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Imaging in short stature  

PubMed Central

Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature. PMID:23087851

Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina





... can be seen in Down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, Prader-Willi syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, and Tay-Sachs disease. Sometimes it may not be possible to find what causes the hypotonia. Infants with hypotonia have a floppy ...


Short Stature in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The literature on the psychosocial impact of short stature in childhood and adolescence is reviewed, with particular reference to IQ and educational attainment, personality and psychopathology, and the concept of infantilization. Adult outcome studies are also reviewed with comments on inherent methodological problems. Suggestions are offered for the psychosocial management of short stature. PMID:21229094

Bannard, James R.; Schnell, Frank N.



Cleidocranial dysplasia: a rare cause of disproportionate severe short stature.  


Skeletal dysplasia is an uncommon cause of short stature in children. An 11-year-old girl was evaluated for severe short stature in a tertiary care hospital. Clinical examination revealed severe disproportionate short stature and classical triad of multiple supernumerary teeth, and complete absence of clavicles and open sagittal sutures and fontanelles. Skeletal survey confirmed these findings, in addition to other features associated with the syndrome. PMID:23074552

Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mantoo, Suhail; Choudry, Khalid; Kotwal, Suman; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad



Short Stature due to SHOX Deficiency: Genotype, Phenotype, and Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHOX deficiency is a frequent cause of short stature. The short stature homeobox-containing gene resides in the telomeric PAR1 region on the short arm of both sex chromosomes and escapes X inactivation. For this review, abstracts of 207 publications presented by PubMed for the search term ‘SHOX’ were screened. Heterozygote SHOX mutations (80% deletions) were detected in 2–15% of individuals

Gerhard Binder



Prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data on stature in Saudi children and adolescents are limited. The objective of this report was to establish the national prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Community-based, cross-sectional study conducted over 2 years (2004, 2005) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The national data set of the Saudi reference was used to calculate the stature for age for children and adolescents 5 to 18 years of age. Using the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, the prevalence of moderate and severe short stature was defined as the proportion of children whose standard deviation score for stature for age was less than -2 and -3, respectively. In addition, the 2000 Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the older 1978 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO references were used for comparison. RESULTS: Using the 2007 WHO reference, sample size in the Saudi reference was 19 372 healthy children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age, with 50.8% being boys. The overall prevalence of moderate and severe short stature in boys was 11.3% and 1.8%, respectively; and in girls, 10.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate short stature was 12.1%, 11% and 11.3% in boys and 10.9%, 11.3% and 10.5% in girls when the 1978 WHO, the 2000 CDC and the 2007 WHO references were used, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents is intermediate compared with the international level. Improvement in the socioeconomic and health status of children and adolescents should lead to a reduction in the prevalence of short stature. PMID:21911988

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Foster, Peter J.; Al Omer, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.



Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping. PMID:22863325



Genetics Home Reference: Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething ...  


... disorder catalog Conditions > Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay (often shortened to ... is SHORT syndrome? Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay, commonly known by ...


A syndrome including thumb malformations, microcephaly, short stature, and hypogonadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on eight patients from seven different families affected with a syndrome which includes thumb defects, short stature, microcephaly, and mental retardation. Most of the patients had additional malformations, in particular amenorrhoea and azoospermia in the adults. There were no haematological manifestations and the chromosomes were normal without evidence of breakage even after stimulation. In five of the cases

J Zlotogora; J Dagan; A Ganen; M Abu-Libdeh; Z Ben-Neriah; T Cohen



Hypoglossia-Hypodactyly Syndrome with Short Stature - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The Oromandibular Limb Hypogenesis Syndromes (OLHS) comprises a spectrum of disorders involving the tongue, mandible, and the limbs and are characterized by hypoplastic mandible, absence of the lower incisors, hypoglossia, digits and limbs abnormalities ranges from syndactyly to amelia. In this report, we report a case of OLHS with growth hormone deficiency as a cause of short stature, which has not been described previously to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24959494

Goyal, Manisha; Singh, Ankur; Singh, Pratiksha



Differences in Dietary Intakes between Normal and Short Stature Korean Children Visiting a Growth Clinic  

PubMed Central

This study compared birth stature, parents' stature, and food and nutrient intakes between normal and short stature Korean children visiting a growth clinic. A total of 143 growth clinic visitors agreed to participate in the study. Out of the 143 subjects, 37 children with height below the fifth percentile (short stature group) and 58 children with height above the twenty-fifth percentile (normal group) were included in the study analysis. Data were collected through a survey of parents or guardians of children and anthropometric measurements. The ratio of short stature in either parent was significantly higher in short stature group. The mean intakes of protein, fat, calcium, and iron were lower in short stature children compared to normal children. Among five major food groups, the intake frequency of vegetables and fruits was significantly lower in short stature group and that of meat·fish·egg·legume group was also significantly lower in short stature group. In further analysis categorized into 11 detail food groups, the intake frequency of fruit group and legume group was significantly lower in short stature group. Nutritional counseling should be provided to emphasize adequate intake of various food groups including vegetables, fruits, and legumes to short stature children visiting a growth clinic. PMID:23430972

Lee, Eun Mi; Park, Mi Jung; Ahn, Hong Seok



Short stature in a patient with familial glucocorticoid deficiency.  


A 10.5-year-old Caucasian girl with familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is presented. She had a homozygous S74I mutation of the ACTH receptor and her parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. Around 4 years prior to the diagnosis of FGD, she was diagnosed with antibody positive primary hypothyroidism and was on thyroxin supplementation. FGD patients are considered to be tall. Our patient was only 146.5 cm (4' 9.25") tall at age 17 years (-2.21 standard deviations below the mean for her age). The possible mechanism for short stature in FGD is speculated. PMID:21932602

Mathew, Revi P; Kovacs, William J



Unique Deletion in Exon 5 of SHOX Gene in a Patient with Idiopathic Short Stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: It is known that haploinsufficiency for the SHOX gene (short-stature homeobox gene on the X chromosome) is responsible for short stature in Turner syndrome and Leri-Weill dyschondrogenesis, and it has been reported that it is responsible for upwards of 1 in 50 cases of idiopathic short stature. SHOX haploinsufficiency is also associated with various radiographic abnormalities, such as coarse

Alan L. Shanske; Mala Puri; Barbara Marshall; Paul Saenger



Are Constitutional Delay of Growth and Familial Short Stature Different Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children between 2 and 4 standard deviations below the mean height for age with no specific cause to account for their short stature are usually considered to represent either constitutional delay of growth (CDG) or familial short stat ure (FSS). This study was undertaken to determine whether 167 patients who were referred to our clinic for short stature could be

Roberto Lanes; Peter A. Lee; Leslie P. Plotnick; A. Avinoam Kowarski; Claude J. Migeon



Unresolving short stature in a possible case of mucopolysccharidosis.  


We present a metabolic disorder with main complaints of unresolving short stature following prolonged treatment for rickets. ES is a 4-year-old male who first presented to our hospital on self-referral but had been seen previously at another tertiary health facility. The complaints were a swelling on the back and poor growth since 1 year of age with associated skeletal deformities: Chest wall, wrists, knees and ankle joints, which were progressive. Examination revealed a severely stunted child with a large head and caput quadratum, craniofacial disproportion, coarse facial features, saddle-shaped nose, thick lips and bilateral corneal clouding/opacities. He had very poor language development for his age. His diagnoses based on clinical and radiological assessment was in keeping with Hurlers type of mucopolysaccharidoses. We highlight this case to emphasize the need for early consideration of other possible rare differential diagnoses in metabolic conditions in children. PMID:25031905

Ayuk, Ac; Obu, Ho; Ughasoro, Md; Ibeziako, Ns



Towards identification of molecular mechanisms of short stature  

PubMed Central

Growth evaluations are among the most common referrals to pediatric endocrinologists. Although a number of pathologies, both primary endocrine and non-endocrine, can present with short stature, an estimated 80% of evaluations fail to identify a clear etiology, leaving a default designation of idiopathic short stature (ISS). As a group, several features among children with ISS are suggestive of pathophysiology of the GH–IGF-1 axis, including low serum levels of IGF-1 despite normal GH secretion. Candidate gene analysis of rare cases has demonstrated that severe mutations of genes of the GH–IGF-1 axis can present with a profound height phenotype, leading to speculation that a collection of mild mutations or polymorphisms of these genes can explain poor growth in a larger proportion of patients. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified ~180 genomic loci associated with height that together account for approximately 10% of height variation. With only modest representation of the GH–IGF-1 axis, there is little support for the long-held hypothesis that common genetic variants of the hormone pathway provide the molecular mechanism for poor growth in a substantial proportion of individuals. The height-associated common variants are not observed in the anticipated frequency in the shortest individuals, suggesting rare genetic factors with large effect are more plausible in this group. As we advance towards establishing a molecular mechanism for poor growth in a greater percentage of those currently labeled ISS, we highlight two strategies that will likely be offered with increasing frequency: (1) unbiased genetic technologies including array analysis for copy number variation and whole exome/genome sequencing and (2) epigenetic alterations of key genomic loci. Ultimately data from subsets with similar molecular etiologies may emerge that will allow tailored interventions to achieve the best clinical outcome. PMID:24257104



Genotypes and phenotypes in children with short stature: clinical indicators of SHOX haploinsufficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature affects approximately 2% of children, representing one of the more frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions of the short stature homeobox?containing gene (SHOX) are found quite frequently in subjects with short stature. Haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene causes short stature with highly variable clinical severity, ranging from isolated short stature without dysmorphic features to Léri?Weill syndrome, and with no functional copy of the SHOX gene, Langer syndrome. Methods To characterise the clinical and molecular spectrum of SHOX deficiency in childhood we assessed the association between genotype and phenotype in a large cohort of children of short stature from 14 countries. Results Screening of 1608 unrelated individuals with sporadic or familial short stature revealed SHOX mutations or deletions in 68 individuals (4.2%): complete deletions in 48 (70.6%), partial deletions in 4 (5.9%) and point mutations in 16 individuals (23.5%). Although mean height standard deviation score (SDS) was not different between participants of short stature with or without identified SHOX gene defects (–2.6 vs –2.6), detailed examination revealed that certain bone deformities and dysmorphic signs, such as short forearm and lower leg, cubitus valgus, Madelung deformity, high?arched palate and muscular hypertrophy, differed markedly between participants with or without SHOX gene defects (p<0.001). Phenotypic data were also compared for 33 children with Turner syndrome in whom haploinsufficiency of SHOX is thought to be responsible for the height deficit. Conclusion A phenotype scoring system was developed that could assist in identifying the most appropriate subjects for SHOX testing. This study offers a detailed genotype?phenotype analysis in a large cohort of children of short stature, and provides quantitative clinical guidelines for testing of the SHOX gene. PMID:17182655

Rappold, Gudrun; Blum, Werner F; Shavrikova, Elena P; Crowe, Brenda J; Roeth, Ralph; Quigley, Charmian A; Ross, Judith L; Niesler, Beate



Causes of short stature identified in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Multan Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the frequency of common causes of short stature in children presenting to the Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was done in Pediatric Endocrinology department, the Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, from March to September, 2011. One hundred and sixty nine children with short stature presenting to the outpatient department meeting inclusion criteria were recruited after taking an informed consent. The detailed history, physical examination including anthropometric measurements and relevant investigations were recorded. Causes of short stature (outcome variable) were recorded on a predesigned proforma for final analysis. Results: The common causes of short stature identified were; familial short stature (FSS) 36 cases (21.3%), hypothyroidism 29(17.2%), growth hormone deficiency (GHD) 18(10.7%), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 16(9.5%) and constitutional delayed growth and maturation (CDGM) 11(6.5%) cases. This was followed by primary malnutrition 8(4.7%), celiac disease 6(3.6%),Turner syndrome 5(3%) cases and unknown syndromes 4(2.4%) followed by other rare causes. Conclusion: Common causes of short stature identified in this study were endocrine diseases followed by normal variant short stature (NVSS), while nonendocrine causes were the least. PMID:24353507

Waqar Rabbani, Muhammad; Imran Khan, Waqas; Bilal Afzal, Ahmad; Rabbani, Waqas



A mouse model for human short-stature syndromes identifies Shox2 as an upstream regulator of Runx2  

E-print Network

of short-stature conditions, including Turner syndrome, Leri­Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic as a candidate gene for the short-stature phenotype associated with Turner syndrome (1, 2). Whereas the contribuA mouse model for human short-stature syndromes identifies Shox2 as an upstream regulator of Runx2

Cobb, John


Short arm dicentric Y chromosome with associated statural defects in a sterile man  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short arm dicentric Y chromosome is described as the predominant cell line in a sterile man. The patient also presents with short stature. Tooth development appears normal. Only Sertoli cells are present in the seminiferous tubules. It is suggested that the function of the gene controlling spermatogenesis in Yq11 in man might be to prevent proliferation or migration of

Ann C. Chandley; P. Ambros; S. McBeath; T. B. Hargreave; F. Kilanowski; G. Spowart



Short stature in a mother and daughter with terminal deletion of Xp22.3  

SciTech Connect

Short stature in females is often caused by homozygosity for the terminal portion of Xp due to monosomy X or a deletion. We report on a mother and daughter with short stature as sole phenotypic abnormality and deletion of bands Xp22.32-p22.33 demonstrated by classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis. In both individuals, the deleted X chromosome was late replicating. Molecular analysis suggested that the deletion is terminal and the breakpoint was localized between the STS and DXS7470 loci in Xp22.32. Chromosome analysis is often done on females with short stature to exclude Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Small deletions, terminal or interstitial, are easily missed by conventional cytogenetic investigation; thus molecular analyses are useful to detect those cases. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Schwinger, E.; Kirschstein, M.; Konermann, T. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others] [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Hamburg (Germany); and others



Regional Prevalence of Short Stature in Saudi School-Age Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the magnitude of regional difference in prevalence of short stature in Saudi children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods. A representative sample from three different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (North, Southwest, and Center) was used to calculate the prevalence of short stature (standard deviation score less than ?2) in children 5 to 17 years of age. Results. There were 9018 children and adolescents from 5 to 17 years of age (3366, 2825, and 2827 in the Northern, Southwestern and Central regions, resp.) and 51% were boys. In both school-age children and adolescents, there was a significantly higher prevalence of short stature in the Southwestern than in the Northern or the Central region (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The finding of significant regional variation between regions helps in planning priorities for research and preventive measures. PMID:22606050

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al Omer, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.



Triple X Syndrome with Short Stature: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background Triple X syndrome is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy condition characterized by tall stature, microcephaly, hypertelorism, congenital abnormalities, and motor and language delays. It is mainly derived from maternal nondisjunctional errors during meiosis. To highlight the clinical features and diagnosis of triple X syndrome, we present a rare phenotype of the syndrome. Case Presentation A 5.9 year-old girl was admitted to our hospital because of short stature. Both her height and weight were below the 3rd percentile compared to the normal peers. She was found with mild motor and speech delay. Laboratory investigation showed low level of IGF-1 and zinc, elevated estradiol level and normal result of arginine provocation test. Conclusion Our data suggest that triple X syndrome should also be suspected in patients with short stature, elevated estradiol and low level of IGF-1, even with normal result of arginine provocation test. PMID:23056899

Li, Mingyan; Zou, Chaochun; Zhao, Zhengyan



Management of Idiopathic Short Stature: Psychological Endpoints, Assessment Strategies and Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 2007, a Conference on Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS) endorsed the definition of ISS as a statistical (auxologic) rather than a medical (pathologic) deviation from the norm. Consequently, the ultimate criteria for evaluation of treatment in ISS shift from medical to psychological endpoints. Objective: This review synthesizes empirical evidence of psychological outcomes in treated and untreated subjects with ISS,

Meinolf Noeker



Orthodontic treatment for a mandibular prognathic girl of short stature under growth hormone therapy.  


This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, and facial asymmetry, undergoing growth hormone (GH) therapy due to idiopathic short stature. Children of short stature with or without GH deficiency have a deviating craniofacial morphology with overall smaller dimensions; facial retrognathism, especially mandibular retrognathism; and increased facial convexity. However, a complete opposite craniofacial pattern was presented in our case of a skeletal Class III girl with idiopathic short stature. The orthodontic treatment goal was to inhibit or change the direction of mandibular growth and stimulate the maxillary growth of the girl during a course of GH therapy. Maxillary protraction and mandibular retraction were achieved using occipitomental anchorage (OMA) orthopedic appliance in the first stage of treatment. In the second stage, the patient was treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance using a modified multiple-loop edgewise archwire technique of asymmetric mechanics and an active retainer of vertical chin-cup. The treatment led to an acceptable facial profile and obvious facial asymmetry improvement. Class I dental occlusion and coincident dental midline were also achieved. A 3½-year follow-up of the girl at age 18 showed a stable result of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment. Our case shows that the OMA orthopedic appliance of maxillary protraction combined with mandibular retraction is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with midface deficiency and mandibular prognathism in growing children with idiopathic short stature undergoing GH therapy. PMID:24331110

Pan, Chin-Yun; Lan, Ting-Hung; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chang, Hong-Po



Molecular characterization of a ring X chromosome in a male with short stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the molecular characterization of a ring X chromosome that was transmitted from a mother to a male who has short stature and minor dysmorphic features. This represents only the second reported ring X chromosome in a male. The ring is derived from breakage within the Xp pseudoautosomal region (PAR) and just proximal to the Xq PAR. The total

Jay W. Ellison; Mustafa Tekin; Karen Salvasen Sikes; Jerry Yankowitz; Larry Shapiro; Gudrun A. Rappold; Kirk E. Neely



Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

Lichota, Malgorzata



Short stature in Noonan syndrome: response to growth hormone therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDGrowth hormone (GH) has been used to promote growth in both the short and long term in a number of dysmorphic syndromes, including Turner syndrome. As this condition shares many clinical features with Noonan syndrome, it would seem logical to treat the latter group with GH.AIMSTo assess the short and long term response to GH therapy in patients with Noonan

J M W Kirk; P R Betts; G E Butler; M D C Donaldson; D B Dunger; D I Johnston; C J H Kelnar; D A Price; P Wilton



S O N G D E T N I L L A S I T H A N U K R O H SHOX and Short Stature  

E-print Network

stature Syndromic short stature Retrieved from on 05/05/10 Turner on 05/05/10 Turner syndrome Léri-Weill syndrome 2%-15% 100% 50/05/10 -2 standard deviations of national height standard #12;Types of Short Stature Non-syndromic short

Skop, Ahna


The use of somatropin (recombinant growth hormone) in children of short stature.  


The availability of somatropin [recombinant human growth hormone (GH)] has revolutionized the treatment of short stature resulting from GH deficiency. It is also widely used as an adjunct in the treatment of other disorders which do not fit the definition of classic GH deficiency, such as intrauterine growth restriction, Turner syndrome, healthy children with short stature and skeletal dysplasias. The widespread use and ready availability of GH treatment has prompted questions about its tolerability, rationality, and the psychological effects of long-term treatment, leading to several trials. Early treatment of GH deficiency will allow the child to reach his or her genetic potential, although there continues to be marked variability in the criteria used to diagnose the deficiency, and in the treatment schedule, especially during puberty. Treatment has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on growth in children with chronic renal failure, with no adverse effects on the renal function. There are, however, no long-term data to determine final height, or randomized controlled studies to justify routine use of GH in conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction. It remains controversial in conditions such as Turner syndrome and achondroplasia, where the response to treatment is only moderate. Healthy children with short stature have not been shown to have a psychological disadvantage, again proving difficult to justify prolonged GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Meticulous monitoring, long-term follow-up to adult or near-adult final height, and well-defined endpoints of treatment need to be better clarified. The metabolic effects of treatment on the patient's lipid profile, bone mineral density, and muscle mass need careful documentation, especially with the high doses used in an already susceptible population such as low birthweight children and those with Turner syndrome. Lastly, the psychosocial impact of GH treatment, financial implications, and cost efficacy of treatment in an ever-increasing list of indications should be taken into consideration for rationalizing its use in future. PMID:11817985

Mehta, Ameeta; Hindmarsh, Peter C



Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   We examined the associations between demographic characteristics including short stature and the prevalence of gestational\\u000a diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Korean women. In this study, a total of 9005 pregnant women underwent universal screening for GDM.\\u000a Oral glucose tolerance tests (100 g OGTT) were performed in positive screenees (1 h plasma glucose ? 7.2 mmol\\/l) and GDM was\\u000a diagnosed using

H. C. Jang; H. K. Min; H. K. Lee; N. H. Cho; B. E. Metzger



Short stature in a phenotypic male caused by mixed gonadal dysgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background An 8.5-year-old boy was referred to a pediatric endocrinology clinic for evaluation of short stature. At birth, a chordee without hypospadius, 90-degree penile torsion and an undescended testis on the right had been observed. The boy had undergone surgical repair at 1 year of age and at that time an undescended 'nonfunctional' streak gonad and a horseshoe kidney had

Christina M Jacobsen; Laurie E Cohen



Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature.Design Systematic review.Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010.Data extraction Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD

Annalisa Deodati; Stefano Cianfarani



Short stature with umbilical hernia - Not always due to cretinism: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

A 7-year-old boy presented with umbilical hernia and short stature. Growth retardation, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and delayed developmental milestones were present from infancy. Umbilical hernia was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. On examination, he had short-trunk dwarfism, large head circumference, coarse facial features, joint stiffness, hepatosplenomegaly, and mild mental retardation. He had normal biochemical parameters, thyroid function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. Radiological evaluation showed that the child had Hunter syndrome with findings of J-shaped sellaturcica, proximal bulleting of metacarpals, spatulated ribs and anterior beaking of lumbar vertebrae. The second case was a 6-year-old girl with umbilical hernia, short stature, normal biochemistry and radiological findings of mucopolysaccharidosis. However, she also had corneal opacity; confirmed by slit-lamp examination, which led to the diagnosis of Hurler–Scheie syndrome. Enzymatic studies could not be done in both the cases, as they are not available at most centers. PMID:22629520

Gadve, Sharvil S.; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Uma K.



Short trunk stature, brachydactyly, and platyspondyly in three sibs: a new form of brachyolmia or a new skeletal dysplasia?  


We present a 27-year-old girl with short trunk stature, generalized rectangular platyspondyly and strike precocious calcification of costal cartilage. She had also brachydactyly, small nails, strabismus and delay of menarche. Her 16-year-old sister had also short trunk stature with severe kyphoscoliosis, hearing loss, brachydactyly, platyspondyly and mild precocious calcification of costal cartilages. Their 12-year-old brother had short trunk stature, kyphoscoliosis, brachydactyly, and platyspondyly but did not show precocious calcification of costal cartilage. The patients shared the following features: short trunk stature, brachydactyly, severe rectangular platyspondyly, broad and short femoral necks and hypoplasia of the ileum. In addition, the older sister had strike precocious calcification of costal cartilage while her sister and brother had severe kyphoscoliosis. Although short trunk stature and severe rectangular platyspondyly without significant epiphyseal or metaphyseal changes were in favor of Hobaek type brachyolmia, this diagnosis was not considered, both because, there were no specific radiological findings of this syndrome, such as elongated vertebral bodies extending beyond the pedicles laterally and all of the patients had brachydactyly which was not present in Hobaek type brachyolmia. The parents were healthy and first cousins signifying autosomal recessive inheritance. We considered that the patients could be affected by a new distinct autosomal recessive type brachyolmia or a new skeletal dysplasia. PMID:12784309

Tüysüz, Beyhan; Ungür, Sava?



Exploring the spectrum of 3-M syndrome, a primordial short stature disorder of disrupted ubiquitination.  


3-M syndrome is an autosomal recessive primordial growth disorder characterized by small birth size and post-natal growth restriction associated with a spectrum of minor anomalies (including a triangular-shaped face, flat cheeks, full lips, short chest and prominent fleshy heels). Unlike many other primordial short stature syndromes, intelligence is normal and there is no other major system involvement, indicating that 3-M is predominantly a growth-related condition. From an endocrine perspective, serum GH levels are usually normal and IGF-I normal or low, while growth response to rhGH therapy is variable but typically poor. All these features suggest a degree of resistance in the GH-IGF axis. To date, mutations in three genes CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 have been shown to cause 3-M. CUL7 acts an ubiquitin ligase and is known to interact with p53, cyclin D-1 and the growth factor signalling molecule IRS-1, the link with the latter may contribute to the GH-IGF resistance. OBSL1 is a putative cytoskeletal adaptor that interacts with and stabilizes CUL7. CCDC8 is the newest member of the pathway and interacts with OBSL1 and, like CUL7, associates with p53, acting as a co-factor in p53-medicated apoptosis. 3-M patients without a mutation have also been identified, indicating the involvement of additional genes in the pathway. Potentially damaging sequence variants in CUL7 and OBSL1 have been identified in idiopathic short stature (ISS), including those born small with failure of catch-up growth, signifying that the 3-M pathway could play a wider role in disordered growth. PMID:22624670

Clayton, Peter E; Hanson, Dan; Magee, Lucia; Murray, Philip G; Saunders, Emma; Abu-Amero, Sayeda N; Moore, Gudrun E; Black, Graeme C M



Rathke's cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty.  


Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit. PMID:23565402

Dutta, Deep; Roy, Ajitesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar



Cataracts, ataxia, short stature, and mental retardation in a Chinese family mapped to Xpter-q13.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six males in a Chinese family affected by congenital cataracts, cerebellar ataxia, short stature, and mental retardation, which were tentatively named CASM syndrome. Eight female carriers in the family had cataracts alone. Linkage analysis demonstrated that the disease is transmitted through X-linked inheritance, either by setting the syndrome in males as an X-linked recessive trait, or by setting cataracts in

Xiangming Guo; Huangxuan Shen; Xueshan Xiao; Qilin Dai; Shiqiang Li; Xiaoyun Jia; J. Fielding Hejtmancik; Qingjiong Zhang



Short stature and delayed puberty in gymnasts: Influence of selection bias on leg length and the duration of training on trunk length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Delays in bone age, the onset of puberty, and skeletal growth in gymnasts could be, in part, the reason for an interest in gymnastics, rather than being the result of vigorous exercise. We hypothesized that short stature and delayed bone age are present at the start of gymnastics, and training delays growth, producing short stature, even after retirement. Methods:

Shona Bass; Michelle Bradney; Georgina Pearce; Elke Hendrich; Karen Inge; Stephen Stuckey; Sing Kai Lo; Ego Seeman



Comparison of Growth Hormone Treatment in Patients with Idiopathic Short Stature and Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency  

PubMed Central

After recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was introduced in the treatment of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS), many studies have addressed the effect of GH treatment and changes in the height standard deviation score (SDS) after GH treatment. However, few studies comparing the effect of GH in Korean patients with idiopathic GHD and ISS have been designed. Therefore, this study focused on the difference in effect of GH treatment between the two groups. We retrospectively reviewed the height SDS of 34 patients with idiopathic GHD and 12 patients with ISS. The mean ages of the patients with idiopathic GHD and ISS were 9.84±2.09 and 10.72±1.48 years, respectively. All patients were treated with GH for 1 year and body parameters were recorded before and after the GH treatment. Change in height SDS in patients with idiopathic GHD was significantly higher than that in patients with ISS (0.62±0.33 vs. 0.40±0.27, p=0.03). However, body mass index, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 were not significantly different between the two groups after GH treatment. These results suggest that GH treatment has a more powerful effect on increasing height SDS in patients with idiopathic GHD than in patients with ISS. PMID:25229018

Kim, Seul Ah; Choe, Yu Ri; Yang, Eun Mi



Association of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor promoter with idiopathic short stature.  


The genetic alterations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) are related with the growth of long bone. There were a lot of reports regarding an association of polymorphisms in the VDR promoter with many disorders, but not with idiopathic short stature (ISS). We investigated the association of them with ISS. A total of 50 subjects, including 29 ISS patients and 21 healthy controls with their heights within the normal range was recruited. We selected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from VDR promoter (rs11568820 at the Cdx-2 binding site upstream of exon 1e and rs4516035 at -1012 upstream of exon 1a) as candidates, respectively. In genotype analysis, the frequency of A/A genotype at the Cdx-2 binding site locus (rs11568820) upstream of exon 1e of VDR was decreased to 6.9% in ISS patients (28.6% in controls) (P = 0.027). The genetic variation at the Cdx-2 binding site of VDR promoter can be a contributing factor of growth of height. PMID:24015038

Choi, Seo Kyung; Park, Mun Suk; Song, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Sik; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Shim, Kye Shik



Lactose Intolerance: Lack of Evidence for Short Stature or Vitamin D Deficiency in Prepubertal Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI) are unclear. Aims To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. Hypotheses LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. Subjects and Methods Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19) were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21). Inclusion criteria: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts), diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH) z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29). Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) vs. overweight/obese (BMI ?85th percentile), the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OH)D level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025), and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004). Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53), while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049), and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28). MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. Conclusion Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children. PMID:24205288

Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Candela, Ninfa; Fong, Jay; Dahod, Idris; Rogol, Alan D.; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka



Clinical Features: Patients with Floating Harbor syndrome [OMIM #136140] typically have short stature, delayed osseous  

E-print Network

with a broad base, full tip and low hanging columella [1]. The majority of affected individuals have some stature, a long nose with low hanging columella, and anomalous thumbs [1]. Inheritance: Floating Harbor

Ober, Carole


Short stature in children with an apparently normal male phenotype can be caused by 45,X\\/46,XY mosaicism and is susceptible to growth hormone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls with unexplained short stature are routinely screened for the presence of Ullrich-Turner syndrome by clinical examination, laboratory tests, and karyotyping. In this study, we performed chromosomal analysis in boys to explore the role of 45,X\\/46,XY mosaicism for short stature in males. Short-term effects of growth hormone treatment in male 45,X\\/46,XY individuals were compared retrospectively to those in female patients.

Annette Richter-Unruh; Sabine Knauer-Fischer; Stefan Kaspers; Beate Albrecht; Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach; Berthold P. Hauffa



Long-term results of growth hormone treatment in France in children of short stature: population, register based study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the growth of children treated with growth hormone and to evaluate the prognostic factors for height at the end of treatment. DESIGN: Register based cohort study. SETTING: French national register of all children treated with growth hormone. SUBJECTS: 3233 short stature children (3165 of whom were deficient in growth hormone) who were treated with growth hormone (excluding children with Turner's syndrome) and whose treatment started between 1973 and 1989, last data being recorded in December 1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual changes in height, and height at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Mean height SD score at the end of treatment, after a mean of 4.3 years, was -2, corresponding to gain in mean height SD score of 1 and to a height SD score of 1.1 below target height. In all, 923 children prematurely stopped taking growth hormone treatment, mainly because of insufficient response (insufficient growth) or tiredness. Variables that predicted height at the end of treatment were age, target height, aetiology of short stature, use of puberty inhibitors, and type of growth hormone. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of children of short stature with growth hormone deficiency who were treated with growth hormone has been less favourable than initially assumed. Growth hormone treatment has not restored normal growth to these children. The highly demanding nature and high costs of this treatment require an optimised prescription, and this remains to be determined. PMID:9314755

Coste, J.; Letrait, M.; Carel, J. C.; Tresca, J. P.; Chatelain, P.; Rochiccioli, P.; Chaussain, J. L.; Job, J. C.



Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature  

PubMed Central

In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. These data confirm the impairment of chondrogenic differentiation by Hoxa2 overexpression. They also show a selective effect of Hoxa2 on endochondral ossification processes since Gdf5 and Gdf10, and Bmp4 or PthrP were up-regulated and unmodified, respectively. Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease. PMID:24129174

Deprez, Pierre M. L.; Nichane, Miloud G.; Lengele, Benoit G.; Rezsohazy, Rene; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine



Growth response of Egyptian children with idiopathic short stature during four years of growth hormone therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors affect the growth response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). AIM: To evaluate the growth responses of children with ISS treated with rhGH, aiming to identify the predictors of growth response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 120 cases, 90 males (75%), with a mean age of 13.8±2.7 years and 30 females (25%), with a mean age of 12.3±2.5 years. All patients received rhGH with a standard dose of 20 IU/m2/week. The calculated dose per week was divided into six days and given subcutaneous at night. RESULTS: A significant positive trend was detected in the delta changes of all anthropometric data. For the first year, the growth response was positively correlated to CA and BA delay and negatively correlated to height, weight and IGF-1 SDSs. For the second year, the growth response was correlated positively to first year growth velocity, BA, triceps skin fold thickness SDS and deviation from target height, and negatively correlated to weight, IGFBP3 SDS and target height SDS. For the third year, the growth response was positively correlated to five variables namely target height, 2nd year growth velocity, IGF-1 SDS, weight SDS and triceps skin fold thickness SDS. For the fourth year, growth response was positively correlated to 2nd and 3rd year growth velocity, BA, deviation from target height and weight/ height SDS. CONCLUSION: Our study showed multiplicity of predictors that is responsible for response in ISS children treated with rhGH, and BA was an important predictor. PMID:22345996

Ismail, Nagwa Abdallah; Metwaly, Nermeen Salah Eldin; El-Moguy, Fatma Ahmed; Hafez, Mona Hassan; El Dayem, Soha M. Abd; Farid, Tarek Mohamed



CMT2C with vocal cord paresis associated with short stature and mutations in the TRPV4 gene  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 gene (TRPV4) have been reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2C (CMT2C) with vocal cord paresis. Other mutations in this same gene have been described in separate families with various skeletal dysplasias. Further clarification is needed of the different phenotypes associated with this gene. Methods: We performed clinical evaluation, electrophysiology, and genetic analysis of the TRPV4 gene in 2 families with CMT2C. Results: Two multigenerational families had a motor greater than sensory axonal neuropathy associated with variable vocal cord paresis. The vocal cord paresis varied from absent to severe, requiring permanent tracheotomy in 2 subjects. One family with mild neuropathy also manifested pronounced short stature, more than 2 SD below the average height for white Americans. There was one instance of dolichocephaly. A novel S542Y mutation in the TRPV4 gene was identified in this family. The other family had a more severe, progressive, motor neuropathy with sensory loss, but less remarkable short stature and an R315W mutation in TRPV4. Third cranial nerve involvement and sleep apnea occurred in one subject in each family. Conclusion: CMT2C with axonal neuropathy, vocal cord paresis, and short stature is a unique syndrome associated with mutations in the TRPV4 gene. Mutations in TRPV4 can cause abnormalities in bone, peripheral nerve, or both and may result in highly variable orthopedic and neurologic phenotypes. GLOSSARY CMAP = compound muscle action potential; CMT = Charcot-Marie-Tooth; CMT2C = Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2C; HMSN = hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy; NCV = nerve conduction velocity; RFLP = restriction fragment length polymorphism; SMA = spinal muscular atrophy; SNAP = sensory nerve action potential; SPSMA = scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:21115951

Chen, D.-H.; Sul, Y.; Weiss, M.; Hillel, A.; Lipe, H.; Wolff, J.; Matsushita, M.; Raskind, W.; Bird, T.



