another much in demand transport fuel, petrol (gasoline), has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report the development of platform Escherichia coli strains that are capable of producing short-chain alkanes (SCAs; petrol), free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty esters and fatty alcohols through the fatty acyl (acyl carrier protein (ACP)) to fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA pathway. First, the ?-oxidation pathway was blocked by deleting the fadE gene to prevent the degradation of fatty acyl-CoAs generated in vivo. To increase the formation of short-chain fatty acids suitable for subsequent conversion to SCAs in vivo, the activity of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase (FabH), which is inhibited by unsaturated fatty acyl-ACPs, was enhanced to promote the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis by deleting the fadR gene; deletion of the fadR gene prevents upregulation of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis. A modified thioesterase was used to convert short-chain fatty acyl-ACPs to the corresponding FFAs, which were then converted to SCAs by the sequential reactions of E. coli fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, Clostridium acetobutylicum fatty acyl-CoA reductase and Arabidopsis thaliana fatty aldehyde decarbonylase. The final engineered strain produced up to 580.8?mg?l(-1) of SCAs consisting of nonane (327.8?mg?l(-1)), dodecane (136.5?mg?l(-1)), tridecane (64.8?mg?l(-1)), 2-methyl-dodecane (42.8?mg?l(-1)) and tetradecane (8.9?mg?l(-1)), together with small amounts of other hydrocarbons. Furthermore, this platform strain could produce short-chain FFAs using a fadD-deleted strain, and short-chain fatty esters by introducing the Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 wax ester synthase (atfA) and the E. coli mutant alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE(mut)). PMID:24077097

  18. Naked Short Selling: Is it Information-Based Trading? 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Hu

    2012-10-19

    returns are approximately 3.9 times larger than when using only covered short interest. Empirical evidence therefore indicates that recent actions by regulators to eliminate naked short selling are likely to impede arbitrage and thereby reduce market...

  19. Recent Maxima of 67 Short Period Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyk, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains times of maxima for 67 short period pulsating stars (primarily RR Lyrae and d Scuti stars). These maxima represent the CCD observations received by the AAVSO Short Period Pulsator (SPP) section in 2014.

  20. 21W.755 Writing and Reading Short Stories, Fall 2006

    E-print Network

    Lewitt, Shariann

    This class will focus on the craft of the short story, which we will explore through reading great short stories, writers speaking about writing, writing exercises and conducting workshops on original stories.

  1. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...

  2. heritability. The overdue promise of short tandem repeat variation for

    E-print Network

    Queitsch, Christine

    heritability. The overdue promise of short tandem repeat variation for Maximilian Press, Keisha D variation for heritability.1 2 Maximilian O. Press, Keisha D. Carlson, Christine Queitsch3 Keywords: short tandem repeats, microsatellites, heritability, epistasis,9 sequencing technologies.10

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY...CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This product is...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY...CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This product is...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY...CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This product is...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY...CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This product is...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY...CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This product is...

  8. Short fiction creative writing: storytelling with a film perspective 

    E-print Network

    Francis, James

    2005-08-29

    The research and material contained in this thesis will examine short story theory from current perspectives in the field and provide a response to questions posed about the composition of short fiction. A critical ...

  9. Online Short Course: Energy, Fall 2008

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers interested in learning more about the topic or for those who would like a refresher course. As a participant, you will meet five times online with an Instructor and work on your own time as well to complete a Final Assessment demonstrating your science content proficiency of Energy. Educators are encouraged to seek approval in advance from their district for continuing education credits that may be ascribed for passing the final assessment. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy covers the concepts of kinetic energy, potential energy, energy transformations, heat, temperature, and their applications. The online course is based on the NSTA Press publication Energy: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It , written by Dr. William Robertson. Participants of the course meet online with the presenters on five Tuesdays, from 8:00 p.m. - 9:30 p.m. ET, on the following dates: September 30 and October 7, 14, 21, and 28, 2008. The presenters will guide participants through easy-to-understand explanations and facilitate discussions that will enhance their knowledge of common physical science concepts. In addition, participants contribute to asynchronous weekly discussions, and complete suggested reading assignments from the Energy e-book, journal articles, and/or NSTA's Energy SciPack and SciGuide. Participants should plan to spend between 25-35 hours on this online course including the time spent attending the five live Web sessions. This Online Short Course is designed for educators of grades 3-9.

  10. Online Short Course: Energy, Winter 2008

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers interested in learning more about the topic or for those who would like a refresher course. As a participant you will meet five times online with an Instructor and work on your own time as well to complete a Final Assessment demonstrating your science content proficiency of Energy. Educators are encouraged to seek approval in advance from their district for continuing education credits that may be ascribed for passing the final assessment. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy covers the concepts of kinetic energy, potential energy, energy transformations, heat, temperature, and their applications. The online course is based on the NSTA Press publication Energy: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It written by Dr. William Robertson. Participants of the course meet online with the presenters on five Tuesdays, from 8:00 p.m. - 9:30 p.m. ET, on the following dates: February 5, 12, 19, 26, and March 4, 2008. The presenters will guide participants through easy-to-understand explanations and facilitate discussions that will enhance their knowledge of common physical science concepts. In addition, participants contribute to asynchronous weekly discussions, and complete suggested reading assignments from the Energy e-book, journal articles, and/or NSTA's Energy SciPack and SciGuide. Participants should plan to spend between 25-35 hours on this online course including the time spent attending the five live Web sessions. This Online Short Course is designed for educators of grades 3-9.

  11. Online Short Course: Energy, Summer 2009

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers interested in learning more about the topic or for those who would like a refresher course. As a participant you will meet five times online with an Instructor and work on your own time as well to complete a Final Assessment demonstrating your science content proficiency of Energy. Educators are encouraged to seek approval in advance from their district for continuing education credits that may be ascribed for passing the final assessment. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy covers the concepts of kinetic energy, potential energy, energy transformations, heat, temperature, and their applications. The online course is based on the NSTA Press publication Energy: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It written by Dr. William Robertson. Participants of the course meet online with the presenters on Monday June 15, 2009 and continue through the next four consecutive Wednesdays, ending on July 8, 2009. The time of the course is 8:00p.m - 9:30p.m., Eastern time. The presenters will guide participants through easy-to-understand explanations and facilitate discussions that will enhance their knowledge of common physical science concepts. In addition, participants contribute to asynchronous weekly discussions, and complete suggested reading assignments from the Energy e-book, journal articles, and/or NSTA's Energy SciPack and SciGuide. Participants should plan to spend between 25-35 hours on this online course including the time spent attending the five live Web sessions. This Online Short Course is designed for educators of grades 3-9.

  12. Neutron scattering and extra short range interactions

    E-print Network

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov

    2007-11-14

    The available data on neutron scattering were analyzed to constrain a hypothetical new short-range interaction. We show that these constraints are several orders of magnitude better than those usually cited in the range between 1 pm and 5 nm. This distance range occupies an intermediate space between collider searches for strongly coupled heavy bosons and searches for new weak macroscopic forces. We emphasise the reliability of the neutron constraints in so far as they provide several independent strategies. We have identified the most promising way to improve them.

  13. An Ultra-Short Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, Ishay; McCary, Eddie; Meadows, Alexander R.; Arefiev, Alexey; Bernstein, Aaron C.; Chester, Clay; Cortez, Jose; Donovan, Michael E.; Dyer, Gilliss; Gaul, Erhard W.; Hamilton, David; Kuk, Donghoon; Lestrade, Arantxa; Wang, Chunhua; Ditmire, Todd; Hegelich, Manuel B.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps) and high flux (>1018 neutrons/cm2/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<1 ?m) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast, conducting time-resolved neutron-damage studies at their characteristic evolution time-scales and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

  14. ISO'S SHORT WAVELENGTH SPECTROMETER ULTIMATE SENSITIVITY

    E-print Network

    effects. For instance, for the small (120 \\Theta120 ¯m) InSb diode­detectors, which hardly have any memory/s 1 In:Sb 0.6 0.6 ­ 1.0 2 Si:Ga 0.6 1.5 ­ 3.5 3 Si:As BIBIB 0.5 4 ­ 5 4 Ge:Be 0.9 5 ­ 15 5 Si:Sb 0.5 2, the in­orbit noise levels of the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) detectors show a sig­ nificant

  15. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  16. Status and perspectives of short baseline studies

    E-print Network

    Mark Dierckxsens

    2009-11-05

    The study of flavor changing neutrinos is a very active field of research. I will discuss the status of ongoing and near term experiments investigating neutrino properties at short distances from the source. In the next few years, the Double Chooz, RENO and Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiments will start looking for signatures of a non-zero value of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ with much improved sensitivities. The MiniBooNE experiment is investigating the LSND anomaly by looking at both the $\

  17. Thomson scattering in short pulse laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, E. G.; Rose, S. J. [Plasma Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Thomson scattering is well used as a diagnostic in many areas of high energy density physics. In this paper, we quantitatively demonstrate the practicality of using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic of short-pulse laser-plasma experiments in the regime, where the plasmas probed are at solid density and have temperatures of many hundreds of eV using a backlighter produced with an optical laser. This method allows a diagnosis both spatially and temporally of the density and temperature distributions in high energy density laser-plasma interactions which is independent from, and would act as a useful complement to, the existing spectroscopic methods.

  18. Hypomagnesemia and chondrocalcinosis in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richette, Pascal; Ayoub, Ghazi; Bardin, Thomas; Bouvet, Sophie; Orcel, Philippe; Badran, Abdul-Monem

    2005-12-01

    Chondrocalcinosis is a result of deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in cartilage and fibrocartilage. Chondrocalcinosis is usually sporadic but has also been associated with a variety of metabolic diseases including hypomagnesemia. Reported cases of hypomagnesemia associated chondrocalcinosis were mostly due to renal genetic disorders such as Bartter's or Gitelman's syndrome. We describe 3 patients with chronic hypomagnesemia induced by short bowel syndrome who developed symptomatic chondrocalcinosis. CPPD crystals were identified by polarizing light microscopy in one patient. The underlying intestinal pathology was radiation enteritis in 2 patients and mesenteric arterial thrombosis in the third. Our observations strengthen the hypothesis of a role for magnesium in CPPD crystal deposition disease. PMID:16331778

  19. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  20. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  1. PSW3 Poster Short Presentations, #2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    This slot will include 4 short summaries of the following PSW3 poster presentations: 1. A North-South Asymmetry in the Global Electron Content, Gulyaeva T., Arikan F. & Veselovsky I., Paper Number: PSW.3-0028-12 2. Operational mapping of the ionospheric W index maps, Stanislawska I. et al., Paper Number: PSW.3-0029-12 3. Space weather and human health: An investigation on aviators, Papailiou M.-C. et al., Paper Number PSW.3-0030-12 4. Castilla-La Mancha neutron monitor (CaLMa): status at June 2012, Medina J. et al., Paper Number: PSW.3-0031-12

  2. Ownership structure, expectations, and short sales on the Nasdaq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Edward Graham; J. Christopher Hughen

    2007-01-01

    We estimate expected short interest for Nasdaq stocks. Extending prior work, our research is among the first to investigate\\u000a the impact of ownership structure on short-selling activity. We find that short interest is negatively related to institutional\\u000a ownership and positively related to inside ownership; stocks with greater liquidity and smaller relative spreads are more\\u000a heavily shorted. We also develop a

  3. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics—Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim J. Courey; Shihab S. Asfour; Arzu Onar; Jon A. Bayliss; Lawrence L. Ludwig; Maria C. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance, electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage

  4. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  5. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  6. 4.0 SHORT FORM LOGO 4.01 OVERVIEW

    E-print Network

    Lotze, Heike K.

    and acknowledges the short form of the university's name, Dal. The short form does not replace the core brand logo AUGUST 2014 | DALHOUSIE BRAND GUIDE AND TOOL KIT #12;AUGUST 2014 | DALHOUSIE BRAND GUIDE AND TOOL KIT and branded apparel and retail products. As you can see, this graphic short form logo incorporates the eagle

  7. Short echo time in vivo prostate 1H-MRSI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niranjan Venugopal; B. McCurdy; S. Al Mehairi; A. Alamri; G. S. Sandhu; S. Sivalingam; D. Drachenberg; L. Ryner

    Visualization of short echo time metabolites in prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is difficult due to lipid contamination and pulse timing constraints. In this work we present a modified pulse sequence to permit short echo time (TE=40ms) acquisitions with reduced lipid contamination for the detection of short TE metabolites. The modified pulse sequence employs the conformal voxel MRS (CV-MRS) technique,

  8. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays

    E-print Network

    Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays Mandana Veiseh, Omid demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern, and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell

  9. PAIRS OF SHORT ROOT SUBGROUPS IN A CHEVALLEY GROUP

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, University of

    PAIRS OF SHORT ROOT SUBGROUPS IN A CHEVALLEY GROUP Vladimir Nesterov Department of Mathematics of unipotent short root subgroups. In fact we do somewhat more: namely, we classify orbits of a Chevalley group acting by simultaneous conjugation on pairs of unipotent short root subgroups. In the sequel

  10. Short, D.B. Ground Water Contamination by Arsenic in

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Short, D.B. 1 Ground Water Contamination by Arsenic in South-Western Pennsylvania Short, D, contamination, drinking, water. #12;Short, D.B. 2 INTRODUCTION Arsenic and its compounds are ubiquitous contamination of water, air, and soil from both natural and anthropogenic sources is a significant environmental

  11. Short Range Stabilization Actions: Good But Not Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.

    An alternative approach to achieve short-time enrollment stabilization based in part on experiences at the State University of New York, Geneseo, is described. It is suggested that a short-range effort will not be enough to assure institutional vitality in the difficult years ahead. Short-range stabilization should be followed by the integration…

  12. Ultraintense ion beams driven by a short-wavelength short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    The results of particle-in-cell simulations are reported which demonstrate that a short-wavelength (lambda<=0.5 mum) short-pulse laser driver can produce much more intense ion beams than the commonly used long-wavelength (lambdaapprox1 mum) ones. In particular, such a driver allows for efficient generation of ultrashort (<=100 fs), multi-MeV proton bunches of extremely high intensities (>10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}) and current densities (>10{sup 14} A/cm{sup 2}) even at moderate values of dimensionless laser amplitude a{sub 0}<=10.

  13. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  14. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

  17. PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Film Dept. are sponsoring the Third Annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las Vegas, Nevada

  18. Hybrid effects on tensile properties of hybrid short-glass-fiber-and short-carbon-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Yun Fu; Bernd Lauke; Edith Mäder; Chee-Yoon Yue; Xiao Hu; Yiu-Wing Mai

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid composites of polypropylene reinforced with short glass fibers and short carbon fibers were prepared using extrusion compounding and injection molding techniques. The tensile properties of these composites were investigated taking into account the effect of the hybridization by these two types of short fibers. It was noted that the tensile strength and modulus of the hybrid composites increase while

  19. Naked Short Selling: Is it Information-Based Trading?

    E-print Network

    Liu, Hu

    2012-10-19

    University; M.S., Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development; Ph.D., University of Houston Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edward P. Swanson Naked short selling occurs when a short seller fails to deliver shares on the settlement day... selling and to pass the Rule 10b-21, the “Naked” Short Selling Antifraud Rule, to increase the legal liability of naked short sellers (SEC 2008b). In this study, I investigate the assumption by the media and SEC that naked short selling reduces share...

  20. Why are very short times so long and very long times so short in elastic waves?

    E-print Network

    Guido Parravicini; Serena Rigamonti

    2010-09-23

    In a first study of thermoelastic waves, such as on the textbook of Landau and Lifshitz, one might at first glance understand that when the given period is very short, waves are isentropic because heat conduction does not set in, while if the given period is very long waves are isothermal because there is enough time for thermalization to be thoroughly accomplished. When one pursues the study of these waves further, by the mathematical inspection of the complete thermoelastic wave equation he finds that if the period is very short, much shorter than a characteristic time of the material, the wave is isothermal, while if it is very long, much longer than the characteristic time, the wave is isentropic. One also learns that this fact is supported by experiments: at low frequencies the elastic waves are isentropic, while they are isothermal when the frequencies are so high that can be attained in few cases. The authors show that there is no contradiction between the first glance understanding and the mathematical treatment of the elastic wave equation: for thermal effects very long periods are so short and very short periods are so long.

  1. Phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in Léri-Weill syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Schiller; Stephanie Spranger; Birgit Schechinger; Maki Fukami; Sabine Merker; Stenvert LS Drop; Jochen Tröger; Hans Knoblauch; Jürgen Kunze; Jörg Seidel; Gudrun A Rappold

    2000-01-01

    Léri-Weill syndrome (LWS) or dyschondrosteosis represents a short stature syndrome characterised by the mesomelic shortening of the forearms and lower legs and by bilateral Madelung deformity of the wrists. Recently, mutations in the pseudoautosomal homeobox gene SHOX have been shown to be causative for this disorder. This gene has previously been described as the short stature gene implicated in Turner

  2. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  3. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  4. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Valsami, Serena; Stamopoulos, Paraskevas; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature. PMID:22829850

  5. Induced Gravity in the Short Range

    E-print Network

    C. P. Kouropoulos

    2001-08-09

    We consider a pair of harmonic oscillators in two or three dimensions of space coupled by the standard electrodynamic forces : the Coulomb, the Lorentz and the electrokinetic forces. The addition of the Lorentz force is mainly felt in the short range and suppresses the radial correlated oscillating mode of such coupled oscillators. This imposes constraints on the system that make the two transverse modes degenerate. As a result, an 1/r antigravitational interaction now appears in the surviving anticorrelated radial zero-mode, which does not allow coherent states to form. As gravitation can only emerge from coherent modes, it can no longer be transitive. Matter in high densities would thus tend to increase its disorder, decouple from its own gravity, from the ordering far infrared Machian background that coheres its rest energy and would become intrinsically unstable. The highly energetic jets from galactic nuclei could be the consequence.

  6. Aperture Coupled Microstrip Short Backfire Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, Georgi S.; Chervenkov, Georgi T.; Kalchev, Chavdar D.

    2012-03-01

    A broadband aperture coupled microstrip short backfire antenna is described herein. It consists of a feed part (a microstrip feed line and a coupling slot in a metal ground) and a radiating part with two radiators: a patch antenna and a backfire antenna. The bandwidth widening of the antenna is achieved by use of two resonances: a patch resonance and a backfire resonance. The antenna is designed to operate within the Ku-band. It has a frequency bandwidth of about 15% and a maximum gain of 11.5 dBi. Within the antenna bandwidth the gain and the radiation efficiency have values more than 9 dBi and 82.1%, respectively. The designed antenna has a simple and compact construction and high mechanical and electrical characteristics. It can be used as a single antenna or as an element of microstrip antenna arrays with various applications in the contemporary communication systems.

  7. Mechanism of oligomerization of short peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.

    2008-05-01

    Nonfibrillar soluble oligomers, which are likely to be transient intermediates in the transitions from monomers to amyloid fibrils, may be a toxic species in Alzheimer’s disease. For this reason it is very important to understand early events that direct assembly of amyloidogenic peptides. Using all-atom simulations with the GROMOS96 force field 43a1 in explicit water, we have recently shown that the oligomerization of A?16-22 peptides obeys the dock-lock mechanism. We have also proposed a toy lattice model, which allows us to ascertain this conclusion using a much larger number of monomers. In this contribution we review our all-atom as well as lattice simulation results on the dock-lock mechanism of short peptides, which is probably a generic mechanism for fibril elongation of proteins and long peptides.

  8. Using Short Videos to Teach Research Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loui, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Created with support from the National Science Foundation, EthicsCORE (www.natonalethicscenter.org) is an online resource center for ethics in science and engineering. Among the resources, EthicsCORE hosts short video vignettes produced at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln that dramatize problems in the responsible conduct of research, such as peer review of journal submissions, and mentoring relationships between faculty and graduate students. I will use one of the video vignettes in an interactive pedagogical demonstration. After showing the video, I will ask participants to engage in a think-pair-share activity on the professional obligations of researchers. During the sharing phase, participants will supply the reasons for these obligations.