De novo 911 Kb interstitial deletion on chromosome 1q43 in a boy with mental retardation and short stature.  


Patients with distal deletions of chromosome 1q have a recognizable syndrome that includes microcephaly, hypoplasia or agenesis of the corpus callosum, and psychomotor retardation. Although these symptoms have been attributed to deletions of 1q42-1q44, the minimal chromosomal region involved has not yet defined. In this report, we describe a 7 years old male with mental retardation, cryptorchid testes, short stature and alopecia carrying only an interstitial de novo deletion of 911 Kb in the 1q43 region (239,597,095-240,508,817) encompassing three genes CHRM3, RPS7P5 and FMN2. PMID:22186213

Perrone, M D; Rocca, M S; Bruno, I; Faletra, F; Pecile, V; Gasparini, P



A comparison of referral patterns to the pediatric endocrine clinic before and after FDA approval of growth hormone for idiopathic short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is a common reason for referral to the pediatric endocrine clinic. In 2003, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of growth hormone (GH) for the treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Objective To explore if this indication changed referrals for short stature (SS). Design/Methods A retrospective chart review of children seen for SS in the pediatric endocrine clinic between July 1998 and June 1999 (interval one, n=138) and July 2005–June 2006 (interval two, n=268) was performed. Variables collected included age, gender, height (h), and parental heights. Results Average height standard deviation score (HT-SDS) was ?2.11±0.9 in interval one and ?2.14±0.83 in interval two (p=ns). No differences in age, gender distribution, relationship between child and parental heights, the proportion of subjects started on GH for ISS or in the HT-SDS of those treated between the two intervals were identified. Nearly half of all children referred in each interval did not meet the technical criteria for short stature. Conclusions No differences in referral patterns for SS in our area following FDA approval of GH for ISS were identified. Although referrals appear unchanged, additional investigation of GH prescribing patterns before and after this new indication is needed. Continued education of primary care physicians and the general public regarding the definition of SS and the eligibility for GH therapy should be pursued. PMID:21528823

Goldyn, Andrea K.; Nabhan, Zeina M.; Eugster, Erica A.



Age at Growth Hormone Therapy Start and First-Year Responsiveness to Growth Hormone Are Major Determinants of Height Outcome in Idiopathic Short Stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To develop methods to identify factors associated with a favorable outcome in GH-treated children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Methods: From 4,685 children listed as having ISS within KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database), we studied (a) the prediction model group (n = 657) to develop the first-year prediction model, and (b) the near adult height group (NAH; n =

Michael B. Ranke; Anders Lindberg; David A. Price; Feyza Darendeliler; Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland; Patrick Wilton; Edward O. Reiter



On longitudinal bone growth, short stature, and related matters: insights about cartilage physiology from the Utah paradigm.  


Precursor cell division in growing cartilage determines human height, the lengths of the spine and limb bones, the alignment of joints, spines and limbs, and the ratio of spinal length to limb length. That division also helps to determine the sizes and shapes of joints, apophyses and epiphyses. Ideas about what controls those facts are changing. To former views, in which mainly genetic and humoral factors controlled them, the Utah paradigm of skeletal physiology adds long-overlooked biomechanical including muscular factors. These three kinds of factors would collaborate in controlling the precursor cell division that determines the above skeletal features. Problems with that control clearly cause or help to cause many clinical disorders. Examples include short stature, gigantism, premature and delayed skeletal maturation, some changes in fracture patterns associated with puberty, joint malalignments, congenital hip dysplasia, scoliosis, limb torsions, the ball-and-socket ankle, and some skeletal abnormalities in Marfan's syndrome and the osteochondrodystrophies. The physiology such things depend on has matured sufficiently to justify a review for pediatricians, endocrinologists and other clinical specialists, and many basic scientists. PMID:11393568

Frost, H M; Schönau, E



Congenital contractures, short stature, abnormal face, microcephaly, scoliosis, hip dislocation, and severe psychomotor retardation in two unrelated girls. a new MCA/MR syndrome?  


Severe mental retardation, congenital contractures, short stature, microcephaly, ptosis, myopia, beaked nose, abnormal teeth, hip dislocation, and severe scoliosis, are described in a 16-year-old and an unrelated 24-year-old females. Results of all laboratory investigations were normal. Review of the literature, of the London Dysmorphology Data Base and POSSUM did not yield to any diagnosis. Whether these patients present a new MCA/MR syndrome is discussed. PMID:12150211

Mégarbané, A; Ghanem, I; Romana, S; Gosset, P; Caillaud, C



Short Stature Associated with High Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)Binding Protein1 and Low Circulating IGF-II: Effect of Growth Hormone Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of short stature associated with high circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-10 and low levels of IGF-II responsive to pharmacological treatment with GH. Our patient suffered severe growth failure from birth (2.06 SD below the mean for normal full-term boys, and 5.2 and 7.3 SD below the mean at 5 and 10 months).




The role of IGF-I in phosphate therapy for the short stature of patients with hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of phosphate in short-statured patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) was investigated. Plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels were within the normal range in XLH patients. After oral phosphate loading, plasma IGF-I levels increased clearly in XLH patients, while there were no changes in normal controls. Plasma IGF-I levels significantly correlated with the maximal serum parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Takehisa Yamamoto; Keiichi Ozono; Kanji Yamaoka; Masaaki Shima; Katsusuke Yamamoto; Toshimi Michigami; Sayuri Matsumoto; Kazuo Hiroshima; Shintaro Okada



Short stature/short limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency and bowing of the femora: report of two patients and review.  

PubMed Central

We report two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and short stature/short limb skeletal dysplasia. Case 1 presented at birth with rhizomelic shortening of the extremities and bowing of the femora. She developed clinical signs of severe combined immunodeficiency at 13 months and died at 21 months. Case 2 had severe prenatal shortening and bowing of the extremities and a small, malformed chest. Symptoms of severe combined immunodeficiency and severe failure to thrive developed soon after birth and she died at 5 months. The diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency in our patients was based on their clinical course and necropsy findings, supported in case 1 by the results of immune function tests. The results of investigation of immune function (immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subpopulations, lymphocyte function) are very variable in this syndrome as in other variants of severe combined immunodeficiency. Bone histopathology in both patients showed grossly irregular costochondral junctions, but normal transition of proliferating to hypertrophic chondrocytes. These cases belong to early lethal type 1 short limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency. Review of previously published cases with severe combined immunodeficiency and well documented skeletal findings show eight patients with prenatal onset of bowing and shortening of the extremities and metaphyseal abnormalities. These include two sib pairs concordant for the skeletal changes. In these cases, adenosine deaminase levels were not reported. An additional four published cases with associated adenosine deaminase deficiency had only mild metaphyseal abnormalities, but subsequently showed no linear growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1999827

MacDermot, K D; Winter, R M; Wigglesworth, J S; Strobel, S



Spontaneous growth and response to growth hormone treatment in children with growth hormone deficiency and idiopathic short stature.  


Isolated idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) can be difficult to distinguish, but the therapeutical consequences are different. In this report the data on final height of untreated and treated children with GHD and ISS are reviewed. Untreated GH-deficient individuals who underwent spontaneous puberty (22 male, 14 female patients) reached a mean final height of 4.7 SD (range 3.9 to 6.0) below the population's mean. If puberty was induced (19 male patients), mean final height SD score (SDS) was -3.1. Traditional regimens of GH administration (2-4 injections/wk) in 236 children (184 boys, 52 girls) with GHD and spontaneous puberty resulted in a final height SDS of -2.8 (range -1.5 to -4.7). In 190 children in whom puberty was induced (139 boys, 51 girls) mean final height was -1.6 (range - -1.1 to -2.4). The mean gain in final height SDS is therefore estimated at 1.5-2.0 in average cases, and 3.5 in extreme cases. Preliminary data suggest that on present regimens mean final height may approach target height. In untreated boys with ISS the mean final height was 2-5 cm lower than that predicted before puberty, whereas in girls it was almost equal to the prediction. After GH treatment the mean final height was 0.4-3.0 cm higher than the predicted adult height, which results in an average net gain in final height SDS of approximately 0.5-0.8 (3-5 cm). PMID:8825803

Wit, J M; Kamp, G A; Rikken, B





Burnette WB. The hypotonic (floppy) infant). In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 27. Weinberg GA. ...


A novel TRPS1 gene mutation causing trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with growth hormone responsive short stature: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The role of growth hormone (GH) and its therapeutic supplementation in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPS I) is not well delineated. TRPS I is a rare congenital syndrome, characterized by craniofacial and skeletal malformations including short stature, sparse, thin scalp hair and lateral eyebrows, pear-shaped nose, cone shaped epiphyses and hip dysplasia. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and caused by haploinsufficiency of the TRPS1 gene. We report a family (Mother and 3 of her 4 children) with a novel mutation in the TRPS1 gene. The diagnosis was suspected only after meeting all family members and comparing affected and unaffected siblings since the features of this syndrome might be subtle. The eldest sibling, who had neither GH deficiency nor insensitivity, improved his growth velocity and height SDS after 2 years of treatment with exogenous GH. No change in growth velocity was observed in the untreated siblings during this same period. This report emphasizes the importance of examining all family members when suspecting a genetic syndrome. It also demonstrates the therapeutic effect of GH treatment in TRPS I despite normal GH-IGF1 axis. A review of the literature is included to address whether TRPS I is associated with: a) GH deficiency, b) GH resistance, or c) GH-responsive short stature. More studies are needed before recommending GH treatment for TRPS I but a trial should be considered on an individual basis. PMID:25177352



Hydroxyapatite-coated external-fixation pins. The effect on pin loosening and pin-track infection in leg lengthening for short stature.  


Pin loosening and infection are inherent complications of external fixation. This study deals with their effects of using either hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated or uncoated external fixation pins in leg-lengthening procedures on patients of short stature. We used HA-coated pins on one side and uncoated pins on the other (randomly determined) in 28 bilateral lengthenings undertaken in 23 patients. A total of 322 pins was used. The mean implantation time was 530 days and the mean lengthening achieved was 78% of initial bone length. Mean extraction torque was 7611.6 Nmm degree(-1) for HA-coated and 85.4 Nmm degree(-1) for uncoated pins (p < 0.001). The rate of pin loosening was 4% (7/161) for HA-coated and 80% (129/161) for uncoated pins (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of pin-track infection between the two groups. The use of HA coating appears to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of pin loosening in external fixation with a long implantation time and for mechanically highly stressed procedures such as leg lengthening for short stature. PMID:15330032

Pizà, G; Caja, V L; González-Viejo, M A; Navarro, A



Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.  


Intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion represents an important fraction of severe cognitive-dysfunction disorders. Yet, the extreme heterogeneity of these conditions markedly hampers gene identification. Here, we report on eight affected individuals who were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and either Sanger sequencing of candidate genes or next-generation exome sequencing, we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in AP4S1 (NM_007077.3: c.124C>T, p.Arg42(?)), a frameshift mutation in AP4B1 (NM_006594.2: c.487_488insTAT, p.Glu163_Ser739delinsVal), and a splice mutation in AP4E1 (NM_007347.3: c.542+1_542+4delGTAA, r.421_542del, p.Glu181Glyfs(?)20). Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. Interestingly, two mutations affecting AP4M1 and AP4E1 have recently been found to cause cerebral palsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex. PMID:21620353

Abou Jamra, Rami; Philippe, Orianne; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Eck, Sebastian H; Graf, Elisabeth; Buchert, Rebecca; Borck, Guntram; Ekici, Arif; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Munnich, Arnold; Strom, Tim M; Reis, Andre; Colleaux, Laurence



Familial short stature due to a 5q22.1-q23.2 duplication refines the 5q duplication spectrum.  


We identified a maternally inherited 14.2Mb duplication 5q22.1-q23.2 in two female siblings and their mother by molecular karyotyping. Both siblings were small for gestational age and presented with pronounced postnatal growth retardation, mild motor delay, congenital heart disease in one of the siblings, and distinct facial dysmorphism. As this duplication is one of the smallest reported 5q duplications, short stature and facial dysmorphism can be attributed to duplications of 5q22, whereas severe mental retardation is not part of the phenotypic spectrum of the 5q22.1-q23.2 region. Congenital heart defects, as observed in other 5q duplications, have a variable penetrance. We compared the facial features of patients with 5q duplications and found some consistent features such as high arched eyebrows, bulbous nasal tip and small lips with thin vermilion border. PMID:21777705

Zahnleiter, Diana; Trautmann, Udo; Ekici, Arif B; Goehring, Ina; Reis, André; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T



Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children  

E-print Network

Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children Hogrel et al. Hogrel et al. BMC Access Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children Jean-Yves Hogrel1* , Valérie and Dominique Simon5 Abstract Background: Children with growth retardation or short stature generally present

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Food Intake of Children with Short Stature Born Small for Gestational Age before and during a Randomized GH Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of short children born SGA often report that their children have a serious lack of appetite and a low food intake. In this study we investigated food intake, by using a standardized 7-day food questionnaire, in 88 short SGA children before start of GH treatment. The intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of age-matched children. We

V. H. Boonstra; N. J. T. Arends; T. Stijnen; W. F. Blum; O. Akkerman; A. C. S. Hokken-Koelega



Growth during and after a trial of growth hormone releasing hormone 1-29 in children with idiopathic short stature or growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction.  


The growth promoting effects of once nightly subcutaneous injections of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-29 (30 microg/kg) for 6 months were studied in 16 slowly growing prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS; Group 1) and 8 similar children with growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction (GHND; Group 2). Each child underwent endogenous growth hormone evaluation using both pharmacological and physiological testing; each had stimulated values > 10 microg/l and were subsequently placed into one of two groups based on pooled 12-hour overnight GH of < or > or = 3 microg/l. Each patient was followed every three months for one year. There were no significant differences in the two groups throughout the study with the exception of the endogenous GH levels. Both groups responded to GHRH therapy with similar significant increases in their rates of growth. Although a subset of patients (6 of 21) continued to grow at a rate significantly greater than the pre-therapy rate of growth, overall rates of growth were not significantly different from the pre-therapy growth rates 6 months following the discontinuation of GHRH treatment. We conclude that GHRH 1-29, given in the doses provided, leads to similar changes in growth rates in short, slowly growing children who are GH sufficient and those with GHND. Despite prior reports to the contrary, GHND patients do not experience a sustained increased in growth rate upon discontinuation of GHRH. PMID:10905389

Schwartz, I D; Grunt, J A; Berg, S; Jacobson, J D; Moore, W V; Howard, C P



Partial isodisomy for maternal chromosome 7 and short stature in an individual with a mutation at the COL1A2 locus  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 has been described previously in two individuals with cystic fibrosis. Here, the authors describe a third case that was discovered because the proband was homozygous for a mutation in the COL1A2 gene for type I procollagen, although his mother was heterozygous and his father did not have the mutation. Phenotypically, the proband was similar to the two previously reported cases with uniparental disomy for chromosome 7, in that he was short in stature and growth retarded. Paternity was assessed with five polymorphic markers. Chromosome 7 inheritance in the proband was analyzed using 12 polymorphic markers distributed along the entire chromosome. Similar analysis of the proband's two brothers established the phase of the alleles at the various loci, assuming minimal recombination. The proband inherited only maternal alleles at five loci and was homozygous at all loci examined, except one. He was heterozygous for an RFLP at the IGBP-1 locus at 7p13-p12. The results suggest that the isodisomy was not complete because of a recombination event involving the proximal short arms of two maternal chromosomes. In addition, the phenotype of proportional dwarfism in the proband suggests imprinting of one or more growth-related genes on chromosome 7. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Spotila, L.D.; Sereda, L.; Prockop, D.J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States))



Partial isodisomy for maternal chromosome 7 and short stature in an individual with a mutation at the COL1A2 locus.  

PubMed Central

Uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 has been described previously in two individuals with cystic fibrosis. Here, we describe a third case that was discovered because the proband was homozygous for a mutation in the COL1A2 gene for type I procollagen, although his mother was heterozygous and his father did not have the mutation. Phenotypically, the proband was similar to the two previously reported cases with uniparental disomy for chromosome 7, in that he was short in stature and growth retarded. Paternity was assessed with five polymorphic markers. Chromosome 7 inheritance in the proband was analyzed using 12 polymorphic markers distributed along the entire chromosome. Similar analysis of the proband's two brothers established the phase of the alleles at the various loci, assuming minimal recombination. The proband inherited only maternal alleles at five loci and was homozygous at all loci examined, except one. He was heterozygous for an RFLP at the IGBP-1 locus at 7p13-p12. The results suggest that the isodisomy was not complete because of a recombination event involving the proximal short arms of two maternal chromosomes. In addition, the phenotype of proportional dwarfism in the proband suggests imprinting of one or more growth-related genes on chromosome 7. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1463018

Spotila, L D; Sereda, L; Prockop, D J



Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in

Rinie Geenen; Gerdine A Kamp; Jaap Huisman; Jan M Wit; Gerben Sinnema



Short stature, digit anomalies and dysmorphic facial features are associated with the duplication of miR-17?~?92 cluster.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression, playing important roles in development, homeostasis, and disease. Recent experimental evidence indicates that mutation or deregulation of the MIR17HG gene (miR-17?~?92 cluster) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and congenital developmental defects. We report on a 9-year-old boy who presented with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, short stature, mild macrocephaly, lower facial weakness, hypertelorism, downward slanting palpebral fissures, brachydactyly, and clinodactyly. SNP-microarray analysis revealed 516 kb microduplication at 13q31.3 involving the entire MIR17HG gene encoding the miR-17?~?92 polycistronic miRNA cluster, and the first five exons of the GPC5 gene. Family study confirmed that the microduplication was maternally inherited by the proband and one of his five half-brothers; digit and other skeletal anomalies were exclusive to the family members harboring the microduplication. This case represents the smallest reported microduplication to date at 13q31.3 and provides evidence supporting the important role of miR-17?~?92 gene dosage in normal growth and skeletal development. We postulate that any dosage abnormality of MIR17HG, either deletion or duplication, is sufficient to interrupt skeletal developmental pathway, with variable outcome from growth retardation to overgrowth. PMID:24739087

Hemmat, Morteza; Rumple, Melissa J; Mahon, Loretta W; Strom, Charles M; Anguiano, Arturo; Talai, Maryam; Nguyen, Bryant; Boyar, Fatih Z



A novel phenotype characterized by digital abnormalities, intellectual disability, and short stature in a Mexican family maps to Xp11.4-p11.21.  


The family observed in this study included affected males and asymptomatic females. The patients shared specific digital abnormalities including postaxial polydactyly, cutaneous syndactyly, and brachydactyly. In addition, the patients exhibited mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and short stature coupled with microbrachycephaly, scoliosis, and cerebellar and renal hypoplasia. No chromosomal alterations or copy number variations were found in the index case. The genetic linkage analysis, which focused on the X chromosome, and the haplotype analysis detected a ~15.74 Mb candidate region located at Xp11.4-p11.21 with a LOD score of 4.8. Additionally, half of the mothers showed skewed X-inactivation, while the other mothers exhibited random inactivation patterns. The candidate region includes 28 protein-encoding genes that have not yet been implicated in human disorders. We speculate that the observed phenotype is compatible with a monogenic disorder in which the mutant gene plays a significant role during embryonic development. Based on the patients' clinical features, image studies, pedigree, chromosome location, and X-inactivation studies in the mothers, we propose that this family has a novel, specific syndrome with an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. PMID:23307567

Barboza-Cerda, María C; Campos-Acevedo, Luis D; Rangel, Roberto; Martínez-de-Villarreal, Laura E; Déctor, Miguel A




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the relative frequency of specific disorders that present with hypotonia in Iran. Methodology: It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which 107 children with hypotonia, aged one month to three years, were evaluated in Baqyiatallah Hospital between June 2003 and June 2006. Children were categorized into groups of central and peripheral hypotonia, and specific diagnosis of each

Kavehmanesh Z; Khalili Matinzadeh Z


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Latitudinal patterns in human stature and sexual stature  

E-print Network

conditions (Steckel 1983; Eveleth and Tanner 1990). Differences in mean stature between men and women observed to vary between different human populations (Wolfe and Gray 1982a, Gustafs relationships between latitude and stature, building on the idea that variation in climate can influence body

Lindenfors, Patrik


Mutation in The Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase IARS2 in Patients with Cataracts, Growth Hormone Deficiency with Short Stature, Partial Sensorineural Deafness, and Peripheral Neuropathy or with Leigh Syndrome.  


Mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated with a range of clinical phenotypes. Here, we report a novel disorder in three adult patients with a phenotype including cataracts, short-stature secondary to growth hormone deficiency, sensorineural hearing deficit, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and skeletal dysplasia. Using SNP genotyping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a single likely causal variant, a missense mutation in a conserved residue of the nuclear gene IARS2, encoding mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. The mutation is homozygous in the affected patients, heterozygous in carriers, and absent in control chromosomes. IARS2 protein level was reduced in skin cells cultured from one of the patients, consistent with a pathogenic effect of the mutation. Compound heterozygous mutations in IARS2 were independently identified in a previously unreported patient with a more severe mitochondrial phenotype diagnosed as Leigh syndrome. This is the first report of clinical findings associated with IARS2 mutations. PMID:25130867

Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Buhas, Daniela; Majewski, Jacek; Sasarman, Florin; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Thiffaut, Isabelle; Sheldon, Katherine M; Massicotte, Christine; Patry, Lysanne; Simon, Mariella; Zare, Amir S; McKernan, Kevin J; Michaud, Jacques; Boles, Richard G; Deal, Cheri L; Desilets, Valerie; Shoubridge, Eric A; Samuels, Mark E



Deletions of Yq11 associated with short stature and the Turner syndrome. Tentative mapping of a region associated with specific Turner stigmata to proximal interval 5.  

SciTech Connect

Turner syndrome is a complex human phenotype, commonly associated with a 45,X karyotype. Mapping the Turner phenotype is difficult since hidden mosaicisms, partial monosomy and complex rearrangements are present in many affected individuals. In addition, attempts to map the genes involved to the X chromosome have failed to yield a consistent localisation. An alternative approach to map and identify Turner genes is to study XY individuals, with sex chromosome abnormalities, who present with or without characteristic Turner stigmata. We report the analysis of 4 individuals with terminal deletions of Yq. The individuals were azoospermic males without phenotypic abnormalities (2 cases) and azoospermic males presenting with a specific subset of Turner stigmata (2 cases). Breakpoints in each of the cytogenetically detectable Yq deletions were mapped by Southern analysis and Y chromosome-specific sequence tagged sites (STS). Correlation between the patients phenotypes and the extent of their deletion indicate a critical region associated with specific Turner stigmata (cubitus valgus, shield chest, short fourth metacarpals) and growth retardation at Yq at proximal interval 5. These data provide evidence that the somatic features of the Turner syndrome are most likely caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at several loci.

McElreavey, K.; Barbaux, S.; Vilain, E. [Immunogenetique Humaine 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Paris (France)] [and others



Stature and birth rank. A study of schoolchildren in St Helena  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1200 St Helenian schoolchildren were studied in 1973 and 1978 to determine how social factors affected growth. The association of short stature with large family size was confirmed and shown to be concentrated in the earlier members of the sibship. This was independent of birth interval. Association between birth interval and stature was most pronounced for the spacing

C D Moyes



Adult stature and anthropomorphic measurements of patients with myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with myelomeningocele are extremely short, yet little data exists on adult stature and anthropomorphic measurements. We measured the recumbent length, weight, arm length, sitting height and calculated body mass index of 54 adults with myelomeningocele. Mid parental height was also calculated. Measurements were compared with normative data. Patient charts were reviewed for history of hydrocephalus. The 27 males and

Deborah Rotenstein; Margaret Adams; Donald H. Reigel



Juvenile Stature Estimation: A Chilean Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Limited analysis has been conducted for estimating stature derived from the long bone lengths of juvenile skeletons. Juvenile\\u000a stature estimation can be particularly useful in the forensic setting, which may have applications for use as a proxy for\\u000a nutritional health. Stature equations developed by Ruff (Am J Phys Anthropol 133:698–716, 2007) and Smith (J Forensic Sci\\u000a 52:538–546, 2007) derived from

Rebecca Sutphin; Ann H. Ross


[Tall stature: some classical syndromes].  


We describe the findings of XYY syndrome in the setting of encountering an individual with this particular condition in the endocrinology clinic. XYY syndrome is a relatively frequent if unfamiliar condition, which is characterized by taller than average height. The extra Y chromosome may play a role in determining the height of these individuals. From this case, a differential diagnosis of tall stature is outlined, in addition to a description of the principal syndromes associated with gigantism. These primarily include Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, androgen resistance and growth hormone excess. These various entities are described from the point of view of their symptomatology, biology, pathophysiology and therapeutic characteristics. PMID:17020230

Gusbin, N; Verloes, A; Daly, A; Beckers, A



The allometry of metabolism and stature: worker fatigue and height in the Tanzanian labor market.  


If the positive wage-height correlation is at least partially biological in origin, one plausible pathway is the effect of stature on energy expenditure in individuals. If metabolism scales proportionately with stature, then relative to short individuals, taller individuals can produce more energy for a given work task. This also suggests that end-of-the-workday fatigue, or lack of energy, varies inversely with stature. We test this hypothesis with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey in which workers report the extent of their fatigue at the end-of-the-workday. Ordinal latent variable parameter estimates reveal that relative to short workers, taller workers are less likely to report being tired at the end-of-the-workday. This suggests that the positive wage-height relationship also has a biological foundation whereby the energy requirements and metabolic costs associated with work effort/tasks are inversely related to stature. PMID:24004688

Price, Gregory N



Are teeth useful in estimating stature?  


Estimating stature is an important step in reconstructive identification of skeletonized and dismembered human remains. While numerous body parts such as the skull and long bones have been used for the purpose, the dentition has seldom been applied. The present study has ventured to ascertain the usefulness of tooth crown measurements in stature prediction. Buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions of all teeth (except third molars) and stature measurements were obtained from 95 living adults (47 females, 48 males). Correlation analysis revealed that 21 of the 56 tooth crown variables had a low albeit statistically significant correlation to stature (p < 0.05); correlation matrix computed for the crown variables showed significant inter-correlations between most teeth (problem of multi-collinearity). Therefore, instead of regular least square regression analysis, ridge regression was performed for the dentition, which revealed a moderate but statistically significant correlation to stature (R = 0.68; p < 0.0001). The ridge regression equation derived had a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 8.09 cm. The multiple correlation for tooth dimensions is lower to, and the SEE larger than, most other body parts. The moderate correlation is probably due to early completion of growth of tooth crowns vis-à-vis other parameters such as long bones that mature later and have a higher stature-correlation. This indicates that the dentition may be used only as a supplement to more robust indicators of stature. PMID:23756515

Prabhu, Sudeendra; Acharya, Ashith B; Muddapur, Mahadevayya V



Evaluation of stature estimation from the database for forensic anthropology.  


Trotter and Gleser's (1-3) stature equations, conventionally used to estimate stature, are not appropriate to use in the modern forensic context. In this study, stature is assessed with a modern (birth years after 1944) American sample (N = 242) derived from the National Institute of Justice Database for Forensic Anthropology in the United States and the Forensic Anthropology Databank. New stature formulae have been calculated using forensic stature (FSTAT) and a combined dataset of forensic, cadaver, and measured statures referred to as Any Stature (ASTAT). The new FSTAT-based equations had an improved accuracy in Blacks with little improvement over Ousley's (4) equations for Whites. ASTAT-based equations performed equal to those of FSTAT equations and may be more appropriate, because they reflect both the variation in reported statures and in cadaver statures. It is essential to use not only equations based on forensic statures, but also equations based on modern samples. PMID:20345794

Wilson, Rebecca J; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Jantz, Lee Meadows



Stature in Holocene foragers of North India.  


The Ganga Plain of North India provides an archaeological and skeletal record of semi-nomadic Holocene foragers in association with an aceramic Mesolithic culture. Prior estimates of stature for Mesolithic Lake Cultures (MLC) used inappropriate equations from an American White reference group and need revision. Attention is given to intralimb body proportions and geo-climatic provenance of MLC series in considering the most suitable reference population. Regression equations from ancient Egyptians are used in reconstructing stature for MLC skeletal series from Damdama (DDM), Mahadaha (MDH), and Sarai Nahar Rai (SNR). Mean stature is estimated at between 174 (MDH) and 178 cm (DDM and SNR) for males, and between 163 cm (MDH) and 179 cm (SNR) for females. Stature estimates based on ancient Egyptian equations are significantly shorter (from 3.5 to 7.1 cm shorter in males; from 3.2 to 7.5 cm shorter in females) than estimates using the American White reference group. Revised stature estimates from tibia length and from femur?+?tibia more accurately estimate MLC stature for two reasons: a) these elements are highly correlated with stature and have lower standard estimates of error, and b) uncertainty regarding methods of measuring tibia length is avoided. When compared with Holocene samples of native Americans and Mesolithic Europeans, MLC series from North India are tall. This aspect of their biological variation confirms earlier assessments and results from the synergistic influence of balanced nutrition from broad-spectrum foraging, body-proportions adapted to a seasonally hot and arid climate, and the functional demands of a mobile, semi-nomadic life-style. PMID:24374782

Lukacs, John R; Pal, J N; Nelson, Greg C



Birth of a boy with isolated short stature after prenatal diagnosis of a Xp22.3 nullosomy due to an inherited t(X;15) (p22.3;p10) translocation  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Translocations between X and acrocentric chromosomes are rare. We report on the inheritance of a familial t(X;15)(p22.3;p10) translocation in a fetus referred for short long bones. Cytogenetic analysis revealed an unbalanced translocation combined with a three-gene nullosomy. After genetic counseling, a prognosis was established and a healthy boy was delivered. PMID:25356259

Blondeel, E; Molina-Gomes, D; Bouhanna, P; Fauvert, D; Crosnier, H; Dessuant, H; Vialard, F



Does Physical Therapy Improve Outcome in Infants with Joint Hypermobility and Benign Hypotonia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of the frequency of physical therapy on the outcome of infants referred for delayed motor development due to joint hypermobility and benign hypotonia. The study groups comprised 29 infants (8-12 months) who were randomly placed into a monthly and weekly treatment groups. No difference was found between the 2 study group scores on the different

Rina Mintz-Itkin; Tally Lerman-Sagie; Luba Zuk; Taly Itkin-Webman; Michael Davidovitch



Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.



Application of the anatomical method to estimate the maximum adult stature and the age-at-death stature.  


This study focuses on the age adjustment of statures estimated with the anatomical method. The research material includes 127 individuals from the Terry Collection. The cadaveric stature (CSTA)-skeletal height (SKH) ratios indicate that stature loss with age commences before SKH reduction. Testing three equations to estimate CSTA at the age at death and CSTA corrected to maximum stature from SKH indicates that the age correction of stature should reflect the pattern of age-related stature loss to minimize estimation error. An equation that includes a continuous and linear age correction through the entire adult age range [Eq. (1)] results in curvilinear stature estimation error. This curvilinear stature estimation error can be largely avoided by applying a second linear equation [Eq. (2)] to only individuals older than 40 years. Our third equation [Eq. (3)], based on younger individuals who have not lost stature, can be used to estimate maximum stature. This equation can also be applied to individuals of unknown or highly uncertain age, because it provides reasonably accurate estimates until about 60/70 years at least for males. PMID:23907777

Niskanen, Markku; Maijanen, Heli; McCarthy, Donna; Junno, Juho-Antti



Infant Stunting Is Associated With Short Maternal Stature  

PubMed Central

The objectives were to determine the range of maternal height associated with growth velocity of older infants and the magnitude of this association in an indigent population. Maternal height and infant length-for-age z scores (LAZ) were positively correlated at both 6 (n=412, r=0.324) and 12 (n=388, r=0.335) months (P<0.0001) and for maternal heights from 131 to 164 cm. Maternal height is independently associated with infant LAZ and stunting (LAZ

Hambidge, K. Michael; Mazariegos, Manolo; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L.; Cristobal-Perez, Christina; Juarez-Garcia, Lucrecia; Westcott, Jamie E.; Goco, Norman; Krebs, Nancy F.