  9. Dominant short repeated sequences in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut

    2015-03-01

    We use a novel multidimensional searching approach to present the first exhaustive search for all possible repeated sequences in 166 genomes selected to cover the bacterial domain. We found an overrepresentation of repeated sequences in all but one of the genomes. The most prevalent repeats by far were related to interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)—conferring bacterial adaptive immunity. We identified a deep branching clade of thermophilic Firmicutes containing the highest number of CRISPR repeats. We also identified a high prevalence of tandem repeated heptamers. In addition, we identified GC-rich repeats that could potentially be involved in recombination events. Finally, we identified repeats in a 16322 amino acid mega protein (involved in biofilm formation) and inverted repeats flanking miniature transposable elements (MITEs). In conclusion, the exhaustive search for repeated sequences identified new elements and distribution of these, which has implications for understanding both the ecology and evolution of bacteria. PMID:25561351

  10. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  11. Short range correlations and the EMC effect.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Higinbotham, D W; Gomez, J; Hen, O; Shneor, R

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate x(B), 0.35?x(B)?0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at x(B)?1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F(2)(n)/F(2)(p), the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus. PMID:21405385

  12. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Gomez, O. Hen, R. Shneor

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate xB, 0.35?xB?0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at xB?1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F2n/F2p, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  13. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, L. B. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Piasetzky, E.; Hen, O.; Shneor, R. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Higinbotham, D. W.; Gomez, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate x{sub B}, 0.35{<=}x{sub B{<=}}0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at x{sub B{>=}}1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p}, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  14. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2009-03-01

    The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice/water interface is observed in at a rate comparable to the experimental data. When peptides are present in the liquid phase, the crystal growth is retarded to a significant extent compared to the pure water. It is found that Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly is more effective (crystallization is up to 5 times slower than in its absence) than Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly (up to 3 times slower) implying that the role of the proline residue is important. The mechanism can be understood in the nature of binding of the peptides to the growing crystal.

  15. Brain Connectivity Analysis: A Short Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lang, E. W.; Tomé, A. M.; Keck, I. R.; Górriz-Sáez, J. M.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default mode network, have been identified. Graphical models represent a convenient vehicle to formalize experimental findings and to closely and quantitatively characterize the various networks identified. Underlying these abstract concepts are anatomical networks, the so-called connectome, which can be investigated by functional imaging techniques as well. Future studies have to bridge the gap between anatomical neuronal connections and related functional or effective connectivities. PMID:23097663

  16. Vitreon, a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, K J; Peyman, G A; Desai, U R; Nelson, N C; Alturki, W; Paris, C L

    1992-01-01

    This investigation of the liquid perfluorocarbon, perfluorophenanthrene (Vitreon), establishes its safety and efficacy as a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade. We utilised Vitreon as an intraoperative tool and postoperative vitreoretinal tamponade in 16 patients. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (six), giant retinal tear (four), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (three), retinal detachment with keratoprosthesis (two), and submacular and vitreous haemorrhage (one) were successfully repaired. Vitreon was left in the eye and removed 5 days to 4 weeks postoperatively. Complications encountered included proliferative PVR (five), limited peripheral retinal detachment (three), macular pucker (two) cataract (three), hypotony (two), excessive fibrin reaction (one), and elevated intraocular pressure (one). At the latest evaluation, all retinas are attached with a follow-up of 1.25 to 12 months (mean 6.8 months). PMID:1420054

  17. Short Barcodes for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Katharina; Neuhaus, Klaus; Bossert, Martin; Schober, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    We consider the design and evaluation of short barcodes, with a length between six and eight nucleotides, used for parallel sequencing on platforms where substitution errors dominate. Such codes should have not only good error correction properties but also the code words should fulfil certain biological constraints (experimental parameters). We compare published barcodes with codes obtained by two new constructions methods, one based on the currently best known linear codes and a simple randomized construction method. The evaluation done is with respect to the error correction capabilities, barcode size and their experimental parameters and fundamental bounds on the code size and their distance properties. We provide a list of codes for lengths between six and eight nucleotides, where for length eight, two substitution errors can be corrected. In fact, no code with larger minimum distance can exist. PMID:24386128

  18. Inference of isoforms from short sequence reads.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianxing; Li, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2011-03-01

    Due to alternative splicing events in eukaryotic species, the identification of mRNA isoforms (or splicing variants) is a difficult problem. Traditional experimental methods for this purpose are time consuming and cost ineffective. The emerging RNA-Seq technology provides a possible effective method to address this problem. Although the advantages of RNA-Seq over traditional methods in transcriptome analysis have been confirmed by many studies, the inference of isoforms from millions of short sequence reads (e.g., Illumina/Solexa reads) has remained computationally challenging. In this work, we propose a method to calculate the expression levels of isoforms and infer isoforms from short RNA-Seq reads using exon-intron boundary, transcription start site (TSS) and poly-A site (PAS) information. We first formulate the relationship among exons, isoforms, and single-end reads as a convex quadratic program, and then use an efficient algorithm (called IsoInfer) to search for isoforms. IsoInfer can calculate the expression levels of isoforms accurately if all the isoforms are known and infer novel isoforms from scratch. Our experimental tests on known mouse isoforms with both simulated expression levels and reads demonstrate that IsoInfer is able to calculate the expression levels of isoforms with an accuracy comparable to the state-of-the-art statistical method and a 60 times faster speed. Moreover, our tests on both simulated and real reads show that it achieves a good precision and sensitivity in inferring isoforms when given accurate exon-intron boundary, TSS, and PAS information, especially for isoforms whose expression levels are significantly high. The software is publicly available for free at http://www.cs.ucr.edu/?jianxing/IsoInfer.html. PMID:21385036

  19. Short separation channel location impacts the performance of short channel regression in NIRS

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Louis; Cooper, Robert J.; Yücel, Meryem A.; Perdue, Katherine L.; Greve, Douglas N.; Boas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) allows the recovery of cortical oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with evoked brain activity. NIRS is a back-reflection measurement making it very sensitive to the superficial layers of the head, i.e. the skin and the skull, where systemic interference occurs. As a result, the NIRS signal is strongly contaminated with systemic interference of superficial origin. A recent approach to overcome this problem has been the use of additional short source-detector separation optodes as regressors. Since these additional measurements are mainly sensitive to superficial layers in adult humans, they can be used to remove the systemic interference present in longer separation measurements, improving the recovery of the cortical hemodynamic response function (HRF). One question that remains to answer is whether or not a short separation measurement is required in close proximity to each long separation NIRS channel. Here, we show that the systemic interference occurring in the superficial layers of the human head is inhomogeneous across the surface of the scalp. As a result, the improvement obtained by using a short separation optode decreases as the relative distance between the short and the long measurement is increased. NIRS data was acquired on 6 human subjects both at rest and during a motor task consisting of finger tapping. The effect of distance between the short and the long channel was first quantified by recovering a synthetic hemodynamic response added over the resting-state data. The effect was also observed in the functional data collected during the finger tapping task. Together, these results suggest that the short separation measurement must be located as close as 1.5 cm from the standard NIRS channel in order to provide an improvement which is of practical use. In this case, the improvement in Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) compared to a standard General Linear Model (GLM) procedure without using any small separation optode reached 50 % for HbO and 100 % for HbR. Using small separations located farther than 2 cm away resulted in mild or negligible improvements only. PMID:21945793

  20. Generation of short and intense attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sabih Ud Din

    Extremely broad bandwidth attosecond pulses (which can support 16as pulses) have been demonstrated in our lab based on spectral measurements, however, compensation of intrinsic chirp and their characterization has been a major bottleneck. In this work, we developed an attosecond streak camera using a multi-layer Mo/Si mirror (bandwidth can support ˜100as pulses) and position sensitive time-of-flight detector, and the shortest measured pulse was 107.5as using DOG, which is close to the mirror bandwidth. We also developed a PCGPA based FROG-CRAB algorithm to characterize such short pulses, however, it uses the central momentum approximation and cannot be used for ultra-broad bandwidth pulses. To facilitate the characterization of such pulses, we developed PROOF using Fourier filtering and an evolutionary algorithm. We have demonstrated the characterization of pulses with a bandwidth corresponding to ˜20as using synthetic data. We also for the first time demonstrated single attosecond pulses (SAP) generated using GDOG with a narrow gate width from a multi-cycle driving laser without CE-phase lock, which opens the possibility of scaling attosecond photon flux by extending the technique to peta-watt class lasers. Further, we generated intense attosecond pulse trains (APT) from laser ablated carbon plasmas and demonstrated ˜9.5 times more intense pulses as compared to those from argon gas and for the first time demonstrated a broad continuum from a carbon plasma using DOG. Additionally, we demonstrated ˜100 times enhancement in APT from gases by switching to 400 nm (blue) driving pulses instead of 800 nm (red) pulses. We measured the ellipticity dependence of high harmonics from blue pulses in argon, neon and helium, and developed a simple theoretical model to numerically calculate the ellipticity dependence with good agreement with experiments. Based on the ellipticity dependence, we proposed a new scheme of blue GDOG which we predict can be employed to extract intense SAP from an APT driven by blue laser pulses. We also demonstrated compression of long blue pulses into >240 microJ broad-bandwidth pulses using neon filled hollow core fiber, which is the highest reported pulse energy of short blue pulses. However, compression of phase using chirp mirrors is still a technical challenge.

  1. Short gamma-ray bursts near and far.

    PubMed

    Levan, Andrew J

    2007-05-15

    Progress in understanding the nature of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been rapid since the discovery of the first afterglows in mid-2005. The emerging picture appears to be of short GRBs, which originate at moderate redshift (a few tenths) and appear in galaxies of all ages. This discovery has been used to argue for their origin in compact binary mergers. However, this population does not describe all short bursts. Here, I will present results of observations of several short GRBs, which challenge the conclusions drawn from the early observations. The observations show that some short GRBs originate in the very low redshift Universe (below 100Mpc), while some may also lie at redshifts comparable with the long GRBs (i.e. z>2). I will discuss the properties of these bursts and the implications they have for the progenitors of short GRBs. PMID:17293330

  2. Short-time Fourier analysis of sampled speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Portnoff

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the representation of a speech signal by its short-time Fourier transform is developed. A time-frequency representation for linear time-varying systems is applied to the speech-production model to formulate a quasi-stationary representation for the speech waveform. Short-time Fourier analysis of the resulting representation yields the relationship between the short-time Fourier transform of the speech and the speech-production

  3. Short fatigue crack growth behavior under mixed-mode loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Ali Fatemi

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-mode loading represents the true loading condition in many practical situations. In addition, most of the fatigue life\\u000a of many components is often spent in the short crack growth stage. The study of short crack growth behavior under mixed-mode\\u000a loading has, therefore, much practical significance. This work investigated short crack growth behavior under mixed-mode loading\\u000a using a common medium carbon

  4. Order and Disorder in Short Block Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.

    2015-03-01

    Block polymers have captivated the interest of scientists and engineers for more than half a century. The phase behavior of this class of self-assembling soft material is well understood in the limit of infinite molecular weight, based on the self-consistent mean-field theory pioneered by Leibler. At practical molecular sizes, typically around N ~ 1000 repeat units, fluctuation effects become highly significant in the vicinity of the order disorder transition. One-loop corrections to mean-field theory, first described by Brazovski and applied to block polymers by Fredrickson and Helfand, are not expected to be applicable in this limit. Moreover, the drive towards ever smaller domain dimensions, and the opportunity to circumvent transport limitations associated with entanglements, have motivated experiments with yet lower molecular weight block polymers, N less than 100. This presentation will describe the consequences of fluctuations and the equilibrium structural properties of short model AB diblock polymers in the symmetric (f = 1/2) and asymmetric (f --> 0) regimes above and below the order-disorder transition. The consequences of fluctuations and access to equilibrium states will be described in the 1-dimensional stripped (lamellar) phase and the ordering of point particles in 3-dimensions, respectively. As N --> 1 computer simulation with realistic molecular detail becomes feasible presenting exciting opportunities to compliment the associated theoretical challenges. Research in collaboration with Sangwoo Lee, Chris Leighton and Timothy Gillard and Supported by NSF-DMR-1104368.

  5. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  6. SVARNA – VANGA – A SHORT DURATION TOXICITY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Sharma; Gyaneshwar; Joshi, D.; Aryya, N. C.; Pandey, V. B.

    1985-01-01

    Swarna – Vanga, an Ayurvedic preparation, is used in the treatment mainly of Pramehas (genitor urinary and metabolic disorders), Sveta Pradara (Leucorrhoea), Kasa – Swasa (Respiratory disorders), etc. The drug contains tin and sulphur as major components along with traces of mercury, iron and aluminum. According to modern point of view certain metals have been claimed toxic to both human and animal. Since Svarna – Vanga contains these metals, it is essential to screen out its toxic effect, if any, although it is claimed in Ayurveda that when a metal is processed as prescribed, it become non – toxic or the least toxic. Considering the above facts, an animal experiment was carried out for short duration (14 days) to screen the toxic effects of Svarna – Vanga (SV) in increasing doses of the drug starting from the maximum therapeutic dose (12.5 mg / 100 gm b.wt / day). The drug was found to have no toxic effects in tissues of the animal at doses of 12.5 mg and 25 mg / 100 gm b.wt. / day. Fine fatty vacuolization in liver and focal superficial mucosal degeneration and necrosis of small intestine confined to one animal each at dose of 50 mg / 100gm b.wt. and 100 mg/ 100 gm. b.wt. / day were observed. Our study indicates that the drug has no toxic effect on tissues at therapeutic dose. PMID:22557505

  7. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  8. Short read alignment with populations of genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Popic, Victoria; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies has led to thousands of human genomes having been sequenced in the past years. Efforts such as the 1000 Genomes Project further add to the availability of human genome variation data. However, to date, there is no method that can map reads of a newly sequenced human genome to a large collection of genomes. Instead, methods rely on aligning reads to a single reference genome. This leads to inherent biases and lower accuracy. To tackle this problem, a new alignment tool BWBBLE is introduced in this article. We (i) introduce a new compressed representation of a collection of genomes, which explicitly tackles the genomic variation observed at every position, and (ii) design a new alignment algorithm based on the Burrows–Wheeler transform that maps short reads from a newly sequenced genome to an arbitrary collection of two or more (up to millions of) genomes with high accuracy and no inherent bias to one specific genome. Availability: http://viq854.github.com/bwbble. Contact: serafim@cs.stanford.edu PMID:23813006

  9. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Damodaran, Srinivasan; Yethiraj, Arun

    2009-04-23

    The effect of peptides on the growth of ice crystals are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The growth of the ice crystal is simulated at a supercooling of 14 K, and the effect of a single tetrapeptide on the growth rate is calculated. For pure ice the simulated crystal grows at a rate comparable to experiment. When a peptide molecule is added near the interface, the growth rate is diminished significantly, by up to a factor of 5 for Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and a factor of 3 for Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly. The retardation occurs via the binding of the peptide to the ice surface, suppression of ice growth near the binding site, and eventual growth of the crystal around the bound peptide. The peptide with a proline residue is more effective in retarding the crystal growth, and this can be understood from the conformation of the peptide within the frozen ice phase after overgrowth. The simulations suggest that short peptides can be effective antifreeze agents. PMID:19260668

  10. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  11. INITIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KEPLER SHORT CADENCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Koch, David [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hall, Jennifer; Klaus, Todd; McCauliff, Sean [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)], E-mail: gillil@stsci.edu

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission offers two options for observations-either long cadence (LC) used for the bulk of core mission science, or short cadence (SC) which is used for applications such as asteroseismology of solar-like stars and transit timing measurements of exoplanets where the 1 minute sampling is critical. We discuss the characteristics of SC data obtained in the 33.5 day long Quarter 1 observations with Kepler which completed on 2009 June 15. The truly excellent time series precisions are nearly Poisson limited at 11th magnitude providing per-point measurement errors of 200 parts-per-million per minute. For extremely saturated stars near seventh magnitude precisions of 40 ppm are reached, while for background limited measurements at 17th magnitude precisions of 7 mmag are maintained. We note the presence of two additive artifacts, one that generates regularly spaced peaks in frequency, and one that involves additive offsets in the time domain inversely proportional to stellar brightness. The difference between LC and SC sampling is illustrated for transit observations of TrES-2.

  12. Short contact therapy of acne with tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Barbareschi, Mauro; Benardon, Susanna; Schianchi, Rossana

    2013-10-01

    The most frequent side effect of topical retinoids is irritant contact dermatitis. It occurs in approximately 85% of patients; the percentage can reach up to 95% in patients treated with tretinoin. Severity of this dermatitis is moderate to severe in approximately 20% of patients. However, 15% of patients stop the treatment with tretinoin because of skin irritation. The authors used tretinoin as short contact therapy (SCT) in mild to moderate acne, in order to try to reduce the incidence and severity of irritant contact dermatitis. They present the final results of a sponsor-free, pilot, open, multicenter study. Seventy-four patients were treated with 0.05% tretinoin cream. It was applied once daily for 30 min. Treatment duration ranged from 8 to 32 weeks (mean duration: 12 weeks). Acne severity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by means of the Global Acne Grading System. A significant clinical improvement (?50% from baseline) was observed in 41 patients (55.4%). Thirteen patients (17.6%) developed a mild skin irritation. Four patients (5.4%) stopped the treatment because of severe skin irritation. Efficacy of tretinoin used as SCT seems to be superimposable to that of tretinoin used according to standard modality. Tolerability of SCT with tretinoin is very good. This tolerability allows a high adherence of patients to the treatment and it markedly improves compliance. PMID:23167277

  13. Short Term Earthquake Forecasts at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Srinagesh, D.; Satyanarayana, H.; Saha, S.; Naik, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    At the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning form August 2005, earthquake activity is monitored in real time, and successful short term forecasts have been made of M~ 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5 to 5.1 occurred in the region during the period of August 2005 through May 2010 (Figure 1). These earthquakes could broadly be put in three zones. Zone-A has been most active accounting for 18 earthquakes, while 5 in Zone-B and 6 in Zone-C are occurred (Figure 2). Earthquakes in Zone-A are found to be preceded by well-defined nucleation, while that is not the case with zones B and C. This indicates the complexity of the earthquakes processes and the fact that even in a small seismically active area of only 30 km x 20 km earthquake forecast is difficult. Figure 1: Seismic activity in the Koyna-Warna region during August 2005 to May 2010. In the inset India map indicates the study region. Figure 2: Earthquakes of magnitude range 3.5 - 5.1 in the Koyna-Warna region during August 2005 - May 2010. Zone ‘A’ indicates area in which all of the M 3.5 and above earthquakes preceded by nucleation, where as in Zone ‘B’ and Zone ‘C’ nucleation was not observed.

  14. Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Smith, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Since the first application of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for targeted gene silencing has become a benchmark technology. Using plasmid and viral vectoring systems, the transcription of shRNA precursors that are effectively processed by the RNAi pathway can lead to potent gene knockdown. The past decade has seen continual advancement and improvement to the various strategies that can be used for shRNA delivery, and the use of shRNAs for clinical applications is well underway. Driving these developments has been the many benefits afforded by shRNA technologies, including the stable integration of expression constructs for long-term expression, infection of difficult-to-target cell lines and tissues using viral vectors, and the temporal control of shRNA transcription by inducible promoters. The use of different effector molecule formats, promoters, and vector types, has meant that experiments can be tailored to target specific cell types and minimize cellular toxicities. Through the application of combinatorial RNAi (co-RNAi), multiple shRNA delivery strategies can improve gene knockdown, permit multiple transcripts to be targeted simultaneously, and curtail the emergence of viral escape mutants. This chapter reviews the history, cellular processing, and various applications of shRNAs in mammalian systems, including options for effector molecule design, vector and promoter types, and methods for multiple shRNA delivery. PMID:23027054

  15. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Siveter, Derek J.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

  17. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  18. Short Communication Satellite tracking highlights difficulties in the design

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    Short Communication Satellite tracking highlights difficulties in the design of effective protected are concentrated near neritic breeding and nesting grounds. We used satellite telemetry to de- scribe patterns

  19. Can optical phase conjugators produce a very short conjugate pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    In studying the transient behavior of phase conjugation via four wave mixing, it has been noted that very short probe pulses invariably produce considerably broadened conjugate pulses unless the conjugator is inordinately short. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to determine whether a short conjugate pulse might be produced by judicious programming of the probe. It was found that the probe can indeed be tailored to produce an arbitrarily short conjugate signal and, if the conjugating medium exhibits linear absorption, then the total energy in the probe signal is finite. The required probe programming can be determined by numerical evaluation of a Fourier transform.