Short Communication Stature of Juvenile Trees in Response to  

E-print Network

the plants that experienced die-back in burnt plots. Relative growth rate of juvenile trees was significantly suggest that anthropogenic fires stunt the growth of juvenile trees. Keywords: tropical deciduous forests of fire on juvenile tree composition and stat- ure. We compare the relative growth rate and size

Howe, Henry F.


Does constitutional delayed puberty cause segmental disproportion and short stature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the growth of 98 boys and 34 girls with constitutional delay of growth and puberty followed until final height. At presentation chronological age was 14.1 (1.3) years (SD) in the boys and 13.0 (1.3) years in the girls. At presentation all patients were either prepubertal or in early pubertal maturation (4 ml testicular volume in the boys

A. Albanese; R. Stanhope



Stature and weight in boys with the XYY syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stature and weight have been recorded in 11 males with the XYY syndrome from the age of 7 to 13. The mean stature was found to be around the 97.5% upper limit of a normal population, but weight distribution was normal.

Johannes Nielsen; Ursula Friedrich; Eva Zeuthen



Ancient-to-modern secular changes in Korean stature.  


Statural growth in human populations is a sensitive indicator of socio-economic well-being, and improvements in socio-economic status are reflected in secular increases in adult height. In the present study, we investigated the statures of historical Korean societies to show how stature changed over time. Applying Fujii's equation, derived from modern Japanese, to the measurement of femora removed from 15th- to 19th-century Joseon tombs, the average heights of Korean adults during the Joseon dynasty were estimated to be 161.1 ± 5.6 cm and 148.9 ± 4.6 cm for males and females, respectively. Plotting statures for successive historical societies against time revealed that Korean heights remained relatively unchanged through to the end of the 19th century, a pattern that differs from that seen in many Western countries in which stature transiently decreases after the Middle Ages. In contrast, a sharp increase in Korean stature was observed at the beginning of the 20th century, similar to trends seen in other nations (although exact timing varies in different countries). There were no accompanying changes of stature sexual dimorphism. The data reported in this study reflect the unique historical experience of Korea; the relative isolation of Joseon society, the late onset of modernization (at the end of the 19th century), and the later occurrence of industrialization (during the 1960s). PMID:22270697

Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Hwang, Young-Il



[Transplacental or breast milk intoxication to clonidine: a case of neonatal hypotonia and drowsiness].  


We report a case of clonidine poisoning in a breastfed newborn. At 2 days of life, this boy presented a consciousness deficit with drowsiness, hypotonia, and suspected generalized seizures. There were no cardiorespiratory problems outside of progressive central apneas beginning the 5th day. Further initial investigations were normal (extensive biological exams, cranial ultrasonography and transfontanellar Doppler, electroencephalography, and brain MRI study), excluding the main causes of neonatal hypotonia (encephalitis, infection, metabolic disorder). However, new medical questioning revealed maternal daily intake of 0.15 mg clonidine for hypertension during and after pregnancy. Since it was impossible to quantify clonidine quantification in newborn serum and breast milk, a weaning test was performed the 9th day. Twenty-four hours after cessation of breastfeeding, complete regression of symptoms was obtained. Poisoning by clonidine after fetal and neonatal exposure through breast milk is rare but severe enough to simulate a neurological disease. Diagnosis is based on the search for drug use and the cessation of breastfeeding if doubt persists. Recovery of normal examination results is then rapid and complete. PMID:24411570

Sevrez, C; Lavocat, M-P; Mounier, G; Elefant, E; Magnin, S; Teyssier, G; Patural, H



Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).  


Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-independent regression formulae, yielding an average stature for each bone within each taxon. The mean length of each long bone from SH is significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the corresponding mean values in the Neandertal sample. The stature has been calculated for male and female specimens separately, averaging both means to calculate a general mean. This general mean stature for the entire sample of long bones is 163.6 cm for the SH hominins, 160.6 cm for Neandertals and 177.4 cm for early modern humans. Despite some overlap in the ranges of variation, all mean values in the SH sample (whether considering isolated bones, the upper or lower limb, males or females or more complete individuals) are larger than those of Neandertals. Given the strong relationship between long bone length and stature, we conclude that SH hominins represent a slightly taller population or species than the Neandertals. However, compared with living European Mediterranean populations, neither the Sima de los Huesos hominins nor the Neandertals should be considered 'short' people. In fact, the average stature within the genus Homo seems to have changed little over the course of the last two million years, since the appearance of Homo ergaster in East Africa. It is only with the emergence of H. sapiens, whose earliest representatives were 'very tall', that a significant increase in stature can be documented. PMID:22196156

Carretero, José-Miguel; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf



Congenital cataract, muscular hypotonia, developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss associated with a defect in copper metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies of different proteins involved in copper metabolism have been reported to cause human diseases. Well-known syndromes, for example, are Menkes and Wilson diseases. Here we report a patient presenting with congenital cataract, severe muscular hypotonia, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss and cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency with repeatedly low copper and ceruloplasmin levels. These findings were suggestive of a copper metabolism

R. Horváth; P. Freisinger; R. Rubio; T. Merl; R. Bax; J. A. Mayr; Shawan; J. Müller-Höcker; D. Pongratz; L. B. Moller; N. Horn; M. Jaksch



First genomic rearrangement of the RYR1 gene associated with an atypical presentation of lethal neonatal hypotonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal hypotonia is frequently observed with a highly variable clinical presentation. Congenital myopathies that are classically characterized by the presence of structural changes of the muscle fibres such as cores, rods and aggregates have been reported to be occasionally associated with this presentation. However, the identification of the causing defect can be a challenging task in severe neonatal forms of

Nicole Monnier; Annie Laquerrière; Stéphane Marret; Alice Goldenberg; Isabelle Marty; Yves Nivoche; Joël Lunardi



Differential diagnosis of muscular hypotonia in infants: The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS VI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS VI) (OMIM 225400) is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Biochemically, it is characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase (EC due to mutations in PLOD1. This deficiency results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an

Uluç Yi?; Eray Dirik; Cèline Chambaz; Beat Steinmann; Cecilia Giunta



Deletion of PREPL, a Gene Encoding a Putative Serine Oligopeptidase, in Patients with Hypotonia-Cystinuria Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In 11 patients with a recessive congenital disorder, which we refer to as “the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome,” microdeletion of part of the SLC3A1 and PREPL genes on chromosome 2p21 was found. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, nephrolithiasis, growth hormone deficiency, minor facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive, followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood. Since loss-of-function mutations in SLC3A1 are known to cause isolated cystinuria type I, and since the expression of the flanking genes, C2orf34 and PPM1B, was normal, the extended phenotype can be attributed to the deletion of PREPL. PREPL is localized in the cytosol and shows homology with prolyl endopeptidase and oligopeptidase B. Substitution of the predicted catalytic residues (Ser470, Asp556, and His601) by alanines resulted in loss of reactivity with a serine hydrolase-specific probe. In sharp contrast to prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, which require both aminoterminal and carboxyterminal sequences for activity, PREPL activity appears to depend only on the carboxyterminal domain. Taken together, these results suggest that PREPL is a novel oligopeptidase, with unique structural and functional characteristics, involved in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome. PMID:16385448

Jaeken, Jaak; Martens, Kevin; Francois, Inge; Eyskens, Francois; Lecointre, Claudine; Derua, Rita; Meulemans, Sandra; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Waelkens, Etienne; Zegher, Francis de; Creemers, John W. M.; Matthijs, Gert



Differential diagnosis of muscular hypotonia in infants: the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI).  


The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI) (OMIM 225400) is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Biochemically, it is characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase (EC due to mutations in PLOD1. This deficiency results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an abnormal pattern of lysyl pyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) crosslinks excreted in the urine. Because of hypotonia and delay in gross motor development, a neuromuscular disease is usually suspected, and in most cases the diagnosis is considered only very late, after performing an invasive neuromuscular work-up with normal results. We report a 12-month-old boy with kyphoscoliosis and delayed gross motor development, in whom the differential diagnosis of kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI) was initially suspected and successively confirmed by the abnormal urinary ratio of total pyridinolines (LP to HP), and by mutation analysis. We advocate the analysis of urinary pyridinolines in all infants with severe hypotonia which is highly specific and sensitive, quick and inexpensive. PMID:18155911

Yi?, Uluç; Dirik, Eray; Chambaz, Cèline; Steinmann, Beat; Giunta, Cecilia



De novo deletion of chromosome 2q24.2 region in a mentally retarded boy with muscular hypotonia.  


To date, more than 100 cases with a deletion of chromosome 2q have been identified, although studies reporting small interstitial deletions involving the 2q24.2-q24.3 region are still rare. Here, we have described the genotype and the phenotype of a boy with a 5.3 Mb de novo deletion in this region, identified by SNP array analysis. The selected region included 20 genes, of which 4 are prominently expressed in the brain. Their combined haplo-insufficiency could explain the main clinical features of this patient which included mental retardation, severe hypotonia, joint laxity and mild dysmorphic traits. PMID:21211576

Magri, Chiara; Piovani, Giovanna; Pilotta, Alba; Michele, Traversa; Buzi, Fabio; Barlati, Sergio



Mutations in NALCN cause an autosomal-recessive syndrome with severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay.  


Sodium leak channel, nonselective (NALCN) is a voltage-independent and cation-nonselective channel that is mainly responsible for the leaky sodium transport across neuronal membranes and controls neuronal excitability. Although NALCN variants have been conflictingly reported to be in linkage disequilibrium with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, to our knowledge, no mutations have been reported to date for any inherited disorders. Using linkage, SNP-based homozygosity mapping, targeted sequencing, and confirmatory exome sequencing, we identified two mutations, one missense and one nonsense, in NALCN in two unrelated families. The mutations cause an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by subtle facial dysmorphism, variable degrees of hypotonia, speech impairment, chronic constipation, and intellectual disability. Furthermore, one of the families pursued preimplantation genetic diagnosis on the basis of the results from this study, and the mother recently delivered healthy twins, a boy and a girl, with no symptoms of hypotonia, which was present in all the affected children at birth. Hence, the two families we describe here represent instances of loss of function in human NALCN. PMID:24075186

Al-Sayed, Moeenaldeen D; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Albakheet, Albandary; Hakami, Hana; Kenana, Rosan; Al-Yafee, Yusra; Al-Dosary, Mazhor; Qari, Alya; Al-Sheddi, Tarfa; Al-Muheiza, Muhammed; Al-Qubbaj, Wafa; Lakmache, Yamina; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Ghaziuddin, Muhammad; Colak, Dilek; Kaya, Namik



Tics and Shorter Stature: Should We Be Looking for an Association?  

PubMed Central

Background Tic disorders have commonly occurring and well recognized comorbidities including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Shorter stature is not generally appreciated as an associated feature. Methods Case reports and a literature review. Results We describe four recently encountered patients with tics and shorter stature. The literature suggests that in addition to OCD and ADHD, shorter stature may also commonly accompany tic disorders. A variety of neuroendocrine mechanisms have been proposed. Discussion The potential associations between shorter stature and tic disorders and the common comorbidities OCD and ADHD deserve more attention. More research is needed to establish the strength of these associations and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

Holleb, Peter; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger



A syndrome of hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, seizures, delayed and dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and congenital fibre type disproportion.  

PubMed Central

Three unrelated Puerto Rican boys, ranging in age from 3 to 4 years, had marked, central, non-progressive hypotonia, chronic constipation, severe psychomotor retardation, seizures or abnormal electroencephalograph or both, abnormal dermatoglyphics, delayed bone age, dysharmonic skeletal maturation, and preponderance and larger size of type 2 muscle fibres. Additional findings included narrow, high arched palate, prominent nasal root, long philtrum, distended abdomen, and drooling from open mouth. Two of the three patients also had undescended testes, hypertelorism, and tapered fingers. Birth weight, postnatal physical growth, and head size were average. Family and gestational histories and laboratory evaluations were normal. The combination of features observed in the three boys appears to be distinct and to represent a new syndrome. Images PMID:8064821

Qazi, Q H; Markouizos, D; Rao, C; Sheikh, T; Beller, E; Kula, R



Adjustment to the light environment in small-statured forbs as a strategy for complementary resource use in mixtures of grassland species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The biological mechanisms of niche complementarity allowing for a stable coexistence of a large number of species in a plant community are still poorly understood. This study investigated how small-statured forbs use environmental niches in light and CO2 to explain their persistence in diverse temperate grasslands. Methods Light and CO2 profiles and the corresponding leaf characteristics of seven small-statured forbs were measured in monocultures and a multi-species mixture within a biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) to assess their adjustment to growth conditions in the canopy. Key Results Environmental conditions near the ground varied throughout the season with a substantial CO2 enrichment (>70 µmol mol?1 at 2 cm, >20 µmol mol?1 at 10 cm above soil surface) and a decrease in light transmittance (to <5 % deep in the canopy) with large standing biomass (>500 g d. wt m?2) in the multi-species assemblage. Leaf morphology, biochemistry and physiology of small-statured forbs adjusted to low light in the mixture compared with the monocultures. However, the net carbon assimilation balance during the period of low light only compensated the costs of maintenance respiration, while CO2 enrichment near the ground did not allow for additional carbon gain. Close correlations of leaf mass per area with changes in light availability suggested that small-statured forbs are capable of adjusting to exploit seasonal niches with better light supply for growth and to maintain the carbon metabolism for survival if light transmittance is substantially reduced in multi-species assemblages. Conclusions This study shows that adjustment to a highly dynamic light environment is most important for spatial and seasonal niche separation of small-statured forb species in regularly mown, species-rich grasslands. The utilization of short-period CO2 enrichment developing in dense vegetation close to the ground hardly improves their carbon balance and contributes little to species segregation along environmental niche axes. PMID:21385779

Roscher, Christiane; Kutsch, Werner L.; Kolle, Olaf; Ziegler, Waldemar; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef



Geography, insolation, and vitamin D in nineteenth century US African-American and white statures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new source of nineteenth century US state prison records I contrast the biological living conditions of comparable African-Americans and whites. Although blacks and whites today in the US reach similar terminal statures, nineteenth century African-American statures were consistently shorter than those of whites. Greater insolation (vitamin D production) is shown to be associated with taller black and white

Scott Alan Carson



Stature estimation from scapular measurements by CT scan evaluation in an Italian population.  


This study evaluated the correlation between scapula size and stature and developed standard equations in order to estimate stature by CT scan evaluation. A total of 200 healthy Italian subjects (100 men and 100 women, mean age 64.2±12.8years) underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation during pulmonary screening in our department; we measured the stature of each patient with standard anthropometric instruments and then analyzed images to calculate the longitudinal scapular length (LSL) and the transverse scapular length (TSL). The correlation between stature and each parameter measured was analyzed by dividing the population into two groups, males and females, and was examined by simple regression analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Each anthropometric variable showed a significant difference between males and females (p value <0.001). The correlation coefficients (r-values) were LSL=0.74 and TSL=0.51 in males and LSL=0.70 and TSL=0.48 in females. In both sexes the r-values showed a significant correlation between stature and LSL. Our study demonstrates that scapulae can be used for stature estimation; in our sample LSL was found to have a better correlation with stature then TSL. hm=4.247*LSL+93.74 and hf=4.031*LSL+92.38 are the formulae that provide the most accurate stature assessment in males and females respectively. PMID:23485524

Giurazza, Francesco; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Schena, Emilano; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; D'Agostino, Francesco; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Silvestri, Sergio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte



A study of limb asymmetry and its effect on estimation of stature in forensic case work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of commingled, mutilated and skeletal remains in forensic examinations. Bilateral asymmetry is defined as the difference between the measurements of the left and right sides of the human body. While estimating stature from skeletal material as well as from body parts in forensic anthropology case work, asymmetry of the human body

Kewal Krishan; Tanuj Kanchan; John A. DiMaggio



New identification criteria for the Chilean population: Estimation of sex and stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of human skeletal or otherwise unidentifiable remains the assessment of sex is an initial vital element when rendering a biological profile. As such other aspects of the biological profile are sex-specific (e.g. stature and age) and cannot be successfully determined without this preliminary assessment. In addition, the estimation of stature is an essential parameter of the biological

Ann H. Ross; María José Manneschi



The Effects of Muscle Hypotonia and Weakness on Balance: A Study on Prader-Willi and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are two different genetical disorders both characterized, among other features, by muscular hypotonia. Postural control seems to be impaired in both conditions. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and EDS using stabilometric platform…

Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo



Higher Education and the Public Trust: Improving Stature in Colleges and Universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional stature, its development and determination, and strategies for its enhancement in colleges and universities are discussed. Focus is on the fundamental dimensions of stature, how it is affected by the external environment, and what colleges can do to improve it. Chapters are as follow: "Definition and Dimensions of Stature" (higher…

Alfred, Richard L.; Weissman, Julie


De Novo Truncating Mutations in AHDC1 in Individuals with Syndromic Expressive Language Delay, Hypotonia, and Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) for identification of mutations leading to Mendelian disease has been offered to the medical community since 2011. Clinically undiagnosed neurological disorders are the most frequent basis for test referral, and currently, approximately 25% of such cases are diagnosed at the molecular level. To date, there are approximately 4,000 “known” disease-associated loci, and many are associated with striking dysmorphic features, making genotype-phenotype correlations relatively straightforward. A significant fraction of cases, however, lack characteristic dysmorphism or clinical pathognomonic traits and are dependent upon molecular tests for definitive diagnoses. Further, many molecular diagnoses are guided by recent gene-disease association discoveries. Hence, there is a critical interplay between clinical testing and research leading to gene-disease association discovery. Here, we describe four probands, all of whom presented with hypotonia, intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Three of the four also had sleep apnea. Each was a simplex case without a remarkable family history. Using WES, we identified AHDC1 de novo truncating mutations that most likely cause this genetic syndrome. PMID:24791903

Xia, Fan; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Tan, Tiong Yang; Wangler, Michael F.; Scheuerle, Angela E.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Harr, Margaret H.; Sutton, V. Reid; Nalam, Roopa L.; Zhu, Wenmiao; Nash, Margot; Ryan, Monique M.; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Hunter, Jill V.; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Penney, Samantha J.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Plon, Sharon E.; Boerwinkle, Eric A.; Lupski, James R.; Eng, Christine M.; Muzny, Donna M.; Yang, Yaping; Gibbs, Richard A.



De novo truncating mutations in AHDC1 in individuals with syndromic expressive language delay, hypotonia, and sleep apnea.  


Clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) for identification of mutations leading to Mendelian disease has been offered to the medical community since 2011. Clinically undiagnosed neurological disorders are the most frequent basis for test referral, and currently, approximately 25% of such cases are diagnosed at the molecular level. To date, there are approximately 4,000 "known" disease-associated loci, and many are associated with striking dysmorphic features, making genotype-phenotype correlations relatively straightforward. A significant fraction of cases, however, lack characteristic dysmorphism or clinical pathognomonic traits and are dependent upon molecular tests for definitive diagnoses. Further, many molecular diagnoses are guided by recent gene-disease association discoveries. Hence, there is a critical interplay between clinical testing and research leading to gene-disease association discovery. Here, we describe four probands, all of whom presented with hypotonia, intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Three of the four also had sleep apnea. Each was a simplex case without a remarkable family history. Using WES, we identified AHDC1 de novo truncating mutations that most likely cause this genetic syndrome. PMID:24791903

Xia, Fan; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Tan, Tiong Yang; Wangler, Michael F; Scheuerle, Angela E; Zackai, Elaine H; Harr, Margaret H; Sutton, V Reid; Nalam, Roopa L; Zhu, Wenmiao; Nash, Margot; Ryan, Monique M; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Hunter, Jill V; Deardorff, Matthew A; Penney, Samantha J; Beaudet, Arthur L; Plon, Sharon E; Boerwinkle, Eric A; Lupski, James R; Eng, Christine M; Muzny, Donna M; Yang, Yaping; Gibbs, Richard A



Patterns of Ancestry, Signatures of Natural Selection, and Genetic Association with Stature in Western African Pygmies  

PubMed Central

African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. PMID:22570615

Jarvis, Joseph P.; Ferwerda, Bart; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Beggs, William; Hoffman, Gabriel; Mezey, Jason; Tishkoff, Sarah A.



Final height of short subjects of low birth weight with and without growth hormone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo compare final height in two groups of low birth weight children examined for short stature: the first group untreated because of normal growth hormone (GH) secretion, the second treated with human growth hormone (hGH) because of abnormal secretion.METHODSA total of 49 subjects born at term of birth weight below the 10th centile were consecutively examined for idiopathic short stature.

S Zucchini; E Cacciari; A Balsamo; A Cicognani; D Tassinari; E Barbieri; S Gualandi



Using scapular measurements in regression formulae for the estimation of stature.  


There are very few papers in forensic literature in which scapular dimensions have been used for estimation of living stature. Allowing the forensic duty to estimate the living stature of skeletal remains, using intact or fragmented scapulae, the Authors have performed multiple regression analysis between the measurements taken from 80 scapula (40 male and 40 female) belonging to a skeletal collection with anthropometric known data. Seven parameters (max length, max breadth, max acrocoracoid distance, length of acromion, max length of coracoid, length of glenoid cavity, width of glenoid cavity) have been recorded. By statistical analysis multiple and linear regressions have been obtained. The results show that living stature may be determined by using regression formulae of single or associated parameters taken from whole or fragmented scapulae. In absence of intact or fragmented long limb bones, scapula sample can be reliably employed for the estimation of stature in forensic practice. PMID:10874984

Campobasso, C P; Di Vella, G; Introna, F



A novel homozygous mutation in FGFR3 causes tall stature, severe lateral tibial deviation, scoliosis, hearing impairment, camptodactyly, and arachnodactyly.  


Most reported mutations in the FGFR3 gene are dominant activating mutations that cause a variety of short-limbed bone dysplasias including achondroplasia and syndromic craniosynostosis. We report the phenotype and underlying molecular abnormality in two brothers, born to first cousin parents. The clinical picture is characterized by tall stature and severe skeletal abnormalities leading to inability to walk, with camptodactyly, arachnodactyly, and scoliosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous novel missense mutation in the FGFR3 gene in exon 12 (NM_000142.4:c.1637C>A: p.(Thr546Lys)). The variant is found in the kinase domain of the protein and is predicted to be pathogenic. It is located near a known hotspot for hypochondroplasia. This is the first report of a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in FGFR3 in human that results in a skeletal overgrowth syndrome. PMID:24864036

Makrythanasis, Periklis; Temtamy, Samia; Aglan, Mona S; Otaify, Ghada A; Hamamy, Hanan; Antonarakis, Stylianos E



Assessment and treatment of short stature in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease: a consensus statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth failure is a clinically important issue in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with significant\\u000a morbidity and mortality. Many factors contribute to impaired growth in these children, including abnormalities in the growth\\u000a hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis, malnutrition, acidosis, and renal bone disease. The management of\\u000a growth failure in children with CKD is complicated by

John D. Mahan; Bradley A. Warady



Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:World-wide obesity has risen to alarming levels. We present experimental support for a new and very challenging hypothesis linking obesity, voracity, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, to the consumption of elevated amounts of the amino-acid glutamate (GLU). Supraphysiological doses of GLU are toxic for neuronal cells.Methods:Human data were obtained from 807 592 German conscripts born between 1974 and 1978, and

M Hermanussen; A P García; M Sunder; M Voigt; V Salazar; J A F Tresguerres



Unusual calcium deposition in cartilage associated with short stature and peculiar facial features: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7-year-old girl with unusual facial features, punctate calcifications of the cartilage and congenital conductive deafness is presented. It is suggested that this case may represent a hitherto undescribed syndrome since the findings in this patient do not fit into any of the well described disorders such as Conradi's disease, oto-palato-digital syndrome or cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome.

Burhan Say; Sevim Balci; Tugrul Pirnar; Richard Israel; Metin Atasu



PHOG, a candidate gene for involvement in the short stature of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

DDBJ\\/EMBL\\/GenBank accession no. U89331 The abnormalities seen in Turner syndrome (mono- somy X) presumably result from haploinsufficiency of certain genes on the X chromosome. Gene dosage considerations lead to the prediction that the culpable genes escape X inactivation and have functional ho- mologs on the Y chromosome. Among the genes with these characteristics are those residing in the pseu- doautosomal

Jay W. Ellison; Zabihullah Wardak; Marian F. Young; Pamela Gehron Robey; Marion Laig-Webster; Winston Chiong



Estimation of stature from maxillo-facial anthropometry in a central Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: For establishing identity, stature is an important parameter in medico-legal and forensic examination. Aims: To estimate stature from facial parameters. Setting and Design: Prospective study conducted from December 2007 to September 2008 in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 470 healthy medical students were taken, comprising 260 males and 210 females in the age group of 18 to 24 years. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using regression analysis and correlation coefficient. Results: The average height of males and females was 170.97 (± 6.80) cm and 156.89 (± 5.89) cm respectively. It was observed that in males the total facial height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±6.68 cm. In females, nasal height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±5.78 cm Conclusion: It can be stated that percutaneous facial dimensions are not good predictors of accurate stature estimation and can be used when other parameters are not available PMID:23087580

Wankhede, Kanchankumar P; Kamdi, Namdeo Y; Parchand, Madhukar P; Anjankar, Vaibhav P; Bardale, Rajesh V



Estimation of living stature from selected anthropometric (soft tissue) measurements: applications for forensic anthropology.  


Estimation of living stature has obvious utility in the identification process. Typically, anthropologists estimate stature from the measurement of long bone length. This type of analysis is traditionally conducted on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, so collection of the necessary bone measurements is relatively simple. As the role of anthropologists expands into medical examiner offices and mass fatality incidents, the analysis of fleshed bodies and body parts is a more common scenario. For stature estimation in these types of cases (e.g., analysis of body portions recovered from an aircraft crash site or from intentional dismemberment), the presence of soft tissue on the human remains would usually necessitate dissection to expose skeletal elements to derive metric data for stature estimation. In order to circumvent this step, this paper provides various formulae that allow for standard anthropometric (i.e., soft tissue) measurements to be used in place of skeletal measurements. Data were compiled from several anthropometric studies (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] and U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey [ANSUR]) and numerous regression models are presented. Results are compared between skeletal measurements and the anthropometric measurements from each study. It was found that the ANSUR models are similar to the skeletal models, while the NHANES models exhibit weaker correlation coefficients and higher standard errors. Overall, this study finds that stature estimates derived from anthropometric data provide good results and remove the necessity for dissection when working with fleshed body portions. PMID:19486443

Adams, Bradley J; Herrmann, Nicholas P



Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123  

PubMed Central

Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ?2 (all P < 0.001); bone and bone mineral mass scaled to height with powers > 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ?2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo



Blood pressure and stature in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative persons  

PubMed Central

To evaluate vital signs and body indices in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) positive and negative persons. A total of 22 centres entered the study. They were spread over the whole country, corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population. A total of 1818 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study, randomly selected out of 38147 subjects. H. pylori infection was investigated by means of a 13C-urea breath test. Data on height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were collected at the clinics of general practitioners. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 30.4% (402/1321) in adults (? 18 year-old) and 5.2% (26/497) in children and adolescents (? 17 year-old). Once adjusted for age and gender, only a difference in body mass index remained statistically significant with H. pylori positive adults showing an increase of 0.6 kg/m2 in body mass index. Once adjusted for age and gender, we found a difference in height between H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative children and adolescents. On further adjustment for place of residence, this difference became statistically significant, with H. pylori positive children and adolescents being on average 3.5 cm shorter. H. pylori positive adults were significantly older compared to H. pylori negative subjects. Once adjusted for age and gender, H. pylori infection had no impact on body weight, body mass index and vital signs either in adults or children and adolescents. Chronic H. pylori infection appeared to be associated with short stature in children. H. pylori infection did not influence blood pressure, body weight and body mass index either in adults or children and adolescents. PMID:24914321

Kopacova, Marcela; Koupil, Ilona; Seifert, Bohumil; Fendrichova, Miluska Skodova; Spirkova, Jana; Vorisek, Viktor; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Douda, Tomas; Tacheci, Ilja; Bures, Jan



Long term sequelae of sex steroid treatment in the management of constitutionally tall stature.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To evaluate possible long term side effects of high doses of sex steroids in the management of constitutionally tall stature, with special attention to hypothalamic-gonadal function. METHODS--Sixty four tall adult men and 180 tall adult women, who received supraphysiological doses of sex hormones during puberty, were interviewed in a standardised way at a mean follow up period of 10 years after cessation of treatment. Sixty one untreated tall adult men and 94 untreated tall adult women served as controls. RESULTS--The majority of the subjects were satisfied with their decision regarding hormone treatment. Seventy seven per cent of the women and 78% of the men reported one or more side effects during treatment. Most side effects were mild. In women, only 3% stopped treatment because of an adverse event; in men, the reported side effects never stopped treatment. The frequency of reported side effects in women was higher during treatment with high doses of oestrogens than during oral contraceptive use, indicating a dose dependent relationship. Amenorrhoea of longer than six months after cessation of therapy was found in 5%. Menstrual cycle characteristics of previously treated women were comparable with controls. Malignancy was not reported. Information about a total of 127 pregnancies was obtained and revealed no distinct differences in details and outcome between previously treated women and men, and controls. CONCLUSIONS--At a mean follow up of 10 years there is no evidence that pharmacological doses of sex hormones have a long term effect on reproductive function. However, this period is still too short to draw definite conclusions. PMID:7492194

de Waal, W J; Torn, M; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S M; Aarsen, R S; Drop, S L



Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life expectancy of stems; or (4) the tree form. • Methods A stratified random sample of 300 birch trees was drawn from the total population of indigenous birch woodlands and scrub in Iceland, yielding 286 valid sample genets. The population was divided into three sub-populations with dominant trees 0–2, 2–4 and 4–12 m tall, referred to as birch scrub, birch scrub-woodland and birch forest, respectively. • Key Results Trees in the scrub population were of more contorted growth form than birch in the scrub-woodland and forest populations. Mean growth rates, mean age and median life expectancies increased significantly with sub-population of greater tree stature. At the population level, annual increment and longevity of birch stems was apparently interrelated as the stems in vigorously growing birch sub-populations had a longer life expectancy than those of slower growth. However, no difference was observed between sub-populations in age-related patterns of extension growth rate. • Conclusions The results were consistent with hypotheses (1), (3) and (4), but hypothesis (2) was rejected. Hence, mountain birch of more vigorous growth attains a greater stature than birch of lesser increment due to faster extension growth rate and a longer lifespan. In addition, the more contorted stem form of scrub populations contributes to their low stature. PMID:15374837




Brachydactyly, distal symphalangism, scoliosis, tall stature, and club feet: a new syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of a kindred with brachydactyly and distal symphalangism, normal stature, pes cavus, and scoliosis were ascertained. The pedigree was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. The combination of clinical and radiological features is believed to be distinct from those previously reported in patients with brachydactyly\\/symphalangism.

D O Sillence



Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years  


2 to 20 years: Boys Stature Weight-for-age percentiles -for-age and NAME RECORD # SOURCE: Developed b (2000). y the National Center ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 AGE (YEARS) AGE (YEARS) 40 95 90 75 50 25 ...


Estimation of stature from hand dimensions of north and south Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to predict the stature of a person using hand length and breadth. The study includes 500 right-hand dominant medical students aged between 20 and 30 years, from northern and southern parts of India, studying in Kasturba medical college, Manipal, India. Hand length was measured ‘between the distal wrist crease and the tip of middle finger

Prateek Rastogi; K. R. Nagesh; K. Yoganarasimha



Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children. Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990. The

J V Freeman; T J Cole; S Chinn; P R Jones; E M White; M A Preece



Short-stepping gait in severe heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background—Patients with severe chronic heart failure seem to take shorter steps than healthy controls when walking on a treadmill and when walking freely along a corridor. In healthy individuals the pattern of walking affects the oxygen cost of exercise, and so this observation might be relevant to the limitation of exercise in heart failure. Method—Length of stride was analysed as stride/stature index in 15 controls, 10 patients with moderate heart failure, 10 patients with severe heart failure, and 10 patients with angina, walking at a constant speed/stature index. Results—The stride/stature index was 0·64 in the controls in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II heart failure, and in patients with angina. It was 0·49 in patients with NYHA class III heart failure. In the patients with heart failure the stride/stature index correlated with exercise capacity determined as peak oxygen consumption Vo2max (R = +0·62, p < 0·005). When healthy controls walked in time to a metronome adjusted to decrease their stride/stature index to approximately that seen in severe heart failure steady-state oxygen consumption increased by a mean of 15%. Conclusions—The length of stride is reduced in severe heart failure, and when healthy controls adopt this gait the oxygen cost of walking is increased. A short-stepping gait may contribute to the limitation of exercise capacity in heart failure. PMID:1467030

Davies, S W; Greig, C A; Jordan, S L; Grieve, D W; Lipkin, D P



Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice.  


Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent studies have been focused on the role of EHMT1 in learning and memory, linked to the ID phenotype of KS patients. In this study we used the Ehmt1(+/-) mouse model, and investigated whether the core features of KS were mimicked in these mice. When comparing Ehmt1(+/-) mice to wildtype littermates we observed delayed postnatal growth, eye opening, ear opening, and upper incisor eruption, indicating a delayed postnatal development. Furthermore, tests for muscular strength and motor coordination showed features of hypotonia in young Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Lastly, we found that Ehmt1(+/-) mice showed brachycephalic crania, a shorter or bent nose, and hypertelorism, reminiscent of the craniofacial dysmorphisms seen in KS. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA levels of Runx2 and several other bone tissue related genes in P28 Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Runx2 immunostaining also appeared to be increased. The mRNA upregulation was associated with decreased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels, the epigenetic mark deposited by Ehmt1, in the promoter region of these genes. Together, Ehmt1(+/-) mice indeed recapitulate KS core features and can be used as an animal model for Kleefstra syndrome. The increased expression of bone developmental genes in the Ehmt1(+/-) mice likely contributes to their cranial dysmorphisms and might be explained by diminished Ehmt1-induced H3K9 dimethylation. PMID:24362066

Balemans, Monique C M; Ansar, Muhammad; Oudakker, Astrid R; van Caam, Arjan P M; Bakker, Brenda; Vitters, Elly L; van der Kraan, Peter M; de Bruijn, Diederik R H; Janssen, Sanne M; Kuipers, Arthur J; Huibers, Manon M H; Maliepaard, Eliza M; Walboomers, X Frank; Benevento, Marco; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Zhou, Huiqing; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M; van Bokhoven, Hans



Validity of self-reported weight and stature of American Indian youth.  


Stature, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained by self-reports and by measurements for 69 American Indian youth, 12-19 years of age, to determine the validity of self-reported values for research and clinical use. Self-reported weight was significantly less than measured weight by 2.64 kg and 2.76 kg for boys and girls, respectively. There was no systematic bias in self-reported stature in either sex. BMI based on self-reported values was significantly less than measured BMI by about 1 kg/m2 in each sex. Reporting errors for weight and BMI were related to measured size, with the greatest underestimates at the highest values of measured weight and BMI. If the patterns observed in this sample exist more widely, self-reported measures may not be acceptable proxies for measured values. PMID:1627578

Himes, J H; Story, M



Age-related stature and linear body segments in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) are prone to severe stunting. A multicenter mixed-longitudinal study\\u000a was conducted to assess age-related stature, sitting height, arm and leg length in XLH patients on continuous treatment with\\u000a phosphate and calcitriol. Mean standard deviation scores (SDS) for all body dimensions were markedly reduced and differed\\u000a significantly among each other at the initial and subsequent

Miroslav Živi?njak; Dirk Schnabel; Heiko Billing; Hagen Staude; Guido Filler; Uwe Querfeld; Marius Schumacher; Anke Pyper; Carmen Schröder; Jürgen Brämswig; Dieter Haffner



Stature and gender determination and their correlation using odontometry and skull anthropometry  

PubMed Central

Background: When the body has been mutilated, it is common to have the extremities or head amputated from the trunk. In concern with forensic odontology, an estimate must have been made based on the correlation of osteometry along with odontometry in determining sex, race and stature. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate and correlate height and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, I.T.S Center for Dental studies and Research, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad (UP) with the representative study subjects of 60 patients as 30 males and 30 females in the age group of 15-25 years. The selected parameters were measured and then correlated to investigate stature and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Results: On linear regression analysis, the selected parameters were found to be statistically significant predictor of height. It was also established by Karl Pearson's coefficient correlation that the left mandibular canine index for female was statistically significant to show sexual dimorphism. Conclusion: In the emerging field of forensic odontology, skull anthropometry, odontometry exhibits stature determination and strong sexual dimorphism. PMID:25125917

Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Devi Charan; Wadhwan, Vijay; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya



Effects of garments on photoanthropometry of body parts: application to stature estimation.  


Person identification from images is an important task in many security applications and forensic investigations. The essence of the problem comes down to measuring key observable anatomical features which can help describing similarities or differences between two or more individuals. In this paper, we examine how different types of garments affect the placement of body markers that enable precise anatomical human description. We focus in particular on landmark positioning errors on the upper limb. Closed-form formulae are provided to compute the maximum likelihood estimate of upper limb length from an image. Subject stature is then predicted from the limb length through a regression model and used as identification criterion. Following initial laboratory experiments, the technique is demonstrated to be invariant to posture and applicable to uninformed subjects in unconstrained environments. Seven technical errors of measurement and statistical tests are quantified empirically from statures obtained by three assessors. Results show that thicker garments produce higher inaccuracies in landmark localisation but errors decrease as placement is repeated, as expected. Overall, comparison to truth reveals that on average statures are predicted with accuracy in excess of 96% for the worst assessor. PMID:24582408

Scoleri, Tony; Lucas, Teghan; Henneberg, Maciej



Changes in muscle activity and stature recovery after active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain.  


Patients with low back pain often demonstrate elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery following spinal loading tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activity and stature recovery in patients with chronic low back pain following an active rehabilitation programme. The body height recovery over a 40-min unloading period was assessed via stadiometry and surface electromyograms were recorded from the paraspinal muscles during standing. The measurements were repeated after patients had attended the rehabilitation programme and again at a six-month follow-up. Analysis was based on 17 patients who completed the post-treatment analysis and 12 of these who also participated in the follow-up. By the end of the six months, patients recovered significantly more height during the unloading session than at their initial visit (ES = 1.18; P < 0.01). Greater stature recovery immediately following the programme was associated with decreased pain (r = -0.55; P = 0.01). The increased height gain after six months suggests that delayed rates of recovery are not primarily caused by disc degeneration. Muscle activity did not decrease after treatment, perhaps reflecting a period of adaptation or altered patterns of motor control. PMID:24582115

Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil



Two families with quadrupedalism, mental retardation, no speech, and infantile hypotonia (Uner Tan Syndrome Type-II); a novel theory for the evolutionary emergence of human bipedalism  

PubMed Central

Two consanguineous families with Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS) were analyzed in relation to self-organizing processes in complex systems, and the evolutionary emergence of human bipedalism. The cases had the key symptoms of previously reported cases of UTS, such as quadrupedalism, mental retardation, and dysarthric or no speech, but the new cases also exhibited infantile hypotonia and are designated UTS Type-II. There were 10 siblings in Branch I and 12 siblings in Branch II. Of these, there were seven cases exhibiting habitual quadrupedal locomotion (QL): four deceased and three living. The infantile hypotonia in the surviving cases gradually disappeared over a period of years, so that they could sit by about 10 years, crawl on hands and knees by about 12 years. They began walking on all fours around 14 years, habitually using QL. Neurological examinations showed normal tonus in their arms and legs, no Babinski sign, brisk tendon reflexes especially in the legs, and mild tremor. The patients could not walk in a straight line, but (except in one case) could stand up and maintain upright posture with truncal ataxia. Cerebello-vermial hypoplasia and mild gyral simplification were noted in their MRIs. The results of the genetic analysis were inconclusive: no genetic code could be identified as the triggering factor for the syndrome in these families. Instead, the extremely low socio-economic status of the patients was thought to play a role in the emergence of UTS, possibly by epigenetically changing the brain structure and function, with a consequent selection of ancestral neural networks for QL during locomotor development. It was suggested that UTS may be regarded as one of the unpredictable outcomes of self-organization within a complex system. It was also noted that the prominent feature of this syndrome, the diagonal-sequence habitual QL, generated an interference between ipsilateral hands and feet, as in non-human primates. It was suggested that this may have been the triggering factor for the attractor state “bipedal locomotion” (BL), which had visual and manual benefits for our ape-like ancestors, and therefore enhancing their chances for survival, with consequent developments in the psychomotor domain of humans. This was put forward as a novel theory of the evolution of BL in human beings. PMID:24795558

Tan, Uner



Combined Genome Scans for Body Stature in 6,602 European Twins: Evidence for Common Caucasian Loci  

PubMed Central

Twin cohorts provide a unique advantage for investigations of the role of genetics and environment in the etiology of variation in common complex traits by reducing the variance due to environment, age, and cohort differences. The GenomEUtwin ( consortium consists of eight twin cohorts (Australian, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, Swedish, and United Kingdom) with the total resource of hundreds of thousands of twin pairs. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of one of the most heritable human complex traits, adult stature (body height) using genome-wide scans performed for 3,817 families (8,450 individuals) derived from twin cohorts from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, and United Kingdom with an approximate ten-centimorgan microsatellite marker map. The marker maps for different studies differed and they were combined and related to the sequence positions using software developed by us, which is publicly available ( Variance component linkage analysis was performed with age, sex, and country of origin as covariates. The covariate adjusted heritability was 81% for stature in the pooled dataset. We found evidence for a major QTL for human stature on 8q21.3 (multipoint logarithm of the odds 3.28), and suggestive evidence for loci on Chromosomes X, 7, and 20. Some evidence of sex heterogeneity was found, however, no obvious female-specific QTLs emerged. Several cohorts contributed to the identified loci, suggesting an evolutionarily old genetic variant having effects on stature in European-based populations. To facilitate the genetic studies of stature we have also set up a website that lists all stature genome scans published and their most significant loci ( PMID:17559308

Perola, Markus; Sammalisto, Sampo; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Martin, Nick G; Visscher, Peter M; Montgomery, Grant W; Benyamin, Beben; Harris, Jennifer R; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Magnusson, Patrik K. E; Spector, Tim D; Widen, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Palotie, Aarno; Peltonen, Leena



Sensory Motor and Functional Skills of Dizygotic Twins: One with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and a Twin Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), the result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2, is a disorder that may include minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, speech delays, cognitive deficits, signs of peripheral neuropathy, scoliosis, and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive…

Smith, Michaele R.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Smith, Ann C. M.



Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being in GH-Treated, Adult PWS Patients: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a congenital alteration of chromosome pair 15. It is characterized by short stature, muscular hypotonia, hyperphagia, obesity, behavioural and emotional disturbances, hypogonadism and partial Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of GH treatment on the…

Bertella, L.; Mori, I.; Grugni, G.; Pignatti, R.; Ceriani, F.; Molinari, E.; Ceccarelli, A.; Sartorio, A.; Vettor, R.; Semenza, C.



Changes in stature following plyometric drop-jump and pendulum exercises.  


The aim of this study was to compare the changes in stature following the performance of plyometric exercises using drop-jumps and a pendulum swing. Eight male participants aged 21.7 +/- 1.8 years with experience of plyometric training gave their informed consent to act as participants. Participants undertook two exercise regimens and a 15-min standing test in a random order. The exercises entailed the performance of 50 drop-jumps from a height of 0.28 m or 50 pendulum rebounds. Participants were instructed to perform maximal jumps or rebounds using a 'bounce' style. Measurements of stature were performed after a 20-min period of standing (pre-exercise), 2-min after exercise (post-exercise) and after a 20-min standing recovery (recovery). Back pain and muscle soreness were assessed using an analogue-visual scale, at each of the above times and also 24 and 36 h after the test. Peak torque during isokinetic knee extension at 1.04 rads-1 was measured immediately before and after the exercise bouts, to assess the degree of muscular fatigue. Ground/wall reaction force data were recorded using a Kistler force platform mounted in the floor for drop-jumps and vertically on the rebound wall for pendulum exercises. Drop-jumps resulted in the greatest (p < 0.05) change in stature (-2.71 +/- 0.8 mm), compared to pendulum exercises (-1.77 +/- 0.7 mm) and standing (-0.39 +/- 0.2 mm). Both exercise regimens resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in stature when compared to the standing condition. Drop-jumps resulted in significantly greater peak impact forces (p < 0.05) than pendulum exercises (drop-jumps = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x body weight, pendulum = 2.6 +/- 0.5 x body weight). The two exercise conditions both invoked a small degree of muscle soreness but there were no significant differences between conditions. Both exercise regimens resulted in a non-significant decrease in peak torque indicating a similar degree of muscular fatigue. Based on the lower shrinkage resulted and lower peak forces, it can be concluded that pendulum exercises pose a lower injury potential to the lower back than drop-jumps performed from a height of 28 cm. PMID:9416012

Fowler, N E; Lees, A; Reilly, T



Syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation with marked hypotonia in early life, severe mental handicap, and difficult adult behavior maps to Xp22.  


An X-linked recessive syndromic form of mental retardation is described in a family in which 10 males in four generations were affected. The main manifestations were severe to profound intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia in childhood, delayed walking, and difficult, aggressive behavior. There was a moderate reduction both in occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) and height and a similar facial appearance, triangular in shape with a high forehead, prominent ears, and a small pointed chin. Linkage analysis located the gene at Xp22 with maximum lod scores of 4.8 at theta = 0.0 for markers mapping between the closest recombination points at DXS7104 and DXS418. The physical length of this region is approximately 6 Mb. Mutations in the GRPR gene and M6b genes were excluded by sequence analysis. Nearby genes in which mutations are known to be associated with mental retardation (RPS6KA3, STK9, and VCXA, B and C), were excluded by position. PMID:12599187

Turner, Gillian; Gedeon, Agi; Kerr, Bronwyn; Bennett, Rachael; Mulley, John; Partington, Michael



Stature estimation based on measurements of the sternal medullary cavity using multidetector computed tomography images of Japanese cadavers.  


Stature estimation using a skeleton is important for the medicolegal investigation of unidentified human remains. The aims of this study were to identify a correlation between stature and measurements of the sternal medullary cavity using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and derive regression equations for stature estimation in the Japanese population. Measurements were conducted on 215 Japanese subjects (107 males, 108 females) who underwent postmortem computed tomography with subsequent forensic autopsy between May 2012 and January 2014. For assessment, MDCT cross-sections through the mid-point of the first costal facets were chosen. The length of a rising diagonal stroke from the bottom left to the top right of the sternal medullary cavity (RS) and the length of a falling diagonal stroke from top left to bottom right of the sternal medullary cavity (FS) were measured. Statistical analyses indicated that both RS and FS were positively correlated with stature regardless of sex. The correlations were stronger for males than for females. The correlation coefficients for RS were higher than those for FS, and standard errors of estimation calculated by regression analysis using RS were lower than those using FS regardless of sex. Measurement of the sternal medullary cavity using MDCT images may be a potentially useful tool for stature estimation, particularly in cases where better predictors such as long bones are not available. PMID:25082372

Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro



Stature, migration and human welfare in South China, 1850-1930.  


This paper offers new evidence on human stature in south China during the second half of the 19th century and early part of the 20th. It is based on the records kept by the Government of Canada of 97,123 Chinese immigrants who were required to pay an entry tax between 1885 and 1949. While the study population included both sexes and all ages from infancy to old age, it was largely male, with most ages falling between 12 and 50. The data reveal an increase of over 4cm in the adult heights of both sexes between 1850 and 1930. They also indicate an upward trend of over 5cm in the heights of adolescent males. The mean heights of male immigrants fall in the lower range of those reported in other studies of stature in south China. The rising trends contrast with a pattern of stagnation and decline reported in other recent findings but are consistent with other recent evidence of increasing economic growth, real wages, and life expectancy in south China during this period. One likely cause of improved well-being is the influence of the migrants' remittances on socioeconomic change in south China. PMID:23200182

Ward, W Peter



Reduced birthweight in short or primiparous mothers: physiological or pathological?  

PubMed Central

Objective Customisation of birthweight-for-gestational-age standards for maternal characteristics assumes that variation in birth weight as a result of those characteristics is physiological, rather than pathological. Maternal height and parity are among the characteristics widely assumed to be physiological. Our objective was to test that assumption by using an association with perinatal mortality as evidence of a pathological effect. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Population A total of 952 630 singletons born at ?28 weeks of gestation in the period 1992–2001. Methods We compared perinatal mortality among mothers of short stature (<160 cm) versus those of normal height (?160 cm), and primiparous versus multiparous mothers, using an internal reference of estimated fetal weight for gestational age. The total effects of maternal height and parity were estimated, as well as the effects of height and parity independent of birthweight (controlled direct effects). All analyses were based on fetuses at risk, using marginal structural Cox models for the estimation of total and controlled direct effects. Main outcome measures Perinatal mortality, stillbirth, and early neonatal mortality. Results The estimated total effect (HR; 95% CI) of short stature on perinatal death among short mothers was 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.3) compared with women of normal height; the effect of short stature independent of birthweight (controlled direct effect) was 0.8 (95% CI 0.6–1.0) among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, but 1.1 (95% CI 1.0–1.3) among non-SGA births. Similar results were observed for primiparous mothers. Conclusions The effect of maternal short stature or primiparity on perinatal mortality is partly mediated through SGA birth. Thus, birthweight differences resulting from these maternal characteristics appear not only to be physiological, but also to have an important pathological component. PMID:20618317

Zhang, X; Mumford, SL; Cnattingius, S; Schisterman, EF; Kramer, MS



Application of Body Mass Index According to Height-Age in Short and Tall Children  

PubMed Central

Background In children with either delayed or accelerated growth, expressing the body mass index (BMI) to chronological age might lead to invalid body composition estimates. Reference to height-age has been suggested for such populations; however its validity has not been demonstrated. Methods Anthropometric data of healthy children were obtained from the German KiGGS survey. We selected three samples with different height distributions representing short stature (mean height SDS: -1.6), normal stature (height SDS: 0), and tall stature (height SDS: +1.6), and compared BMI-for-age and BMI-for-height-age between these samples across the paediatric age range. Differences between samples were tested using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and permutation tests. Results At a given age, BMI was distributed towards lower values in short, and towards higher values in tall subjects as compared to a population with average height distribution. Expressing BMI to height-age eliminated these differences in boys with a short stature from 4 years to 14 years of age, in tall boys from 4 to 16 years, in short girls aged 2-10 years or tall girls aged 2-17 years. Conclusion From late infancy to adolescent age, BMI distribution co-varies with height distribution and referencing to height-age appears appropriate within this age period. However, caution is needed when data about pubertal status are absent. PMID:23951283

Bonthuis, Marjolein; Jager, Kitty J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Verrina, Enrico; Schaefer, Franz; van Stralen, Karlijn J.



RAS-MAPK pathway disorders: important causes of congenital heart disease, feeding difficulties, developmental delay and short stature.  


The disorders described as the neuro-cardio-facio-cutaneous conditions (NCFCs) may all present with symptoms that are common in paediatric practice. They result from germline mutations in genes encoding kinases and other proteins interacting in the RAS-MAPK pathway. This review summarises these disorders, discussing their presenting features and clinical course, identifying overarching similarities and, conversely, features that can help to discriminate one condition from another. The genetic basis and importance of precise clinical diagnosis and molecular diagnostic confirmation when possible is discussed, given each condition's different prognosis, and the need to remain vigilant for specific complications. PMID:20371595

Wright, Emma M M Burkitt; Kerr, Bronwyn



Functional Analysis of Conserved Non-Coding Regions Around the Short Stature hox Gene (shox) in Whole Zebrafish Embryos  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the SHOX gene are responsible for Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis, a disorder characterised by mesomelic limb shortening. Recent investigations into regulatory elements surrounding SHOX have shown that deletions of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) downstream of the SHOX gene produce a phenotype indistinguishable from Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis. As this gene is not found in rodents, we used zebrafish as a model to characterise the expression pattern of the shox gene across the whole embryo and characterise the enhancer domains of different CNEs associated with this gene. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of the shox gene in zebrafish was identified using in situ hybridization, with embryos showing expression in the blood, putative heart, hatching gland, brain pharyngeal arch, olfactory epithelium, and fin bud apical ectodermal ridge. By identifying sequences showing 65% identity over at least 40 nucleotides between Fugu, human, dog and opossum we uncovered 35 CNEs around the shox gene. These CNEs were compared with CNEs previously discovered by Sabherwal et al., resulting in the identification of smaller more deeply conserved sub-sequence. Sabherwal et al.'s CNEs were assayed for regulatory function in whole zebrafish embryos resulting in the identification of additional tissues under the regulatory control of these CNEs. Conclusion/Significance Our results using whole zebrafish embryos have provided a more comprehensive picture of the expression pattern of the shox gene, and a better understanding of its regulation via deeply conserved noncoding elements. In particular, we identify additional tissues under the regulatory control of previously identified SHOX CNEs. We also demonstrate the importance of these CNEs in evolution by identifying duplicated shox CNEs and more deeply conserved sub-sequences within already identified CNEs. PMID:21731768

Kenyon, Emma J.; McEwen, Gayle K.; Callaway, Heather; Elgar, Greg



Thalassemia Major in Adults: Short Stature, Hyperpigmentation, Inadequate Chelation, and Transfusion-Transmitted Infections are Key Features  

PubMed Central

Background: Effective transfusion and chelation have prolonged the quality and longevity of life in thalassemics, who now survive into adulthood. Hence, adult physicians need to be aware of their clinical and laboratory profile and the problems faced by them. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical profile of adult thalassemics. Materials and Methods: Adult (>18 years) thalassemia major patients (n=19) were evaluated clinically and fasting pretransfusion blood samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, kidney and liver function tests, plasma glucose, serum ferritin, and thyroid hormone levels. Results: Average age was 21.65±2.47 years (range 19–28 years), 42.1% had Body mass index (BMI) <18.5. Splenectomy had been performed in 47.4% before reaching adulthood, males significantly outnumbered females (72% vs. 12.5%). Hemoglobin levels <8 g/dl were observed in 31.6% and none had serum ferritin levels in the recommended range suggesting inadequacy of both transfusion and chelation. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was observed in 21.1% patients although kidney functions, serum protein, and albumin were normal in all patients. Electrocardiographic abnormalities, diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism were absent. Five patients (26.3%) had contracted transfusion-transmitted viral infections – 21.1% and 5.3% respectively had antibodies to hepatitis C virus and HIV, while 5.3% were positive for Australia antigen. All patients were receiving chelation therapy – deferiprone alone (78.9%) or along with desferrioxamine (21.1%). Average dose of deferiprone being used was 95±8 mg/kg. Conclusion: Adult thalassemia major patients present with a distinct clinical profile having low BMI, generalized hyperpigmentation, most are splenectomized, have low hemoglobin, inadequate chelation and harbor transfusion-transmitted infections. Adult physician needs to be aware of this profile. PMID:22454828

Prakash, Anupam; Aggarwal, Ramesh



Microcephaly, short stature, and developmental delay associated with a chemotactic defect and transient hypogammaglobulinaemia in two brothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two brothers presented with unusual facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and severe postnatal growth retardation. They both developed eczema in infancy and have had recurrent infections. Additional physical findings in both boys included hypogonadism, flexion contractures, hypoplastic patellae, and scoliosis. Their facial similarity was striking with sloping foreheads, beaked noses, large, protruding ears, and micrognathia. Low levels of serum gammaglobulins

B Say; N Barber; G C Miller; S E Grogg



Microcephaly, short stature, and developmental delay associated with a chemotactic defect and transient hypogammaglobulinaemia in two brothers.  

PubMed Central

Two brothers presented with unusual facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and severe postnatal growth retardation. They both developed eczema in infancy and have had recurrent infections. Additional physical findings in both boys included hypogonadism, flexion contractures, hypoplastic patellae, and scoliosis. Their facial similarity was striking with sloping foreheads, beaked noses, large, protruding ears, and micrognathia. Low levels of serum gammaglobulins and defective chemotaxis were present in both boys in infancy. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was transient and improved, reaching normal levels by 3 1/2 years and 15 months, respectively. Defective chemotaxis and recurrent infections have persisted to the present. Both parents were normal. The mode of inheritance was not clear, as both X linked and autosomal recessive patterns were possible. Although patients with congenital malformations who also had immunodeficiency have previously been reported, immune system abnormalities, especially those of a transient nature, may frequently go unrecognised. Images PMID:3746838

Say, B; Barber, N; Miller, G C; Grogg, S E



In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

Lynn, Richard



Is the length of the sternum reliable for estimating adult stature? A pilot study using fresh sterna and a test of two methods using dry sterna.  


Stature estimation is one of the four attributes of the biological profile obtained from human skeletal remains. The length of the long bones has been consistently used to estimate stature from regression equations, but these may be useless when dealing with fresh or decomposed mutilated remains. Until recently, there was no consistent assessment of the reliability of measurements of the sternum for stature estimation. The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for stature based on measurements of the dry sternum and to assess the reliability of measurements of the fresh sternum in estimating stature. The formulae developed by Menezes et al. and Singh et al. were applied to a sample of 5 known stature skeletons from the identified human skeletal collection curated at the National Museum of Natural History, in Lisbon, Portugal. Testing of these formulae showed that estimated stature confidence intervals do not allow discrimination between individuals with similar stature. The length of the fresh sternum was measured on a sample of 45 male individuals autopsied at the National Institute of Legal Medicine - North Delegation (Porto, Portugal). Cadaver length was regressed on sternum length and a simple linear regression formula was obtained. The regression model provided a 95% confidence interval of 13.32 cm and a correlation coefficient of only 0.329. Compared to other studies, regression formulae based on the length of the sternum provided considerably larger standard errors than that based on long bone lengths. These results suggest that the length of the sternum has limited forensic value and relatively low reliability in estimating stature from mutilated human skeletal remains, either skeletonized or fresh. PMID:22421326

Marinho, Luísa; Almeida, Dina; Santos, Agostinho; Cardoso, Hugo F V



Early-life environment and adult stature in Brazil: An analysis for cohorts born between 1950 and 1980.  


We study the relationship between environmental conditions at birth (GDP per capita and infant mortality rate) and adult stature using cohort-state level data in Brazil for the period 1950-1980. We find that GDP per capita, whose annual percentage growth rate was 4.8% during this period, not infant mortality rate, is a robust correlate of population stature in Brazil. Our results are robust to a battery of robustness checks. Using a useful bracketing property of the (state) fixed effects and lagged dependent variables (heights) estimators, we find that an increase in GDP per capita of the magnitude corresponding to that period is associated with 43-68% of the increase in adult height occurring in the same time span. Income, not disease, appears to be the main correlate of Brazilian population heights in the second half of the 20th Century. PMID:25108192

de Oliveira, Victor Hugo; Quintana-Domeque, Climent



Stature Prediction Equations for Elderly non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American Persons Developed from NHANES III Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop new, nationally representative equations to predict stature for racial\\/ethnic groups of the elderly population in the United States.Design Anthropometric data for stature, knee height, and sitting height for adults aged 60 years or older were collected from a sample of persons in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), a national probability sample of the




A stature-specific concept for uncemented, primary total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Variations in hip anatomy limit the femoral canal fit of standard uncemented hip stems. In addition, there are still issues with leg length discrepancy and offset reconstruction, potentially resulting in impingement, dislocation, and wear. Modular stems with different shapes for femoral canal fit and multiple neck options may improve the outcome and reduce complications. Patients and methods 173 patients (190 hips) received an uncemented THA with 1 of 2 different stem shapes for canal fit and a modular neck for stature-specific hip reconstruction. Median follow-up time was 9 (7–13) years. During the follow-up period, 20 patients died (22 hips) and 12 patients (13 hips) were lost to follow-up. 155 hips were available for evaluation, including clinical and radiological outcome. Results 1 stem was revised for a periprosthetic fracture following trauma; 10 cups and 2 modular necks were revised (1 for breakage and 1 during cup revision). At 10 years, stem survival was 100%, modular neck survival was 99% (CI: 95–100), and cup survival was 94% (CI: 87–97). No leg length discrepancies were measured in 96% of cases. Offset with anatomic lateralization was achieved in 98%. Median Harris hip score was 94 (47–100) and median Merle d'Aubigné score was 16 (10–18). Relevant radiolucent lines and osteolysis were not found. Interpretation The uncemented modular neck, dual-stem system used in this series allows accurate reconstruction of the joint by adapting the implant to the needs of the patient. This may improve the outcome of primary THA, which is supported by the results of this medium-term follow-up evaluation. PMID:20146639

Omlor, Georg W; Ullrich, Hannah; Krahmer, Knut; Jung, Alexander; Aldinger, Gunther



Gene flow and variation in stature and craniofacial dimensions among indigenous populations of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras.  


Populations with histories of outbreeding tend to be taller even in the face of seemingly unchanged health and nutritional circumstances, while inbreeding generally results in a negative correlation between body dimensions and level of inbreeding. Populations that have experienced a positive secular trend in stature and maturation typically have histories of higher outbreeding rates in combination with improved nutritional, health, and economic conditions, suggesting a genetic-environment interaction. In general, Middle American Indians have not experienced a secular trend in stature, nor a substantial increase in their standard of living, but they have experienced varying degrees of admixture with Spanish and African populations since the Spanish Conquest. The relationship between estimated gene flow and variation in several anthropometric dimensions is thus considered in indigenous Mesoamerican populations. Available data on height, sitting height, craniofacial dimensions, and admixture rate of Indian populations from southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras were assembled from the literature. The population mean data on 3,371 adults from 23 populations for males and 18 for females were analyzed by regression with anthropometry as the dependent variable, and log10 of admixture as the independent variable. Admixture was less than or equal to 28.9% in this study and is suggestive of a primarily traditional Indian cultural and economic base. The results suggest that populations with higher admixture tend to be taller, and that the increase in stature is due to greater subischial length in both sexes. A decrease in nasion-menton height, and an increase in nasal breadth, nasal height, and the nasal index is suggested for the dimensions of the craniofacial complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3766716

Little, B B; Malina, R M



Increasing Maternal Age Is Associated with Taller Stature and Reduced Abdominal Fat in Their Children  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age at childbirth continues to increase worldwide. We aimed to assess whether increasing maternal age is associated with changes in childhood height, body composition, and metabolism. Methods 277 healthy pre-pubertal children, born 37–41 weeks gestation were studied. Assessments included: height and weight corrected for parental measurements, DEXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hormonal profiles. Subjects were separated according to maternal age at childbirth: <30, 30–35, and >35 years. Results Our cohort consisted of 126 girls and 151 boys, aged 7.4±2.2 years (range 3–10); maternal age at childbirth was 33.3±4.7 years (range 19–44). Children of mothers aged >35 and 30–35 years at childbirth were taller than children of mothers aged <30 years by 0.26 (p?=?0.002) and 0.23 (p?=?0.042) SDS, respectively. There was a reduction in childhood BMISDS with increasing maternal age at childbirth, and children of mothers aged >35 years at childbirth were 0.61 SDS slimmer than those of mothers <30 years (p?=?0.049). Children of mothers aged 30–35 (p?=?0.022) and >35 (p?=?0.036) years at childbirth had abdominal adiposity reduced by 10% and 13%, respectively, compared to those in the <30 group. Children of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth displayed a 19% increase in IGF-I concentrations compared to offspring in <30 group (p?=?0.042). Conversely, IGF-II concentrations were lower among the children born to mothers aged 30–35 (6.5%; p?=?0.004) and >35 (8.1%; p?=?0.005) compared to those of mothers aged <30 years. Girls of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth also displayed improved HOMA-IR insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.010) compared to girls born to mothers aged <30 years. Conclusions Increasing maternal age at childbirth is associated with a more favourable phenotype (taller stature and reduced abdominal fat) in their children, as well as improved insulin sensitivity in girls. PMID:23527040

Savage, Tim; Derraik, Jose G. B.; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.



Psychopharmacological Treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation of chromosome 15, resulting in infantile hypotonia, obesity, short stature, mild-to-moderate mental retardation and neuroendocrinological abnormalities. A number of behavioral and psychiatric problems such as temper tantrums, self-injurious behavior, impulsiveness, lability of mood, attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder and autistic spectrum disorder are associated with

Pei-Ning Chiou; Li-Ping Tsai



Adaptive survival mechanisms and growth limitations of small-stature herb species across a plant diversity gradient.  


Several biodiversity experiments have shown positive effects of species richness on aboveground biomass production, but highly variable responses of individual species. The well-known fact that the competitive ability of plant species depends on size differences among species, raises the question of effects of community species richness on small-stature subordinate species. We used experimental grasslands differing in species richness (1-60 species) and functional group richness (one to four functional groups) to study biodiversity effects on biomass production and ecophysiological traits of five small-stature herbs (Bellis perennis, Plantago media, Glechoma hederacea, Ranunculus repens and Veronica chamaedrys). We found that ecophysiological adaptations, known as typical shade-tolerance strategies, played an important role with increasing species richness and in relation to a decrease in transmitted light. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio increased, while area-based leaf nitrogen decreased with increasing community species richness. Community species richness did not affect daily leaf carbohydrate turnover of V. chamaedrys and P. media indicating that these species maintained efficiency of photosynthesis even in low-light environments. This suggests an important possible mechanism of complementarity in such grasslands, whereby smaller species contribute to a better overall efficiency of light use. Nevertheless, these species rarely contributed a large proportion to community biomass production or achieved higher yields in mixtures than expected from monocultures. It seems likely that the allocation to aboveground plant organs to optimise carbon assimilation limited the investment in belowground organs to acquire nutrients and thus hindered these species from increasing their performance in multi-species mixtures. PMID:18761496

Dassler, A; Roscher, C; Temperton, V M; Schumacher, J; Schulze, E-D



Body mass prediction from stature and bi-iliac breadth in two high latitude populations, with application to earlier higher latitude humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated that body mass can be estimated from stature and bi-iliac (maximum pelvic) breadth with reasonable accuracy in modern humans, supporting the use of this method to estimate body mass in earlier human skeletal samples. However, to date the method has not been tested specifically on high latitude individuals, whose body form in some ways more closely

Christopher Ruff; Markku Niskanen; Juho-Antti Junno; Paul Jamison



Gender-specific growth patterns for stature, sitting height and limbs length in Croatian children and youth (3 to 18 years of age).  