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION Development of 55 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Development of 55 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for the critically pyrosequencing, through 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, 55 polymorphic microsatellites loci with perfect motif

  1. NASA's Deep Impact to Meet Comet Shortly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On July 4th at 1:52 AM Eastern Standard Time, a massive probe launched by NASA is scheduled to forcibly collide at the speed of 23,000 mph with the comet Tempel 1. This very intriguing project is part of the Deep Impact project, and it is hoped that the images transmitted by the probe will afford new insights into conditions in the early solar system. So far, the closest that scientists have come to a comet was when a previous NASA mission probe passed with 167 miles of the comet Wild 2 in 2004. The information sent back from the probe and its mothership will at the very least hopefully answer some basic questions about comets, such as whether or not comets are comprised of compact matter or more akin to snow cones. Needless to say, astronomers are becoming quite excited about the prospects of seeing such an event, though it is highly unlikely that the average observer on Earth will be able to see much without a well-trained telescope.The first link offered here is from Tuesday's New York Times, and provides some very thoughtful insights into this important mission. The second link leads to a USA Today article on the nature of the Deep Impact project, along with an animated look at Deep Impact's upcoming encounter with Tempel 1. The third link leads to a Chicago Sun-Times piece about the â??kaboomâ? effect of this portentous meeting between probe and comet. The fourth link leads to a San Jose Mercury News news article that discusses the efforts of astronomers to view this historic event. The fifth link leads to the very fine homepage developed by NASA to provide extensive information about the Deep Impact mission, complete with visualizations, short video clips, and technical information. The final link leads to a similar type of site offered by the people at Space.com.

  2. Short term memory for tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Haggard, Patrick; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-23

    Research has shown that unreported information stored in rapidly decaying visual representations may be accessed more accurately using partial report than using full report procedures (e.g., [Sperling, G., 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29.]). In the 3 experiments reported here, we investigated whether unreported information regarding the actual number of tactile stimuli presented in parallel across the body surface can be accessed using a partial report procedure. In Experiment 1, participants had to report the total number of stimuli in a tactile display composed of up to 6 stimuli presented across their body (numerosity task), or else to detect whether or not a tactile stimulus had previously been presented in a position indicated by a visual probe given at a variable delay after offset of a tactile display (i.e., partial report). The results showed that participants correctly reported up to 3 stimuli in the numerosity judgment task, but their performance was significantly better than chance when up to 5 stimuli were presented in the partial report task. This result shows that short-lasting tactile representations can be accessed using partial report procedures similar to those used previously in visual studies. Experiment 2 showed that the duration of these representations (or the time available to consciously access them) depends on the number of stimuli presented in the display (the greater the number of stimuli that are presented, the faster their representation decays). Finally, the results of a third experiment showed that the differences in performance between the numerosity judgment and partial report tasks could not be explained solely in terms of any difference in task difficulty. PMID:18083147

  3. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    PubMed

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results. PMID:14619154

  4. SHORT DYNAMIC FIBRILS IN SUNSPOT CHROMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppe van der Voort, L. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); De la Cruz Rodríguez, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-10-10

    Sunspot chromospheres display vigorous oscillatory signatures when observed using chromospheric diagnostics such as the strong Ca II lines and H?. New high-resolution sunspot observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope show the ubiquitous presence of small-scale, periodic, jet-like features that move up and down. This phenomenon has not been described before. The typical width of these features is about 0.''3 and they display clear parabolic trajectories in space-time diagrams. The maximum extension of the top of the jets is lowest in the umbra, a few 100 km, and progressively longer further away from the umbra in the penumbra, with the longest extending more than 1000 km. These jets resemble the dynamic fibrils found in plage regions but at smaller extensions. Local thermodynamic equilibrium inversion of spectropolarimetric Ca II 8542 observations enabled a comparison of the magnetic field inclination and properties of these short jets. We find that the most extended of these jets also have longer periods and tend to be located in regions with more horizontal magnetic fields. These results are direct observational confirmation of the mechanism of long-period waves propagating along inclined magnetic fields into the solar chromosphere. This mechanism was identified earlier as the driver of dynamic fibrils in plage, part of the mottles in the quiet Sun, and the type I spicules at the limb. The sunspot dynamic fibrils that we report here represent a new class of manifestation of this mechanism, distinct from the transient penumbral and umbral micro-jets reported earlier.

  5. HOW SHORT IS TOO SHORT ACCORDING TO PARENTS OF PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cousounis, Pamela A.; Lipman, Terri H.; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Cucchiara, Andrew J; Grimberg, Adda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Height is a physical trait on a continuum. The threshold between normal and abnormal is arbitrarily set, potentially influencing medical decision-making. We sought to examine parents’ perceptions of adult heights and associated demographic factors. Methods Parents of pediatric primary care patients of various heights completed a one-time survey. Parents answered, “How short is too short?” for adult males and females. Results were summarized as median [interquartile range]. Factors significantly associated with height threshold by simple linear regression were included in a multivariable mixed effects analysis of covariance model. Results 1820 surveys were completed (83% response rate; 1587 female, 231 male). Median threshold height deemed too short for adult females was 56 inches [48, 59] among male respondents and 57 inches [50, 60] among female (p<.05). Median threshold height for adult males was 61 inches among males [60, 64] and females [59, 66] (p<.05). The median of male minus female heights per respondent (delta heights) was 5 [2, 7] inches. Factors found to be significant main effects in a parsimonious model were sex of adult considered, height of respondent, sex of respondent, respondent race, primary care practice, income and having concerns about their child's height. Conclusion Taller acceptable height thresholds were perceived by respondents who were taller, wealthier, white, female, from non-urban practices or who had a personal concern about their child's height. Male heights were expected to be taller than female. Such traits may influence who is concerned and more likely to seek medical treatment for their children. PMID:24936551

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Short-term variation in thermal stratification complicates

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Short-term variation in thermal stratification complicates estimation of lake sonde-based estimates of metabolism with high- frequency measurements of stratification using thermistor chains to determine how the short-term dynamics of stratification affect metabolic rates. We calculated

  7. Spam Filtering for Short Messages Gordon V. Cormack

    E-print Network

    Cormack, Gordon V.

    (SMS) communication, blog comments, and email sum- mary information such as might be displayed by a low to traditional bag-of-words based spam filters. Using three corpora of short messages and message fields derived are very short. All the spam needs to deliver its payload is to communicate a web URL, telephone number

  8. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  9. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  10. Dual-shorted monopole antenna for Ultra-Wideband application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-I Lin; Tzung-Wern Chiou; Sheng-Chih Lin; Fu-Ren Hsiao

    2008-01-01

    A novel dual-shorted monopole antenna suitable for UWB application, especially as an internal antenna for notebook or tablet PC has been proposed. The proposed antenna has a simple structure with a dual-shorted strip and is easy to implement at a low cost. Prototypes of the proposed antenna have been constructed and studied. A very uniform surface current distribution in the

  11. A short Brownian motion proof of the Riemann hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Andrzej Madrecki

    2007-07-27

    We give a short probabilistic (a Brownian motion) proof of the Riemann hypothesis based on some surprising, unexpected and deep algebraic conjecture (MAC in short) concerning the relation between the Riemann zeta $\\xi$ and a trivial zeta $\\zeta_{t}$. That algebraic conjecture was firstly discovered and formulated in [MA

  12. Mechanical Stresses in Busbar Supports During Short Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. R. Schurig; M. F. Sayre

    1925-01-01

    With the increased magnitudes of short-circuit current obtained in modern busbar circuits, it becomes a matter of great importance to determine the mechanical stresses imposed on busbar supports during short circuits. The stresses are due to the electromagnetic force produced by the current flowing in adjacent conductors in the bus structure. When usefully applied, the electromagnetic force propels electric motors,

  13. Optimal Euclidean Spanners: Really Short, Thin and Lanky [Extended Abstract

    E-print Network

    Elkin, Michael

    Optimal Euclidean Spanners: Really Short, Thin and Lanky [Extended Abstract] Michael Elkin Ben. In a seminal STOC'95 paper, titled"Euclidean spanners: short, thin and lanky", Arya et al. [2] devised a construction of Euclidean (1 + )-spanners that achieves constant degree, diameter O(log n), weight O(log2 n

  14. SATELLITE BASED SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR IRRADANCE

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    into existing energy supply structures. As far as short-term time horizons (up to 2h) are concerned, satelliteSATELLITE BASED SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR IRRADANCE - COMPARISON OF METHODS AND ERROR the development of the cloud structure. The accuracy of the predicted cloud images was analysed and compared

  15. Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data Elke Lorenz, Annette Hammer integration of solar energy resources into existing energy supply structures. Fluctuations of solar irradiance term time range of 30 minutes to 6 hours. As far as short term horizons are concerned, satellite data

  16. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778...Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a...If an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if...

  17. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778...Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a...If an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if...

  18. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778...Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a...If an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if...

  19. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778...Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a...If an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if...

  20. Type Inference Builds a Short Cut to Deforestation Olaf Chitil

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Type Inference Builds a Short Cut to Deforestation Olaf Chitil Lehrstuhl f¨ur Informatik II, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen, Germany chitil@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Abstract Deforestation optimises structures. Short cut deforestation is a de- forestation method which is based on a single, local trans

  1. Test Considerations for Gate Oxide Shorts in CMOS ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry M. Soden; Charles Hawkins

    1986-01-01

    Gate oxide shorts are defects that must be detected to produce high-reliability ICs. These problems will continue as devices are scaled down and oxide thicknesses are reduced to the 100-?? range. Complete detection of gate oxide shorts and other CMOS failure mechanisms requires measuring the IDD current during the quiescent state after each test vector is applied to the IC.

  2. ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar Sanford A. Klein William A simulations. 2. DATA ANALYSIS Short-term variations in solar radiation data have not been extensively beckman@engr.wisc.edu ABSTRACT Solar radiation data are available for many locations on an hourly basis

  3. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  4. Three Models for Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel; Brasher, Niel; Fee, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 U.S. college students participate in study abroad programs each year. A growing proportion of students are participating in short-term study abroad programs. Despite the large number of students in these programs, there are relatively few articles that describe how to start or manage a short-term, business-related, study abroad…

  5. Voluntary Short-Term Disability Insurance SUMMARY OF BENEFITS

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Voluntary Short-Term Disability Insurance SUMMARY OF BENEFITS Sponsored by: Georgia Southern University Effective date: January 1, 2012 Employees with a 60% Benefit / 11 week benefit Short for coverage on the policy effective date. Maximum Weekly Benefit 60% of weekly salary up to $1,500 per week

  6. Learning individual human activities from short binary shape Christian Wolfa

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Christian

    Learning individual human activities from short binary shape sequences Christian Wolfa Graham W Sciences, USA Abstract We present a new machine learning-based algorithm capable of classifying individual human activities from very short sequences. Our method is based on a "deep" multi- stage architecture

  7. Short text classification in twitter to improve information filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharath Sriram; David Fuhry; Engin Demir; Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu; Murat Demirbas

    2010-01-01

    In microblogging services such as Twitter, the users may become overwhelmed by the raw data. One solution to this problem is the classification of short text messages. As short texts do not provide sufficient word occurrences, traditional classification methods such as \\

  8. Generating short-term observation schedules for space mission projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Selim Akturk; Kemal KiliÇ

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new dispatching rule and a set of local search algorithms based on the filtered beam search, GRASP and simulated annealing methodologies to construct short-term observation schedules of space mission projects, mainly for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The main features of generating short-term observations of HST are state dependent set up times, user specified

  9. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  10. Keeping It Real: Substantive Learning on a Short Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostroh, C. Phoebe

    2007-01-01

    Many institutions offer courses that last less than a quarter and are a student's sole academic responsibility for that short term. There is an unfortunate and incorrect perception that such short classes cannot be used to teach substantively. At Colorado College, we teach all of our courses in 3.5 wk, including majors' courses in molecular cell…

  11. Short pulse laser propagation through tissues for biomedical imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Champak Das; Ashish Trivedi; Kunal Mitra; Tuan Vo-Dinh

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study is performed to analyse short pulse laser propagation through tissue phantoms with and without inhomogeneities embedded in it. Short pulse laser probing techniques have distinct advantages over conventional very large pulse width or cw lasers primarily due to the additional information conveyed about the tissue interior by the temporal variation of the observed signal. Both

  12. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--IV. SHORT STORIES, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS TWO-PART VOLUME IS THE FOURTH IN THE FIVE-VOLUME SERIES "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS." ON AN INTERMEDIATE LEVEL, THE CONTENT OF "SHORT STORIES, PART I"--TEN SHORT STORIES AND ONE PLAY--ASSUMES MASTERY OF BASIC ARABIC GRAMMAR AND PROVIDES FOR VOCABULARY EXPANSION AND APPRECIATION OF STYLE AND IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION. THE SELECTIONS REPRESENT THE…

  13. The Eras and Trends of Automatic Short Answer Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Steven; Gurevych, Iryna; Stein, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Automatic short answer grading (ASAG) is the task of assessing short natural language responses to objective questions using computational methods. The active research in this field has increased enormously of late with over 80 papers fitting a definition of ASAG. However, the past efforts have generally been ad-hoc and non-comparable until…

  14. Gender Distinction Using Short Segments of Speech Signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Sigmund

    2008-01-01

    Summary This paper presents and discusses an approach to automatic gender distinction in a short segment of normally spoken continuous speech. In order to see which phonemes are effective for gender recognition, we analyzed individual vowels. Two different simple identifiers based on selected mel-frequency cepstral coefficients were evaluated. Using vowel phonemes, we achieved in short-time analysis (20 msec) a gender

  15. A Short Time Beltrami Kernel for Smoothing Images and Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Kimmel, Ron

    A Short Time Beltrami Kernel for Smoothing Images and Manifolds Alon Spira, Ron Kimmel, Senior Member, IEEE, and Nir Sochen Abstract We introduce a short time kernel for the Beltrami image enhancing of the Beltrami flow and shows that the bilateral filter is a Euclidean approximation of it. On a practical level

  16. A Short History of Spatial Statistics Peter J Diggle

    E-print Network

    Diggle, Peter J.

    A Short History of Spatial Statistics Peter J Diggle School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University April 2011 Peter J Diggle A Short History of Spatial Statistics #12;Antecedents: Buffon, 1777 History of Spatial Statistics #12;Geometrical probability and the Poisson process q q q q q q q q q X Y (i

  17. TRANSITION DYNAMICS OF THE WAKE FIELDS OF ULTRA SHORT BUNCHES

    E-print Network

    TRANSITION DYNAMICS OF THE WAKE FIELDS OF ULTRA SHORT BUNCHES A. Novokhatski, M. Timm and T and finite cell structures, ultra short bunches excite very high frequency electromagnetic fields. A frac leaves the structure. The rest part is chasing the bunch. In a time, this field will catch the bunch

  18. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  19. Comparison of de novo short read assemblers on metagenomic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have potentials to revolutionize genomics and biological researches. A flurry of short-read assemblers have been developed recently to facilitate the analysis of the short sequences generated using these technologies. However, none of these assemblers has spec...

  20. SUNY Programs: Semester, Academic Year and Short Term

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SUNY Programs: Spain Semester, Academic Year and Short Term #12;1 Table of Contents How to Use This Booklet 1 A Brief Overview 2 Semester and Academic Year Programs 3 Short Term Programs 6 Contact of programs offered in Spain by SUNY campuses. These listings provide a summary about the characteristics

  1. SUNY Programs: Semester, Academic Year and Short Term

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SUNY Programs: France Semester, Academic Year and Short Term #12;1 Table of Contents How to Use This Booklet 1 A Brief Overview 2 Semester and Academic Year Programs 3 Short Term Programs 6 SUNY Programs in Canada and other Francophone Locations 9 Recommended non-SUNY Program 11 Contact Information for all SUNY

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Recovery from Extinction Shortly after Extinction Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Georgina E.; Dobbek, Nick; Nader, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that extinction is new learning. Memory acquisition involves both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) components; however, few studies have examined early phases of extinction retention. Retention of auditory fear extinction was examined at various time points. Shortly (1-4 h) after extinction acquisition…

  3. Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations

    E-print Network

    Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations R E B E C C and lit- ter decomposition varied between Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow bioenergy plantations and direct searches to investi- gate variation in predation pressure. Decomposition rate was higher in willow

  4. Short circuiting in a denitrifying activated sludge tank.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrand, R; Mattsson, A; Niklasson, C; Taherzadeh, M J

    2005-01-01

    The presence of a short circuit flow in a denitrifying activated sludge tank was identified and modelled. Tracer tests with pulse addition of lithium salt were used to investigate the hydraulics of the tank. The lithium concentration in the effluent was detected and residence time distribution (RTD) curves were generated. Hydraulic models based on completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) in series were generated from the RTD curves and the models were compared. The short circuit problem was successfully described using the Martin model, where the inflow is divided into two strands. Each strand was modelled as a number of CSTRs in series. At a normal flow the results of the model show that the tank has 12.8% dead volume, 85.8% main volume and 1.3% short circuiting volume. The inflow was divided into 91.9% entering the main volume and 8.1% entering the short circuiting volume. The mean velocity of the short circuiting stream was estimated to 0.4 m/s. At maximum flow the short circuiting stream was even larger and handled 24.3% of the flow. The short circuiting stream was identified in the upper part of the tank due to the position of the inlet and the outlet. The configuration of a tank including the use of baffles, the geometry of the inlet and mixer configuration should be considered carefully if short circuiting is to be avoided. PMID:16459779

  5. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  6. Cryptanalysis of `less short' RSA Secret Exponents Eric R. Verheul

    E-print Network

    Verheul, Eric

    Cryptanalysis of `less short' RSA Secret Exponents Eric R. Verheul Department of the Interior P, Eindhoven, the Netherlands E-mail henkvt@win.tue.nl Abstract In some applications of RSA, it is desirable) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a `short' secret exponent. Let n = p·q be the modulus

  7. Cryptanalysis of `less short' RSA Secret Exponents # Eric R. Verheul

    E-print Network

    Verheul, Eric

    Cryptanalysis of `less short' RSA Secret Exponents # Eric R. Verheul Department of the Interior P, Eindhoven, the Netherlands E­mail henkvt@win.tue.nl Abstract In some applications of RSA, it is desirable) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a `short' secret exponent. Let n = p · q be the modulus

  8. Cryptanalysis of Short RSA Secret Exponents Michael J. Wiener

    E-print Network

    Babinkostova, Liljana

    Cryptanalysis of Short RSA Secret Exponents Michael J. Wiener BNR P.O. Box 3511 Station C Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1Y 4H7 1989 August 3 Abstract. A cryptanalytic attack on the use of short RSA secret are described. This attack poses no threat to the normal case of RSA where the secret exponent is approximately

  9. Environmental justification for short-rotation forestry in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurth L. Perttu

    1998-01-01

    Short rotation forestry in its present context deals mainly with willows and to some extent with alders and poplars. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss which direct and indirect environmental factors that are improved in such a way that there is a clear justification for promoting growth and use of short-rotation forestry in Sweden. It is

  10. PRIMES IN SHORT ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS WITH RAPIDLY INCREASING DIFFERENCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. T. A. ELLIOTT

    2001-01-01

    Primes are, on average, well distributed in short segments of arith- metic progressions, even if the associated moduli grow rapidly. 1. Statement of results In this paper I establish two results concerning the distribution of prime numbers in short segments of residue classes to widely separated moduli. Let (n) denote von Mangoldt's function, logp if n is a power of

  11. ROBERT B. SHORT SCHOLARSHIP IN ZOOLOGY Department of Biological Science

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    ROBERT B. SHORT SCHOLARSHIP IN ZOOLOGY Department of Biological Science Florida State University The Robert B. Short Scholarship in Zoology provides an award of up to $1,000 to a currently enrolled graduate Science with a career interest in zoology. The scholarship will support the awardee's participation

  12. Short-Term Memory for Auditory Sequences and Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Thomas G.; Payne, M. Carr, Jr.