In a cross-sectional study of growth, 5,155 children (2,591 females, 2,564 males) from the town of Zagreb (Croatia) were measured. Four traits of linear dimensionality (stature, sitting height, arm and leg lengths) were studied in the age span of 3 to 18 years. A significant average annual increase of all four anthropometric parameters were observed up to 14 and 15 years of age in girls and 16 years of age in boys, showing that girls had a shorter growing period. In the prepubertal period until 9 years of age, gender differences were negligible. At the age of 10, boys were overgrown by girls in all parameters due to the earlier onset of puberty in girls. The growth gains for girls, when compared with those for boys, show a different pattern across variables. The female growth advantage remained in a two years period for the limbs length, but in a three year period for stature and the longest, for 4 years, for sitting height. The male predominance in size had an onset at the age of 13 for the limbs and in the age of 14 for stature and sitting height. The patterns of sexual dimorphism in stature and sitting height during growing years are similar to those observed in other populations of Europe. Growth of Croatian children and youth is very similar to that of the tallest European populations. PMID:12974162

Zivicnjak, Miroslav; Naranci?, Nina Smolej; Szirovicza, Lajos; Franke, Doris; Hrenovi?, Jasna; Bisof, Vesna



Homozygous deletion of chromosome 15q13.3 including CHRNA7 causes severe mental retardation, seizures, muscular hypotonia, and the loss of KLF13 and TRPM1 potentially cause macrocytosis and congenital retinal dysfunction in siblings.  


The heterozygous 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (MIM #612001) was first described by Sharp et al. in 2008. So far four patients with 15q13.3 homozygous or compound heterozygous microdeletions have been identified. Here we report a non-consanguineous family with two affected siblings carrying a homozygous microdeletion of ?1.5 Mb at the 15q13.3 locus. They presented with congenital retinal dysfunction, refractory epilepsy, encephalopathy, mental retardation, repetitive hand movements, severe muscular hypotonia and macrocytosis. Dysmorphic facial features are synophrys and bilateral proptosis. The siblings carry a homozygous microdeletion at 15q13.3 of ?1.5 Mb including the genes ARHGAP11B, MTMR15, MTMR10, TRPM1, KLF13, OTUD7A, and CHRNA7. The absence of CHRNA7 has been suggested as a cause of refractory seizures. According to knock-out experiments the deletion of KLF13 could be an explanation for macrocytosis. The homozygous loss of TRPM1 could be a possible explanation for congenital retinal dysfunction. PMID:21596161

Spielmann, Malte; Reichelt, Gabriele; Hertzberg, Christoph; Trimborn, Marc; Mundlos, Stefan; Horn, Denise; Klopocki, Eva



Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.  


The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S



Screening of growth hormone deficiency in short thalassaemic patients and effect of L-carnitine treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) in short thalassaemic patients and effect of L-carnitine therapy in those with hormone deficiency. Material and methods The study included 30 ?-thalassaemic patients aged 13.8 ±1.7 years and 30 children with constitutional short stature as controls. Anthropometric measurements (basal and after 6 months), thyroid profile, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and GH provocation by 2 tests were carried out. Eight patients with inadequate GH response to both clonidine and ITT were given L-carnitine treatment for 6 months. They were re-evaluated (clinically, anthropometrically and in the laboratory by doing GH stimulation test) after 6 months of therapy. Results Twelve (40%) patients had sub-clinical hypothyroidism and 10 (33.3%) had growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Peak GH and growth velocity (cm and standard deviation score [SDS]) were significantly lower while weight (SDS) and weight/height SDS were significantly higher than in patients with constitutional short stature (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between height and target height (cm). Haemoglobin levels, peak GH, IGF-1 and growth velocity (cm & SDS) were significantly higher and the number of blood transfusions was significantly lower in GH deficiency patients after L-carnitine treatment (p < 0.05). Delta changes were higher in height (cm & SDS), estimated mature height and sitting height and lower in target height – height (SDS and cm) six months after L-carnitine treatment in ?-thalassaemic patients with GHD (p < 0.05). Conclusions Growth hormone deficiency is an aetiological factor in thalassaemic patients with short stature. L-carnitine can promote GH secretion and growth. PMID:22371726

Beshlawy, Amal El; Mougy, Fatma El; Gafar, Esmat Abd El; Samir, Hend



Identification and genetic characterization of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene that controls tree stature and reproductive growth in plum  

PubMed Central

Several dwarf plum genotypes (Prunus salicina L.), due to deficiency of unknown gibberellin (GA) signalling, were identified. A cDNA encoding GA 2-oxidase (PslGA2ox), the major gibberellin catabolic enzyme in plants, was cloned and used to screen the GA-deficient hybrids. This resulted in the identification of a dwarf plum hybrid, designated as DGO24, that exhibits a markedly elevated PslGA2ox signal. Grafting ‘Early Golden’ (EG), a commercial plum cultivar, on DGO24 (EG/D) enhanced PslGA2ox accumulation in the scion part and generated trees of compact stature. Assessment of active GAs in such trees revealed that DGO24 and EG/D accumulated relatively much lower quantities of main bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA4) than control trees (EG/M). Moreover, the physiological function of PslGA2ox was studied by determining the molecular and developmental consequences due to ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Among several lines, two groups of homozygous transgenics that exhibited contrasting phenotypes were identified. Group-1 displayed a dwarf growth pattern typical of mutants with a GA deficiency including smaller leaves, shorter stems, and delay in the development of reproductive events. In contrast, Group-2 exhibited a ‘GA overdose’ phenotype as all the plants showed elongated growth, a typical response to GA application, even under limited GA conditions, potentially due to co-suppression of closely related Arabidopsis homologous. The studies reveal the possibility of utilizing PslGA2ox as a marker for developing size-controlling rootstocks in Prunus. PMID:22080981

El-Sharkawy, I.; El Kayal, W.; Prasath, D.; Fernandez, H.; Bouzayen, M.; Svircev, A. M.; Jayasankar, S.



Intersection of economics, history, and human biology: secular trends in stature in nineteenth-century Sioux Indians.  


An unusual confluence of historical factors may be responsible for nineteenth-century Sioux being able to sustain high statures despite enduring adverse conditions during the early reservation experience. An exceptionally long span of Dakota Sioux history was examined for secular trends using a cross-sectional design. Two primary sources were used: One anthropometric data set was collected in the late nineteenth century under the direction of Franz Boas, and another set was collected by James R. Walker in the early twentieth century. Collectively, the data represent the birth years between 1820 and 1880 for adult individuals 20 years old or older. Adult heights (n = 1197) were adjusted for aging effects and regressed on age, with each data set and each sex analyzed separately. Tests for differences between the adult means of age cohorts by decade of birth (1820-1880) were also carried out. Only one sample of adults showed any convincing secular trend (p < 0.05): surprisingly, a positive linear trend for Walker's sample of adult males. This sample was also the one sample of adults that showed significant differences between age cohorts. The failure to find any negative secular trend in this population of Amerindians is remarkable, given the drastic socioeconomic changes that occurred with the coming of the reservation period (ca. 1868). Comparisons with contemporary white Americans show that the Sioux remained consistently taller than whites well into the reservation period and that Sioux children (Prince 1989) continued to grow at highly favorable rates during this time of severe conditions. A possible explanation for these findings involves the relatively favorable level of subsistence support received by most of the Sioux from the US government, as stipulated by various treaties. Conservative estimates suggest that the Sioux may have been able to sustain net levels of per capita annual meat consumption that exceeded the US average for several years before 1893. PMID:7607635

Prince, J M



Effect of full sibs on additive breeding values under the dominance model for stature in United States Holsteins.  


Differences in breeding values between dominance and additive models were examined theoretically and with field data. Data included 5.2 million records on stature from 3.0 million US Holsteins. The largest full-sib family had 29 animals, and 7% of all animals had at least one full sib. The dominance model, which accounted for dominance covariances, included the following effects: management, age, stage of lactation, permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance (one-quarter of dominance variance) as well as a regression coefficient for inbreeding percentage. Two reduced models were also assumed; in the first, the parental dominance effect was removed, and, in the second, the inbreeding regression coefficient was also removed. The correlations between breeding values in the three models were > 0.999, but breeding values of some animals from full-sib families changed > 5 standard deviations of parental dominance. The largest changes were observed for parents with large numbers of full-sib progeny, with limited information from parents, and without individual performance records. On average, the differences were up to four times larger for cows than for bulls and up to five times larger for dams than for sires. The greatest differences in breeding values between the dominance and the additive models were observed for dams with full-sib progeny, female full sibs, and low reliability bulls with full sibs in the extended family. Animals with large amounts of additive information as progeny-tested bulls were influenced little by the inclusion of dominance. Animals with a large proportion of information coming from animals with dominance relationships, such as cows originating via embryo transfer changed the most. PMID:9594402

Varona, L; Misztal, I; Bertrand, J K; Lawlor, T J



Changing patterns of social variation in stature in Poland: effects of transition from a command economy to the free-market system?  


The aim of this analysis was to examine the effects on stature in two nationally representative samples of Polish 19-year-old conscripts of maternal and paternal education level, and of degree of urbanization, before and after the economic transition of 1990. Data were from two national surveys of 19-year-old Polish conscripts: 27,236 in 1986 and 28,151 in 2001. In addition to taking height measurements, each subject was asked about the socioeconomic background of their families, including paternal and maternal education, and the name of the locality of residence. The net effect of each of these social factors on stature was determined using four-factor analysis of variance. The secular trend towards increased stature of Polish conscripts has slowed down from a rate 2.1 cm per decade across the period 1965-1986 to 1.5 cm per decade between 1986 and 2001. In both cohorts, mean statures increase with increasing size of locality of residence, paternal education and maternal education. The effect of each of these three social factors on conscript height is highly significant in both cohorts. However, the effect of maternal education has increased substantially while that of size of locality of residence and paternal education diminished between 1986 and 2001. These results imply that the influence of parental education on child growth cannot be due solely to a relationship between education and income, but is also perhaps a reflection of household financial management which benefits child health and growth by better educated parents, regardless of level of income. In addition they suggest that, irrespective of whether there are one or two breadwinners in the family, it is the mother, more so than the father, who is principally responsible for the extent to which such management best favours child health and growth. The asymmetry between the importance of maternal as against paternal education for child growth, clearly seen in the 1986 cohort, became more accentuated in 2001, after the abrupt transition from a command to a free-market economy in the early 1990s. PMID:16082855

Bielicki, T; Szklarska, A; Kozie?, S; Ulijaszek, S J



Prenatal diagnosis in a mentally retarded woman with mosaic ring chromosome 18.  


We present a pregnant woman with mental retardation and mosaic for ring 18 referred for prenatal diagnosis. Major clinical features included short stature with clinodactyly in feet, foot deformity and club feet, hypotonia, kyphosis, and absence of breast development, low set ears, high arched palate, dental decay and speech disorder. Prenatal diagnosis was carried. Using amniocentesis. The fetus had a normal karyotype described as 46,XX. The fetus was evaluated for clinical features after delivery; she was healthy with no abnormal clinical characterizations. PMID:22090726

Bagherizadeh, Eiman; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Saberi, Seyed Hoseinali; Shafeghati, Yousef



Nonprogressive autosomal recessive ataxia maps to chromosome 9q34-9qter in a large consanguineous Lebanese family.  


Congenital ataxias are a heterogeneous group of predominantly nonprogressive disorders characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay followed by the appearance of ataxia, and often associated with dysarthria, mental retardation, and atrophy of the cerebellum. We performed a genome-wide screen on a large inbred Lebanese family presenting a nonprogressive autosomal recessive congenital cerebellar ataxia associated with short stature (MIM 213200), already described by Mégarbané and colleagues. The disease locus was assigned to a 12.1 cM interval on chromosome 9q34-9qter between D9S67 and D9S312. Differential diagnosis with other hereditary ataxias linked to the same region is discussed. PMID:11506409

Delague, V; Bareil, C; Bouvagnet, P; Salem, N; Chouery, E; Loiselet, J; Mégarbané, A; Claustres, M



Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Scans for Human Adult Stature Identifies Novel Loci and Associations with Measures of Skeletal Frame Size  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide (GW) scans have identified several independent loci affecting human stature, but their contribution through the different skeletal components of height is still poorly understood. We carried out a genome-wide scan in 12,611 participants, followed by replication in an additional 7,187 individuals, and identified 17 genomic regions with GW-significant association with height. Of these, two are entirely novel (rs11809207 in CATSPER4, combined P-value?=?6.1×10?8 and rs910316 in TMED10, P-value?=?1.4×10?7) and two had previously been described with weak statistical support (rs10472828 in NPR3, P-value?=?3×10?7 and rs849141 in JAZF1, P-value?=?3.2×10?11). One locus (rs1182188 at GNA12) identifies the first height eQTL. We also assessed the contribution of height loci to the upper- (trunk) and lower-body (hip axis and femur) skeletal components of height. We find evidence for several loci associated with trunk length (including rs6570507 in GPR126, P-value?=?4×10?5 and rs6817306 in LCORL, P-value?=?4×10?4), hip axis length (including rs6830062 at LCORL, P-value?=?4.8×10?4 and rs4911494 at UQCC, P-value?=?1.9×10?4), and femur length (including rs710841 at PRKG2, P-value?=?2.4×10?5 and rs10946808 at HIST1H1D, P-value?=?6.4×10?6). Finally, we used conditional analyses to explore a possible differential contribution of the height loci to these different skeletal size measurements. In addition to validating four novel loci controlling adult stature, our study represents the first effort to assess the contribution of genetic loci to three skeletal components of height. Further statistical tests in larger numbers of individuals will be required to verify if the height loci affect height preferentially through these subcomponents of height. PMID:19343178

Malkina, Ida; Richards, J. Brent; Hammond, Naomi; Stolk, Lisette; Nica, Alexandra; Inouye, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Stephens, Jonathan; Wheeler, Eleanor; Arp, Pascal; Gwilliam, Rhian; Jhamai, P. Mila; Potter, Simon; Chaney, Amy; Ghori, Mohammed J. R.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ermakov, Sergey; Estrada, Karol; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Williams, Frances M.; McArdle, Wendy L.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Hart, Deborah J.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Barroso, Ines; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Strachan, David P.; Livshits, Gregory; Spector, Timothy D.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Deloukas, Panos



A review of stature, body mass and maximal oxygen uptake profiles of u17, u20 and first division players in brazilian soccer.  


Investigations in the physiological demands of soccer have identified that a significant percentage of energy production in match performance is provided through the aerobic pathways. It is therefore important to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max) of players in order to evaluate their aerobic fitness status and optimize their physical conditioning. However, it is also important to consider the variation of (VO2Max) profiles for soccer players, with differences having been identified in terms of playing position as well as playing style. This paper reviews the academic literature between 1996 and 2006 and reports on the methodologies employed and the values obtained for stature, body mass and (VO2Max) profiles of soccer players of different positions in professional Brazilian clubs at U-17, U-20 and First Division levels. Indirect measurements accounted for the majority of tests conducted at U-17 (70%) and U-20 (84.6%) levels whereas at First Division level almost half of the (VO2Max) evaluations were performed by direct measurements (47.8%). The mean (VO2Max) profiles obtained for outfield players in U-17 was 56.95 ± 3.60 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), 58.13 ± 3.21 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) for U-20 players and 56.58 ± 5.03 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) for First Division players. In Brazil, the U-20 players appear to have highest VO2Max values, however the profiles reported for all outfield positions in U-17 and First Division levels are often lower than those reported for the same category of players from other countries. This may be a reflection of the style of play used in Brazilian soccer. This is further emphasized by the fact that the playing position with the highest VO2Max values was the external defenders whereas most findings from studies performed in European soccer indicate that midfielders require the highest VO2Max values. Key pointsPhysical and physiological differences exist between Brazilian soccer and European soccer.Players in Brazil appear to be shorter in stature, similar in body mass and have a lower overall aerobic capacity to their European equivalentsIn Brazil, there seems to be a physical development phase for players at U-20 level which prepares them for the demands at First Division level. PMID:24149897

Da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas



A Review of Stature, Body Mass and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Profiles of U17, U20 and First Division Players in Brazilian Soccer  

PubMed Central

Investigations in the physiological demands of soccer have identified that a significant percentage of energy production in match performance is provided through the aerobic pathways. It is therefore important to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max) of players in order to evaluate their aerobic fitness status and optimize their physical conditioning. However, it is also important to consider the variation of (VO2Max) profiles for soccer players, with differences having been identified in terms of playing position as well as playing style. This paper reviews the academic literature between 1996 and 2006 and reports on the methodologies employed and the values obtained for stature, body mass and (VO2Max) profiles of soccer players of different positions in professional Brazilian clubs at U-17, U-20 and First Division levels. Indirect measurements accounted for the majority of tests conducted at U-17 (70%) and U-20 (84.6%) levels whereas at First Division level almost half of the (VO2Max) evaluations were performed by direct measurements (47.8%). The mean (VO2Max) profiles obtained for outfield players in U-17 was 56.95 ± 3.60 ml·kg-1·min-1, 58.13 ± 3.21 ml·kg-1·min-1 for U-20 players and 56.58 ± 5.03 ml·kg-1·min-1 for First Division players. In Brazil, the U-20 players appear to have highest VO2Max values, however the profiles reported for all outfield positions in U-17 and First Division levels are often lower than those reported for the same category of players from other countries. This may be a reflection of the style of play used in Brazilian soccer. This is further emphasized by the fact that the playing position with the highest VO2Max values was the external defenders whereas most findings from studies performed in European soccer indicate that midfielders require the highest VO2Max values. Key pointsPhysical and physiological differences exist between Brazilian soccer and European soccer.Players in Brazil appear to be shorter in stature, similar in body mass and have a lower overall aerobic capacity to their European equivalentsIn Brazil, there seems to be a physical development phase for players at U-20 level which prepares them for the demands at First Division level. PMID:24149897

Da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Marins, Joao Carlos Bouzas



Final height of short subjects of low birth weight with and without growth hormone treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM—To compare final height in two groups of low birth weight children examined for short stature: the first group untreated because of normal growth hormone (GH) secretion, the second treated with human growth hormone (hGH) because of abnormal secretion.?METHODS—A total of 49 subjects born at term of birth weight below the 10th centile were consecutively examined for idiopathic short stature. The first group of subjects (n = 20) with normal GH peaks after pharmacological tests (>8 µg/l) spontaneously reached final height. The second group (n = 29) with abnormal secretion were treated with hGH (20 U/m2/week) for 36-84 months. At diagnosis the two groups were of similar height for chronological age and bone age, and had similar target height.?RESULTS—In both groups final height was significantly lower than target height (?0.65 (SEM 0.20) in untreated cases, ?0.61 (0.18) in treated cases). Fewer than one third of subjects had a final height above target height. Final height data of untreated and treated cases were not different. In the treated group the best results were obtained by those subjects who improved their height for bone age after three years of therapy.?CONCLUSIONS—Our subjects with birth weight below the 10th centile remained as short adults with final height below target height. Treatment with hGH 20 U/m2/week in those diagnosed as deficient was not effective, with final results overlapping those of untreated subjects.?? PMID:11259236

Zucchini, S; Cacciari, E; Balsamo, A; Cicognani, A; Tassinari, D; Barbieri, E; Gualandi, S



Shortness of Breath  


... symptoms of heart failure include difficult breathing when lying down (this is a specific symptom of heart ... shortness of breath; coughing at night or when lying down; experiencing shortness of breath with activity; swelling ...


Adult outcome of normal children who are short or underweight at age 7 years.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the adult growth outcome (at age 23) of children who are short or underweight at age 7 years in whom no identifiable pathological cause exists for their poor growth. DESIGN--Longitudinal follow up of a birth cohort. SETTING--The national child development study (1958 birth cohort) of Great Britain. SUBJECTS--523 children with a height or a weight below the fifth centile at age 7. Of these, 70 (13.4%) were excluded because they had a longstanding illness that could account for their poor growth. The remaining 453 subjects, who were followed to age 23, provided the base group from which those with additional data, such as parental height, were obtained. RESULTS--55/174 (31.6%) boys who were short at age 7 became short men; 60/211 (28.4%) girls who were short at age 7 became short women. Among boys who were underweight at age 7, 46/160 (28.7%) were still underweight at age 23, while 61/200 (30.5%) girls underweight at age 7 became underweight women. Having short parents did not increase the probability of being small as an adult. Children with delayed puberty were as likely to remain small as those in whom puberty was not delayed. CONCLUSIONS--One in three normal children who was short or underweight at age 7 became a short or underweight adult. This informs the management of short children and may be valuable when prolonged growth hormone treatment for short stature is being considered. PMID:7711536

Greco, L.; Power, C.; Peckham, C.



The impact of childhood body mass index on timing of puberty, adult stature and obesity: a follow-up study based on adolescent anthropometry recorded at Christ's Hospital (1936–1964)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the impact of childhood body mass index (BMI) on timing of puberty, adult stature and obesity.Design:A retrospective school-based cohort follow-up study.Subjects:A total of 1520 men born between 1927 and 1956 with serial height and weight measurements from the age of 9 to 18, followed up in adulthood at a mean age of 63 years.Measurements:Prepubertal (child) BMI; age at

J Sandhu; Y Ben-Shlomo; T J Cole; J Holly; G Davey Smith



Tall Stature, Insulin Resistance, and Disturbed Behavior in a Girl with the Triple X Syndrome Harboring Three SHOX Genes: Offspring of a Father with Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome but with Two Maternal X Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To describe the tall stature and its possible underlying mechanism in a Caucasian girl (age 12 years and 10 months) with 46,XX (28%)\\/47,XXX (72%) mosaicism and to identify the parental origin of her extra X chromosome. Methods: The fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio was studied. The karyotypes of the girl and her parents as well as the presence of SHOX copies

Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein; Sophia Kitsiou; Ariadni Mavrou; Lela Stamoyannou; Aggeliki Kolialexi; Kyriaki Kekou; Magda Liakopoulou; George Chrousos



Beta Ketothiolase (BKT, mitrochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, short-chain ketoacylthiolase) Organic  

E-print Network

acid disorder What is it? Beta Ketothiolase (BKT) is an inherited organic acid disorder. People with an organic acid disorder cannot properly break down certain components of protein and sometimes fats. This is because the body is lacking a specific chemical called an enzyme. Since the body cannot properly break down protein, certain organic acids build up in the blood and urine and cause problems when a person eats normal amounts of protein, or becomes sick. What are the symptoms? A person with this disorder can appear normal at birth. People with this disorder need to receive follow-up care by a team of professionals that is experienced in treating people with metabolic disorders. The symptoms of BKT include intermittent episodes of severe metabolic acidosis and ketosis accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea and coma that may progress to death. Death or neurological complications can occur. Other symptoms include cardiomyopathy, poor weight gain, renal failure and short stature.

unknown authors


Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children  

PubMed Central

Context: The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. Aims: To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members’ myopia and parents’ socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Results: Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P < 0.001). The myopia shift was correlated to axial length change (P = 0.000) but not correlated to height change. Using multiple regression test, near work was the only significant risk factor for myopia progression (P = 0.022). Conclusions: Our study showed that body height increment was correlated to axial length elongation but not to myopia shift in children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression. PMID:25230963

Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling



Genome-wide association study identified three major QTL for carcass weight including the PLAG1-CHCHD7 QTN for stature in Japanese Black cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carcass weight were previously mapped on several chromosomes in Japanese Black half-sib families. Two QTL, CW-1 and CW-2, were narrowed down to 1.1-Mb and 591-kb regions, respectively. Recent advances in genomic tools allowed us to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in cattle to detect associations in a general population and estimate their effect size. Here, we performed a GWAS for carcass weight using 1156 Japanese Black steers. Results Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significant associations were detected in three chromosomal regions on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 6, 8, and 14. The associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA 6 were in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP encoding NCAPG Ile442Met, which was previously identified as a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide for CW-2. In contrast, the most highly associated SNP on BTA 14 was located 2.3-Mb centromeric from the previously identified CW-1 region. Linkage disequilibrium mapping led to a revision of the CW-1 region within a 0.9-Mb interval around the associated SNP, and targeted resequencing followed by association analysis highlighted the quantitative trait nucleotides for bovine stature in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region. The association on BTA 8 was accounted for by two SNP on the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and corresponded to CW-3, which was simultaneously detected by linkage analyses using half-sib families. The allele substitution effects of CW-1, CW-2, and CW-3 were 28.4, 35.3, and 35.0 kg per allele, respectively. Conclusion The GWAS revealed the genetic architecture underlying carcass weight variation in Japanese Black cattle in which three major QTL accounted for approximately one-third of the genetic variance. PMID:22607022



Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.



Short Notes 557 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

-Herrera and Tschapka, 2005). Most tent roosting bats are members of the family of New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, tent-roosting, tent-building #12;558 Short Notes observation of a phyllostomid bat construct- ingShort Notes 557 INTRODUCTION Twenty-one species of bats around the world have been recorded using

Medellín, Rodrigo


Original Research Article Stature and Sexual Stature Dimorphism in Sweden,  

E-print Network

, as well as between, human popu- lations (Eveleth and Tanner, 1990). As with almost all other morphological an average increase in mean height of about 1 cm/decade took place from 1880 to 1980 (Eveleth and Tanner of a population to decrease (e.g., Eveleth and Tanner, 1990; Komlos, 1998; Steckel, 1983). Much of our knowledge

Lindenfors, Patrik


Redefined genomic architecture in 15q24 directed by patient deletion/duplication breakpoint mapping  

PubMed Central

We report four new patients with a submicroscopic deletion in 15q24 manifesting developmental delay, short stature, hypotonia, digital abnormalities, joint laxity, genital abnormalities, and characteristic facial features. These clinical features are shared with six recently reported patients with a 15q24 microdeletion, supporting the notion that this is a recognizable syndrome. We describe a case of an ~2.6 Mb microduplication involving a portion of the minimal deletion critical region in a 15-year-old male with short stature, mild mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Asperger syndrome, decreased joint mobility, digital abnormalities, and characteristic facial features. Some of these features are shared with a recently reported case with a 15q24 microduplication involving the minimal deletion critical region. We also report two siblings and their mother with duplication adjacent and distal to this region exhibiting mild developmental delay, hypotonia, tapering fingers, characteristic facial features, and prominent ears. The deletion and duplication breakpoints were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and the genomic structure in 15q24 was analyzed further. Surprisingly, in addition to the previously recognized three low-copy repeat clusters (BP1, BP2, and BP3), we identified two other paralogous low-copy repeat clusters that likely mediated the formation of alternative sized 15q24 genomic rearrangements via non-allelic homologous recombination. PMID:19557438

El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Smolarek, Teresa A.; Walker, Martha E.; Schorry, Elizabeth K.; Immken, LaDonna L.; Patel, Gayle; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Lanpher, Brendan C.; Ou, Zhishuo; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Patel, Ankita; Scaglia, Fernando; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau Wai



Minimizing Shortness of Breath  


... pursed-lip breathing. This is one very effective technique that, if used properly, can decrease shortness of ... out slowly, do not force it out. This technique helps to slow down your breathing rate and ...


Managing Shortness of Breath  


... there is much you, your caregiver and the hospice and palliative care team can do for shortness ... of other symptoms at the end of life. Hospice and Palliative Nursing Assistant Core Curriculum . Pittsburgh, PA: ...


Partial monosomy 3p (3p26.2 --> pter) and partial trisomy 5q (5q34 --> qter) in a girl with coarctation of the aorta, congenital heart defects, short stature, microcephaly and developmental delay.  


A 1-year-and-3-month-old girl presented with psychomotor retardation, developmental delay, clinodactyly of the thumb, coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, atrial septal defect, microcephaly, brachycephaly, a small oval face, almond-shaped eyes, a down-turned mouth, a widened nasal bridge, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, long philtrum, low-set large ears and but no craniosynostosis. Oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a -4.79-Mb deletion of 3p26.2 --> pter encompassing CHL1 and CNTN4, and a -19.56-Mb duplication of 5q34 --> qter encompassing MSX2, NKX2-5 and NSD1. The karyotype of the girl was 46,XX,der(3)t(3;5)(p26.2;q34) pat. The present case adds distal 5q duplication to the list of chromosome aberrations associated with coarctation of the aorta. PMID:23072190

Chen, C P; Lin, S P; Chen, M R; Su, Y N; Chern, S R; Liu, Y P; Su, J W; Lee, M S; Wang, W



Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction in Children and Adolescents with Growth Hormone Deficiency or Idiopathic Short Stature – Part 1: A Critical Evaluation of Available Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) reflects the subjective perception of health and includes aspects of well-being and functioning in physical, emotional, mental and social life domains. Nowadays, HrQoL has become a relevant treatment outcome from epidemiological and clinical perspectives and is also broadly employed in health economic analyses. To assess HrQoL generic as well as condition-specific instruments

Anna Levke Brütt; David E. Sandberg; John Chaplin; Hartmut Wollmann; Meinolf Noeker; Monika Bullinger



The Short Run  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Short Run is an economics news and information site. The site features news, reviews, and articles on current economic issues including Bush's tax plan and the minimum wage. The site also offers the latest economic indicators and stock information. Be sure to check out the Studies section, which includes a collection of economic studies from the research economists at the Richmond Federal Reserve Bank. The Short Run is an information-rich site that breathes new life into the study of economics; it will be a welcome bookmark for all Web-savvy economists.


Short Report 1965 Introduction  

E-print Network

(TIRF) and 3D fast spinning-disk conf-up phase (prophase to metaphase), leading to effective membrane accumulation within the cell and a decrease and supplementary material Movie 1). Among the dynamic pool, short-lived caveolae (2 seconds) corresponded to 30

Kirchhausen, Tomas


Short Story Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly described is an instructional activity, the "Short Story Booklet," designed to aid exceptional students in grades 7-12 to put their thoughts on paper. The students write stories using processes of prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing and compile them into booklets. (DB)

Rapp, Patty Clements



Short wavelength laser  


A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

Hagelstein, P.L.



Short Hardiness Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a short, 15-item scale for measuring personality hardiness. Personality hardiness has been found to be a stress/health moderator in a wide range of studies. Still, there are problems with its measurement. The present 15-item scale has ...

P. T. Bartone



Shortness of Breath  


... be caused by many things, including the following: Asthma Other lung diseases, including emphysema (say: "em-fa-see-ma"), which is a lung disease that is most often caused by smoking Heart failure Panic attacks If you are short of breath ...


Troubling Practices: Short Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor



Science Shorts: Spoilage Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's fresh or processed, all food eventually spoils. Methods such as freezing, canning, and the use of preservatives lengthen the lifespan of foods, and we--and the modern food industry--rely on these methods to maintain our food supply. This month's Science Shorts explores the concepts of food spoilage and prevention.



Science Shorts: Building Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

London Bridge is falling down, falling down...Can you finish the song? Although there are various stories that suggest the meaning of this famous nursery rhyme, the London Bridge, which spans the River Thames, did indeed "fall down" several times throughout history. This month's Science Shorts explores what makes bridges stay up. A corresponding activity is included.

Adams, Barbara



Short stem shoulder replacement  

PubMed Central

Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.



Short wavelength laser  


A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

Hagelstein, Peter L. (Livermore, CA)



Guidelines for the Election of Chaired Professors 5-11-00 Preamble: Endowed chairs exist to recognize individuals of international stature who  

E-print Network

. Endowed Chairs serve as an excellent instrument for recruiting exceptional outside faculty candidates approves a candidate, a package goes to the Provost which includes: 1) Nomination letter 2) Letter SEAS Chaired Professors' Committee 5) Outside letters of support with short bios of letter writer 6) CV

Robins, Gabriel


Exome sequencing identifies a novel mutation in PIK3R1 as the cause of SHORT syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance. Case presentation In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing approaches in two patients with clinical features of SHORT syndrome. We report the finding of a novel mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8), as well as a recurrent mutation c.1945C > T (p.Arg649Trp) in this gene. Conclusions We found a novel frameshift mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1929_1933delTGGCA; p.Asp643Aspfs*8) which consists of a deletion right before the site of substrate recognition. As a consequence, the protein lacks the position that interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue of the substrate, resulting in the development of SHORT syndrome. PMID:24886349



Future short-field aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of short takeoff and landing aircraft for improving short-haul air transportation is examined. The contracts with industry to study quiet turbofan short-field aircraft in the short-haul air transportation system are identified. Studies of appropriate propulsion systems are conducted in parallel with the aircraft studies. The objectives of the studies are to: (1) determine economic and social viability of short-haul air transportation, (2) identify critical technology and technology-related problems, (3) define representative aircraft configurations and characteristics to include development and operational costs, and (4) to establish desirable technology advances for improving short-haul transportation systems.

Galloway, T. L.



COMMUNICATION Short communication articles are short scientific entities often dealing  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Short communication articles are short scientific entities often dealing articles Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer.G. & Tardiff, J.A. 2008: Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white


Shortness of Breath and Eating  


... of Breath and Eating Shortness of Breath and Eating Shortness of breath can make eating hard work. If you use all your energy ... tired. Breathe evenly while you are chewing and eating. Stop eating if you need to catch your ...


Online Short Course: The Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking to expand your horizons this summer? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Universe . This short course will explore the ways scientists learn about the universe and the current ideas about the origins and f



Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a recurrent unbalanced translocation (4;21) (p16.3;q22.1): Relevance to the Wolf-Hirschhorn and Down syndrome critical regions  

SciTech Connect

We report on an aneuploidy syndrome due to the unbalanced segregation of a familial translocation (4;21)(p16.3;q22.1) causing a partial 4p monosomy and a partial 21q trisomy. The three affected children presented with severe failure to thrive, short stature, microcephaly, profound hypotonia, and mental retardation. The face, very similar in the three children, is characterized by frontal bossing, upslanting of the palpebral fissures, short nose, and deep set ears, giving the overall appearance of the Down syndrome. The molecular study has defined the aneuploid segment on both 4p and 21q. Most of the Down syndrome critical region was found to be trisomic, while only part of the candidate Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region was deleted, suggesting that this region is not critical for the major malformations characteristic for WHS. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Sebastio, G.; Perone, L.; Guzzetta, V. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy)] [and others] [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy); and others



Running energetics of the North American river otter: do short legs necessarily reduce efficiency on land?  