    A study investigated connections between reading difficulties and short term memory processes in order to explore the psychological basis for some individual differences in reading comprehension skills. Drawing on previous research indicating that poor readers were inferior to normal ones in judging whether two patterns of long and short tones…

  13. Improving Timeliness for Short-Term Economic Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard McKenzie

    2007-01-01

    Effective business cycle analysis, and indeed the monitoring of a countries economic performance from a policy perspective, requires access to timely high quality short-term economic statistics (STES). Consequently in recent years there has been a lot of pressure on national statistics organisations (NSOs) to better serve their users by improving the timeliness of release for their short-term economic indicators. In

  14. Improving timeliness for short-term economic statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard McKenzie

    2006-01-01

    Effective business cycle analysis, and indeed the monitoring of a countries economic performance from a policy perspective, requires access to timely high quality short- term economic statistics (STES). Consequently in recent years there has been a lot of pressure on national statistics organisations (NSOs) to better serve their users by improving the timeliness of release for their short-term economic indicators.

  15. Guidelines for Term Papers and Short Essays. Ninth Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeau, Reginald A.

    Organized in eight short sections, this paper presents guidelines for students attending New Hampshire Community Technical College at Manchester for writing term papers and short essays. The paper's sections are: (1) Outline (outlining the paper's contents); (2) Setting the Parameters (containing a definition of a term paper); (3) Sections of a…

  16. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    E-print Network

    Jonides, John

    item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might supportThe Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory John Jonides, Richard L. Lewis, Derek Evan Nee, Cindy A reserved 0066-4308/08/0203-0193$20.00 Key Words working memory, attention, encoding, storage, retrieval

  17. On the Consistency of Individual Classification Using Short Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2007-01-01

    Short tests containing at most 15 items are used in clinical and health psychology, medicine, and psychiatry for making decisions about patients. Because short tests have large measurement error, the authors ask whether they are reliable enough for classifying patients into a treatment and a nontreatment group. For a given certainty level,…

  18. Icosahedral short-range order in deeply undercooled metallic melts.

    PubMed

    Schenk, T; Holland-Moritz, D; Simonet, V; Bellissent, R; Herlach, D M

    2002-08-12

    Experimental evidence of icosahedral short-range order in stable and deeply undercooled melts of pure metallic elements is obtained using the combination of electromagnetic levitation with neutron scattering. This icosahedral short-range order is shown to occur in the bulk metallic melt independently of the system investigated. It strongly increases with the degree of undercooling. PMID:12190531

  19. Short-crack growth behaviour in various aircraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. R. (compiler); Newman, James C., Jr. (compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the first phase of an AGARD Cooperative Test Program on the behavior and growth of short fatigue cracks are reviewed. The establishment of a common test method, means of data collection/analysis and crack growth modeling in an aircraft alloy AA 2024-T3 are described. The second phase allowed testing of various materials and loading conditions. The results of this second phase are described. All materials exhibited a short-crack effect to some extent. The effect was much less evident in 4340 steel than in the other materials. For the aluminum, aluminum-lithium, and titanium alloys, short cracks grew at stress-intensity factor ranges lower, in some cases much lower, than the thresholds obtained from long crack tests. Several laboratories used the same crack growth model to analyze the growth of short cracks. Reasonable agreement was found between measured and predicted short-crack growth rates and fatigue lives.

  20. A ring chromosome X in a child with features of Kabuki Make-up syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    McGinniss, M.J.; Spring, N.; Brown, D.H. [Children`s Hospital, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The clinical features of this female patient (severe developmental delay, prominent finger pads, long palpebral fissures, short stature and history of hypotonia) suggested a diagnosis of Kabuki Make-up syndrome (KMS). Cytogenetic analyses showed this patient had a small ring X chromosome in 83% of cells and the parents were karyotypically normal. We hypothesized that deletion or rearrangement of X chromosome-derived sequences might be associated with the KMS-like phenotype observed in this patient. The breakpoints and parental origin of this small ring X were ascertained using a combination of genotyping with highly informative STRs and quantitative Southern blotting. PCR-based genotyping showed this female patient was heterozygous for X-linked loci SBMA (Xq11-q12) and DXS227 (Xq13.1). Hemizygosity was observed at several loci: DMD STR-49 (Xp21.2), DXS101 (Xq21.3), FMR-1 (Xq27.3) and DXYS64 (Xq28). Genotyping results at MIC2 (Xp22.3) and DXYS156 were not informative. These molecular genetic data indicate a large deletion of the distal long arm of the X chromosome and suggest a partial deletion of the distal short arm consistent with a small ring X chromosome with breakpoints near p21.2 and q13.1. This ring X chromosome is paternally-derived based on the observation that only the maternal alleles are inherited at three loci: (DMD STR-49, DXS101, and FMR-1). Studies to determine if the XIST gene at Xq13.3 is present and functioning on the ring chromosome are underway.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Robinow syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis); fused or missing ribs; and short stature. Affected individuals also have distinctive facial features, such as a broad forehead, prominent and widely spaced eyes, a short nose with an upturned tip, and ...

  2. Pulmonary effects of short term selenium deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Coursin, D. B.; Cihla, H. P.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydrogen peroxides in both normal and pathological states. Chronic dietary deficiency of selenium results in a gradual decrease in GPx and altered response to environmental stress. However, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isozymes may increase and compensate for chronic GPx deficiency. The pattern of antioxidant enzyme activity and immunolocalisation of various enzymes in rat lung has not been described in short term (< 3 weeks) acute selenium deficiency. METHODS: The time course of GPx depletion from rat lung (measured every five days in subgroups of rats) during acute dietary selenium deficiency was evaluated. After 20 days of depletion, enzyme activity of lung GPx, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphodiesterase (G-6-PD), and GST were determined. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx and SOD was also performed. The response to lethal hyperoxia (> 95%) in control and selenium deficient rats was then established. RESULTS: At 20 days, lung GPx activity in the rats fed a selenium deficient diet was one third less than in control animals who received a normal diet, while changes in blood enzymes between control and deficient animals were similar. Other lung enzyme activities remained normal with the exception of cyanide inhibited SOD activity measured in selenium deficient rat lungs which declined to approximately 50% of normal. Immunohistochemical localisation of GPx showed a generalised loss of the enzyme throughout the lung parenchyma with some possible sparing of activity in epithelial cells of the bronchioles. When exposed to lethal hyperoxia, selenium deficient animals were more susceptible than control rats. CONCLUSIONS: This is the earliest time at which dietary selenium deficiency has been shown to produce moderate loss of GPx activity. This change in activity was associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary oxidant stress. However, the role of decreased SOD activity (presumed to represent copper, zinc SOD), although unexpected, may have been a major contributor to increased damage from hyperoxia. These results emphasise the complex potential interaction of elemental deficiency with the natural antioxidant response to lethal hyperoxia. Images PMID:8711674

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, R.

    2007-07-01

    This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is `no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and `phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes `real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this field. I feel that occasionally the book is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.

  4. Laboratory tests of short intense envelope solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, A.; Clauss, G. F.; Klein, M.; Onorato, M.

    2012-04-01

    Stability of short intense nonlinear wave groups propagating over deep water is tested in laboratory runs which are performed in the facility of the Technical University of Berlin. The strongly nonlinear simulation of quasi-steady nonlinear wave groups within the framework of the Euler equations is used to generate the surface elevation time series at a border of the water tank. Besides, the exact analytic solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is used for this purpose. The time series is then transformed to a wave maker signal with use of a designed transfer algorithm. Wave group propagation along the tank was recorded by 4 distant gauges and by an array of 6 densely situated gauges. This setup allows to consider the wave evolution from 10 to 85 m from the wave maker, and to obtain the wave envelope shape directly from the instrumental data. In the experiments wave groups were characterized by the steepness values up to kAcr < 0.32 and kAtr < 0.24, where k is the mean wavenumber, Acr is the crest amplitude, and Atr is the trough amplitude; and the maximum local wave slope was up to 0.34. Wave breaking phenomenon was not observed in the experiments. Different mean wave numbers and wave groups of different intensities were considered. In some cases the wave groups exhibit noticeable radiation in the course of propagation, though the groups are not dispersed fully. The effect of finite water depth is found to be significant on the wave group stability. Intense wave groups have shorter time of adjustment, what in some sense may help them to manifest their individuality clearer. The experimental tests confirm recent numerical simulations of fully nonlinear equations, where very steep stable single and interacting nonlinear wave groups were reported [1-3]. The quasi-stationary wave groups observed in numerical and laboratory experiments are strongly nonlinear analogues of the nonlinear Schrodinger envelope solitons. The results emphasize the importance of long-living nonlinear wave groups in dynamics of intense sea waves. [1] V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko, A.O. Prokofiev, Eur. J. Mech. B / Fluids 25, 677 (2006). [2] A.I. Dyachenko, V.E. Zakharov, JETP Lett. 88, 307 (2008). [3] A.V. Slunyaev, JETP 109, 676 (2009).