Semi-aquatic mammals move between two very different media (air and water), and are subject to a greater range of physical forces (gravity, buoyancy, drag) than obligate swimmers or runners. This versatility is associated with morphological compromises that often lead to elevated locomotor energetic costs when compared to fully aquatic or terrestrial species. To understand the basis of these differences in energy expenditure, this study examined the interrelationships between limb morphology, cost of transport and biomechanics of running in a semi-aquatic mammal, the North American river otter. Oxygen consumption, preferred locomotor speeds, and stride characteristics were measured for river otters (body mass=11.1 kg, appendicular/axial length=29%) trained to run on a treadmill. To assess the effects of limb length on performance parameters, kinematic measurements were also made for a terrestrial specialist of comparable stature, the Welsh corgi dog (body mass=12.0 kg, appendicular/axial length=37%). The results were compared to predicted values for long legged terrestrial specialists. As found for other semi-aquatic mammals, the net cost of transport of running river otters (6.63 J kg(-1)min(-1) at 1.43 ms(-1)) was greater than predicted for primarily terrestrial mammals. The otters also showed a marked reduction in gait transition speed and in the range of preferred running speeds in comparison to short dogs and semi-aquatic mammals. As evident from the corgi dogs, short legs did not necessarily compromise running performance. Rather, the ability to incorporate a period of suspension during high speed running was an important compensatory mechanism for short limbs in the dogs. Such an aerial period was not observed in river otters with the result that energetic costs during running were higher and gait transition speeds slower for this versatile mammal compared to locomotor specialists. PMID:12208295

Williams, Terrie M; Ben-David, M; Noren, S; Rutishauser, M; McDonald, K; Heyward, W




E-print Network

in Innovation, Domiciliary Service, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, May 2013 GRANTS DOD Military Suicide Research Consortium August 2013 - present Development and Evaluation of a Brief, Suicide Prevention-Anon Family Groups: Who stays and who drops out? Submitted for publication. #12;Short Vitae 2 2. Short, N. A

Hull, Elaine


Short Proofs for Tricky Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this paper is to demonstrate how certain tricky mathematical arguments can be encoded as short formal proofs for the propositional tautologies representing the mathematical statements. Using resolution as a base proof system for the propositional calculus, we exhibit these short proofs under resolution augmented by one of two principles: the principle of extension, originally suggested by Tseitin,

Balakrishnan Krishnamurthy



SHORT PROGRAMS Materials By Design  

E-print Network

SHORT PROGRAMS Materials By Design Overview The demand for high-performance materials with superior domains such as biomaterials and implants, adhesives, construction materials, and structural materials L O G Y About MIT Professional Education Short Programs: Approximately 40 courses are taught

Entekhabi, Dara


Shorted fractal Sierpinski monopole antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes novel configurations of shorted fractal Sierpinski gasket antenna. The antenna uses half the structure of a conventional Sierpinski gasket antenna and is folded over to be parallel to the ground plane, to form an element similar to that of the inverted L antenna. A quasi log periodic resonance behavior is obtained with a shorting pin placed at

C. T. P. Song; Peter S. Hall; H. Ghafouri-Shiraz



Short History of Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Short History of Radio Astronomy #12;Jansky ­ January 1932 Modified Bruce Array: Harald Friis Background: Penzias & Wilson 1965 · 20 ft Echo Horn (Sugar Scoop): · Harald Friis design #12;Pulsars: Bell

Shirley, Yancy


Shorts due to diagnostic leads  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 m..cap omega... As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened.

Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.



Short implants: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ?10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ?7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ?7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ?7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ?7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika



Long Swarms and Short Swarms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many earthquake swarms at volcanoes last several months, then have a sharp uptick in rate in the hours before eruption. Examples include 2006 Augustine, 8.5 months then 10 hours; 1992 Spurr, 10 months then 4 hours; 1994 Rabaul, ~1 year then 27 hours; 2008 Kasatochi, 6 weeks then 2 days; and 2011 Puyuehue Cordon Caulle, 5 weeks then 2 days. For the well studied Augustine case, broadband data showed that very long period (VLP) energy accompanied 221 of 722 located earthquakes in the 10 hours before the first explosive eruption on 11 January 2006. This was revealed by low-pass filtering and the period of the VLP signal was 50 sec. The Augustine broadband stations were campaign instruments at distances of 2-3 km from the vent. No similar VLP energy has been found in events during the 8.5 month long swarm. Okmok volcano had a short swarm only lasting 5 hours prior to its 12 July 2008 eruption. Low-pass filtering of data from broadband station OKSO, 10 km from the vent, showed that 23 of 42 located events had VLP energy with a period of 30-40 sec. Events from Kasatochi volcano were scanned on station ATKA. Here the broadband station is much farther away at 88 km but the earthquakes in the short swarm 7 August 2008 were much larger with many M>3 events. The station suffered data gaps so only a few hours of data were scanned but numerous events were observed with VLP energy starting just after the P phase. Low-pass filtering showed VLP energy with a period of 10-12 sec. No VLP energy has been found in events of the preceding 6 week long swarm. These observations at three different volcanoes suggest that the short swarms represent a different process than the long swarms. The long swarms likely reflect pressure increases in the surrounding country rock caused by increasing magma pressure. The short swarms in contrast, appear to represent discrete pulses of magma injection at shallow depths. For all three volcanoes the earthquakes looked like typical volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes on short-period stations. This demonstrates that broadband stations are needed at close distances to be able to make the needed observations. The short swarms are very short - a few hours to 2 days - and have important implications for hazards assessments. It is not known how commonly the long swarm-short swarm pairs occur and the false alarm rate is also not known.

McNutt, S. R.



Short Course on Computational Illumination  

E-print Network

Short Course on Computational Illumination Matthew Turk Computer Science Department and Media ArtsD, Media Arts and Science (MIT Media Lab) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) Automatic! · Useful visual cues ­ Presence ­ Location ­ Identity (and age, sex, nationality, etc.) ­ Facial expression

California at Santa Barbara, University of


Science Shorts: Going Through Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's surface is always changing. Much of that change happens because of air, wind, water, and temperature differences. If you have ever observed mud and rocks being carried along by a stream of water after a heavy rain, you have observed the Earth being changed. This month's Science Shorts column investigates how the Earth changes through a process called erosion.

Damonte, Kathleen



SHORT REVIEW Butterfly genomics eclosing  

E-print Network

SHORT REVIEW Butterfly genomics eclosing P Beldade1 , WO McMillan2 and A Papanicolaou3 1 Section to an explosion of genomic data and the emergence of new research avenues. Evolutionary and ecological functional genomics, with its focus on the genes that affect ecological success and adaptation in natural populations

Beldade, Patrícia


Short Communication Keith A. Baggerly  

E-print Network

Short Communication Keith A. Baggerly Jeffrey S. Morris Jing Wang David Gold Lian-Chun Xiao Kevin R from serum samples For our analysis of the data from the First Annual Proteomics Data Mining Conference, not processed. The data set for the First Annual Proteomics Data Mining Conference consisted of both raw MALDI

Morris, Jeffrey S.


Short-term load forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load forecasting (STLF), that is, the prediction of the system load over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. The paper reviews the important role of STLF in the on-line scheduling and security functions of an energy management system (EMS). It then discusses the nature of the load

G. Gross; F. D. Galiana



Long Short-Term Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

"Recurrent backprop" for learning to store information over extended time periods takestoo long. The main reason is insufficient, decaying error back flow. We describe a novel, efficient"Long Short Term Memory" (LSTM) that overcomes this and related problems. Unlikeprevious approaches, LSTM can learn to bridge arbitrary time lags by enforcing constant errorflow. Using gradient descent, LSTM explicitly learns when to store

Sepp Hochreiter; Jürgen Schmidhuber



Short communication Evidence for fatal  

E-print Network

Short communication Evidence for fatal collisions and kleptoparasitism while plunge Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand Plunge-diving is a highly successful strategy for dealing- sion between conspecifics in plunge-diving Australasian Gannets Morus serrator and Cape Gannets Morus

Stockin, Karen


Tetrahymena Mutants With Short Telomeres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomere length is dynamic in many organisms. Genetic screens that identify mutants with altered telomere lengths are essential if we are to understand how telomere length is regulated in vivo .I n Tetrahymena thermophila, telomeres become long at 308, and growth rate slows. A slow-growing culture with long telomeres is often overgrown by a variant cell type with short telomeres

Shawn Ahmed; Hong Sheng; Luming Niu; Eric Henderson



University Policy Process Short Version  

E-print Network

Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Short Version Conduct Analysis Draft Documents Get Approvals. Identify policy owner 3. Assemble team 4. Engage Stakeholders 5. Draft policy 6. Submit proposed policy approves (or not) Do we need a policy? 11. Plan communication & training 12. UPO posts approved policy

Mohanty, Saraju P.


Short communication Corticosterone and stable  

E-print Network

behaviour prior to the breeding season can influence egg mass in Atlantic Puffins Fratercula arctica, the Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica. To do this, we measured d15 N values, which gauge the relative trophicShort communication Corticosterone and stable isotopes in feathers predict egg size in Atlantic


Teaching Conflict in Short Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a balloon metaphor exercise to help students to discover the true dynamics of literary conflict in short fiction. Considers conflict in literary characters, conflict for Artisans and Rationals, and conflict for Guardians and Idealists. Discusses stories with successful resolution of conflict, stories with explosive release of conflict,…

McKenna, John J.



A Short Selection of Advertisements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advertisers constantly thrust quantitative information in our face. Product claims, store enticements, health benefits, and scores of other contexts use short quantitative arguments to catch a reader's eye (and possibly money). This example shows how one can use these ads to bring added content to a quantitative reasoning course.

Boersma, Stuart


Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop  

SciTech Connect

This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.



Once Ever: A Narrative Short  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis book describes the development and production of Once Ever, a short narrative film. The writing, pre-production, shooting, and editing of the film is reviewed. Script drafts and a final budget are included in the appendices. Once Ever concerns a young Chinese immigrant couple who deal with the changes in their new life in the United States. When the

Yu Chen



Matthew Weinberger Final Short Story  

E-print Network

Matthew Weinberger EGL 389 Final ­ Short Story Gary Singularity Gary Simons decided to use realized that they were all using Simons LS-4000 ocular implants to record live video, streaming footage added it to the ToDo list that lived in the corner of his vision in his own corneal implants. Then he

Walter, Frederick M.


Statural growth in Williams-Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous growth of 165 patients (75 girls and 90 boys) with Williams-Beuren syndrome was analysed in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional manner. Mean (±1 SD) length at birth was 48.2±2.6 cm in girls (n=52) and 49.0±3.0 cm in boys (n=65). Intrauterine growth retardation (length below ?2 SD of the normal population) was present in 35% of the girls and

R. Pankau; C.-J. Partsch; A. Gosch; H. C. Oppermann; A. Wessel



Short-term or Working Memory consciousness  

E-print Network

1 Short-term or Working Memory · Limited consciousness related but not identical to idea of short-term R Conrad (1972) · Replicated Conrad's expt w/deaf subjects · Visual Confusion · Short-term memory different uses of one memory system Duration · Apparent Duration in STM: short ­ seconds · Apparent Duration

Coulson, Seana


Genetic mapping of X-linked mental retardation genes with short tandem repeat polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

A number of loci for non-specific and syndromal forms of mental retardation (XLMR) have been mapped to certain regions of the X chromosome. As a prerequisite for molecular identification of several forms of XLMR, we have conducted linkage studies in five families. In family 1, the affected members have severe MR, microcephaly, foot anomalies and digital arches. The most likely location of the gene is between DXS983 and DXYS1. A maximum lod score of 3.0 was obtained with DXS986. In family 2, affected males with moderate MR, spasticity of the lower limbs, and clasped thumbs (probably have MASA syndrome). The gene maps between DXS297 and F8C with a maximum lod score with DXS52. In three families, genes were localized by recombinants but lod scores >2 were not achieved. Family 3 has affected males with moderate MR, microcephaly, short stature, widening of the nasal tip and brachydactyly. The obligate carrier females are normal. The gene was localized to Xp11.3-q21 between SYN1 and DXS1105. In family 4, the affected males have non-specific MR whereas the obligate carrier females are normal. The most likely location of the gene is Xp11.4-p22.1 between MAO-B amd DXS987. Family 5 has affected males with profound MR, seizures, and limb contractures and two of five carrier females with moderate MR and limb contractures. The gene maps between DXS1003 and DXS992 (Xp11.4-p22).

Carpenter, N.J.; Pritchard, J.K. [H.A. Chapman Inst. Med. Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)



Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed  

SciTech Connect

Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))



[Conservative femoral implants. Short stems].  


Uncemented hip replacement matches the best results of classic cemented replacements. With the aim of preserving bone and soft tissue, implants with shorter stems and proximal metaphyseal support have been developed. Likewise, the lack of distal load should avoid cortical diaphyseal remodelling phenomena and the thigh pain of some cylindrical and wedge implants. The resurfacing implant, very popular as a conservative hip replacement in the young adult, has disadvantages associated with the fragility of the neck and with large head metal friction torque. Short stem hip replacement may be a reasonable alternative to classic implants and surface hip replacements. The different designs of conservative short stem implants are analysed, and are classified according to their morphology and biomechanical characteristics. Some medium term series show promising results. PMID:23177948

Valverde-Mordt, C; Valverde-Belda, D



Review of short wavelength lasers  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

Hagelstein, P.L.



Short wavelength magnetic buoyancy instability  

E-print Network

Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by \\citet{Gilman_1970} of the short wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schr\\"odinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by $k$, is large (i.e.\\ short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as $k$ is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate $z$ since, in the large $k$ limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field,...

Mizerski, K A; Hughes, D W



Short-range communication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)



Short communication Fractional Mathieu equation  

E-print Network

Short communication Fractional Mathieu equation R.H. Rand a,b,*, S.M. Sah c , M.K. Suchorsky of Mathieu's equation, x00 þ ðd þ cos t�x ¼ 0; ð10� being an equation which is important in questions the familiar damped Mathieu equation [19]. We begin the paper with a brief introduction to the fractional

Rand, Richard H.


Deeper look into short strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a recent conjecture of Basso we compute three leading nontrivial coefficients in the strong coupling expansion of the anomalous dimensions of short operators in the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] sector of AdS/CFT. We show that our results are consistent with the numerical results obtained using the Y-system and TBA approach earlier thus providing further support to the Y-system conjecture.

Gromov, Nikolay; Valatka, Saulius



Tetrahymena mutants with short telomeres.  

PubMed Central

Telomere length is dynamic in many organisms. Genetic screens that identify mutants with altered telomere lengths are essential if we are to understand how telomere length is regulated in vivo. In Tetrahymena thermophila, telomeres become long at 30 degrees, and growth rate slows. A slow-growing culture with long telomeres is often overgrown by a variant cell type with short telomeres and a rapid-doubling rate. Here we show that this variant cell type with short telomeres is in fact a mutant with a genetic defect in telomere length regulation. One of these telomere growth inhibited forever (tgi) mutants was heterozygous for a telomerase RNA mutation, and this mutant telomerase RNA caused telomere shortening when overexpressed in wild-type cells. Several other tgi mutants were also likely to be heterozygous at their mutant loci, since they reverted to wild type when selective pressure for short telomeres was removed. These results illustrate that telomere length can regulate growth rate in Tetrahymena and that this phenomenon can be exploited to identify genes involved in telomere length regulation. PMID:9755196

Ahmed, S; Sheng, H; Niu, L; Henderson, E



Auditory Short-Term Memory Behaves Like Visual Short-Term Memory  

E-print Network

Auditory Short-Term Memory Behaves Like Visual Short-Term Memory Kristina M. Visscher1* , Elina (2007) Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory. PLoS Biol 5(3): e56. doi:10, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America Are the information processing steps that support short-term

Sekuler, Robert


Effects of Growth Hormone in Chronically Ill Children

- Hurler Syndrome (MPS-1) With Short Stature and Muscle Wasting; - Cerebral Palsy With Muscle Wasting; - Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis With Muscle Wasting and Short Stature; - Crohn’s Disease; - HIV Infection.



Ultra-short pulse generator  

SciTech Connect

An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)



Ultra-short pulse generator  


An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

McEwan, T.E.



Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab



Bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation are linked to deletion of the X chromosome short arm in Turner syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a cardinal feature of X chromosome monosomy, or Turner syndrome (TS). Haploinsufficiency for gene(s) located on Xp have been implicated in the short stature characteristic of the syndrome, but the chromosomal region related to the CHD phenotype has not been established. Design We used cardiac MRI to diagnose cardiovascular abnormalities in four non-mosaic karyotype groups based on 50-metaphase analyses: 45,X (n=152); 46,X,del(Xp) (n=15); 46,X,del(Xq) (n=4); and 46,X,i(Xq) (n=14) from peripheral blood cells. Results Bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) were found in 52/152 (34%) 45,X study subjects and aortic coarctation (COA) in 19/152 (12.5%). Isolated anomalous pulmonary veins (APV) were detected in 15/152 (10%) for the 45,X study group, and this defect was not correlated with the presence of BAV or COA. BAVs were present in 28.6% of subjects with Xp deletions and COA in 6.7%. APV were not found in subjects with Xp deletions. The most distal break associated with the BAV/COA trait was at cytologic band Xp11.4 and ChrX:41,500?000. One of 14 subjects (7%) with the 46,X,i(Xq) karyotype had a BAV and no cases of COA or APV were found in this group. No cardiovascular defects were found among four patients with Xq deletions. Conclusions The high prevalence of BAV and COA in subjects missing only the X chromosome short arm indicates that haploinsufficiency for Xp genes contributes to abnormal aortic valve and aortic arch development in TS. PMID:23825392

Bondy, Carolyn; Bakalov, Vladimir K; Cheng, Clara; Olivieri, Laura; Rosing, Douglas R; Arai, Andrew E



Short rotation Wood Crops Program  

SciTech Connect

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.



18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.  

...Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall...



18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall...



18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall...



18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall...



18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall...



Behaviour of Short Cracks in Airframe Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and applicability of methods based on linear elastic fracture mechanics currently available for predicting short crack behavior are discussed. Emphasis is on the behavior of short cracks in airframe components.



Online Short Course: Gravity and Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's holding you down? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: Gravity and Orbits and find out! This short course will explore concepts related to Earth's universal gravitation and how gravity affects the universe arou



Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with retinoblastoma and interstitial 13q deletions  

PubMed Central

Patients with an interstitial 13q deletion that contains the RB1 gene show retinoblastoma and variable clinical features. Relationship between phenotypic expression and loss of specific neighboring genes are unresolved, yet. We obtained clinical, cytogenetic and molecular data in 63 patients with an interstitial 13q deletion involving RB1. Whole-genome array analysis or customized high-resolution array analysis for 13q14.11q14.3 was performed in 38 patients, and cytogenetic analysis was performed in 54 patients. Deletion sizes ranged between 4.2?kb and more than 33.43?Mb; breakpoints were non-recurrent. Sequence analysis of deletion junctions in five patients revealed microhomology and insertion of 2–34 base pairs suggestive of non-homologous end joining. Milder phenotypic expression of retinoblastoma was observed in patients with deletions larger than 1?Mb, which contained the MED4 gene. Clinical features were compared between patients with small (within 13q14), medium (within 13q12.3q21.2) and large (within 13q12q31.2) deletions. Patients with a small deletion can show macrocephaly, tall stature, obesity, motor and/or speech delay. Patients with a medium deletion show characteristic facial features, mild to moderate psychomotor delay, short stature and microcephaly. Patients with a large deletion have characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism, short stature, microcephaly, mild to severe psychomotor delay, hypotonia, constipation and feeding problems. Additional features included deafness, seizures and brain and heart anomalies. We found no correlation between clinical features and parental origin of the deletion. Our data suggest that hemizygous loss of NUFIP1 and PCDH8 may contribute to psychomotor delay, deletion of MTLR1 to microcephaly and loss of EDNRB to feeding difficulties and deafness. PMID:21505449

Mitter, Diana; Ullmann, Reinhard; Muradyan, Artur; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kanber, Deniz; Ounap, Katrin; Kaulisch, Marc; Lohmann, Dietmar



Genotype-phenotype analysis of 18q12.1-q12.2 copy number variation in autism.  


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by delays in social interactions and communication as well as displays of restrictive/repetitive interests. DNA copy number variants have been identified as a genomic susceptibility factor in ASDs and imply significant genetic heterogeneity. We report a 7-year-old female with ADOS-G and ADI-R confirmed autistic disorder harbouring a de novo 4 Mb duplication (18q12.1). Our subject displays severely deficient expressive language, stereotypic and repetitive behaviours, mild intellectual disability (ID), focal epilepsy, short stature and absence of significant dysmorphic features. Search of the PubMed literature and DECIPHER database identified 4 additional cases involving 18q12.1 associated with autism and/or ID that overlap our case: one duplication, two deletions and one balanced translocation. Notably, autism and ID are seen with genomic gain or loss at 18q12.1, plus epilepsy and short stature in duplication cases, and hypotonia and tall stature in deletion cases. No consistent dysmorphic features were noted amongst the reviewed cases. We review prospective ASD/ID candidate genes integral to 18q12.1, including those coding for the desmocollin/desmoglein cluster, ring finger proteins 125 and 138, trafficking protein particle complex 8 and dystrobrevin-alpha. The collective clinical and molecular features common to microduplication 18q12.1 suggest that dosage-sensitive, position or contiguous gene effects may be associated in the etiopathogenesis of this autism-ID-epilepsy syndrome. PMID:23727450

Wang, Peter; Carrion, Prescilla; Qiao, Ying; Tyson, Christine; Hrynchak, Monica; Calli, Kristina; Lopez-Rangel, Elena; Andrieux, Joris; Delobel, Bruno; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Liu, Xudong; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Suzanne Lewis, M E



Independent Lens Online Shorts Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its creation a few years ago, the Independent Lens series has worked with various filmmakers and producers to create thoughtful portraits. These portraits have included subjects such as the life of Billy Strayhorn, people living with dystonia, and the world of Ethiopian coffee growers. Recently, they also embarked on yet another ambitious project: an online shorts festival. Visitors to this site can partake of all ten of these films at their leisure. Included are a film that explores a Parisian secret from 1951, a meditation of growing old, and an artist who created a monument out of mud, old paint, and adobe. After viewing the films, visitors are also welcome to leave their comments in the "Talkback" section, submit a film or find out more about the members of the jury for this online film festival.


Science Shorts: Energy in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children experience forces at work while on the playground, in gymnasiums, and in toy stores. Scooters, baseball bats, basketballs, and jump ropes all need pushes or pulls to make them move. When objects change shape as they are pushed or pulled, we say they deform . If the object returns to its original shape when the force is removed, we describe the material as elastic . A rubber band, a balloon, and a spring are all elastic. Objects that remain distorted, such as modeling clay, are often categorizedas plastic. Wherever there is motion, energy is always involved. What causes objects to move? This month's Science Shorts helps students explore the concepts relating to force and motion.

Adams, Barbara



Clustering Short Texts using Wikipedia  

E-print Network

Subscribers to the popular news or blog feeds (RSS/Atom) often face the problem of information overload as these feed sources usually deliver large number of items periodically. One solution to this problem could be clustering similar items in the feed reader to make the information more manageable for a user. Clustering items at the feed reader end is a challenging task as usually only a small part of the actual article is received through the feed. In this paper, we propose a method of improving the accuracy of clustering short texts by enriching their representation with additional features from Wikipedia. Empirical results indicate that this enriched representation of text items can substantially improve the clustering accuracy when compared to the conventional bag of words representation.

Somnath Banerjee


Short-Lived Climate Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

Pierrehumbert, R. T.



Physics of Very Short Wavelength Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The motivation and physics issues for scaling particle accelerators to very short wavelengths is discussed. Issues of breakdown, dark current and stored energy argue for short wavelengths to increase accelerator gradients, and beam-beam physics at high energy colliders favor short bunches associated with short wavelength accelerators. However, the strong scaling of transverse wakefields at short wavelengths can lead to head-tail instability and difficult tolerances for the structure's fabrication. Several novel approaches such as photonic band gap structures and plasmas aim to overcome these issues with fundamentally new approaches.

Katsouleas, T. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0271 (United States)



Drop short control of electrode gap  


During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)



Short paths in expander graphs  

SciTech Connect

Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratio in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.

Kleinberg, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rubinfeld, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)



Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason



Short text compression for smart devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short text compression is a great concern for data engineering and management. The rapid use of small devices especially, mobile phones and wireless sensors have turned short text compression into a demand-of-the-time. In this paper, we propose an approach of compressing short English text for smart devices. The prime objective of this proposed technique is to establish a low-complexity lossless

M. R. Islam; S. A. Ahsan Rajon; Anonda Podder



A secure short message communication protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication\\u000a protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public\\u000a key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission\\u000a and dynamic key agreement between mobile

Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia



Similarity effects in short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on phonemic and semantic similarity in short-term memory and concludes that semantic encoding is readily demonstrated in short-term memory tasks, but only when the task requires it, or when slow rates of incoming information are used. To account for this feature of the data, it is proposed that the encoding of information into short-term memory is a

Harvey G. Shulman



Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools  

PubMed Central

Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results. PMID:23758764




E-print Network

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY* Susan Bradyt Abstract. Verbal short-term, 1973; Vellutino, Pruzek, Steger, & Meshoulam, 1973). The repeated finding that short-term memory in verbal short-term memory. We have sup


Extending creep measurements to short times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standard lever arm creep machine (Satec model M-3) is modified to directly measure creep at relatively short times. The modified version of the Satec dead-weight frame can be used to determine momentary creep master curves and to measure short-time creep behavior.

Sullivan, J. L.; Blais, E. J.



Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature of similarity effects in short-term memory has been a focal point of investigations that attempt to discover fundamental similarities or differences between short-term memory and long-term memory. A conclusion common to many of these experiment...

H. G. Shulman



Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers-to-be at the undergraduate level as well as for teachers with experience, this book presents the premise that the short story--with its appropriate length and natural interest for students--is a unique teaching vehicle. Five parts comprise the volume: Part 1 discusses four teaching principles illustrated by actual short

Dunning, Stephen


Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.



Biomass estimation procedures in short rotation forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass estimation procedures in short rotation forestry vary in their methodology, complexity and time demand depending on the specific aim of the estimation operation. In commercial short rotation forestry, estimates of harvestable biomass often are used to decide on harvest timing or continued management and to calculate economic gains under the actual market situation. For research purposes, weight estimates of

Theo Verwijst; Björn Telenius



Short Wavelength Modes 5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Short Wavelength Modes 5.1 Introduction In short wavelength regime (ki) 2 > 1 (cross field wavelength smaller than the ion Larmor radius), the toroidal ITG mode tends to be stabilized is the ion factor. In deuterium plasma with i = 1%, the ratio is approximately 4.3. As the wavelength

Saskatchewan, University of


Short Dental Implants: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic

S. Annibali; M. P. Cristalli; D. Dell’Aquila; I. Bignozzi; G. La Monaca; A. Pilloni



Fisheries Research 86 (2007) 285288 Short communication  

E-print Network

Fisheries Research 86 (2007) 285­288 Short communication A comparison of the effect of three common Three tagging methods ­ T-bar tags, streamer tags and visual implant elastomer (VIE) ­ were tested (95% survival after 60 d). T-bar tags did not significantly affect short-term survival either

Claverie, Thomas


Short chain fatty acids are effective in short-term treatment of chronic radiation proctitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Short chain fatty acids are the main energy source of coloncytes and their use may be impaired in chronic radiation proctitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of short chain fatty acid enemas in patients with chronic radiation proctitis. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing short chain fatty acid enemas with placebo

Anabela Pinto; Paulo Fidalgo; Marília Cravo; Jaime Midões; Paula Chaves; Joaninha Rosa; Maria dos Anjos Birto; Carlos Nobre Leitão



Genetics Home Reference: Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome  


... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome? ataxia ; autosomal ; ... short stature ; stature ; strabismus ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the ...


Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome  


... inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Where can I find information ... chromosomes ; short stature ; spectrum ; stature ; syndrome ; X-linked dominant You may find definitions for these and many ...


Genetics Home Reference: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2  


... inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Where can I find information ... chromosomes ; short stature ; spectrum ; stature ; syndrome ; X-linked dominant You may find definitions for these and many ...


Genetics Home Reference: Neurofibromatosis type 1  


... a condition characterized by changes in skin coloring (pigmentation) and the growth of tumors along nerves in ... mutation ; oligodendrocytes ; optic nerve ; pattern of inheritance ; peripheral ; pigmentation ; protein ; Schwann cells ; scoliosis ; short stature ; stature ; tissue ; ...


Genetics Home Reference: Shwachman-Diamond syndrome  


... SBDS protein may play a role in processing RNA (a molecule that is a chemical cousin of ... oxygen ; pancreas ; pancreatic ; platelets ; pneumonia ; protein ; recessive ; ribosomes ; RNA ; short stature ; stature ; steatorrhea ; syndrome ; thrombocytopenia ; tissue ; white ...


Genetics Home Reference: Prader-Willi syndrome  


... functions, including helping to regulate other types of RNA molecules. (RNA molecules play essential roles in producing proteins and ... mutation ; overeating ; pigmentation ; protein ; puberty ; rearrangement ; reproductive cells ; RNA ; short stature ; sperm ; stature ; syndrome ; translocation ; uniparental disomy ...


Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.



On integrating out short-distance physics  

E-print Network

I consider a special atomic scattering problem to demonstrate that in a reasonably formulated theory the integration out of short-distance physics occurs automatically. I propose to build QFT in a similar way.

Vladimir Kalitvianski



Introduction Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics are widely  

E-print Network

Introduction Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics are widely used for plastic part production because they can be processed with the same machines as classi- cal thermoplastics, but present enhanced, Injection moulding of fibre reinforced thermoplastics: integration of fibre orientation and mechanical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Selective Vectorization for Short-Vector Instructions  

E-print Network

Multimedia extensions are nearly ubiquitous in today's general-purpose processors. These extensions consist primarily of a set of short-vector instructions that apply the same opcode to a vector of operands. Vector ...

Amarasinghe, Saman



Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children  


... diagnosed and is treating the problem should bring comfort, but if symptoms become worse, always call your child's doctor right away or go to the emergency room. This chart describes some common causes of shortness ...


Compilation techniques for short-vector instructions  

E-print Network

Multimedia extensions are nearly ubiquitous in today's general-purpose processors. These extensions consist primarily of a set of short-vector instructions that apply the same opcode to a vector of operands. This design ...

Larsen, Samuel (Samuel Barton), 1975-



Online Short Course: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp



Short Period Variables in Leo A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a search for short-period variable stars in Leo A. We have found 92 candidate variables: 8 candidate RR Lyrae stars and 84 short-period Cepheids. From the RR Lyraes, we measure a distance modulus of (m-M)0 = 24.51 +\\/- 0.12, or 0.80 +\\/- 0.04 Mpc. This discovery of RR Lyraes confirms, for the first time, the

A. E. Dolphin; A. Saha; J. Claver; E. D. Skillman; A. A. Cole; J. S. Gallagher; E. Tolstoy; R. C. Dohm-Palmer; M. Mateo



Short-range communication with ultraviolet LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication appears to be a viable alternative to RF communication for many short-range applications. It exploits both atmospheric scattering and absorption to achieve modest data rates under non line-of-sight (ground-to-ground) and obstructed line-of-sight (foliage penetration) conditions. In this paper, we introduce NLOS optical communication and discuss the advantages of UV over radio (RF) for covert, short-range

Andrew M. Siegel; Gary A. Shaw; Joshua Model



Short Term Memory Based on Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a long belief that women have better multi-tasking skills than men. Multi-tasking involves doing several tasks at once, which would involve the use of short term memory. If women are better at multi-tasking than men, it would seem that they would have better short term memory as well. After running male and female subjects into a virtual

Richard Knox; Mathew Bergstein; Rahul Seth; Joey Longo; Nicholas McElveen



Boosting Salt Resistance of Short Antimicrobial Peptides  

PubMed Central

The efficacies of many antimicrobial peptides are greatly reduced under high salt concentrations, therefore limiting their use as pharmaceutical agents. Here, we describe a strategy to boost salt resistance and serum stability of short antimicrobial peptides by adding the nonnatural bulky amino acid ?-naphthylalanine to their termini. The activities of the short salt-sensitive tryptophan-rich peptide S1 were diminished at high salt concentrations, whereas the activities of its ?-naphthylalanine end-tagged variants were less affected. PMID:23716061

Chu, Hung-Lun; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chih, Ya-Han; Liang, Chong-Wen; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung



Are shorted pipeline casings a problem  

SciTech Connect

The pipeline industry has many road and railroad crossings with casings which have been in service for more than 50 years without exhibiting any major problems, regardless of whether the casing is shorted to or isolated from the carrier pipe. The use of smart pigging and continual visual inspection when retrieving a cased pipeline segment have shown that whether shorted or isolated, casings have no significant bearing on the presence or absence of corrosion on the carrier pipe.

Gibson, W.F. (Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp., Houston, TX (United States))



Short Signatures from the Weil Pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a short signature scheme based on the Compu- tational Diffie-Hellman assumption on certain elliptic and hyper-elliptic curves. The signature length is half the size of a DSA signature for a similar level of security. Our short signature scheme is designed for sys- tems where signatures are typed in by a human or signatures are sent over a low-bandwidth

Dan Boneh; Ben Lynn; Hovav Shacham



Short implant in limited bone volume.  


Rehabilitation of severely resorbed jaws with dental implants remains a surgical and prosthetic challenge for clinicians. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available data on short-length implants and discuss their indications and limitations in daily clinical practice. A structured review of MEDLINE and a manual search were conducted. Thirty-two case series devoted to short-length implants, 14 reviews and 3 randomized controlled trials were identified. Of this group of papers, we can conclude that short-length implants can be successfully used to support single and multiple fixed reconstructions in posterior atrophied jaws, even in those with increased crown-to-implant ratios. The use of short-length implants allows treatment of patients who are unable to undergo complex surgical techniques for medical, anatomic or financial reasons. Moreover, the use of short-length implants in daily clinical practice reduces the need for complex surgeries, thus reducing morbidity, cost and treatment time. The use of short implants promotes the new concept of stress-minimizing surgery, allowing the surgeon to focus more on the correct three-dimensional positioning of the implant. PMID:25123762

Nisand, David; Renouard, Franck



Short dental implants: a systematic review.  


Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone loss were evaluated. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses were performed by the pooling of survival data by implant surface, surgical technique, implant location, type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term. PMID:22034499

Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A



Short-term memory across eye blinks.  


The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes. PMID:24147932

Irwin, David E



Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting  


A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)



40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.  

...2013-07-01 true Certification Short Test procedure; overview. 86.1427 Section...Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test procedure; overview. (a) The...



19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27...THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible...



19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27...THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible...



19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27...THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible...



19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27...THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible...



19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27...THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible...



Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.



libgapmis: extending short-read alignments  

PubMed Central

Background A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. Results In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. Conclusions We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We show that libgapmis is better-suited and more efficient than existing algorithms for this task. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any short-read alignment pipeline. The open-source code of libgapmis is available at PMID:24564250



Origin of short-period comets  

SciTech Connect

The average value of the Tisserand constant for short-period comets in the sun - Jupiter system is used to find the average velocity of ejection of these comets from the sphere of influence of Jupiter (6.1 km/sec). Justification is given for the hypothesis of isotropic ejection of the comets. Their distribution over all the orbital elements is obtained. The theoretical distribution is confirmed by the statistical data. It is shown that about 600 comets, including 500 short-period comets, have been ejected from the sphere of influence of Jupiter over the last 650 years. Of these, 33 have disintegrated, and more than 300 are still undiscovered.

Radzievskii, V.V.



Rotating black holes can have short bristles  

E-print Network

The elegant `no short hair' theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar `clouds') in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon-Kerr-Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses.

Hod, Shahar



Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9:5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hyper- sonic protuberances (k/delta < 0.33) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

Mazaheri, Alireza R.; Wood, William A.



Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity  

PubMed Central

Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

Hennig, Matthias H.



Tensile properties of short-glass-fiber- and short-carbon-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with short glass fibers (SGF) and short carbon fibers (SCF) were prepared with extrusion compounding and injection molding techniques. The tensile properties of these composites were investigated. It was noted that an increase in fiber volume fraction led to a decrease in mean fiber length as observed previously. The relationship between mean fiber length and

S.-Y Fu; B Lauke; E Mäder; C.-Y Yue; X Hu



Test Length and Decision Quality in Personnel Selection: When Is Short Too Short?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personnel selection shows an enduring need for short stand-alone tests consisting of, say, 5 to 15 items. Despite their efficiency, short tests are more vulnerable to measurement error than longer test versions. Consequently, the question arises to what extent reducing test length deteriorates decision quality due to increased impact of…

Kruyen, Peter M.; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas



Development and assessment of short and very short forms of the infant behavior questionnaire-revised.  


Using data from parents of 761 infants from 6 independent samples, short (91 items, 14 scales) and very short (37 items, 3 broad scales) forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a well-established caregiver report measure of temperament for infants aged 3 to 12 months, were developed. The forms were subsequently evaluated with data from 1,619 participants from 11 samples. Over 90% of Cronbach's alphas and part-whole correlations calculated for the short and very short form scales were greater than.70. Interparent agreement was nearly identical to that obtained with standard IBQ-R scales, averaging.41 and ranging from.06 to.76. Longitudinal stability over multiple time spans, and estimated retest reliability of the short form scales, were highly similar to those of standard forms, with estimated retest reliability averaging.72 and ranging from.54 to.93. Convergent and predictive validity of select short form scales were comparable to, but slightly lower, than those observed for standard IBQ-R scales. Recommendations for the use of the standard, short, and very short scales are discussed. PMID:24206185

Putnam, Samuel P; Helbig, Amy L; Gartstein, Maria A; Rothbart, Mary K; Leerkes, Esther



The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

Sundquist, John



47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) §...




E-print Network

], a correla- tion was formed experimentally to show the effect of pres- sure differential and level of liquid. In this follow-up study, a separate model is formed so that the short tube length can be found. The experimental/D) was not included. In this follow-up study, a separate correlation is formed so that the influence of L

Oak Ridge National Laboratory


Video Production For Short Educational Videos  

E-print Network

Video Production Handbook For Short Educational Videos Jennifer Cook Small Acreage Management recharges via computer Ultra HD has rechargeable AA battery pack Minimal functionality (color Microphones Audio-Technica VHF Wireless system (lavalier microphone, transmitter, and receiver) $200 www


Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries  

SciTech Connect

Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands.

Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.



Compression of Short Text on Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper details a scheme for lossless com- pression of short data series larger than 50 Bytes. The method uses arithmetic coding and context modeling with a low-complexity data model. A data model that takes 32 kBytes of RAM already cuts the data size in half. The compression scheme just takes a few pages of source code, is scalable in

Stephan Rein; Clemens Gühmann; Frank H. P. Fitzek



Aquatic Botany 74 (2002) 181187 Short communication  

E-print Network

and Polypedates leucomystax tadpoles. After 7 days in co-culture, the growth yield of Azolla filiculoides for Azolla filiculoides in comparison to Azolla pinnata (Antoine et al., 1986). Chemical differences betweenAquatic Botany 74 (2002) 181­187 Short communication Feeding deterrence of Azolla in relation

Cohen, Michael F.



E-print Network

and Upland Goose flushed together for a short period of flight (Fig. 1B). The nest contained five Upland Society PARASITISM AND JOINT INCUBATION OF UPLAND GOOSE (CHLOEPHAGA PICTA) NEST BY YELLOW-BILLED PINTAIL the next bowl. On 1 November 2011, we observed a Yel- low-billed Pintail and Upland Goose (Chloe- phaga

McCracken, Kevin G.


SHORT COMMUNICATION Determining Synthetic Failures in  

E-print Network

the general form D-Glu-Xxx-Xxx-CONH2 has been synthesized using a standard mix and split synthetic protocol approach and standard Fmoc chemistry protocols; the synthesis is expected to produce equimolar quantitiesSHORT COMMUNICATION Determining Synthetic Failures in Combinatorial Libraries by Hybrid Gas

Clemmer, David E.


Cryptanalysis of short RSA secret exponents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryptanalytic attack on the use of short RSA secret exponents is described. This attack makes use of an algorithm based on continued fractions which finds the numerator and denominator of a fraction in polynomial time when a close enough estimate of the fraction is known. The public exponent e and the modulus pq can be used to create an

Michael J. Wiener



Short cationic antimicrobial peptides interact with ATP.  


The mode of action of short, nonhelical antimicrobial peptides is still not well understood. Here we show that these peptides interact with ATP and directly inhibit the actions of certain ATP-dependent enzymes, such as firefly luciferase, DnaK, and DNA polymerase. ?-Helical and planar or circular antimicrobial peptides did not show such interaction with ATP. PMID:20660668

Hilpert, Kai; McLeod, Brett; Yu, Jessie; Elliott, Melissa R; Rautenbach, Marina; Ruden, Serge; Bürck, Jochen; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Ulrich, Anne S; Keller, Sandro; Hancock, Robert E W



SHORT REVIEW Ecological genomics: understanding gene and  

E-print Network

SHORT REVIEW Ecological genomics: understanding gene and genome function in the natural environment MC Ungerer, LC Johnson and MA Herman Division of Biology, Ecological Genomics Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA The field of ecological genomics seeks to understand the genetic mechanisms

Kaufman, Glennis A.


Blacks in Pop Music: A Short Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A short history of black pop music includes artists who have changed pop music or culture and highlights from the 1920s into the 1980s, from Fats Waller to Michael Jackson. In black pop music, there is a direct line of influence from the sharecropper to the current Top 40. (SLD)

Rickelman, Melinda



Second Stage Short Run ( Control Charts  

E-print Network

1 Second Stage Short Run )v,X( c and )s,X c ( Control Charts Matthew E. Elam 1 , Kenneth E. Case 2 Abstract In their 1970 paper titled "Mean and Variance Control Chart Limits Based on a Small Number for )v,X c( and )s,X( c charts. Two issues have restricted the applicability of this particular control

Kim, Jong-Min


Short Communication Spectral dimension of fluid membranes  

E-print Network

2395 Short Communication Spectral dimension of fluid membranes Shigeyuki Komura(*) and Artur self-avoiding vesicles are investi- gated by Monte Carlo methods. For both cases we obtained ds=2 simulations [2,3] that polymerized self-avoiding membranes are essentially flat and the corresponding in

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.



Quaternary Geochronology 2 (2007) 155161 Short communication  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLES Geological Dates and Molecular Rates: Fish DNA Sheds Light on Time Dependency online). More recently, rates of DNA change have been estimated using precisely dated subfossil material? Previously, pedigree and ancient DNA studies--focusing on evolution in the short term--have yielded molecular

Long, Bernard


Short-term memory for motor responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 experiments were conducted on short-term memory for simple linear, graded motor responses, with length of retention interval and number of practice repetitions or reinforcements as basic variables. Absolute error was the primary performance measure. Both experiments found error to be an increasing function of retention interval. Number of reinforcements was a significant variable only for the wider range of

Jack A. Adams; Sanne Dijkstra



Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, correlations, and multi-parton processes in pp interactions.

Weiss, Christian [JLAB




E-print Network

for M1, using U.S. data for 1959-1993. The paper interprets deviations from this long-run relation with Goldfeld's partial adjustment model. A key innovation is the choice of the interest rate in the money demand function. Most previous work uses a short-term market rate, but this paper uses the average return

Niebur, Ernst


GSFC short pulse radar, JONSWAP-75  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In September 1975, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a short pulse radar during ocean wave measuring experiments off the coast of West Germany in the North Sea. The experiment was part of JONSWAP-75. The radar system and operations during the experiment are described along with examples of data.

Levine, D. M.; Walton, W. T.; Eckerman, J.; Kutz, R. L.; Dombrowski, M.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.



Intercultural Learning on Short-Term Sojourns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an ethnographic case study of advanced second language (L2) students from Hong Kong who took part in a short-term sojourn in England after 14 weeks of preparation. While abroad, they lived with a host family, took literary/cultural studies courses, visited cultural sites, participated in debriefing sessions, and conducted…

Jackson, Jane



Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.


Wear 262 (2007) 220224 Short communication  

E-print Network

Wear 262 (2007) 220­224 Short communication Tribological behavior of PEEK components with compositionally graded PEEK/PTFE surfaces David L. Burris, W. Gregory Sawyer Department of Mechanical in revised form 6 March 2006; accepted 21 March 2006 Available online 26 May 2006 Abstract PEEK is a high

Sawyer, Wallace


SHORT COMMUNICATION Dietary consistency and the midline  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Dietary consistency and the midline sutures in growing pigs AK Burn SW Herring R Hubbard K Zink K Rafferty DE Lieberman Authors' affiliations: A.K. Burn, S.W. Herring, K. Rafferty, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA Correspondence to: Amrit K. Burn 11066 5th Ave NE #207 Seattle, WA

Lieberman, Daniel E.


Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

Galloway, T. L.



Similarity Measures for Short Segments of Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the similarity between documents and queries has been extensively studied in information retrieval. Howe ver, there are a growing number of tasks that require computing the similari ty between two very short segments of text. These tasks include query reform ulation, sponsored search, and image retrieval. Standard text similarity meas ures perform poorly on such tasks because of data

Donald Metzler; Susan T. Dumais; Christopher Meek



Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator  


Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

George, E.V.



Fuel characteristics of short rotation forest biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel characteristics of biomass from 12 tree species grown under a short rotation forestry regime were analysed. E. globulus, E. nitens and A. dealbata had the biggest trees while A. glutinosa, P. tomentosa and S. matsudana×alba 1002 had the smallest trees when the trees were harvested at the age of 3, 4 and 5 years. Higher heating value (HHV) ranged

Kingiri Senelwa; Ralph E. H. Sims



Cumulant methods and short time propagators  

SciTech Connect

The present paper clarifies a number of issues concerning the general problem of constructing improved short time quantum mechanical propagators. Cumulant methods are shown to be a particularly convenient tool for this task. Numerical results comparing methods based on partial averaging and on gradient approaches are presented for simple model problems and for many particle quantum fluids.

Coalson, R.D. (Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (US)); Freeman, D.L. (Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881); Doll, J.D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)



Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte


Vaccine 24 (2006) 38813888 Short communication  

E-print Network

Vaccine 24 (2006) 3881­3888 Short communication Quantifying influenza vaccine efficacy 2006 Abstract We introduce a new measure of antigenic distance between influenza A vaccine of the annual vaccine between 1971 and 2004, as do results of a theory of the immune response to influenza

Earl, David J.



E-print Network

VIROLOGY 214, 289­293 (1995) SHORT COMMUNICATION Dimerization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 to show that human papillomavirus E7 proteins can form oligomeric complexes in vivo. The carboxyl is thought to account for human papillomaviruses (HPVs), approximately 20 are many biological properties

Brent, Roger


Jennifer Hershon Science Fiction Short Story  

E-print Network

Jennifer Hershon Science Fiction Short Story Out of the Silence From a deafening silence Neurobiologist at NeuTech and had been the head developer of the cochlear implant that his daughter had just which could be implanted into the hand, and had progressed to their current state in which they were

Walter, Frederick M.


Short Communication Intraperitoneal delivery of exogenous corticosterone  

E-print Network

Short Communication Intraperitoneal delivery of exogenous corticosterone via osmotic pump in captive White-throated Sparrows. Males received implants containing either a low (LD) or moderate dose (MD. Slight increases in post-implant CORT resulted in V males, but not in RU males. We observed

Holberton, Rebecca L.


Short-term scheduling of chemical tankers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a short-term scheduling problem for a shipping company engaged in the product and chemical tanker market. The company operates in a dynamic tramp market, which means that it has a given amount of contract cargoes that it has committed itself to carry. In addition the company has to consider optional spot cargoes to utilize its fleet optimally. A

Marielle Christiansen; Kjetil Fagerholt


Short-period geomagnetic secular variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the main problems of the theory of the short period geomagnetic secular variation are described. An approximate analytical representation of the observational data on both the geomagnetic field variations and the associated variations in the length of the day, the kinematics of the generation of geomagnetic variations in the skin layer at the core-mantle boundary, and the

S. I. Braginskii



Item Repetition in Short-term Memory 1 PUBLISHED AS  

E-print Network

Item Repetition in Short-term Memory 1 PUBLISHED AS: Henson, R.N.A. (1998). Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 24, 1162-1181 Running head: ITEM REPETITION IN SHORT-TERM MEMORY Item Repetition in Short-term

Henson, Rik


What is memory for? Short term memory (STM)  

E-print Network

1 Memory · What is memory for? · Short term memory (STM) · Characteristics of STM Who has a better with an examination of visual memory. STM and LTM · And now for some jargon ­ Short term memory (STM) ­ Long term memory (LTM) · Today, we focus on short term memory. Short-term memory · You know many things ­ Facts

Pillow, Jonathan


Short selling around dividend announcements and ex-dividend days  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine short selling around dividend announcements and ex-dividend dates. Contrary to our initial expectation, we do not find abnormally high short-selling activity prior to announced dividend decreases, which runs counter to the argument that short sellers have the ability to acquire private information before its public dissemination. However, we find that the common negative relation between current short selling

Benjamin M. Blau; Kathleen P. Fuller; Robert A. Van Ness



Small terminal 10q26 deletion in a male patient with Noonan-like stigmata: diagnosis by cytogenetic and FISH analysis.  


A male patient is reported with terminal 10q26 deletion, developmental retardation, special behaviour, and multiple clinical anomalies including hypotonia, short stature of postnatal onset, short webbed neck, craniofacial dysmorphism, pectus excavatum with widely spaced small nipples, cryptorchidism with scrotal hypoplasia, limb and musculoskeletal anomalies. The facial dysmorphism mainly consisted of trigonocephaly, a long, triangular and asymmetrical face, hypertelorism with pseudoepicanthus, broad nasal bridge, high-arched palate, retrognathia, low-set dysplastic auricles and, on ophthalmologic examination, strabismus, astigmatism and myopia. Some of these clinical stigmata were suggesting the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. The extremities showed special features including shortening of proximal limbs, brachydactyly with syndactyly of toes II-III and left fingers III-IV, hypoplastic toenails and joint abnormalities. A diastasis of abdominal muscles was noted and, on X-rays a thoracic scoliosis and bilateral coxa valga were evidenced. Analyses of G- and T-banded chromosomes complemented by FISH analyses using different subtelomere probes detected a terminal 10q26 deletion. Subsequent FISH studies using different probes of the 10q26 region were performed in an attempt to closely define the breakpoint and the extent of the deletion and, thereby, to allow karyotype/phenotype comparison between this patient and a previously reported case with an apparently similar 10q26 deletion. PMID:12558112

Lukusa, T; Smeets, E; Vermeesch, J R; Fryns, J P



Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations  

E-print Network

Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.

Douglas W. Higinbotham



Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis.  


Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ?10 ?s. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is accompanied by a high relative supersaturation, S > 1000, that results in homogeneous nucleation of bubbles. On the short-time scale only nanobubbles can be formed. These nanobubbles densely cover the electrodes and aggregate at a later time to microbubbles. The effect is significantly intensified with a small increase of temperature. Application of alternating polarity voltage pulses produces bubbles containing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Spontaneous reaction between gases is observed for stoichiometric bubbles with sizes smaller than ?150 nm. Such bubbles disintegrate violently affecting the surfaces of the electrodes. PMID:23598648

Svetovoy, Vitaly B; Sanders, Remco G P; Elwenspoek, Miko C



Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations  

SciTech Connect

Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.

Douglas Higinbotham



Skylab short-lived event alert program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

Citron, R. A.



Short form of the developmental behaviour checklist.  


A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from epidemiological data in the first three waves of the Australian Child to Adult Development study, and cross validated for groups with autism, fragile X, Prader-Willi, and Williams in this longitudinal study and in cross sectional Dutch, English, and Finnish samples of young people with intellectual disability. The DBC-P24 has low bias and high precision in cross-validation samples and achieves high sensitivity and specificity to full DBC-P based caseness decisions. PMID:17181389

Taffe, John R; Gray, Kylie M; Einfeld, Stewart L; Dekker, Marielle C; Koot, Hans M; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J



Short bunch research at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research into the production and utilization of short electron bunches at Brookhaven National Laboratory is underway at the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) and Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Projects planned for the SDL facility include a 210 MeV electron linac with a dipole chicane that is designed to produce 100 ?m long bunches and a compact electron storage ring that will use superconducting RF to produce sub-millimeter bunches. The ATF has a 30-70 MeV linac that will serve as the injector for laser accelerators that will bunch the beam into to micron-length bunches. Coherent transition and synchrotron radiation from the short bunches will be used for beam diagnostics and infrared experiments.

Blum, Eric B.



Brownian motion at short time scales  

E-print Network

Brownian motion has played important roles in many different fields of science since its origin was first explained by Albert Einstein in 1905. Einstein's theory of Brownian motion, however, is only applicable at long time scales. At short time scales, Brownian motion of a suspended particle is not completely random, due to the inertia of the particle and the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the thermal force exerted on a particle suspended in a liquid is not a white noise, but is colored. Recent experimental developments in optical trapping and detection have made this new regime of Brownian motion accessible. This review summarizes related theories and recent experiments on Brownian motion at short time scales, with a focus on the measurement of the instantaneous velocity of a Brownian particle in a gas and the observation of the transition from ballistic to diffusive Brownian motion in a liquid.

Tongcang Li; Mark G. Raizen



Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.



A Short Introduction to Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

This chapter contains a short discussion of some fundamental plasma phenomena. In section 2 we introduce key plasma properties like quasi-neutrality, shielding, particle transport processes and sheath formation. In section 3 we describe the simplest plasma models: collective phenomena (drifts) deduced from single-particle trajectories and fundamentals of plasma fluid dynamics. The last section discusses wave phenomena in homogeneous, unbounded, cold plasma.

Wiesemann, K



Texas Watershed Planning Short Course Final Report  

E-print Network

Resources Institute, part of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Texas A&M University. Funding provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency through the Texas... that watershed protection efforts are adequately planned, coordinated and implemented. To provide this training, the Texas Watershed Planning Short Course was developed through a coordinated effort led by the Texas Water Resources Institute and funded by the U...

Wagner, Kevin


Setting in the Modern Short Story  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Setting in the Modern Short Story June 5th, 1913 by Elizabeth Hodgson This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries... __ • __ ~ ;' .././ ~ . ~ v/ . ';./ ~ .~ ,"'-STORY. B9 ELiza.beth Hodgson. Fresented to the FacUlty of the GRADUATE SCROOL of the , Dni versi ty of Kansas In Pa.rtial Fulfilment...

Hodgson, Elizabeth



Detecting Carried Objects in Short Video Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method for detecting objects such as bags carried by pedestrians depicted in short video sequences. In common\\u000a with earlier work [1,2] on the same problem, the method starts by averaging aligned foreground regions of a walking pedestrian\\u000a to produce a representation of motion and shape (known as a temporal template) that has some immunity to noise

Dima Damen; David Hogg



Short-pulse photolytic iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact, short pulse photolytic iodine laser (PIL) system designed for use as a source in Raman conversion experiments is described. The single-shot, flashlamp-pumped laser outputs 10 Joules in a 3 microsecond(s) FWHM pulse at a wavelength of 1.315 micrometer and uses n-C3F7I as the renewable laser fuel. Laser design and performance characteristics are presented.

Ralph F. Tate; Melvin Harris; Brian T. Anderson; Gordon D. Hager



Short Term Treatment Methods for Delaying Ejaculation  

PubMed Central

So called “premature ejaculation” is a symptom of several different conditions. Almost all of these respond well to short term techniques that are fully described in this paper. Considering the contrast between the degree of marital disruption that is often caused by inability to delay ejaculation and the relatively little time and effort needed by the understanding family physician to clear up the symptom, the point is made that it is a rewarding experience to treat these patients in family practice. PMID:20468744

Neiger, Stephen



Source of coherent short wavelength radiation  


An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)



Activation, attention, and short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this paper is that the popular term “short-term memory” (STM) is vague because it is used to refer to either\\u000a (1) the set of representations from long-term memory currently in a state of heightened activation or (2) the focus of attention\\u000a or content of awareness. A more coherent conception of STM is hierarchical, with the focus of

Nelson Cowan



Short Columella Nasolabial Complex in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many papers describe different approaches for short columella in cleft lip or Negroid noses. Very little has been found in\\u000a international literature related to these aesthetic rhinoplasties. The scarce skin of the columella, the firm union between\\u000a the nasal tip and the lip, due to the hypertrophy of the depressor septi nasi muscle, and the low projection of the

A. Aldo Mottura



Short-pulse laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop, through experiments and modeling, a better understanding of the physics issues and machining techniques related to short-pulse laser materials processing. Although we have successfully demonstrated many types of cuts in a wide range of materials, our general short-pulse machiing scientific knowledge and our ability to model the complex physical processes involved are limited. During this past year we made good progress in addressing some of these issues, but there remain many unanswered questions. Section 2 begins with a theoretical look at short-pulse laser ablation of material using a 1-D radiation-hydrodynamic code which includes a self-consistent description of laser absorption and reflection from an expanding plasma. In Section 3 we present measurements of scaling relationships, hole drilling progression, electric field and polarization effects, and a detailed look at the interesting structures formed during hole drilling of metals under various conditions. Section 4 describes the consequences of the presence of a prepulse before the main drilling pulse. In Section 5 we take a brief look at the plasma plume: how it can be useful, and how we can avoid it. Finally, Section 6 contains a couple of examples of machining non-metals. The laser system used for practically all the experimental results presented here was a short-pulse laser based on Ti:sapphire, which produced 150-fs pulses (minimum) centered at 825 nm, of energy up to 5 mJ at 1 kHz, or 5 W average power.

Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Komashko, A; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Shirk, M; Stuart, B C



Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains comprehensive information relating to forensic DNA analysis. It has material from an introductory to an advanced level on forensic DNA technology. The material provides general information on DNA markers that are of interest to human identification. The site contains both introductory and in-depth discussions of short tandem repeats (STRs) and other DNA markers currently used by the forensic community. Powerpoint and PDF presentations on STR training material are available and can be readily downloaded.



Brownian motion in short range random potentials  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Romero, A.H. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0354 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0354 (United States); Romero, A.H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 (United States); Sancho, J.M. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, Department 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 and Departament dEstructura i Constituents de la Materia, Avenida Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Institute for Nonlinear Science, Department 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 and Departament dEstructura i Constituents de la Materia, Avenida Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)



A Statistical Method for Short Answer Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple, generalmethod for using the Mutual Informa-tion (MI) statistic trained on unanno-rated trivia questions to estimate ques-tion class\\/semantic tag correlation. ThisMI method and a variety of questionclassifiers and semantic taggers are usedto build short-answer extractors thatshow improvement over a hand-builtmatch module using a similar questionclassifier and semantic tagger.

Gideon S. Mann



Science Shorts: Nothing But Blue Skies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets orange and red? These are some of children's favorite questions to ask, but answering them at a level appropriate for primary students' level of understanding can be tricky, even for veteran teachers. In order to understand why the sky is blue and other related questions, we need to know a bit about the makeup of Earth's atmosphere and the effects of light. This month's Science Shorts can help.

Adams, Barbara



Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice\\/water interface is observed

Jun Soo Kim; Arun Yethiraj



Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia)



Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications  


A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

Chapman, Henry N. (2417 Kilkare Rd., Sunol, CA 94586); Sweeney, Donald W. (5020 Canyon Crest Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583)



Film Music: A Very Short Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film music is as old as cinema itself. Years before synchronized sound became the norm, projected moving images were shown to musical accompaniment, whether performed by a lone piano player or a hundred-piece orchestra. Today film music has become its own industry, indispensable to the marketability of movies around the world.\\u000aFilm Music: A Very Short Introduction is a compact,

Kathryn M Kalinak



Osteodynamics around orthodontically loaded short maxillary implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the effect of long-term orthodontic loading on the activity and location of osteodynamic changes around short titanium screw implants. For this purpose 6 maxillary premolars (1P1,2P2,3P3) were extracted from each of 2 foxhounds. After a 16-week healing period, 8 implants (4 per dog) were inserted in the edentulous areas. Simultaneously 2

Heinrich Wehrbein; Murat Yildirim; Peter Diedrich



The Long and the Short of It  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-Ray bursts, the extreme explosions that mark the birth of black holes, come in two flavors, long bursts lasting a few seconds or more, and short bursts lasting for less than a second. The mechanisms giving rise to these two types of bursts were, for a long time, unknown to astronomers. But a series of breakthroughs starting with BeppoSAX, HETE, and Swift gave astronomers some clues and confidence about the nature of long and short bursts. Long bursts mark the collapse of a young, extremely massive star into a black hole; short bursts mark the formation of a black hole by a merger of neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star with a black hole to form a larger black hole). But a new observation has clouded this clear dichotomy. The picture above is an X-ray image of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 060614, taken by Swift's X-ray Telescope. This burst lasted more than 100 seconds, clearly showing that it's a long burst. But follow-up observations of the burst did not show the tell-tale signatures of a supernova explosion which should be produced by the collapse of a large star. Furthermore this burst occurred in a galaxy which has very few extremely massive stars. Does this hybrid burst represent an entirely new mechanism behind these titanic explosions? The hunt is on.



Microbial production of short-chain alkanes.  


Increasing concerns about limited fossil fuels and global environmental problems have focused attention on the need to develop sustainable biofuels from renewable resources. Although microbial production of diesel has been reported, production of another much in demand transport fuel, petrol (gasoline), has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report the development of platform Escherichia coli strains that are capable of producing short-chain alkanes (SCAs; petrol), free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty esters and fatty alcohols through the fatty acyl (acyl carrier protein (ACP)) to fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA pathway. First, the ?-oxidation pathway was blocked by deleting the fadE gene to prevent the degradation of fatty acyl-CoAs generated in vivo. To increase the formation of short-chain fatty acids suitable for subsequent conversion to SCAs in vivo, the activity of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase (FabH), which is inhibited by unsaturated fatty acyl-ACPs, was enhanced to promote the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis by deleting the fadR gene; deletion of the fadR gene prevents upregulation of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis. A modified thioesterase was used to convert short-chain fatty acyl-ACPs to the corresponding FFAs, which were then converted to SCAs by the sequential reactions of E. coli fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, Clostridium acetobutylicum fatty acyl-CoA reductase and Arabidopsis thaliana fatty aldehyde decarbonylase. The final engineered strain produced up to 580.8?mg?l(-1) of SCAs consisting of nonane (327.8?mg?l(-1)), dodecane (136.5?mg?l(-1)), tridecane (64.8?mg?l(-1)), 2-methyl-dodecane (42.8?mg?l(-1)) and tetradecane (8.9?mg?l(-1)), together with small amounts of other hydrocarbons. Furthermore, this platform strain could produce short-chain FFAs using a fadD-deleted strain, and short-chain fatty esters by introducing the Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 wax ester synthase (atfA) and the E. coli mutant alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE(mut)). PMID:24077097

Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Sang Yup



Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

Qiang, J.



Neutron scattering and extra short range interactions  

E-print Network

The available data on neutron scattering were analyzed to constrain a hypothetical new short-range interaction. We show that these constraints are several orders of magnitude better than those usually cited in the range between 1 pm and 5 nm. This distance range occupies an intermediate space between collider searches for strongly coupled heavy bosons and searches for new weak macroscopic forces. We emphasise the reliability of the neutron constraints in so far as they provide several independent strategies. We have identified the most promising way to improve them.

V. V. Nesvizhevsky; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov



Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches  

SciTech Connect

Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,



SOFIP: A Short Orbital Flux Integration Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code was developed to evaluate the space radiation environment encountered by geocentric satellites. The Short Orbital Flux Integration Program (SOFIP) is a compact routine of modular compositions, designed mostly with structured programming techniques in order to provide core and time economy and ease of use. The program in its simplest form produces for a given input trajectory a composite integral orbital spectrum of either protons or electrons. Additional features are available separately or in combination with the inclusion of the corresponding (optional) modules. The code is described in detail, and the function and usage of the various modules are explained. A program listing and sample outputs are attached.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Hebert, J. J.; Butler, E. L.; Barth, J. L.



A Variable Diameter Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Short-Haul-Civil-tiltrotor (SHCT) component of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program is an effort to develop the technologies needed for a potential 40-passenger civil tiltrotor. The variable diameter tiltrotor (VDTR) is a Sikorsky concept aimed at improving tiltrotor hover and cruise performance currently limited by disk loading that is much higher in hover than conventional helicopter, and much lower in cruise than turbo-prop systems. This paper describes the technical merits of using a VDTR on a SHCT aircraft. The focus will be the rotor design.

Wang, James M.; Jones, Christopher T.; Nixon, Mark W.



Failure Prevention by Short Time Corrosion Tests  

SciTech Connect

Short time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel, Alloy 600 and C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets. The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited life components. The corrosion rates of the other alloys and of wire meshes were too high for useful extended service. Test results also indicated that corrosion of the dissolver should drop quickly during the dissolutions due to the inhibiting effects of the corrosion products produced by the dissolution processes.




[Investigation of antihypoxic properties of short peptides].  


The data presented suggest that short regulatory peptides (vilon, epitalon, vesugen and pinealon) have manifested the antihypoxic properties in the model of hypobaric hypoxia. Pinealon (Glu-Asp-Arg) has the most pronounced effect among them. The capability of pinealon to increase the neuronal resistance to hypoxic stress in experiments with prenatal hypoxia has a complex nature. It is based not so much on the inhibition of ROS increase in cells in response to stress as on stimulation of internal antioxidative enzyme system and possibly limiting the excitotoxic effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate. PMID:18546825

Kozina, L S



PSW3 Poster Short Presentations, #2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This slot will include 4 short summaries of the following PSW3 poster presentations: 1. A North-South Asymmetry in the Global Electron Content, Gulyaeva T., Arikan F. & Veselovsky I., Paper Number: PSW.3-0028-12 2. Operational mapping of the ionospheric W index maps, Stanislawska I. et al., Paper Number: PSW.3-0029-12 3. Space weather and human health: An investigation on aviators, Papailiou M.-C. et al., Paper Number PSW.3-0030-12 4. Castilla-La Mancha neutron monitor (CaLMa): status at June 2012, Medina J. et al., Paper Number: PSW.3-0031-12

Glover, Alexi; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Heynderickx, Daniel



Thomson scattering in short pulse laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

Thomson scattering is well used as a diagnostic in many areas of high energy density physics. In this paper, we quantitatively demonstrate the practicality of using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic of short-pulse laser-plasma experiments in the regime, where the plasmas probed are at solid density and have temperatures of many hundreds of eV using a backlighter produced with an optical laser. This method allows a diagnosis both spatially and temporally of the density and temperature distributions in high energy density laser-plasma interactions which is independent from, and would act as a useful complement to, the existing spectroscopic methods.

Hill, E. G.; Rose, S. J. [Plasma Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)



Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)



Short rise time intense electron beam generator  


A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)



Short-cavity squeezing in barium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.



Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637



Expanding the SHOC2 Mutation Associated Phenotype of Noonan Syndrome with Loose Anagen Hair: Structural Brain Anomalies and Myelofibrosis  

PubMed Central

Noonan syndrome is a heterogenous rasopathy typically presenting with short stature, characteristic facial features, cardiac abnormalities including pulmonic valve stenosis, ASD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cryptorchidism, ectodermal abnormalities and learning differences. The phenotype is variable, and limited genotype phenotype correlation exists with SOS1 mutations often associated with normal cognition and stature, RAF1 mutations entailing a high HCM risk, and certain PTPN11 mutations predisposing to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recently identified SHOC2 mutation (p.Ser2Gly) causes Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair. We report five patients with this mutation. All had skin hyperpigmentation, sparse light colored hair, increased fine wrinkles, ligamentous laxity, developmental delay and 4/4 had a structural cardiac anomaly. Hypotonia and macrocephaly occurred in 4/5 (80%); 3/5 (60%) had polyhydramnios, increased birth weight or required use of a feeding tube. Distinctive brain abnormalities included relative megalencephaly and enlarged subarachnoid spaces suggestive of benign external hydrocephalus, and a relatively small posterior fossa as indicated by a vertical tentorium. The combination of a large brain with a small posterior fossa likely resulted in the high rate of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (3/4) (75%). Periventricular nodular heterotopia was seen in one patient with a thick and dysplastic corpus callosum. We report on the first hematologic neoplasm, myelofibrosis, in a 2-year-old patient with SHOC2 mutation. Myelofibrosis is exceedingly rare in children and young adults. The absence of a somatic JAK2 mutation, seen in the majority of patients with myelofibrosis, is noteworthy as it suggests that germline or somatic SHOC2 mutations are causally involved in myelofibrosis. PMID:23918763

Gripp, Karen W.; Zand, Dina J.; Demmer, Laurie; Anderson, Carol E.; Dobyns, William B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Denenberg, Elizabeth; Jenny, Kim; Stabley, Deborah L.; Sol-Church, Katia



Mechanisms of short-term saccadic adaptation.  


A number of processes have been identified that adaptively modify oculomotor control components. The adaptive process studied here can be reliably produced over a short period of time by a visual stimulus that forces postsaccadic error. This short-term adaptive process, usually termed parametric adaptation, consists of a change in response amplitude that develops progressively over 50 to 100 training stimuli. The resulting compensation is proportional to, but substantially less than, the error induced by the training stimuli. Both increases and decreases in response amplitude can be evoked by an appropriately timed and directed movement of the stimulus target, which forces postsaccadic error. Results show that a single type of training stimulus can influence movements over a broad spatial region, provided these movements are in the same direction as the training stimulus. Experiments that map the range of modification suggest that the increasing adaptive modification operates by remapping final position, whereas the decreasing adaptive modification is achieved through an overall reduction of gain. Training stimuli that attempt to evoke both increases and decreases in the same region show a net modification equivalent to the algebraic addition of individual adaptive processes. PMID:2525598

Semmlow, J L; Gauthier, G M; Vercher, J L



Short-term energy outlook, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.




Short-term energy outlook, July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.





SciTech Connect

Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by Gilman of the short-wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by k, is large (i.e., short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as k is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate z since, in the large k limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, for sufficiently strong field gradients, are the most unstable. The results of our analysis are backed up by comparison with a series of initial value problems. Finally, we extend the analysis to three-dimensional perturbations.

Mizerski, K. A.; Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)



Short term rehabilitation and ankle instability.  


Chronic ankle instability (CAI) after ankle sprains has been shown to cause foot and ankle disability. Although rehabilitation programs for patients with CAI have been performed in related studies, few researchers have studied overall performance including pain, balance, and isokinetic torque. The purpose of this study was to determine if a short-term rehabilitation program that addressed range of motion (ROM), functional muscular performance, and neuromuscular control, can improve the foot/ankle disability index (FADI), FADI-Sport, ROM, star excursion balance test (SEBT), and isokinetic torque for patients with CAI. Prior to the experiment, we investigated the principal injury site through an administered questionnaire on 236 potential participants, and selected 18 male subjects aged between 21 and 23 years. 9 subjects (rehabilitation group, RG) with unilateral CAI took part in the rehabilitation program for 4 weeks, whereas 9 subjects (control group, CG) did not participate in that program. The results were as follows; the RG significantly increased FADI, FADI-Sport scores, and ROM on the injured limb compared with the CG. Also, the RG had greater SEBT reaches and improvements in isokinetic torque compared with the CG. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that a short-term rehabilitation program can improve functional limitations in patients with CAI. PMID:22422307

Lee, K-Y; Lee, H-J; Kim, S-E; Choi, P-B; Song, S-H; Jee, Y-S



Acoustics of a short strombolian eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Strombolian eruptions are characterized by relatively short but intense blasts. The acoustic properties of such eruptions are totally different from the volcanic jets with longer duration because of different physical phenomena generating the sound. The dominant feature responsible for the emanated sound is a front vortex ring which interacts with the emerging shock wave pattern. The strength of both depends strongly on the initial overpressure. The interaction between the high vorticity region of the vortex ring, the emerging shockwaves and the shear layer, make the eddies from the shear layer detach from the supersonic region into the subsonic one, emanating high amplitude pressure perturbations predominantly in a specific direction. The amplitude is observed to reach up to 160 dB during a short period of time. Direct Numerical Simulations of a supersonic impulsively starting jet are performed, analyzing the main structures present in the flow field that lead to the phenomena described. Unterstanding the relationship between sound wave patterns and vortex strenght will help to find out the overpressure that generated the specific eruption. The results will also be applicable to eruptions which develop into a steady blowing jet.

Sesterhenn, Jörn; Pena Fernandez, Juan Jose



Intraocular lens short wavelength light filtering.  


There is increasing interest in the effects of reactive oxygen species ('free radicals') in ageing, both in the body overall and specifically in the eye. Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two major causes of blindness, with cataract accounting for 48 per cent of world blindness and AMD accounting for 8.7 per cent. Both cataract and AMD affect an older population (over 50?years of age) and while cataract is largely treatable provided resources are available, AMD is a common cause of untreatable, progressive visual loss. There is evidence that AMD is linked to exposure to short wavelength electromagnetic radiation, which includes ultraviolet, blue and violet wavelengths. The ageing crystalline lens provides some protection to the posterior pole because, as it yellows with age, its spectral absorption increasingly blocks the shorter wavelengths of light. Ultraviolet blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been the standard of care for many years but a more recent trend is to include blue-blocking filters based on theoretical benefits. As these filters absorb part of the visible spectrum, they may affect visual function. This review looks at the risks and the benefits of filtering out short wavelength light in pseudophakic patients. PMID:20950366

Edwards, Keith H; Gibson, G Anthony



Ultraintense ion beams driven by a short-wavelength short-pulse laser  

SciTech Connect

The results of particle-in-cell simulations are reported which demonstrate that a short-wavelength (lambda<=0.5 mum) short-pulse laser driver can produce much more intense ion beams than the commonly used long-wavelength (lambdaapprox1 mum) ones. In particular, such a driver allows for efficient generation of ultrashort (<=100 fs), multi-MeV proton bunches of extremely high intensities (>10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}) and current densities (>10{sup 14} A/cm{sup 2}) even at moderate values of dimensionless laser amplitude a{sub 0}<=10.

Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)



Can short sellers predict accounting restatements and foresee their severity  

E-print Network

. The level of short interest increases as the restatement announcement date approaches and declines thereafter. Related to severity of restatement, I find that the level of short interest in the pre-disclosure period is higher for restatements involving fraud...

Efendi, Jap



The impact of short-selling in financial markets.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy(PhD)%%%This dissertation empirically examines the impact of short-selling in financial markets. Given the increasing participation of short-sellers in financial markets, this research provides… (more)

lecce, steven



Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest  


... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...


21W.755 Writing and Reading Short Stories, Fall 2006  

E-print Network

This class will focus on the craft of the short story, which we will explore through reading great short stories, writers speaking about writing, writing exercises and conducting workshops on original stories.

Lewitt, Shariann


Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

Janka, H.-Thomas



Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention  

PubMed Central

Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland



The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory  

E-print Network

The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory John Jonides, Richard L. Lewis, Derek Evan Nee, Cindy A psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how theyrelatetoevidenceaboutunderlyingbrainmechanisms.Wefocus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory

Jonides, John


In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.



Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays  

E-print Network

Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays Mandana Veiseh, Omid demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern, and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell


Reducing Aviation's Environmental Impact Through Large Aircraft For Short Ranges  

E-print Network

- ever, the majority of aircraft used on these routes have design ranges considerably longer than 1 aircraft designed specifically for the majority of flights -- Large Aircraft for Short Ranges (LASR, a potential solution is Large Aircraft for Short Ranges (LASR). By designing aircraft for short ranges

Zingg, David W.


we.b: The web of short URLs Demetris Antoniades  

E-print Network

we.b: The web of short URLs Demetris Antoniades FORTH-ICS Iasonas Polakis FORTH-ICS Thomas Karagiannis Microsoft Research ABSTRACT Short URLs have become ubiquitous. Especially popular within social networking services, short URLs have seen

Markatos, Evangelos P.


Short Selling Regulation after the Financial Crisis – First Principles Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the recent regulatory developments with regard to short selling. We begin with a comprehensive compilation of emergency restrictions on short selling adopted in the current crisis. Because of the tendency of some regulators to retain certain restrictions permanently, it is important to understand the fundamental legal and economic arguments regarding short selling. These arguments have at their

Seraina GRUENEWALD; Alexander F. WAGNER; Rolf H. WEBER



Semester, Academic Year and Short Term SUNY Programs  

E-print Network

Semester, Academic Year and Short Term SUNY Programs: Asia #12;1 Table of Contents How to Use Year 10 Japan Short-term 12 Korea Semester & Academic Year 13 Korea Short-term 17 Programs in Other Contact Information 23 How to Use this Booklet This handout contains listings of all the programs offered

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Particle Swarm Optimization for clustering short-text corpora1  

E-print Network

Particle Swarm Optimization for clustering short-text corpora1 Diego INGARAMO a , Marcelo ERRECALDE, Spain. e-mail: Abstract. Clustering of short-text collections is a very relevant: the Expected Density Measure ¯ and the Global Silhouette coefficient. In recent works on short-text clustering

Rosso, Paolo


WISC-IV short-form 1 Running head: WISC-IV Short-Form  

E-print Network

and Abnormality of Differences John R. Crawford School of Psychology University of Aberdeen Vicki Anderson Royal and abnormality of Index score differences. The use of the short-form is illustrated with a case example of cognitive assessment in clinical research and practice. Time constraints and potential problems with patient

Crawford, John R.


Rehabilitation of the short pelvic floor. II: Treatment of the patient with the short pelvic floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several urogynecologic syndromes are associated with the clinical finding of a short, painful, tender and weak pelvic floor and a variety of connective tissue abnormalities. Techniques for rehabilitation include the avoidance of perpetuating factors, rehabilitation of extrapelvic musculoskeletal abnormalities, the use of manual techniques and needling to promote resolution of connective tissue problems, closure of any diastasis recti, and transvaginal\\/transrectal

M. P. FitzGerald; R. Kotarinos



Review of NASA short-haul studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes the results of NASA-conducted technological and economic studies of low, medium, and high density short-haul transportation systems. Aircraft concepts considered included CTOL, RTOL, STOL, and general aviation aircraft. For low density systems, it was found that viable air service becomes possible if city pairs are at least 100 km apart and a two-way total travel demand of at least 200 daily passengers exists. Currently available aircraft were found suitable. The medium-density study showed that a 60-passenger twin engine turbofan was the best suited aircraft. For high density systems, STOL appears to be an economically viable means of reducing noise and congestion at major hub airports. Adequate runways 914 m in length or greater either already exist or could be added to most existing major hub airports.

Kenyon, G. C.



Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.



Long pulse production from short pulses  


A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

Toeppen, J.S.



Long pulse production from short pulses  


A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)



Economics of solar energy: Short term costing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

Klee, H.


[Short bowel: from resection to transplantation].  


Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by a significant reduction in the effective intestinal surface by an anatomical or functional loss of the small intestine. It mainly occurs after extensive bowel resection, intestinal intrinsic disease or surgical bypass. The main complications are malabsorption, maldigestion, malnutrition, dehydratation y, potentially, lethal metabolic lesions. The treatment is based on appropiate, individualized nutritional support; however, the most recent outcomes on bowel transplantation (BT) and a great rate of survivors achieving complete digestive autonomy and able to carry out activities according to theirage allow for considering BT as the first choice therapy in patients with irreversible intestinal failure in whom poor prognosis with parenteral nutrition is foreseen. In this paper the most outstanding aspects of SBS are revised. PMID:25365000

Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio



Hydraulic characteristics of short, blocked irrigation furrows  

E-print Network

December 19PP Najor Subjects Agricultural Engineering HYDRAULIC CHARACT':. RI STOIC 8 OP SHORT, BLOCKED IRRIGATION FURROWS Thorn'~. s Henry P'ia;. =k AppY'QV~&3 B. H ~G . t?'1P. RVl6 COil. t 9? i t )g l D~ ~ I)QP. B. . L~Q B" ~J(1. All ra P1 g... ~ ~=" c Ql;&1+~ 3 +ipse J'1;. "i. P 4 ~ '"la t . r cu. ;". . I. a. 3. 3 xe;. '. ;. :;::, . '. 0 r 1. ;;3 n. ? co;=-. ", . , re1 t, er. '~ tea cF ~-. n~=" . 0 ~0?. ~ 4t "I 3 ~" ~ &&-' c j e?', for p~&, ;I. -j queQ cy op p~o 'ur ?ion, . - q-g;=:-e y...

Marek, Thomas Henry



Short-term variability of overcast brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overcasts seen from below seldom are uniform, unchanging cloud shields, yet little is known about their short-term photometric variability (periods < or = 2 h). Visible-wavelength spectra of daytime and twilight overcast skies measured at 30-s intervals reveal unexpected temporal variability in horizontal illuminance E_nu and zenith luminance L_nu. Fourier analysis of these time series shows peak fluctuations at periods of 2-40 min. Factors such as cloud type and optical depth, presence of fog or snow, and instrument field of view can affect overcast brightness variability. Surprisingly, under some circumstances overcast twilight E_nu exceeds clear-sky E_nu at the same Sun elevation.

Lee, Raymond L., Jr.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier



Short-term prognosis of pulmonary embolism.  


Risk stratification tools that accurately quantify the prognosis of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) may be useful in guiding medical decision making. Prospective studies demonstrated that clinical factors, echocardiographic right ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac biomarkers (troponins, brain natriuretic peptides) are independent predictors of short-term mortality in patients with PE. The presence of systemic hypotension or shock carries the highest risk of death, and thrombolysis is usually indicated. Among hemodynamically stable patients, clinical prognostic models, echocardiography, and biomarkers accurately identify low-risk patients with PE who are potential candidates for less costly outpatient care. However, the practical use of these prognostic measures is currently limited by the lack of studies demonstrating a positive impact on patient care. The benefit of risk stratification strategies based on clinical prognostic models, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers should be demonstrated in prospective studies before their implementation as decision aid to guide initial treatment can be recommended. PMID:19630825

Aujesky, D; Hughes, R; Jiménez, D



Brain Connectivity Analysis: A Short Survey  

PubMed Central

This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default mode network, have been identified. Graphical models represent a convenient vehicle to formalize experimental findings and to closely and quantitatively characterize the various networks identified. Underlying these abstract concepts are anatomical networks, the so-called connectome, which can be investigated by functional imaging techniques as well. Future studies have to bridge the gap between anatomical neuronal connections and related functional or effective connectivities. PMID:23097663

Lang, E. W.; Tome, A. M.; Keck, I. R.; Gorriz-Saez, J. M.; Puntonet, C. G.



Short Barcodes for Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

We consider the design and evaluation of short barcodes, with a length between six and eight nucleotides, used for parallel sequencing on platforms where substitution errors dominate. Such codes should have not only good error correction properties but also the code words should fulfil certain biological constraints (experimental parameters). We compare published barcodes with codes obtained by two new constructions methods, one based on the currently best known linear codes and a simple randomized construction method. The evaluation done is with respect to the error correction capabilities, barcode size and their experimental parameters and fundamental bounds on the code size and their distance properties. We provide a list of codes for lengths between six and eight nucleotides, where for length eight, two substitution errors can be corrected. In fact, no code with larger minimum distance can exist. PMID:24386128

Mir, Katharina; Neuhaus, Klaus; Bossert, Martin; Schober, Steffen



Short Antimicrobial Lipo-?/?-AA Hybrid Peptides.  


The last two decades have seen the rise of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to combat emerging antibiotic resistance. Herein we report the solid-phase synthesis of short lipidated ?/?-AA hybrid peptides. This family of lipo-chimeric peptidomimetics displays potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of multi-drug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These lipo-?/?-AA hybrid peptides also demonstrate high biological specificity, with no hemolytic activity towards red blood cells. Fluorescence microscopy suggests that these lipo-?/?-AA chimeric peptides can mimic the mode of action of AMPs and kill bacterial pathogens via membrane disintegration. As the composition of these chimeric peptides is simple, therapeutic development could be economically feasible and amenable for a variety of antimicrobial applications. PMID:25169879

Li, Yaqiong; Smith, Christina; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Shi, Yan; Padhee, Shruti; Jones, Torey; Nguyen, Anh-My; Cao, Chuanhai; Yin, Hang; Cai, Jianfeng



Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice/water interface is observed in at a rate comparable to the experimental data. When peptides are present in the liquid phase, the crystal growth is retarded to a significant extent compared to the pure water. It is found that Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly is more effective (crystallization is up to 5 times slower than in its absence) than Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly (up to 3 times slower) implying that the role of the proline residue is important. The mechanism can be understood in the nature of binding of the peptides to the growing crystal.

Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun



Short-term variability of overcast brightness.  


Overcasts seen from below seldom are uniform, unchanging cloud shields, yet little is known about their short-term photometric variability (periods < or = 2 h). Visible-wavelength spectra of daytime and twilight overcast skies measured at 30-s intervals reveal unexpected temporal variability in horizontal illuminance E(v) and zenith luminance L(v). Fourier analysis of these time series shows peak fluctuations at periods of 2-40 min. Factors such as cloud type and optical depth, presence of fog or snow, and instrument field of view can affect overcast brightness variability. Surprisingly, under some circumstances overcast twilight E(v) exceeds clear-sky E(v) at the same Sun elevation. PMID:16201433

Lee, Raymond L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier



Short counseling techniques for busy family doctors.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To introduce two short counseling skills for busy family doctors: the BATHE technique and the DIG technique. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The BATHE technique indicates five areas for questioning patients who require counseling: background, affect, trouble, handling, and empathy. No research on use of the technique has been published. The DIG technique is the author's modification of the BATHE technique. MAIN FINDINGS: While the efficacy of counseling in general was validated, more research on the effectiveness on these two techniques needs to be done. CONCLUSIONS: Since counseling is an integral part of family practice, family doctors will find these techniques useful. Each is easy to learn and takes less than 15 minutes to complete. PMID:9111987

Poon, V. H.



Short wavelength infrared hybrid focal plane arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The employment of area focal plane arrays (FPA) has made it possible to obtain second generation infrared imaging systems with high resolution and sensitivity. The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1-2.5 microns) is of importance for imaging objects at high temperature and under conditions of reflected sunlight. The present investigation is concerned with electrooptical characterization results for 32 x 32 SWIR detector arrays and FPAs which are suitable for use in a prototype imaging spectrometer. The employed detector material is Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te grown by liquid phase epitaxy on a CdTe transparent substrate. Attention is given to details of processing, the design of the detector array, the multiplexer, the fabrication of the hybrid FPA, and aspects of performance.

Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D.; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D.; Rode, J. P.



On storage rings for short wavelength FELs  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances have been made recently in the understanding of FEL physics and the technology of associated systems. We have witnessed experimental successes in the operation of FELs from the far infrared to the visible and near UV. All of the basic physics of FELs, as advanced up to date, in the small and high gain regimes (including exponential growth from noise, optical guiding, etc.) have been proved experimentally in the near or far infrared. These successes motivate us to explore the design of FEL systems at even shorter wavelengths, in the UV, XUV and soft x-ray regions, assuming that the same physics remain valid at these wavelengths. This paper is concerned with issues in the physics and design of storage rings as drivers of short wavelength FELs. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Chattopadhyay, S.



Inference of Isoforms from Short Sequence Reads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to alternative splicing events in eukaryotic species, the identification of mRNA isoforms (or splicing variants) is a difficult problem. Traditional experimental methods for this purpose are time consuming and cost ineffective. The emerging RNA-Seq technology provides a possible effective method to address this problem. Although the advantages of RNA-Seq over traditional methods in transcriptome analysis have been confirmed by many studies, the inference of isoforms from millions of short sequence reads (e.g., Illumina/Solexa reads) has remained computationally challenging. In this work, we propose a method to calculate the expression levels of isoforms and infer isoforms from short RNA-Seq reads using exon-intron boundary, transcription start site (TSS) and poly-A site (PAS) information. We first formulate the relationship among exons, isoforms, and single-end reads as a convex quadratic program, and then use an efficient algorithm (called IsoInfer) to search for isoforms. IsoInfer can calculate the expression levels of isoforms accurately if all the isoforms are known and infer novel isoforms from scratch. Our experimental tests on known mouse isoforms with both simulated expression levels and reads demonstrate that IsoInfer is able to calculate the expression levels of isoforms with an accuracy comparable to the state-of-the-art statistical method and a 60 times faster speed. Moreover, our tests on both simulated and real reads show that it achieves a good precision and sensitivity in inferring isoforms when given accurate exon-intron boundary, TSS and PAS information, especially for isoforms whose expression levels are significantly high.

Feng, Jianxing; Li, Wei; Jiang, Tao


Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio



Prepubertal stature and blood pressure in early old age  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo test the hypothesis that childhood growth rate is a marker for formation of control mechanisms that influence blood pressure in early old age.METHODSData are from a sample of 149 (74 male) members of Sir John Boyd Orr's survey of British families conducted between 1937 and 1939. Measured heights were collected between ages 5 and 8 years, and in early

Scott M Montgomery; Lee R Berney; David Blane



Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known association between height and earnings is often thought to reflect factors such as self-esteem, social dominance, and discrimination. We offer a simpler explanation: height is positively associated with cognitive ability, which is rewarded in the labor market. Using data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we show that taller children have higher average cognitive test scores

Anne Case; Christina Paxson



Clinical Features: Seckel syndrome (OMIM#210600) and Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfistm type II (MOPDII,  

E-print Network

characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, and microcephaly. Characteristics of Seckel syndrome include severe proportionally short stature with severe microcephaly (mean postnatal growth retardation

Das, Soma


Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  


Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. PMID:24788350

Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N



The historical Coffin-Lowry syndrome family revisited: identification of two novel mutations of RPS6KA3 in three male patients.  


Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by intellectual disability, craniofacial abnormalities, short stature, tapering fingers, hypotonia, and skeletal malformations. CLS is caused by mutations in the Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90 kDa, Polypeptide 3 (RPS6KA3) gene located at Xp22.12, which encodes Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2). Here we analyzed RPS6KA3 in three unrelated CLS patients including one from the historical Coffin-Lowry syndrome family and found two novel mutations. To date, over 140 mutations in RPS6KA3 have been reported. However, the etiology of the very first familial case, which was described in 1971 by Lowry with detailed phenotype and coined the term CLS, has remained unknown. More than 40 years after the report, we succeeded in identifying deposited fibroblast cells from one patient of this historic family and found a novel heterozygous 216 bp in-frame deletion, encompassing exons 15 and 16 of RPS6KA3. Drop episodes in CLS patients were reported to be associated with truncating mutations deleting the C-terminal kinase domain (KD), and only one missense mutation and one single basepair duplication involving the C-terminal KD of RSK2 in the patients with drop episode have been reported thus far. Here we report the first in-frame deletion in C-terminal KD of RPS6KA3 in a CLS patient with drop episodes. PMID:25044551

Nishimoto, Hiromi Koso; Ha, Kyungsoo; Jones, Julie R; Dwivedi, Alka; Cho, Hyun-Min; Layman, Lawrence C; Kim, Hyung-Goo



Modulation of short waves by long waves. [ocean wave interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wave-tank experiments were performed to investigate the cyclic short-wave energy changes, related in phase to an underlying long wave, which occur during active generation of the short-wave field by wind. Measurements of time series of the short-wave slope were made by a laser-optical system, where the basic long-wave parameters were controlled and wind speeds were accurately reproducible. The short-wave slope variances were found to exhibit cyclic variations that are related to the phase of the long wave. The variations result from two combined effects: (1) the short wave frequency is varied by the long-wave orbital velocity; (2) the energy of the short waves is modulated by the actions of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic couplings that operate on the short waves in a manner related to the long-wave phase.

Reece, A. M., Jr.



Should Short-Selling be Restricted during a Financial Crisis?  

E-print Network

University. We would like to thank Markit for providing the CDS Database. Should Short-Selling be Restricted during a Financial Crisis? This paper investigates the short-selling of financial company stocks around the time of the SEC September 2008 short-selling ban. More specifically, this paper examines whether this short-selling mainly by hedge funds and other types of sophisticated investors was purely speculative or was it driven by rational behavior in response to a financial company’s risk exposure, such as its holdings of subprime related assets and its credit risk exposure. Our results show that short-sellers rationally short-sold those financial company stocks with the greatest subprime and credit risk exposures. This finding has important implications regarding banning short-selling, since it suggests that such a regulation may have muted the disciplining effects of investors in the financial market on those financial companies with the greatest risk exposures. 1

Iftekhar Hasan; Nadia Massoud; Anthony Saunders; Keke Song



Short stems in total hip replacement: current status and future.  


Short stem hip implants have been introduced as a bone preserving surgery for younger and more active people undergoing hip arthroplasty. Although many short stems are now available, clinical results and long-term survival are controversial. The aim of this paper is to describe the features of the short stems and to analyse their clinical results and long-term survival. The short-stem implants reproduce a stress distribution at the level of the proximal femur more similar to the physiological femur limiting the stress-shielding that occur with conventional cementless stems. Though short stems are an alternative to conventional stems, their use is not yet justified despite the promising short and mid-term survival results. Higher incidence of complications, such as periprosthetic fractures and malpositioning of the stem, and the lack of long-term results do not allow to predict what role in the future short stems in total hip replacement may have. PMID:24970038

Castelli, Claudio C; Rizzi, Luigi




E-print Network

PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Film Dept. are sponsoring the Third Annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las Vegas, Nevada

Hemmers, Oliver


The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

Hemmers, Oliver


A Novel Technique for the Effective Production of Short Peptide Analogs from Concatameric Short Peptide Multimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a basic unit of the modified chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone II (cGnRH-II) peptide containing a trypsin\\u000a cleavable linker peptide at both ends of the original peptide. We made a synthetic DNA coding for the modified cGnRH-II peptide\\u000a with asymmetric and complementary cohesive ends of linker nucleotides. A tandemly repeated DNA cassette for the expression\\u000a of concatameric short peptide

Sang Jun Lee; Jong Hee Lee; Hyun Joo Jin; Jeong Ho Lee; Ho Young Ryu; Yoon Kim; In Soo Kong; Kyu Won Kim



Short term oral minocycline treatment of meibomianitis  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the clinical impact, aqueous tear parameters, and meibomian gland morphology in patients with primary meibomianitis before, during, and 3?months after a course of oral minocycline. Methods 16 patients were prospectively enrolled, 11 male and five female (mean age 69?years old). Each patient received routine clinical evaluations before, after 3?months therapy, and at 6?month study follow up visit. The clinical appearance, tear volume, flow and turnover, evaporation, Schirmer I test, meibomian gland dropout, lissamine green staining, and bacteriology wer evaluated. Results Improvement was observed in clinical signs of meibomianitis at the second and third visits. Microbial culture findings improved. Decreased aqueous tear volume and flow, and increased evaporation rate range at 35–45% relative humidity (RH) (p<0.05) were also detected. Other related tear parameters did not change. Meibomian gland dropout showed no improvement. Conclusions 3?months of oral minocycline resulted in clinical improvements in all meibomianitis signs that persisted for at least 3?months after discontinuation despite decreased aqueous tear volume and flow with increased evaporation (35–45% RH). However, there was improvement in the turbidity of secretions. Short term minocycline therapy probably has efficacy in the management of meibomianitis that extends beyond eradication of bacteria. PMID:16613920

Aronowicz, J D; Shine, W E; Oral, D; Vargas, J M; McCulley, J P



Short-term energy outlook, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.




Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.



[Short pregnancy interval and reproductive disorders].  


The cause of the 'borderline personality disorder' of Vincent van Gogh has been discussed in social-psychiatric terms related to so-called 'substitute children', born after the loss of a previous child. A biological-organic genesis, i.e. the very short birth interval of precisely one year between Van Gogh and his older brother appears to be a more plausible explanation. Personality disorders, which are part of the spectrum of schizophrenic disorders, seem to belong to the very broad 'continuum of reproductive casualties' and to be caused by non-optimal maturation of the oocyte during the postpartum restoration of the ovulatory pattern. This continuum occurs during each of the transitional stages of reproductive life in which the maturation of the oocyte is constrained and consists of chromosomal aberrations, (discordant) monozygotic twins, early and late foetal death, preterm births, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital abnormalities, perinatal and neonatal mortality, cot death, growth and mental defects, and finally, chronic or 'constitutional' diseases. Non-optimal maturation of the oocyte appears to be a risk factor for the reproductive casualties stated. PMID:12190009

Jongbloet, P H; Zielhuis, G A; Pasker-de Jong, P C M



A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod  

PubMed Central

A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

Siveter, Derek J.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah



Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

Barcz, Aleksy; Szyma?ski, Zbigniew


Immune changes during short-duration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

Taylor, G. R.



Short time information in GPS time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents adjustment's results of the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-EUPOS). ASG-EUPOS is the multifunctional precise satellite positioning system established by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in 2008. It consists of 84 Polish sites with GPS module, 14 Polish sites with GPS/GLONASS module and 20 foreign sites. The adjusted network consisted of over 100 stations, the period covered observations collected from June 2008. The method of adjustment elaborated in the CAG, which is the newest, seventeenth EPN LAC (EPN Local Analysis Centre) established at the end of 2009, is similar with applied in EPN. It is based on the Bernese 5.0 software. The difference to the EPN's solutions lies in the resolution time of adjustment. In the presented research the 1-hour sampling rate with 3-hour windowing is applied. This allows us to make the interpretations concerning short time information in GPS coordinates series. The time span (over 1.5 year) permits the separation between the pure dynamic phenomena (tides) and thermal oscillations in the diurnal and sub-diurnal frequency bands. The presentation contains also the plans for multidimensional applications of the dense national active GNSS networks.

Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz



On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew



A Comparison of Short Selling and Put Option Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study compares short-selling and put-option activity, both of which are found to predict negative returns. Our results provide new evidence supporting the argument,that options reduce borrowing costs by decreasing the demand,for short sales because of the substitutabilityof bearish options strategies and short selling. As a result, we find some evidence consistent with the idea that pessimistic trading activity

Benjamin M. Blau; Chip Wade



Regulating noisy short-selling of troubled firms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of recent policy initiatives taken by the US Securities and Exchange Commission banning naked “short-selling” of specific financial stocks. The paper also considers the merits of reinstating “uptick rule” 10a-1, which prohibits short-selling securities on a downtick. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper studies theoretical implications of short-selling in a

Carlos A. Ulibarri; Ionut Florescu; Joel M. Eidsath



A Study of Market-Wide Short-Selling Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes empirical evidence to the on-going debate on short sales. Our examination of how market-wide short-sale restrictions affect aggregate market returns focuses on two main questions: What is the effect of short-sale restrictions on skewness, volatility, the probability of market crashes, and liquidity? What is the effect on the market expected return or cost of capital? We report

Anchada Charoenrook; Hazem Daouk



What Determines the Level of Short-Selling Activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I test several explanations for the short-sale trading for a sample of the NYSE and the Nasdaq stocks during the 1988-2002 period. I fi nd that short-selling activity is positively related to arbi- trage opportunities and hedging demand, and negatively related to previous short-term returns. ANOVA analysis shows that the stock option listing is the most dominant variable in explaining

Hung Wan Kot



Real-time NURBS interpolator: application to short linear segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes the use of a real-time non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) interpolator with a look-ahead function to\\u000a handle numerous short linear segments. The short linear segments conforming to the continuous short block (CSB) criterion\\u000a can be fitted into NURBS curves in real time. A modified maximum feedrate equation based on the geometric characteristics\\u000a of the fitting curves and the

Jun-Bin Wang; Hong-Tzong Yau



Sports Activity After Short-Stem Hip Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No data are available about the sports activity of patients with bone-conserving short-stem hip implants.Hypothesis: Patients can return to a good level of sports activity after implantation of a short-stem hip implant.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: The sports activity level of 68 patients (76 hips) after short-stem hip arthroplasty was assessed for a minimum of 2

Florian Schmidutz; Stefan Grote; Matthias Pietschmann; Patrick Weber; Farhad Mazoochian; Andreas Fottner; Volkmar Jansson