  5. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-print Network

    Gross, George

    Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore- casting(STLF), that is, the prediction of the system load over an interval ranging from one hour to one of an energy management system (EMS).It then discussesthe nature of the load and the different factors

  6. Short Vector SIMD CodeShort Vector SIMD Code Generation for DSP AlgorithmsGeneration for DSP Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Moura, José

    Short Vector SIMD CodeShort Vector SIMD Code Generation for DSP AlgorithmsGeneration for DSP extensions Digital signal processing (DSP) transforms SPIRAL Vectorization of SPL formulas Experimental programmers Automation for digital signal processing (DSP) transforms Our Goal: #12;DSPDSP (digital signal

  7. Graduate Short Film Competition Guidelines The Graduate Recruitment team invite current graduate students to enter short films of no

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Graduate Short Film Competition Guidelines The Graduate Recruitment team invite current graduate students to enter short films of no longer than 5 minutes to promote graduate study at Oxford. The films Entrants are free to submit films on any topic related to graduate study at Oxford, although the following

  8. The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

  9. The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

  10. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  11. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  12. The Millisecond Magnetar Central Engine in short GRBs

    E-print Network

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Lei, Wei-Hua; Li, Ye; Lasky, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    One favored progenitor model for short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) is the coalescence of two neutron stars (NS-NS). One possible outcome of such a merger would be a rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized neutron star (known as a millisecond magnetar). These magnetars may be "supra-massive", implying they would collapse to black holes after losing centrifugal support due to magnetic dipole spindown. By systematically analyzing the BAT-XRT light curves of all short GRBs detected by {\\em swift}, we test how well the data are consistent with this central engine model of short GRBs. We find that the so-called "extended emission" observed with BAT in some short GRBs are fundamentally the same component as the "internal X-ray plateau" as observed in many short GRBs, which is defined as a plateau in the lightcurve followed by a very rapid drop. Based on how likely a short GRB hosts a magnetar, we characterize the entire {\\em Swift} short GRB sample into three categories: the "internal plateau" sample, the "exter...

  13. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  14. PLANETARY AND OTHER SHORT BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS FROM THE MOA SHORT-EVENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Kamiya, K.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Botzler, C. S.; Rattenbury, N. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Korpela, A. V.; Sullivan, D. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand); Kilmartin, P. M. [Mt. John Observatory, P.O. Box 56, Lake Tekapo 8770 (New Zealand); Ohnishi, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Saito, To., E-mail: bennett@nd.edu [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautics, Tokyo 116-8523 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present the analysis of four candidate short-duration binary microlensing events from the 2006-2007 MOA Project short-event analysis. These events were discovered as a by-product of an analysis designed to find short-timescale single-lens events that may be due to free-floating planets. Three of these events are determined to be microlensing events, while the fourth is most likely caused by stellar variability. For each of the three microlensing events, the signal is almost entirely due to a brief caustic feature with little or no lensing attributable mainly to the lens primary. One of these events, MOA-bin-1, is due to a planet, and it is the first example of a planetary event in which the stellar host is only detected through binary microlensing effects. The mass ratio and separation are q (4.9 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and s = 2.10 {+-} 0.05, respectively. A Bayesian analysis based on a standard Galactic model indicates that the planet, MOA-bin-1Lb, has a mass of m{sub p} = 3.7 {+-} 2.1 M{sub Jup} and orbits a star of M{sub *} = 0.75{sub -0.41}{sup +}0{sup .33} M{sub Sun} at a semimajor axis of a = 8.3{sub -2.7}{sup +4.5} AU. This is one of the most massive and widest separation planets found by microlensing. The scarcity of such wide-separation planets also has implications for interpretation of the isolated planetary mass objects found by this analysis. If we assume that we have been able to detect wide-separation planets with an efficiency at least as high as that for isolated planets, then we can set limits on the distribution of planets in wide orbits. In particular, if the entire isolated planet sample found by Sumi et al. consists of planets bound in wide orbits around stars, we find that it is likely that the median orbital semimajor axis is >30 AU.

  15. RAPSearch: a Fast Protein Similarity Search Tool for Short Reads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhen Ye; Jeong-Hyeon Choi; Haixu Tang

    2011-01-01

    Background  Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is producing enormous corpuses of short DNA reads, affecting emerging fields like metagenomics.\\u000a Protein similarity search--a key step to achieve annotation of protein-coding genes in these short reads, and identification\\u000a of their biological functions--faces daunting challenges because of the very sizes of the short read datasets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We developed a fast protein similarity search tool RAPSearch that

  16. Physical Difference between the short and long GRBs

    E-print Network

    L. G. Balazs; Z. Bagoly; I. Horvath; A. Meszaros; P. Meszaros

    2007-02-06

    We provided separate bivariate log-normal distribution fits to the BATSE short and long burst samples using the durations and fluences. We show that these fits present an evidence for a power-law dependence between the fluence and the duration, with a statistically significant different index for the long and short groups. We argue that the effect is probably real, and the two subgroups are different physical phenomena. This may provide a potentially useful constraint for models of long and short bursts.

  17. Short-time Dynamic Behaviour of Critical XY Systems

    E-print Network

    H. J. Luo; M. Schulz; L. Schuelke; S. Trimper; B. Zheng

    1998-12-08

    Using Monte Carlo methods, the short-time dynamic scaling behaviour of two-dimensional critical XY systems is investigated. Our results for the XY model show that there exists universal scaling behaviour already in the short-time regime, but the values of the dynamic exponent $z$ differ for different initial conditions. For the fully frustrated XY model, power law scaling behaviour is also observed in the short-time regime. However, a violation of the standard scaling relation between the exponents is detected.

  18. Inferring short tandem repeat variation from paired-end short reads.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minh Duc; Tasker, Edward; Willadsen, Kai; Imelfort, Michael; Vishwanathan, Sailaja; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-02-01

    The advances of high-throughput sequencing offer an unprecedented opportunity to study genetic variation. This is challenged by the difficulty of resolving variant calls in repetitive DNA regions. We present a Bayesian method to estimate repeat-length variation from paired-end sequence read data. The method makes variant calls based on deviations in sequence fragment sizes, allowing the analysis of repeats at lengths of relevance to a range of phenotypes. We demonstrate the method's ability to detect and quantify changes in repeat lengths from short read genomic sequence data across genotypes. We use the method to estimate repeat variation among 12 strains of Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate experimentally that our method compares favourably against existing methods. Using this method, we have identified all repeats across the genome, which are likely to be polymorphic. In addition, our predicted polymorphic repeats also included the only known repeat expansion in A. thaliana, suggesting an ability to discover potential unstable repeats. PMID:24353318

  19. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...located within the coordination distance of a receiving earth station in...frequency band. (The coordination distance is the distance, calculated for any station...Protection Zone, whether short term or long term, shall provide...

  20. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...located within the coordination distance of a receiving earth station in...frequency band. (The coordination distance is the distance, calculated for any station...Protection Zone, whether short term or long term, shall provide...

  1. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...located within the coordination distance of a receiving earth station in...frequency band. (The coordination distance is the distance, calculated for any station...Protection Zone, whether short term or long term, shall provide...

  2. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...located within the coordination distance of a receiving earth station in...frequency band. (The coordination distance is the distance, calculated for any station...Protection Zone, whether short term or long term, shall provide...

  3. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...located within the coordination distance of a receiving earth station in...frequency band. (The coordination distance is the distance, calculated for any station...Protection Zone, whether short term or long term, shall provide...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION Open Access Extracellular matrix rigidity modulates

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay

    cues encoded in the extracellular matrix (ECM). While signaling between tumor cells and the ECM that cross-talk between neuroblastoma cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) influences differentiation [2SHORT COMMUNICATION Open Access Extracellular matrix rigidity modulates neuroblastoma cell

  5. Ultra-short nacelles for low fan pressure ratio propulsors

    E-print Network

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the uncharted inlet and nacelle design space for low pressure ratio fans for advanced aeroengines. A key feature in low fan pressure ratio (FPR) propulsors with short inlets and nacelles is the increased ...

  6. DIRECTORY OF SHORT TERM TESTS FOR HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The directory provides basic information on the short term tests for health and ecological effects being performed by various U.S. EPA Laboratories through the Office of Health and Ecological Effects. The test systems are cross-indexed....

  7. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and...

  13. Evaluation of a Short Form of the Multiscore Depression Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Developed a short form of the Multiscore Depression Inventory which met item selection criteria and retained 9 of the original 10 subscales. The total scale correlated highly with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Depression Adjective Checklist. (LLL)

  14. Friction effects on collective mechanisms of short term memory

    E-print Network

    Levine, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Short term memory is often correlated with persistent changes in neuronal firing rates in response to transient inputs. This thesis models the persistent maintenance of an analog eye position signal by an oculomotor neural ...

  15. INTERIOR OF THE FORMER "SHORT RUN DUPLICATING PLANT" ROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF THE FORMER "SHORT RUN DUPLICATING PLANT" ROOM AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR, BUILDING 550. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Printing Plant, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Inventories and the short-run dynamics of commodity prices

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    I examine the behavior of inventories and their role in the short-run dynamics of commodity production and price. Competitive producers of a storable commodity react to price changes by balancing costs of changing production ...

  17. Developing short-selling on the mainland Chinese equity markets 

    E-print Network

    Clunie, James; Ying, Tongshan

    2006-01-01

    We review the theory and evidence on liquidity, price discovery and market efficiency associated with securities lending and short-selling. We also study the efforts by the Hong Kong and Taiwan stock exchanges to develop ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostics of Bed Bug

    E-print Network

    Szalanski, Allen L.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostics of Bed Bug (Hemiptera. A molecular diagnostic technique applying multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed, molecular diagnostics, mitochondrial DNA, multiplex polymerase chain reaction Cimex lectularius L

  19. Transductive LSI for Short Text Classification Problems Sarah Zelikovitz

    E-print Network

    Zelikovitz, Sarah

    Transductive LSI for Short Text Classification Problems Sarah Zelikovitz The College of Staten Island of CUNY 2800 Victory Blvd Staten Island, NY 10314 zelikovitz@mail.csi.cuny.edu Abstract This paper

  20. 2. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE CARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; NOTE SHORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE CARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; NOTE SHORT WHEEL BASE NEEDED FOR DUMPING CONTENTS - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Main Mine, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV