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Sample records for short vertical sus304-tube

  1. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  2. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale.

  3. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  4. Observation of short ballistic Josephson effect in vertical graphene junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2014-03-01

    The current-phase relation (CPR) of vertical graphene Josephson junctions (vGJJs) was measured using phase-sensitive dc-SQUID interferometry. A vGJJ, realized by vertically sandwiching a monolayer graphene between two Al electrodes, had an atomically short channel with transparent contacts for the highly coherent junction nature. The measured CPR was almost perfectly skewed, which rigorously confirmed the short ballisticity of the vGJJs. The short ballistic character of a Josephson junction has been predicted since 1970's but has never been realized in scalable hybrid systems. The CPR also provided energy spectrum of Andreev levels formed inside the junction, which offered a promising prospect for scalable quantum information devices such as Andreev-level qubits. This vertical-junction scheme is also readily applicable to the other cleavable materials such as three-dimensional topological insulators or transition metal dichalcogenides, opening a new pathway for uncovering exotic coherence phenomena arising in an atomic scale.

  5. Influence of Heating Rate on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in a Short Vertical Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Koichi; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    The subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔTsub, in=130 to 161K), the inlet pressure (Pin=812 to 1315kPa), the dissolved oxygen concentration (O2=5.88 and 7.34ppm) and the increasing heat input (Q0exp(t/τ), τ=38.1ms to 8.3s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop installed the pressurizer. The SUS304 tube of test tube inner diameter (d=6mm), heated length (L=60mm), L/d=10 and wall thickness (δ=0.5mm) with the rough finished inner surface (Surface roughness, Ra=3.18µm) is used in this work. The CHF data for high heating rate were compared with the quasi steady state ones previously obtained and the values calculated by the steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings. Transient CHF correlation against inlet subcooling has been given based on the experimental data for wide exponentially increasing heat input (Q0exp(t/τ), τ=38.1ms to 8.3s). The influence of heating rate on CHF was investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux for high heating rate was discussed.

  6. Critical Heat Fluxes of Subcooled Water Flow Boiling against Inlet Subcooling in Short Vertical Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Koichi; Komori, Hirokazu; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    The critical heat fluxes (CHFs) of subcooled water flow boiling for the test tube inner diameters (d=3 and 6mm) and the heated lengths (L=67, 120 and 150mm) are systematically measured for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔTsub, in=48 to 148K), the outlet subcoolings (ΔTsub, out=10.5 to 95.1K), the inlet pressure (Pin=753 to 995kPa) and the outlet pressure (Pout=720 to 887kPa). The SUS304 tubes of L=67, 120 and 150mm for d=3mm and L=150mm for d=6mm are used. The values of L/d are 22, 40 and 50 for d=3mm, and 25 for d=6mm, respectively. The CHFs, qcr, sub, for a fixed ΔTsub, out become gradually lower with an increase in the L/d in the whole experimental range. The CHF correlation against outlet subcooling, which has been previously derived for L/d lower than 16, was modified to new one containing the L/d effect based on these experimental data. Furthermore, the relation between qcr, sub and L/d for a fixed ΔTsub, in was checked. The values of qcr, sub for a fixed ΔTsub, in became exponentially lower with the increase in L/d. CHF correlation against inlet subcooling has been given based on the experimental data for L/d ranging from 4.08 to 50. The correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings can describe not only the CHFs obtained in this work for the inner diameter of 3 and 6mm at the outlet pressure of around 800kPa but also the authors' published CHFs data (1611 points) for the wide ranges of Pin=159kPa to 1MPa, d=3 to 12mm, L=33 to 150mm and u=4.0 to 13.3m/s within 15% difference for 30K≤ΔTsub, out≤140K and 40K≤ΔTsub, in≤151K.

  7. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  8. Influence of short incompatible practice on the Simon effect: transfer along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Erick F Q; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Lameira, Allan Pablo; Mograbi, Daniel C; Riggio, Lucia; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2015-11-01

    In spatial compatibility and Simon tasks, the response is faster when stimulus and response locations are on the same side than when they are on opposite sides. It has been shown that a spatial incompatible practice leads to a subsequent modulation of the Simon effect along the horizontal dimension. It has also been reported that this modulation occurs both along and across vertical and horizontal dimensions, but only after intensive incompatible training (600 trials). In this work, we show that this modulatory effect can be obtained with a smaller number of incompatible trials, changing the spatial arrangement of the vertical response keys to obtain a stronger dimensional overlap between the spatial codes of stimuli and response keys. The results of Experiment 1 showed that 80 incompatible vertical trials abolished the Simon effect in the same dimension. Experiment 2 showed that a modulation of the vertical Simon effect could be obtained after 80 horizontal incompatible trials. Experiment 3 explored whether the transfer effect can also occur in a horizontal Simon task after a brief vertical spatial incompatibility task, and results were similar to the previous experiments. In conclusion, we suggest that the spatial arrangement between response key and stimulus locations may be critical to establish the short-term memory links that enable the transfer of learning between brief incompatible practices and the Simon effects, both along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions. PMID:26265123

  9. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A in short vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyun; Jia, Li; Tan, Zetao

    2015-06-01

    An experimental study on condensation heat transfer of R410A in short vertical tubes (8.02 mm ID and 10.7mm ID) was presented. Experiments were performed in eight short copper tubes length varied from 300mm to 600mm at mass fluxes range of 58-246 kg m-2s-1 and saturation temperature of 38C. Effects of mass flux, tube length on condensation heat transfer coefficient were investigated. The distribution of temperature, thickness of condensate film and local condensation heat transfer coefficient along the tube were also analyzed. It is indicated that the entrance effect played an important role in condensation heat transfer of vertical tube, and the influence of entrance effect on average condensation heat transfer coefficients will weaken with the length of tube in the experimental condensation. The experimental results were compared with four well known correlations available in literatures, and the Chen correlation shows good agreement with the experimental data but with 40% deviation. A new modified condensation heat transfer correlation with 12.7% mean deviation was developed to predict the condensation heat transfer coefficients in short vertical tube based on the experimental data.

  10. Design of a Low Cost Short Takeoff-vertical Landing Export Fighter/attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Anne; Bodeker, Dan, III; Miu, Steve; Petro, Laura; Senf, Cary Taylor; Woeltjen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft is presented that is suitable for export. An advanced four poster, low bypass turbofan engine is to be used for propulsion. Preliminary aerodynamic analysis is presented covering a determination of CD versus CL, CD versus Mach number, as well as best cruise Mach number and altitude. Component locations are presented and center of gravity determined. Cost minimization is achieved through the use of developed subsystems and standard fabrication techniques using nonexotic materials. Conclusions regarding the viability of the STOVL design are presented.

  11. Vertical plane short and middle latency vestibular evoked potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, V; Elidan, J; Sela, M; Nitzan, M; Sohmer, H

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine whether short and middle latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) can be recorded in humans in response to angular acceleration stimuli in the vertical plane, a drum, head-holder, and stepper motor were designed to deliver upward acceleration impulses of 10,000 degrees/s2 (1.8 degrees displacement) to the human head. Forehead and mastoid electrodes recorded electrical activity that was filtered, differentially amplified, and averaged in short (12.7 milliseconds) and middle (63.5 milliseconds) latency time frames. Control recordings were used to eliminate various types of artifact. Recordings were conducted in 7 normal subjects and in 4 control patients with congenital, profound hearing loss and absence of caloric responses. Short and middle latency VsEPs with high intrasubject and intersubject consistency were recorded in normal subjects and not in control patients. The middle latency responses were larger in amplitude than the short latency responses. The effects of stimulus intensity and repetition rate on VsEP waveform, latency, and amplitude studied. Experiments have shown that the responses are not electrical artifact, nor are they contaminated by auditory, somatosensory, or passive eye movement potentials. PMID:8546423

  12. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Borchers, Paul; Gomer, Charlie; Henderson, Dean; Jacobs, Tavis; Lawson, Todd; Peterson, Eric; Ross, Tweed, III; Bellmard, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design study of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. A brief historical survey of powered lift vehicles was presented, followed by a technology assessment of the latest supersonic STOVL engine cycles under consideration by industry and government in the U.S. and UK. A survey of operational fighter/attack aircraft and the modern battlefield scenario were completed to develop, respectively, the performance requirements and mission profiles for the study. Three configurations were initially investigated with the following engine cycles: a hybrid fan vectored thrust cycle, a lift+lift/cruise cycle, and a mixed flow vectored thrust cycle. The lift+lift/cruise aircraft configuration was selected for detailed design work which consisted of: (1) a material selection and structural layout, including engine removal considerations, (2) an aircraft systems layout, (3) a weapons integration model showing the internal weapons bay mechanism, (4) inlet and nozzle integration, (5) an aircraft suckdown prediction, (6) an aircraft stability and control analysis, including a takeoff, hover, and transition control analysis, (7) a performance and mission capability study, and (8) a life cycle cost analysis. A supersonic fighter aircraft with STOVL capability with the lift+lift/cruise engine cycle seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  13. Koolau Revisited: Vertical, Short-Scale Heterogeneities in the Hawaiian Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Huang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The subaerial Makapuu stage lavas on the Koolau volcano define the isotopically enriched endmember of the Hawaiian lavas. Their compositions are central to the debate for the presence of recycled oceanic crust and the scales of heterogeneity in the Hawaiian plume. Despite their importance, however, relatively few isotope analyses exist. Here we report new high precision isotope data (Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb) and major / trace element compositions on newly collected samples from the Makapuu Head, Koolau. The new data extends to more unradiogenic isotopic compositions (?Nd= -1.3 - 3.0) than previously reported in Hawaiian lavas. In ?Hf - ?Nd space the Makapuu lavas define a shallower slope (0.75, r2 = 0.92) than all other Hawaiian lavas, while in Sr-Nd isotope space they define the steepest slope. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. ?Nd plot, these lavas define a well correlated negative array that is best explained by the presence of a depleted component (low 208Pb/204Pb - high ?Nd) in the Makapuu source, similar to the isotopic characteristics of pyroxenite xenoliths and rejuvenated stage lavas from the Oahu and Kaula island. When plotted on any combination of 3-isotope systems (3D plots) the Makapuu and the stratigraphically lower KSDP lavas, show well defined but non-intersecting binary arrays. This feature cannot be explained by any two or three- component mixing, and requires that the plume source changed significantly and abruptly during the shield stage volcanism at Koolau. A reexamination of available high precision isotope data from other Hawaiian volcanoes further shows that each shield volcano defines a unique linear array (implying binary mixing) in all 3D isotope plot combinations that involve Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. Note that, in general, there is very little overlap between the individual arrays. This requires that only a unique set of two end members, responsible for the isotopic variability of each volcano, is available during the eruption of that particular volcano. This observation is consistent with vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume. If vertical streaks are present within the upwelling plume (i.e. 'spaghetti' model), then the tight binary arrays defined by each volcano require that the compositions of the "streaks" are relatively constant but only present during the life cycle of each shield volcano (~500 ky). The "streaks" must have a finite length (i.e. short 'spaghetti', perhaps 'penne') in order to account for the volcano-to-volcano variability. While the concentrically zoned plume or the asymmetrically bilateral plume models are consistent with some large-scale lateral features of the Hawaiian plume (e.g. Loa - Kea trends) our data suggests that there is also considerable vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume.

  14. Static internal performance of ventral and rear nozzle concepts for short-takeoff and vertical-landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, Richard J.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The internal performance of two exhaust system concepts applicable to single-engine short-take-off and vertical-landing tactical fighter configurations was investigated. These concepts involved blocking (or partially blocking) tailpipe flow to the rear (cruise) nozzle and diverting it through an opening to a ventral nozzle exit for vertical thrust. A set of variable angle vanes at the ventral nozzle exit were used to vary ventral nozzle thrust angle between 45 and 110 deg relative to the positive axial force direction. In the vertical flight mode the rear nozzle (or tailpipe flow to it) was completely blocked. In the transition flight mode flow in the tailpipe was split between the rear and ventral nozzles and the flow was vectored at both exits for aircraft control purposes through this flight regime. In the cruise flight mode the ventral nozzle was sealed and all flow exited through the rear nozzle.

  15. Implant-Guided Vertical Bone Augmentation Around Extra-Short Implants for the Management of Severe Bone Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Murias-Freijo, Alia; Alkhraisat, Mohammad H; Orive, Gorka

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conservative treatment of severe vertical bone atrophy by combining the insertion of extra-short implants and implant-guided bone augmentation. For that, a low-speed drilling protocol was selected to facilitate the collection of bone particles and to maintain graft osteogenic properties. Extra-short implants were incompletely inserted because of the severe atrophy, and the denuded implant surface was covered by autologous bone particles held together by the adhesive properties of plasma rich in growth factors. The surgical site was then covered with resorbable fibrin membrane, and the flap was repositioned and sutured. Eight patients with a mean residual bone height of 4.19 0.97 mm were treated according to the described treatment protocol. The distance between the implant shoulder and the bony crest was 1.77 0.18, 2.16 0.23, and 1.97 0.26 mm at the mesial, central, and distal aspects, respectively. Vertical bone augmentation resulted in the coverage of 85% of exposed surface by stimulating 1.6 0.5 mm of supra-alveolar bone growth. All 10 extra-short implants placed were successfully osseointegrated. After a mean of 5 1.6 months, provisional screw-retained prostheses were placed. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that the minimally invasive approach described may successfully rehabilitate extreme vertical bone atrophy in the posterior mandible. PMID:24191921

  16. Short term variation in the vertical distribution of copepods off the coast of northern Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Boyd, C M; Lane, P V.Z.

    1980-04-01

    Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a, oxygen, density and copepods were collected during November 1977 near 9/sup 0/S off Peru. The majority of three groups of copepod, the Oncaeidae, the Oithonidae and small calanoids, remained above the depth (approx. 30m) where concentrations of oxygen became less than 0.5 ml.l/sup -1/ both day and night. Centers of population of all three groups were in or below the pycnocline at all times. In daytime all three groups accumulated at depth, while at night all three groups showed some dispersion throughout the upper 30 m with statistically significant separation in the layers of Oncaeidae and small calanoids. Small calanoids were always higher in the water column than the Oncaeidae at night. The rather small, daily vertical excursions by the Oncaeidae and small calanoids exposed them to mean onshore, poleward flow by day and mean offshore, equatorward flow at night.

  17. Differences in short-term food preferences following vertical sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Primeaux, Stefany D; Tzeng, Tony H; Allerton, Timothy D; Chiang, Monica C; Cosentino, Gina; Dubin, Robert L; Varughese, Amy; Moore, Rachel; Geiselman, Paula J; Greenway, Frank L; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective in reducing body weight and obesity-related comorbidities. This study examined differences in the short-term effect of Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on the hedonic rating of food. Predominantly black women with complicated obesity and a BMI>50g/m(2) completed a validated food preference questionnaire before and 1-3 months following surgery. Analysis of preference scores indicated that the preference for fat decreased with both surgeries. VSG also decreased the preference for sugar. Further studies are needed to evaluate long term effects of surgery on food preferences and to elucidate physiological mechanisms. PMID:26388138

  18. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Metaxas, Peter J.; Chanthbouala, Andre; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-12-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 107 A/cm2. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  19. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  20. High-Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser under a Short Pulsed Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Nobuyuki; Abe, Katsunori; Yamada, Hitoshi; Wado, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Yukihiro

    2009-05-01

    We report on the lasing characteristics of a single vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with InGaAs/GaAs multiple-quantum-wells under high-power pulsed operations. External quantum efficiency was improved by decreasing carrier overflow in the active region, and it was found that increasing the number of quantum wells suppressed carrier overflow. The highest peak pulsed power of over 12.5 W at an injection current of 20 A was achieved by a single VCSEL with five InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) in the active region.

  1. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The supertube also serves as the exhaust path to the model and supports the hot air piping on its external surfaces. The DAS is currently being assembled at the 9 15 LSWT facility. Following assembly and installation, a series of checkouts will be performed to confirm the operation of the system.

  2. Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jonathan M.; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2010-07-01

    We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of ˜1 μm diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 μm are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of ˜900 °C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 °C. High quality (Q ˜105) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber.

  3. Effects of a short proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching bout on quadriceps neuromuscular function, flexibility, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Place, Nicolas; Blum, Yannick; Armand, Stéphane; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Behm, David G

    2013-02-01

    The inclusion of relatively long bouts of stretching (repeated static stretches of ∼30 seconds) in the warm-up is usually associated with a drop in muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) paradigm with short periods of stretching and contraction on quadriceps neuromuscular function, vertical jump performance, and articular range of motion (ROM). Twelve healthy men (age: 27.7 ± 7.3 years, height: 178.4 ± 10.4 cm, weight: 73.8 ± 16.9 kg) volunteered to participate in a PNF session and a control session separated by 2-7 days. The PNF stretching lasted 2 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 5-second isometric hamstring contraction immediately followed by 5 seconds of passive static stretch of the quadriceps immediately followed by 5 seconds isometric quadriceps contraction for each leg. For the control session, the participants were asked to walk at a comfortable speed for 2 minutes. Active ROM of knee flexion, vertical jump performance, and quadriceps neuromuscular function were tested before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the intervention. The PNF stretching procedure did not affect ROM, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level, M-wave and twitch contractile properties that could be attributed to PNF stretching. The present self-administered PNF stretching of the quadriceps with short (5-second) stretches is not recommended before sports where flexibility is mandatory for performance. PMID:22505131

  4. A Study for Application of Vertical Infiltration in Runoff Analysis Model to Long- and Short- Term Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimi, K.; Wang, C. W.; Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    In general, the runoff phenomenon at the time of a flood is consisted of a series of runoff components. For example, Horton (1933) proposed that when the rainfall amount is over then the limit capacity of soil permeation, the other water would be output as the surface runoff. Kikkawa et. al (1979) considered that sub-system of the discharge decreasing progressively for the tank model. And Kure et. al (2005) recommended the smallest scale tank for unique slope including of the characteristics of soil, topography to calculate the rainfall- runoff volume. However, the physical meaning of these researches was not very clearly. Therefore, the authors would focus on it and develop the multi-layers flow as the main model to evaluate the flood runoff in a short term and long term period. First the historically rainfall-runoff model considering multi-layer flow in a slope is proposed. The purpose of this study is to propose the runoff model in consideration of multi-layer flow and to indicate possible application of long-and short-term runoff analysis. It shows outline of proposed rainfall-runoff model considering multi-layer flow in a slope. Additionally, it argues over the difference of reproducibility from existing model. And finally, this model is applied to long-and short-term runoff analysis at a small dam basin (254km2) in Japan. In conclusion, the model considering multi-layer flow was able to be proposed by incorporating no difficulty involved vertical infiltration mechanism to the existing model. As a result of runoff analysis at the dam basin, the availability of the proposed model is shown.

  5. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do

  6. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  7. Vertical transmission of Mycoplasma wenyonii in cattle, supported by analysis of the ribonuclease P RNA gene - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Fumina; Suzuki, Jin; Hirata, Toh-Ichi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Harasawa, Ryô; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The vertical transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) wenyonii was investigated in beef cattle raised on a farm in Japan by analysing the ribonuclease P RNA (rnpB) gene sequence using PCR. Peripheral blood samples from 17 dams infected with M. wenyonii and from their neonatal calves were collected and colostrum samples were taken from cows immediately after parturition, and subsequently the blood samples of calves were monitored continuously for three months. At birth on day 0, although no rnpB gene was detected in the colostrum of any of the dams, four (23.5%) of the 17 calves born were positive. At three months after delivery, the number of positive calves decreased to three. Although horizontal transmission by blood-feeding arthropod vectors has been basically accepted as the most common route of haemoplasma infection, these findings suggest that vertical transmission is, at least in part, another most likely route of M. wenyonii infection in cattle. PMID:26551417

  8. Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Okano, Makoto; Zhang, Baoping; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2012-11-01

    We report the demonstration of the picosecond-pulse lasing in blue region from an optically pumped gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Through 150-fs optical pulse excitations at room temperature, multimode pulse lasing with a main mode at 436.5 nm from the InGaN VCSEL was observed. The output pulse widths were measured to be as short as 9.8 ps for the total lasing spectra and 6.0 ps for the main mode. Since the obtained short pulses were still not limited by its photon lifetime of 0.7 ps or band-width of 0.8 nm, possible ways to generate even shorter pulses have been examined.

  9. Conceptual design of 1.5m aperture vertical collimator assembly with short tube and long focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei; Ming, Ming; Wang, Fu-guo; Zhang, Li-min; Chen, Bao-gang; Shao, Liang

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate and test the image quality of large aperture telescope, the most directly method is adopting the collimator and test the telescope system with full aperture. Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics (CIOMP) commenced developing the large aperture collimator for interferometric and image quality testing of meter scale optical systems under cryogenic, vacuum conditions. The aperture of the collimator which has been on the conceptual design phase is 1.5m diameter, and the optical configuration is Cassegrain, the focus is 50m. The material of reaction bonded Silicon Carbide (RB-SiC) produced by CIOMP will be used as the primary mirror substrate. And the figure accuracy of the primary mirror will be polished better than 15nm (RMS). The collimator will be working in a vacuum chamber and face down vertically to the unit under test. The application requirements, specification requirements, and some key technology are demonstrated and analysed with finite element analysis (FEA) in the paper. The feasibility, error budget, and hazards evaluation of the collimator are fulfilled by the FEA results. It demonstrated that the conceptual design meet the requirements of the 1.5m aperture vertical collimator, and could achieve the high accuracy requirements of the wavefront for the beam of light in the vacuum chamber, which the wavefront error should less than 32nm(RMS). Mechanical alignment errors induced by thermal and structural perturbations are monitored with an auto-focusing system to enable focus compensation. The ambient temperature of the collimator in chamber are controlled allowing testing while the chamber shrouds and test unit are brought to cryogenic temperatures. With the high accuracy of the wavefront, the collimator could test the image resolution, modulation transfer functions (MTFs), point spread functions (PSFs), encircled energy, wavefront error, best focus, etc. for optical systems. And the conceptual design could be consulted to other large aperture collimators.

  10. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steve J.; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E.; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M.; Hannay, Cecile; Kim, Daehyun; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Pritchard, Michael S.; Roehrig, Romain; Shindo, Eiki; Vitart, Frederic; Wang, Hailan

    2015-05-01

    An analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models are presented as part of the "Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)" project. A lead time of 12-36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. The wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. In addition, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

  11. Semiempirical Procedure for Estimating Lift and Drag Characteristics of Propeller-Wing-Flap Configurations for Vertical-and Short-Take-Off-and-Landing Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1959-01-01

    The analysis presented uses the momentum theory as a starting point in developing semiempirical expressions for calculating the effect of propeller thrust and slipstream on the lift and drag characteristics of wing-flap configurations that would be suitable for vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) and short-take-off-and-landing (STOL) airplanes. The method uses power-off forward-speed information and measured slipstream deflection data at zero forward speed to provide a basis for estimating the lift and drag at combined forward speed and power-on conditions. A correlation of slipstream deflection data is also included. The procedure is applicable only in the unstalled flight regime; nevertheless, it should be useful in preliminary design estimates of the performance that may be expected of VTOL and STOL airplanes.

  12. Short-Pulse Operation of a High-Power-Density Proton-Implanted Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Aoki, Yuta; Higuchi, Akira; Torii, Kousuke; Nagakura, Takehito; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2012-08-01

    We report on a GaAs-based high-power-density vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL) array with ion-implanted isolated current apertures. A peak output power of 40.6 W has been achieved from the VCSEL array with seven emitters under 100-ns-pulse operation. This is the first demonstration of a ten-watt-class output power for a VCSEL array with ion-implanted isolated current aperture configuration. The corresponding power-density is estimated to be 73.8 kW/cm2, which is three times greater than the record power-density of the short-pulse-operated oxide-confined VCSEL.

  13. Short-Term Fidelity, Habitat Use and Vertical Movement Behavior of the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii as Determined by Acoustic Telemetry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingqiu; Xu, Qiang; Als, Josep; Liu, Hui; Xu, Qinzeng; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations) are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key species habitats, and our study provides novel information for future studies on the sustainability of this important marine resource in eastern China. PMID:26322604

  14. Short-Term Fidelity, Habitat Use and Vertical Movement Behavior of the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii as Determined by Acoustic Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingqiu; Xu, Qiang; Alós, Josep; Liu, Hui; Xu, Qinzeng; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations) are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key species habitats, and our study provides novel information for future studies on the sustainability of this important marine resource in eastern China. PMID:26322604

  15. Dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the short external cavity regime: Pulse packages and polarization mode competition

    SciTech Connect

    Tabaka, Andrzej; Thienpont, Hugo; Veretennicoff, Irina; Panajotov, Krassimir; Peil, Michael; Elsaesser, Wolfgang; Sciamanna, Marc; Fischer, Ingo

    2006-01-15

    We study the influence of delayed optical feedback from a short external cavity (EC) on the emission dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers (VCSELs). We find the emergence of pulse packages (PP) exhibiting characteristics which originate from the interplay of time-delay induced dynamics and polarization mode (PM) competition. We provide detailed analysis of the polarization dynamics applying complementary cross-correlation and spectral analysis techniques. The analysis reveals an interplay of the dynamics linked to the hierarchy of time scales present in the laser system: the fast time scale of the EC delay, the slower time scale of the PP, and the slow time scale of the polarization mode competition. For an analysis of the dynamics we provide a toolbox of methods adapted to the different relevant time scales and temporal variations of the dynamics. This complementary view unveils distinct changes in the relative oscillation phase of the two PM for increasing the injection current on both the fast and the slow time scales. Our results emphasize the significance of the polarization mode competition for PP dynamics in VCSELs, contrasting the observed behavior to what was reported for edge emitters.

  16. Morphologic and Geochronological constraints on the long (> Ma) and short (10-100 Kyr) term vertical rates on south Tibetan normal faults.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kali, E.; van der Woerd, J.; Arnaud, N.; Leloup, P. H.; Mahéo, G.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Chevalier, M. L.; Lacassin, R.; Tapponnier, P.; Thuizat, R.

    2009-04-01

    Quantification of slip and exhumation rates along the long recognized north-south trending active normal faults of the Tibetan plateau are key data in order to constrain mechanical models of the geodynamic evolution of the India-Asia convergence zone. In this study, we combine morphologic, structural, petrological analysis and low to medium thermo-chronology of Quaternary and basement rocks in order to compare short-term and long-term fault rates along two of the main Tibetan rifts systems: Yadong-Gulu and Xainza-Dinggye. At the southern end of the Xainza-Dingyye rift system the Ama Drime range (Everest region) is a horst flanked on each side by N-S trending ductile normal shear zones and active normal faults. Petrological studies combined with U/Pb and Ar/Ar geochronology reveal that the horst formation induced an exhumation on the order of 2 to 4 kbar (7 to 15 km), starting at ~12 Ma. This corresponds to exhumation rates of 0.6 to 1.3 mm/year. Low temperature geochronology (apatite (U-Th)/He dating) indicate Pliocene apparent exhumation rates of about 1 mm/yr since ~5 Ma for the whole massif (this study, Jessup et al., 2008). Short term fault rates can be obtained using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of offset geomorphic features such as terraces or moraines. Such features are abundant along the western flank of the Ama Drime range, where the Kharta active fault separates the range from the Kharta basin where the Arun river has abandoned fluvial terraces. The river crosses the fault three times carving deep gorges into the footwall before finally crossing the Himalayas. In the southern part of the Kharta basin, river terraces ~100 m above the present riverbed are offset between 10 and 15 m by one branch of the normal fault. 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages of these terraces range between 9 and 11 kyr, consistent with aggradation after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM ~20 ka), followed by rapid incision of the Arun. Together, offsets and ages imply a vertical throw-rate of about 0.9 to 1.7 mm/yr. A few kilometres south of Kharta, the normal fault offsets abandoned lateral moraines by about 30 m. The age of these moraines is yet unknown but 10Be ages of similar lateral moraines on the eastern flank of the Ama Drime range between 20 to 40 ka, in agreement with emplacement during the MIS stages 2-4 and a post-LGM glacier retreat. Taking these ages for the moraines near Kharta would yield a late Pleistocene slip-rate of 0.7 to 1.5 mm/yr on the western branch of the Kharta fault. 70 kilometres farther north-east, moraines across the Nabja west-dipping normal fault are offset by 15-20 m. All these data indicate similar short- and long-term vertical rates on the order of 0.6 to 1.7 mm/yr on the N-S active faults in the Ama Drime area. Similar rates of deformation are found along two other rift systems. In the Kung Co half grabben, thermochronological data indicate apparent exhumation rates between 0.35 and 0.93 mm/yr since ~4 Ma (Maheo et al., 2007). North of the Yarlung Zangbo, in the Nianqentanglha range exposure ages of lateral moraines have also shown to have ages ranging from 20 to 40 ka. Since these moraines are offset by 20 to 40 m this would correspond to 0.5 to 1.5 mm/yr of vertical offset but more precise estimates are underway. Data from three different active south Tibetan grabens suggest vertical throw rates on the order of 0.5-1.7 mm/yr initiating in the Pliocene with the long-term, Pliocene apparent exhumation rate being similar than the Late Pleistocene-Holocene rates determined from offset moraines and river terraces. These results suggest that south Tibetan E-W extension rates did not significantly change since ~4Ma. This has major implications for the structural evolution of the Tibetan plateau, particularly for models of E-W extension. More data on the timing of E-W extension throughout Tibet should help constrain further the age of extensional onset and whether it varies regionally. References : Jessup et al., Geology, 36, 2008. Maheo et al., Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 256, 2007.

  17. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  18. Dissociated Vertical Deviation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dissociated Vertical Deviation En Español Read in Chinese What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is ...

  19. Vertical Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdick, Christine A.; Bartlett, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical learning environments (vertical surfaces covered with two- or three-dimensional detachable objects that provide opportunities for perception, manipulation, interaction, construction of knowledge, and representation) offer children rich, interactive learning environments at eye level. Discusses vertical learning environments in a Piagetian

  20. Vertical Map Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joanne M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the superiority of vertical filing of maps in compressor-style vertical units over horizontal filing in drawers, emphasizing such factors as physical protection of the collection, ease of filing and retrieval, and efficient use of space. Disadvantages of vertical filing are also reviewed. (Author/JL)

  1. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  2. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with a starting and braking control system. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotary axis by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the axis and being provided with a low speed control windmill in which the radial position of each operating piece varies with a centrifugal force produced by the rotation of the vertical rotary axis.

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  5. Short stature

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TREATMENT Your child's short stature may affect her self-esteem. Check in with your child about relationships with ... cm). The child is having extreme trouble with self-esteem and fitting in due to being short (although ...

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with rotational speed control systems. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotating shaft by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the shaft and being provided with aerodynamic control elements operating manually or automatically to control the rotational speed of the turbine.

  7. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  8. 17. Detail showing roller nest for vertical strut sitting atop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail showing roller nest for vertical strut sitting atop granite pier cap. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  9. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  11. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; McConaghy, C.F.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion, micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  12. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food you can ... staples. This creates a long vertical tube or banana-shaped stomach. The surgery does not involve cutting ...

  13. Vertical flowline connector

    SciTech Connect

    Saliger, K. C.

    1985-10-01

    Several embodiments are disclosed of a vertical type of flowline connector for providing a fluid connection between a horizontal flowline and an additional subsea facility. The upper and lower portions of the connector can be properly positioned relative to each other by simply lowering an upper female portion of the connector onto a lower male portion thereof. The lower portion of the connector at the subsea facility is provided with at least two vertically positioned, upwardly facing male mandrel connectors. The upper portion of the connector assembly includes at least two vertically positioned, downwardly facing corresponding female connectors designed to be lowered onto the corresponding male mandrel connectors. At least one of the female connectors is mounted on the connector assembly by a free floating mounting. The free floating mounting allows for slight misalignments of the female connectors relative to the corresponding male connectors as the upper connector assembly is lowered onto, and passively positioned relative to, the lower connector assembly.

  14. Vertical leaf pressure filter LVAzh 225

    SciTech Connect

    Fomichev, V.I.; Abramov, V.P.; Gutin, Y.V.

    1984-01-01

    A new vertical lead pressure filter LVAzh 225 has been developed with an arrangement for hydraulic coke removal. Industrial trials of the filter, however, showed the service life of the rubber seals of the butterfly valves to be short, so that butterfly valves were replaced by shut-off valves with a pneumatic drive. The prototype of the LVAzh 225 leaf filter has been recommended for series production.

  15. Improved vertical scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasaki, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Vertical scanning interferometers are routinely used for the measurement of optical fiber connectors. There are increasing needs for measurements of such items as machined surfaces, contact lenses, paint texture, cell structure, and integrated circuit devices, to name a few. These structures have too much depth, or are too rough, to measure with standard interferometry methods. Phase- measurement interferometry methods are limited to surfaces that do not have any discontinuities larger than one quarter of the operating wavelength. On the other hand, vertical scanning interferometers can be very effective, even though they have low height resolution compared to that of phase-measurement interferometers. Improving the height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers from the point of hardware improvement and signal processing has been one of the major research interests in the surface metrology area. This work provides a new algorithm, which called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, as a solution for improving height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers. This dissertation begins with a review of white-light interference microscopes. The height and lateral resolutions are derived based on scalar diffraction theory. Next, various well-established. algorithms for finding a topographic map of the small object surface are discussed. The work proceeds with a discussion of the phase change upon reflection and its influence on the coherence envelope. Then phase measurement interferometry methods are reviewed. The emphasis is in errors in phase measurement resulting from using a white light source instead of a monochromatic light source as in the usual case. The following chapter describes and examines an often- observed artifact of vertical-scanning interferometry when applied to step heights. The artifact is called ``bat wings'' because of its appearance. The physical cause of the ``bat wings'' artifact is discussed through a diffraction model. The next chapter proposes an improved vertical-scanning interferometry algorithm. The method, called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, has been developed by combining regular vertical-scanning interferometry and a monochromatic phase-shifting interferometry technique. The PSI on the Fly technique improves the surface height resolution of vertical scanning interferometry to that of a phase-shifting interferometry measurement. In addition to the resolution improvement, the algorithm also successfully removes the ``bat wings'' artifact.

  16. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  17. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  18. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  19. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories. Supported by an Undergraduate Research Grant from Penn State Erie, The Behrend College.

  20. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  1. 'Endurance' All Around Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover's 171st sol on Mars (July 17, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as 'site 33.' Opportunity had driven 11 meters (36 feet) into 'Endurance Crater.' The view is a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  2. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  3. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  4. The vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosein, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Today's flight simulators, such as NASA's multimillion dollar Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), recreate an authentic aircraft environment, and reproduce the sensations of flight by mechanically generating true physical events. In addition to their application as a training tool for pilots, simulators have become essential in the design, construction, and testing of new aircraft. Simulators allow engineers to study an aircraft's flight performance and characteristics without the cost or risk of an actual test flight. Because of their practicality, simulators will become more and more important in the development and design of new, safer aircraft.

  5. Vertical Double-Gate MOSFET Device Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masahara, Meishoku; Liu, Yongxun; Endo, Kazuhiko; Matsukawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    The Silicon device technology is facing to several difficulties. Especially, explosion of power consumption due to short channel effects (SCEs) becomes the biggest issue in further device scaling down. Fortunately, double-gate (DG) MOSFETs have promising potential to overcome this obstacle. The DG-MOSFET is recognized to be the most scalable MOSFET for its high SCEs immunity. In addition, independent DG-MOSFET (4T-DG-MOSFET) has great advantage to enable the threshold voltage control for the flexible power management. Through this work, we have realized ideal DG-MOSFETs using newly-developed vertical DG-MOSFET device technology. This article presents the effectiveness of the vertical DG-MOSFETs in future high-performance and ultra-low-power CMOS circuits.

  6. Vertical wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, D.P.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes a wind driven turbine of the vertical axis type comprising: (a) a support base; (b) a generally vertical column rotatably mounted to the support base; (c) upper and lower support means respectively mounted on the column for rotation therewith; wind driven blades connected between the upper and lower support means for rotation about the column and each blade being individually rotatable about a blade axis extending longitudinally through the blade to vary a blade angle of attach thereof relative to wind velocity during rotation about the column; and (e) control means for variably adjusting angles of attack of each blade to incident wind, the control means including a connecting rod means having drive means for rotating each blade about the associated blade axis in response to radial movement of the connecting rod means and control shaft pivotally mounted within the column and having a first shaft portion connected to the connecting rod means and a second shaft portion radially offset from the first shaft portion and pivotally connected to radially displace the first portion and thereby the connecting rod means to vary the blade angles of attack during rotation about the column.

  7. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  8. Numerical modeling of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.W.; Hadley, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is a diode laser whose optical cavity is formed by growing or depositing DBR mirror stacks that sandwich an active gain region. The resulting short cavity supports lasing into a single longitudinal mode normal to the wafer, making these devices ideal for a multitude of applications, ranging from high-speed communication to high-power sources (from 2D arrays). This report describes the development of a numerical VCSEL model, whose goal is to both further their understanding of these complex devices and provide a tool for accurate design and data analysis.

  9. Vertical seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, K.D.

    1986-12-02

    A method is described for converting vertical seismic profiling (VSP) seismic data to surface seismic data. The seismic source used to obtain the VSP seismic data was offset a desired distance from a borehole, the method comprising the steps of: (a) selecting a first VSP data trace from the VSP seismic data; (b) mapping segments of the first VSP data trace at respective VSP times into locations on a plot of surface seismic time as a function of distance from the borehole; (c) repeating steps (a) and (b) for at least a portion of the VSP data traces, other than the first VSP data trace, in the VSP seismic data; and (d) summing sections of each VSP data trace which are mapped into the same location in the plot to produce the surface seismic data.

  10. Vertical ramisection for prognathism.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, T R; Woolf, R M

    1977-11-01

    Forty-four patients with Class III malocclusion, who were operated on for prognathism, have been reviewed. In spite of the associated problems of pain, nausea, fear, relapse, additional orthodontia, lip numbness, lip weakness, and 8 weeks with their teeth wired together, only one patient of the 44 said he (or she) would decline this surgery if it were to be considered anew. The surgeon must make a strong effort to keep the vertical cut in the bony ramus posterior to the lingula, to avoid postoperative lip numbness. He should also keep traction on the soft tissues minimal, to avoid postoperative weakness of the lower lip. A significant relapse was uncommon in this series, and the facial symmetry was greatly enhanced. Most of these 44 patients (66 percent) said the improvement in their self-image and personal appearance was far more important to them than the improvement in their bite. PMID:918178

  11. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  12. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ɛy=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  13. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  14. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  15. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two majoryet largely disjunctdevelopments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  16. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  17. Scale Shrinkage in Vertical Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three potential causes of scale shrinkage (measurement error, restriction of range, and multidimensionality) in item response theory vertical equating are discussed, and a more comprehensive model-based approach to establishing vertical scales is described. Test data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress are used to illustrate the

  18. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  20. Visualize Vertical Connectedness (Middle Ground).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Allen, Lanny

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of vertical connectedness in K-12 education through references to journal articles and the author's own reflections. Suggests that middle school teachers may be leaders in a movement toward eliminating redundancy and gaps between grade levels. (TB)

  1. Place Value: A Vertical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bove, Sandra P.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses children's place-value understanding, including initial learning interference, vertical number lines, and planned discourse. Describes a learning activity that can guide children from a concrete to a symbolic understanding of place value. (11 references) (MKR)

  2. Probing Uranus' Vertical Aerosol Structure at Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, Laurence

    2007-07-01

    After a decade of quiescence following the Voyager flybys, Uranus' atmosphere has been exhibiting increasing activity approaching equinox that suggests a short timescale, dynamical, response in addition to a long timescale, radiative, response to the seasonal change of hemispheric heating. We propose to investigate this dichotomy by measuring Uranus' vertical aerosol structure over the entire surface, including both poles, at equinox when the forcing insolation is hemispherically symmetric, requiring that the sub-Earth latitude be less than a degree. Only at equinox {every 42 years} can the entire surface of the planet be viewed {over a full rotation} and mapped with the same viewing geometry. We will probe the morphology of the vertical haze structure using NICMOS narrow band filters beyond 1 micron to isolate different altitude regimes between the stratosphere and cloud deck and investigate its change since Cycle 7. We will use two complementary approaches: First, imaging will be done using medium- and narrow-band filters first to locate the dynamically-produced discrete cloud features, then to probe their vertical structure and morphology. The methane absorption bands are stronger in the proposed near-IR {1 to 2.5 microns} than at shorter wavelengths, and the strong H2 pressure-induced absorption from 2.1-2.4 microns contributes to the peak opacity. This enhances the visibility of transient, spatially isolated features and allows their structure to be probed to higher altitudes; namely, to the upper troposphere where they would be evidence of convective overshoot, a dynamical manifestation that would support strong seasonally-induced static instability. In addition to probing the structure with filter photometry, we will measure longitudinal limb profiles to probe the vertical background haze distribution vs latitude. HST/NICMOS is required because it avoids telluric water absorption and OH+O2 emission, and has a stable, well-characterized PSF, essential for limb studies and extracting the vertical structure of fine features crossing the disk. The proposed observations would complement the ground-based Uranus equinox campaign.

  3. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Shortness of Breath Overview What is shortness of breath? When you are short of breath, you may feel ... lungs and scarring of the lung tissue. Diagnosis & Tests What tests will my doctor perform? Your doctor ...

  4. The vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Burns, J. A.; Durisen, R. H.; Hamill, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    An explanation for the vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings compatible with observational data is presented. The model of the rings as being many particles thick is shown to be possible, with random particle motions preventing the complete flattening of the system and a gaussian distribution of particle density with vertical displacement. The model prediction of a maximum ring thickness of tens of meters, however, is in conflict with observations of ring thickness of at least 0.8 km at ring-plane passage. It is shown that perturbations to ring particle orbits caused by the sun and Saturn's large satellites may produce long- and short-period coherent vertical ring displacements and a nonlinear displacement of the ring plane from the equatorial plane with radial distance, leading to an apparent edge-on thickness of a few hundred meters.

  5. RHIC VERTICAL AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC vertical ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the vertical ac dipole and the vertical betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.

  6. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  7. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  8. On the vertically averaged balance equation of atmospheric trace constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramm, G.; Dlugi, R.; Mlders, N.

    The vertically averaged balance equation of atmospheric trace constituents that customarily serves as a basis for one- and two-layer (box) models of the atmospheric boundary layer and the whole troposphere is derived and discussed. It is shown that this kind of balance equation is accompanied by several prominent short-comings so that the capability of such models to predict real situations of photochemical smog formation and depletion is strongly limited. Three of these short-comings are theoretically elucidated, namely (1) the vertically averaged source and sink terms owing to chemical reactions, (2) the parameterisation of the dry deposition and exhalation fluxes at the earth's surface that serve as lower boundary conditions, and (3) the parameterisation of the upper boundary conditions. Even though the consumption of computing time is much smaller than those of sophisticated Eulerian air pollution models like ADOM, DRAIS, EURAD, RADM, and TADAP, we have to conclude from our theoretical results that one- and two-layer (box) models should not be considered as a true alternative to such air pollution models. We also suggest that the influence of these short-comings on the predicted results has to be estimated and evaluated in a reliable manner before vertically averaged balance equations of atmospheric trace constituents are introduced into general circulation models to investigate the influence of air pollution on climate change on the basis of long-term simulations.

  9. Feasibility of Measuring Mean Vertical Motion for Estimating Advection. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Dean; Mahrt, L.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous recent studies calculate horizontal and vertical advection terms for budget studies of net ecosystem exchange of carbon. One potential uncertainty in such studies is the estimate of mean vertical motion. This work addresses the reliability of vertical advection estimates by contrasting the vertical motion obtained from the standard practise of measuring the vertical velocity and applying a tilt correction, to the vertical motion calculated from measurements of the horizontal divergence of the flow using a network of towers. Results are compared for three different tilt correction methods. Estimates of mean vertical motion are sensitive to the choice of tilt correction method. The short-term mean (10 to 60 minutes) vertical motion based on the horizontal divergence is more realistic compared to the estimates derived from the standard practise. The divergence shows long-term mean (days to months) sinking motion at the site, apparently due to the surface roughness change. Because all the tilt correction methods rely on the assumption that the long-term mean vertical motion is zero for a given wind direction, they fail to reproduce the vertical motion based on the divergence.

  10. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  11. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  12. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  13. Vertical formations demand unique treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, K.

    1996-04-01

    In the US midcontinent area, major thrust faults trap large quantities of hydrocarbons in the down-thrown fault block. As exploration of these thrust fault structures continues, the application of extended reach and horizontal well bores will increase. Formations in deep structures are apt to have lower porosity and permeability than the currently developed thrust faults and thus, require fracture stimulation. In addition, the portion of the formation closest to the fault may be subjected to folding resulting in a vertical formation penetrated by a horizontal well bore. Low porosity and vertical bedding were encountered in the City of Lawton No. 1-34, an 18,088-ft wildcat (14,627-ft TVD) in Caddo County, Oklahoma. This article details methods to overcome the obstacles that well bore and formation geometry present to fracture stimulation operations in the 17,714-ft (14,614-ft TVD) Britt sand.

  14. Towards a New Vertical Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is responsible for maintaining and improving the National Spatial Reference System. This paper particularly focuses on developments leading to a new vertical datum to replace the existing North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). This new model will be developed from a combination of satellite, airborne, and terrestrial gravity data to define a gravimetric geoid height model. In particular, the aerogravity data collected as a part o the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project are intended to help achieve the goal of a cm-level accurate geoid model to serve as the new vertical datum. The different data sources have been melded into a single gravity field model consistent across the entire spectrum to about 2 km resolution. A previous comparison developed a localized model over just the southern Texas region, where the Geoid Slope Validation Study for 2011 (GSVS 11) demonstrated that it was possible to achieve the desired accuracy. This new model was developed using methodology consistent at regional to national scales following techniques used to make USGG2009 and USGG2012, but now incorporating aerogravity. This new model proves out the basic concepts behind GRAV-D in that the aeorgravity bridge the spectral gap between satellite and terrestrial data and provide the requisite improvements to the derived gravimetric geoid height model - all without artificially targeting a solution to a specific test area. Additional comparisons were made to tidal bench mark data observed by GPS in combination with ocean topography models to validate the behavior of the model in the coastal regions.

  15. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  16. Mated vertical ground vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the prediction and design of loads, pogo controls, and flutter criteria under various payloads and operational missions. The MVGVT boost and launch program evolution, test configurations, and their suspensions are described. Test results are compared with predicted analytical results.

  17. Bimanual-Vertical Hand Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jay C.; Cohen, Matthew L.; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have rightleft spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial where asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research. PMID:22882812

  18. Vertically aligned carbon based varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavanini, Farzan A.; Enoksson, Peter; Bengtsson, Stefan; Lundgren, Per

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an assessment of vertically aligned carbon based varactors and validates their potential for future applications. The varactors discussed here are nanoelectromechanical devices which are based on either vertically aligned carbon nanofibers or vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays. A generic analytical model for parallel plate nanoelectromechanical varactors based on previous works is developed and is used to formulate a universal expression for their voltage-capacitance relation. Specific expressions for the nanofiber based and the nanotube based varactors are then derived separately from the generic model. This paper also provides a detailed review on the fabrication of carbon based varactors and pays special attention to the challenges in realizing such devices. Finally, the performance of the carbon based varactor is assessed in accordance with four criteria: the static capacitance, the tuning ratio, the quality factor, and the operating voltage. Although the reported performance is still far inferior to other varactor technologies, our prognosis which stems from the analytical model shows a promise of a high quality factor as well as a potential for high power handling for carbon based varactors.

  19. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lindsey E; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  20. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lindsey E.; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning “opposite”, i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  1. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Flix Maes Ferrer, J; Mic Muoz, P; Snchez Corts, J L; Paricio Martn, J J; Miana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

  2. On the vertical-shear instability in astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. J.; Latter, H. N.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the linear stability of astrophysical discs exhibiting vertical shear, which arises when there is a radial variation in the temperature or entropy. Such discs are subject to a `vertical-shear instability', which recent non-linear simulations have shown to drive hydrodynamic activity in the MRI-stable regions of protoplanetary discs. We first revisit locally isothermal discs using the quasi-global reduced model derived by Nelson et al. This analysis is then extended to global axisymmetric perturbations in a cylindrical domain. We also derive and study a reduced model describing discs with power-law radial entropy profiles (`locally polytropic discs'), which are somewhat more realistic in that they possess physical (as opposed to numerical) surfaces. The fastest growing modes have very short wavelengths and are localized at the disc surfaces (if present), where the vertical shear is maximal. An additional class of modestly growing vertically global body modes is excited, corresponding to destabilized classical inertial waves (`r modes'). We discuss the properties of both types of modes, and stress that those that grow fastest occur on the shortest available length-scales (determined either by the numerical grid or the physical viscous length). This ill-posedness makes simulations of the instability difficult to interpret. We end with some brief speculation on the non-linear saturation and resulting angular momentum transport.

  3. Diatom vertical migration within land-fast Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumack, C. F.; Juhl, A. R.; Krembs, C.

    2014-11-01

    Light levels inside first-year, landfast sea ice were experimentally altered by manipulating overlying snow depths. Irradiance available for ice algae growing near the ice-bottom, and under the ice, was highly dependent on snow depths ranging from 0 to > 30 cm. Importantly, algal vertical distributions also changed under different irradiances. Under thick snow (low light), the majority of algae were found several cm above the ice-seawater interface, while progressively more were found nearer the interface at locations with thinner overlying snow (higher light). Short-term field experiments suggested that ice algae were able to reposition themselves within the ice column within 3 days after manipulating snow depths. Laboratory gliding rate measurements of a cultured ice diatom suggested that it is capable of daily cm-scale movement. Vertical migration may help ice diatoms balance opposing light and nutrient resource gradients, similar to strategies used by some benthic and pelagic algae. Moreover, when ice algae congregate near the ice-seawater interface, they may be especially susceptible to loss from the ice environment. Vertical repositioning in response to changing light dynamics may be a mechanism to optimize between vertically-opposing environmental factors and help explain the connection between melting snow cover and export of biomass from sea ice.

  4. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  5. Continental seismic events observed by the MPL vertical DIFAR array

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; D`Spain, G.

    1993-11-01

    The vertical DIFAR array, an underwater acoustic sensor system, deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) was in place over the continental shelf off of Southern California and recorded the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test and nearly a score of after-shocks of the Landers/Big Bear earthquakes. Data from this array raise the possibility that detection thresholds for continental events may be significantly lower for arrays over the continental shelf than for arrays in the deep ocean basins. Offshore stations could be used to fill gaps in land-based seismic networks for monitoring the NPT and a CTBT, especially for monitoring non-cooperating nations with large coastlines. This preliminary report provides an analysis of the HUNTERS TROPHY observation as well as one of the Landers aftershocks. The analysis suggests detection thresholds for vertical hydrophone arrays below mb 3.0 at ranges between 3 and 4 degrees, and below mb 4.4 out to 6 degrees. This report also describes two signal processing techniques that enhance the detection potential of short vertical arrays. These methods are deterministic null steering to suppress horizontally propagating ambient ocean noise, and matched field processing for vertically-incident acoustic fields. The latter technique is ideally suited for acoustic fields derived from incident seismic waves, and may be viewed as a {open_quotes}synthetic aperture{close_quotes} approach to increase the effective aperture of the array.

  6. SHORT-WAVELENGTH MAGNETIC BUOYANCY INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mizerski, K. A.; Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W. E-mail: tina@maths.leeds.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by Gilman of the short-wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by k, is large (i.e., short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as k is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate z since, in the large k limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, for sufficiently strong field gradients, are the most unstable. The results of our analysis are backed up by comparison with a series of initial value problems. Finally, we extend the analysis to three-dimensional perturbations.

  7. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  8. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must have rungs that are (1) At least...

  9. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  10. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  11. Vertical growth changes after adenoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Arun, Tlin; Isik, Fulya; Sayinsu, Korkmaz

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective investigation is to compare vertical growth component of craniofacial structure of subjects with early and late adenoidectomy history. The study consisted of 93 lateral cephalometric radiographs of three groups of randomly selected patients. The first group was made up of 12 patients (10 male and two female) with an average age of 11.16 +/- 2.08 years, who had been operated upon between 1.5-4 years of age. The second group was made up of 54 patients (25 maleand 29 female) with an average age of 12.18 +/- 2.6 years, who had been operated upon after four years of age. The third group of 27 patients (7 male and 20 female) with clear airway with an average age of 11.18 +/- 2.35 years was used as the control. The data obtained from two adenoidectomy groups were compared and because no statistically significant difference was found except for ANSMe/NMe, the two groups were pooled and compared with the growth pattern in the control sample. There were statistically significant differences in the following parameters: SNGoMe, PPGoMe angle, Gonial angle, Gonial ratio, sigma of inner angles, ANSMe/NMe ratio, Jarabak ratio, PNS-adl distance, PNS-ad2 distance, OAW1 distance. When compared with the control group, the adenoidectomy group showed a more vertically directed growth pattern, however, there were no vertical growth pattern differences between the two groups of children who had adenoidectomy before and after four years of age. PMID:12725370

  12. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

  13. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  14. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    SciTech Connect

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-05-04

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam.

  15. Neighbourly polytopes with few vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Devyatov, Rostislav A

    2011-10-31

    A family of neighbourly polytopes in R{sup 2d} with N=2d+4 vertices is constructed. All polytopes in the family have a planar Gale diagram of a special type, namely, with exactly d+3 black points in convex position. These Gale diagrams are parametrized by 3-trees (trees with a certain additional structure). For all polytopes in the family, the number of faces of dimension m containing a given vertex A depends only on d and m. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  16. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations. PMID:25376346

  17. Vertical ocean reflectance at low altitudes for narrow laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crittenden, Eugene C., Jr.; Rodeback, G. W.; Milne, Edmund A.; Cooper, Alfred W.

    1991-09-01

    A narrow-beam laser altimeter was used to measure the reflected signal from the ocean surface as represented by the waters beneath the Golden Gate Bridge. This site allowed precise measurements as a function of angle from the vertical not possible from flying platforms. For short-wavelength water waves superimposed on swell, the signal amplitude probability distribution for the reflected signals showed periods of zero reflection, even for vertical incidence, apparently due to tipping of the water surface. The nonzero signals showed a distribution that could be fitted with an antilog-normal distribution. This is skewed toward higher signals than a normal (Gaussian) distribution. With incidence angle displaced from the vertical, the distribution shape was retained but with more frequent zero reflections. The decrease with angle of the average signal, including the zeroes, is well fitted with a Gram- Charlier distribution, as seen by earlier observers using photographic techniques which masked these details of the structure. For the simpler wave pattern due to a long sustained wind direction, the probability distribution is log-normal with no zero signal periods. At large angles from the vertical the log-normal distribution shifts toward exponential. For surface states intermediate between the above two extremes the distribution is often normal. The larger return signals resulting from the skew toward larger amplitudes from lognormal are more favorable for disposable laser altimeters than previously believed. Also, for an altimeter which may be swinging from a parachute or balloon, the return remains high at angles other than vertical. The presence of occasional zero return signal does somewhat degrade the accuracy of altitude measurement for a descending altimeter, but the signal available assures performance at larger altitudes than previously expected.

  18. Vertical profiles of condensation nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Kaselau, K. H.

    1978-01-01

    Condensation nuclei measurements using a low supersaturation (about 10%) thermal gradient diffusion cloud chamber (TGDCC) and a high supersaturation (about 200%) expansion type instrument were compared on a series of three balloon flights over Laramie, Wyoming. In general, the two instruments produced similar vertical profiles but some discrepancies remain unexplained. Agreement between the two would indicate that the low supersaturations used in the TGDCC were still large enough to cause the instrument to count essentially all of the particles present. The TGDCC condensation nuclei (CN) counter was flown at several sites in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The results indicate the existence of a relative maximum in the CN mixing ratio associated with the upper equatorial troposphere and what appears to be a worldwide constant mixing ratio of CN above 20-25 km.

  19. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007-2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  20. Vertical velocity-CCN correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    The realization that smaller cloud droplets evaporate more readily (Xue and Feingold 2006; Jiang et al. 2002) gives rise to an anti-indirect aerosol effect (IAE); less cloudiness with pollution. The greater latent heat exchange of the greater evaporation in more polluted clouds adds TKE and buoyancy gradients that can enhance vertical velocity (W), mixing and entrainment (Zhao and Austin 2005). Stronger W can increase horizontal motions, which can further enhance droplet evaporation, which further enhances latent heat exchange and vertical motions, thus, positive feedback. This could also include latent heat released during condensation (Lee and Feingold 2010), which is more rapid for the greater surface areas of the smaller more numerous droplets. These theories imply a positive relationship between within-cloud W variations; i.e., standard deviation of W (?w) and CCN concentration (NCCN) rather than W and NCCN. This implies greater turbulence in polluted clouds, which could possibly counteract the reduction of cloudiness of anti-IAE. During two stratus cloud projects, 50 cloud penetrations in 9 MASE flights and 34 cloud penetrations in 13 POST flights, within-cloud ?w-NCCN showed correlation coefficients (R) of 0.50 and 0.39. Panel a shows similar within-cloud ?w-NCCN R in all altitude bands for 17 RICO flights in small cumulus clouds. R for W-NCCN showed similar values but only at low altitudes. Out-of-cloud ?w-NCCN showed similar high values except at the highest altitudes. Within-cloud ?w showed higher R than within-cloud W with droplet concentrations (Nc), especially at higher altitudes. Panel b for 13 ICE-T cumulus cloud flights in the same location as RICO but during the opposite season, however, showed ?w and W uncorrelated with NCCN at all altitudes; and W and ?w correlated with Nc only at the highest altitudes. On the other hand, out-of-cloud ?w was correlated with NCCN at all altitudes with R similar to the corresponding R of the other projects. Overall these results are consistent with the theories noted above. Supported by NSF AGS-1035230 and DOE SC0009162. Jiang, H., G. Feingold, and W.R. Cotton, 2002: J. Geophys. Res, 107, D24, 4813. Lee, S.-S., and G. Feingold, 2010: Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23806. Xue, H., and G. Feingold, 2006: J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1605-1622. Zhao, M., and P.H. Austin, 2005: J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1291-1310. Fig. Correlation coefficients (R) between mean and standard deviations of vertical velocity (W; ?w within and outside of clouds) with CCN concentrations at 1% supersaturation (N1%) measured below the clouds and with droplet concentrations (Nc) within various altitude bands.

  1. Strapdown system redundancy management flight demonstration. [vertical takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of strapdown inertial systems in providing highly reliable short-term navigation for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft operating in an intra-urban setting under all-weather conditions was assessed. A preliminary design configuration of a skewed sensor inertial reference system employing a redundancy management concept to achieve fail-operational, fail-operational performance, was developed.

  2. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects. PMID:26800482

  3. Exploring Vertical Transmission of Bifidobacteria from Mother to Child.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferretti, Pamela; Gorfer, Valentina; Tett, Adrian; Segata, Nicola; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Passage through the birth canal and consequent exposure to the mother's microbiota is considered to represent the initiating event for microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of the newborn. However, a precise evaluation of such suspected vertical microbiota transmission has yet to be performed. Here, we evaluated the microbiomes of four sample sets, each consisting of a mother's fecal and milk samples and the corresponding infant's fecal sample, by means of amplicon-based profiling supported by shotgun metagenomics data for two key samples. Notably, targeted genome reconstruction from microbiome data revealed vertical transmission of a Bifidobacterium breve strain and a Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum strain from mother to infant, a notion confirmed by strain isolation and genome sequencing. Furthermore, PCR analyses targeting unique genes from these two strains highlighted their persistence in the infant gut at 6 months. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of specific bifidobacterial strains that are common to mother and child and thus indicative of vertical transmission and that are maintained in the infant for at least relatively short time spans. PMID:26231653

  4. Exploring Vertical Transmission of Bifidobacteria from Mother to Child

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferretti, Pamela; Gorfer, Valentina; Tett, Adrian; Segata, Nicola; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Passage through the birth canal and consequent exposure to the mother's microbiota is considered to represent the initiating event for microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of the newborn. However, a precise evaluation of such suspected vertical microbiota transmission has yet to be performed. Here, we evaluated the microbiomes of four sample sets, each consisting of a mother's fecal and milk samples and the corresponding infant's fecal sample, by means of amplicon-based profiling supported by shotgun metagenomics data for two key samples. Notably, targeted genome reconstruction from microbiome data revealed vertical transmission of a Bifidobacterium breve strain and a Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum strain from mother to infant, a notion confirmed by strain isolation and genome sequencing. Furthermore, PCR analyses targeting unique genes from these two strains highlighted their persistence in the infant gut at 6 months. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of specific bifidobacterial strains that are common to mother and child and thus indicative of vertical transmission and that are maintained in the infant for at least relatively short time spans. PMID:26231653

  5. Short Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... short bowel syndrome cannot absorb enough water, vitamins, minerals, protein, fat, calories, and other nutrients from food. ... of the small intestine, where iron and other minerals are absorbed jejunum—the middle section of the ...

  6. The Short Nose.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jeffrey D; Hobar, P Craig

    2016-01-01

    The causes of the short nose deformity vary greatly, from congenital malformations to acquired deformities. Despite this degree of variation, key commonalities exist, namely, a shortened nasal length, overrotation of the nasal tip, and increased nostril show. This article is designed to help the reader identify precise causes of the short nose, outline associated anatomy, and discuss reliable surgical techniques to correct this deformity. PMID:26616704

  7. [False penile shortness].

    PubMed

    Fontana, D; Rolle, L; Ceruti, C; Datta, G; Ragni, F; Tamagnone, A

    1998-12-01

    The rising interest on male genital aesthetics increased the number of patients complaining of short penis. therefore, the andrologist must be able to perform a correct diagnostic assessment and to make the correct therapeutical choice as well, even if there's no standard yet. The aim of this paper is to discuss some diagnostic troubles about penile shortness and, in particular, to explain the basic surgical strategies suitable for the treatment of "hidden penis". PMID:9882906

  8. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10-100 mm/yr) than the vertical component (0.01-1 mm/yr) in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  9. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  10. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  11. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  12. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  13. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  14. Response of the deep chlorophyll maximum to fluctuations in vertical mixing intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liccardo, Antonella; Fierro, Annalisa; Iudicone, Daniele; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Dubroca, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Extreme atmospheric events, such as storms, can temporarily increase the vertical diffusivity in the upper ocean by several orders of magnitude, causing variability in the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). In this study, we investigate the impact of intermittent vertical mixing on the deep chlorophyll maximum. For this purpose, we analyze a one-dimensional phytoplankton-nutrient model exposed to short-term fluctuations in vertical diffusivity generated by internal waves. As a first step, we use singular perturbations to analyze the impact of a single burst of turbulence on the DCM characteristics. The simulations show that the DCM exhibits a long transient response, even after a single short perturbation. In particular, a single burst of turbulence (i) spreads out the DCM, thereby reducing the local phytoplankton maximum, and (ii) gives rise to a diffusion-driven enhancement of nutrient availability, producing a temporary increase in the phytoplankton growth rates at and above the DCM. Subsequently, we introduce a realistic annual sequence of fluctuations in vertical diffusivity in our model, and we also incorporate the seasonal cycle of light conditions. Fluctuations in vertical diffusivity were derived from high-resolution measurements from the POMME experiment in the north-east Atlantic Ocean, where the contribution of internal waves to the variation in vertical mixing has been characterized for more than one year. The annual light cycle, in combination with intermittent vertical mixing, leads to the superposition of a series of complex dynamical responses. At seasonal and shorter time scales, the vertically integrated productivity is temporally augmented by periods of medium/high diffusivity. Seasonal variation in light availability modifies the DCM response to mixing variability.

  15. A Vertically Resolved Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Increase of the vertical resolution of the GLAS Fourth Order General Circulation Model (GCM) near the Earth's surface and installation of a new package of parameterization schemes for subgrid-scale physical processes were sought so that the GLAS Model GCM will predict the resolved vertical structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) for all grid points.

  16. Sewing String Tree Vertices with Ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Junior, Leonidas

    2002-03-01

    It is shown how to sew string vertices with ghosts at tree level in order to produce new tree vertices using the Group Theoretic approach to String Theory. It is then verified the BRST invariance of the sewn vertex and shown that it has the correct ghost number.

  17. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vertical sectors. 84.19 Section 84.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a)...

  18. Vertical Hegelianism and Beyond: Digital Cinema Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Roger B.

    Cinema as an art and communication form is entering its second century of development. Sergei Eisenstein conceived of editing in horizontal and vertical terms. He saw vertical editing patterns primarily as the synchronization of simultaneous image and sound elements, particularly music, no create cinematic meaning by means of the relationship

  19. Influence of Compression and Stiffness Apparel on Vertical Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Madden, Ryan; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-04-01

    Wannop, JW, Worobets, JT, Madden, R, and Stefanyshyn, DJ. Influence of compression and stiffness apparel on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1093-1101, 2016-Compression apparel alters both compression of the soft tissues and the hip joint stiffness of athletes. It is not known whether it is the compression elements, the stiffness elements, or some combination that increases performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how systematically increasing upper leg compression and hip joint stiffness independently from one another affects vertical jumping performance. Ten male athletes performed countermovement vertical jumps in 8 concept apparel conditions and 1 control condition (loose fitting shorts). The 8 apparel conditions, 4 that specifically altered the amount of compression exerted on the thigh and 4 that altered the hip joint stiffness by means of elastic thermoplastic polyurethane bands, were tested on 2 separate testing sessions (one testing the compression apparel and the other testing the stiffness apparel). Maximum jump height was measured, while kinematic data of the hip, knee, and ankle joint were recorded with a high-speed camera (480 Hz). Both compression and stiffness apparel can have a positive influence on vertical jumping performance. The increase in jump height for the optimal compression was due to increased hip joint range of motion and a trend of increasing the jump time. Optimal stiffness also increased jump height and had the trend of decreasing the hip joint range of motion and hip joint angular velocity. The exact mechanisms by which apparel interventions alter performance is not clear, but it may be due to alterations to the force-length and force-velocity relationships of muscle. PMID:27003453

  20. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  1. Measurement of short bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented.

  2. Inclusion of Vertical Dynamics in Vertically-integrated Models for CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mathematical models of different complexity are needed to answer a range of questions for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). One category of simplified models is based on vertical integration, which reduces the three-dimensional problem to two dimensions. Usually, these models assume that brine and CO2 are in vertical equilibrium. This type of model is useful and accurate for simulation times that are large relative to the time for buoyant segregation. But, vertical-equilibrium models are inappropriate in some situations, for instance, in the early stage of injection, when brine and CO2 have not fully segregated. Therefore, for these situations, the vertical equilibrium assumption needs to be relaxed and vertical dynamics needs to be included in the governing equations. To avoid significant increases of computational effort due to the inclusion of vertical dynamics, a multi-scale algorithm can be constructed where the vertically integrated equations are still used to model the (dominant) horizontal flow processes with the vertical reconstruction included as a dynamic problem. Such an approach allows each vertical column of grid cells to be solved independently, as a one-dimensional problem, during the dynamic reconstruction step. Because the top and bottom boundaries usually correspond to impermeable caprock, the total flow for these one-dimensional problems is zero and counter-current flow driven only by buoyancy and capillarity is involved. Solutions for this kind of problem are relatively simple and require little computational effort. With careful coupling between the vertical calculations and the horizontally integrated equations, an efficient algorithm can be developed to simulate a fairly wide range of problems including those with significant vertical dynamics. When vertical dynamics become insignificant, then usual vertical equilibrium reconstruction is used in the vertically integrated models. This new algorithm provides an intermediate choice in model complexity between full three-dimensional models and vertical-equilibrium two-dimensional models.

  3. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Lia; Taravelli, Erika; Girardengo, Giulia; Schwartz, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1), KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2) and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3). The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data. PMID:20126594

  4. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Sonic Anemometer Vertical Wind Speed Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochendorfer, J.; Horst, T. W.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Meyers, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy covariance studies, errors in the measured vertical wind speed cause errors of a similar magnitude in the vertical fluxes of energy and mass. Several recent studies on the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurements indicate that non-orthogonal sonic anemometers used in eddy covariance studies underestimate the vertical wind speed. It has been suggested that this underestimation is caused by flow distortion from the interference of the structure of the anemometer itself on the flow. When oriented ideally with respect to the horizontal wind direction, orthogonal sonic anemometers that measure the vertical wind speed with a single vertically-oriented acoustic path may measure the vertical wind speed more accurately in typical surface-layer conditions. For non-orthogonal sonic anemometers, Horst et al. (2014) proposed that transducer shadowing may be a dominant factor in sonic flow distortion. As the ratio of sonic transducer diameter to path length and the zenith angle of the three transducer paths decrease, the effects of transducer shadowing on measurements of vertical velocity will decrease. An overview of this research and some of the methods available to correct historical data will be presented.

  6. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the large-scale ocean circulation, and examine methods of validating mixing parameterizations using large-scale ocean models.

  7. Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches.

    PubMed

    Watts, Michael R; Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Young, Ralph W; Lentine, Anthony L

    2011-10-24

    Vertical junction resonant microdisk modulators and switches have been demonstrated with exceptionally low power consumption, low-voltage operation, high-speed, and compact size. This paper reviews the progress of vertical junction microdisk modulators, provides detailed design data, and compares vertical junction performance to lateral junction performance. The use of a vertical junction maximizes the overlap of the depletion region with the optical mode thereby minimizing both the drive voltage and power consumption of a depletion-mode modulator. Further, the vertical junction enables contact to be made from the interior of the resonator and therein a hard outer wall to be formed that minimizes radiation in small diameter resonators, further reducing the capacitance and drive power of the modulator. Initial simple vertical junction modulators using depletion-mode operation demonstrated the first sub-100 fJ/bit silicon modulators. With more intricate doping schemes and through the use of AC-coupled drive signals, 3.5 μm diameter vertical junction microdisk modulators have recently achieved a communications efficiency of 3 fJ/bit, making these modulators the smallest and lowest power modulators demonstrated to date, in any material system. Additionally, the demonstration was performed at 12.5 Gb/s, required a peak-to-peak signal level of only 1 V, and achieved bit-error-rates below 10(-12) without requiring signal pre-emphasis. As an additional benefit to the use of interior contacts, higher-order active filters can be constructed from multiple vertical-junction modulators without interference of the electrodes. Doing so, we demonstrated second-order active high-speed bandpass switches with ~2.5 ns switching speeds, and power penalties of only 0.4 dB. Through the use of vertical junctions in resonant modulators, we have achieved the lowest power consumption, lowest voltage, and smallest silicon modulators demonstrated to date. PMID:22109050

  8. Coarsening Dynamics on with Frozen Vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damron, M.; Eckner, S. M.; Kogan, H.; Newman, C. M.; Sidoravicius, V.

    2015-07-01

    We study Markov processes in which -valued random variables , update by taking the value of a majority of their nearest neighbors or else tossing a fair coin in case of a tie. In the presence of a random environment of frozen plus (resp., minus) vertices with density (resp., ), we study the prevalence of vertices that are (eventually) fixed plus or fixed minus or flippers (changing forever). Our main results are that, for and , all sites are fixed plus, while for and very small (compared to ), the fixed minus and flippers together do not percolate. We also obtain some results for deterministic placement of frozen vertices.

  9. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  10. Effects of vertical rotation on Arabidopsis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Various gross morphological end points of Arabidopsis development are examined in an attempt to separate the effects of growth on the horizontal clinostat into a component caused by rotation alone and another component caused by the altered position with respect to the direction of the g-vector. In a series of tests which involved comparisons between vertical stationary plants, vertical rotated plants, and plants rotated on clinostats, certain characters were consistently influenced by vertical rotation alone. The characters for which this effect was statistically significant were petiole length and leaf blade width.

  11. Tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Baljoon, Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal disease in terms of periodontal pocketing, periodontal bone loss, and tooth loss. The smoking destructive effect on periodontal bone may be of even "horizontal" and vertical "angular" pattern. The vertical bone loss or the "vertical defect" is a sign of progressive periodontal breakdown that involves the periodontal bone. Water pipe smoking has a sharp rise by the popularity in the recent years by men and women in Middle East countries. The general objective of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This thesis is based on two study populations, Swedish musicians and a Saudi Arabian population. All participants had a full set of intra-oral radiographs including 16 periapical and 4 bitewing projections that were assessed with regard to presence or absence of vertical defects. In Study I, the number of defects per person increased with age. Vertical defects were more common in the posterior as compared to the anterior region of the dentition and the distribution of defects within the maxilla as well as the mandible typically revealed a right-left hand side symmetry. Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with the prevalence and severity of vertical bone defects (Studies II and III). The relative risk associated with cigarette smoking was 2 to 3-fold increased. The impact of water pipe smoking was of the same magnitude as that of cigarette smoking and the relative risk associated with water pipe smoking was 6-fold increased compared to non-smoking. In addition, the risk of vertical defects increased with increased exposure in cigarette smokers as well as water pipe smokers (Study III). In Study IV, the proportion of vertical defects increased over a 10-year period and the increase over time was significantly associated with smoking. Moreover, the 10-year vertical bone loss was significantly greater in heavy exposure smokers than in light exposure smokers suggesting an exposure-response effect of smoking. Compared to non-smokers the 10-year relative risk was 2.4-fold increased in light exposure smokers and 5.8-fold increased in heavy exposure smokers. In conclusion, the present observations indicate that there is a significant relationship between tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss. Tobacco smoking should be considered a risk factor for periodontal vertical bone loss. PMID:15973969

  12. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective

  13. MASTER: short optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Tiurina, N.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Lodieu, N.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnykh, I.; Sergienko, Yu.; Yurkov, V.; Gabovich, A.

    2015-08-01

    MASTER OT J200554.05-364811.0 discovery - very short ( MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 05m 54.05s -36d 48m 11.0s on 2015-08-15.85505 UT.

  14. SHORT COURSE IN MENDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPEARS, RICHARD A.

    THIS SHORT COURSE IN MENDE (A TONE LANGUAGE OF LIBERIA AND SIERRA LEONE) IS AN ABRIDGEMENT OF THE BASIC COURSE IN MENDE AND CONSISTS OF THE MOST "IMMEDIATELY USEFUL" PARTS OF THE BASIC COURSE. THESE PARTS INCLUDE A VOCABULARY, USEFUL PHRASES, AND "NARRATIVE DRILLS" TO BE USED WITH THE ACCOMPANYING 18 SLIDES, IN ADDITION TO CHAPTERS ON PHONOLOGY

  15. [The short nose].

    PubMed

    Levet, Y

    2014-12-01

    Short noses are not only depending on the length of the dorsum, but also if there is a saddle deformity, or a too lower situation of the fronto-nasal angle, or an open naso-labial angle or a rim retraction. All the cases are treated, often with the help of cartilage grafts and with a closed approach. PMID:25156433

  16. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

  17. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  18. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension into consideration while performing facial reconstruction. PMID:26476716

  19. Influence of Test Tube Material on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Short Vertical Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Koichi; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔTsub,in=48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (Pin=735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm), heated length (L=66 mm) and L/d=11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, Ra=3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tube of d=6 mm, L=60 mm and L/d=10 with Ra=0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d=3 and 6 mm, L=66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d=22.2 and 11.6 respectively with Ra=0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed.

  20. Vertical stratification in arthropod spatial distribution research

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity within individual host trees is often overlooked in surveys of phytophagous arthropod abundance and distribution. The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui is controlled by the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae to a greater degree on leaves at 75-cm height than on leaves at ground level within its host tree Cycas micronesica. The direct influence of elevation on the predator indirectly generates vertical heterogeneity of the scale insect. Arthropod sampling schemes that fail to include all strata within the vertical profile of the host tree species may generate misleading outcomes. Results indicate that sub-meter increments can reveal significant differences in vertical distribution of phytophagous insects, and that inclusion of observations on other organisms that interact with the target arthropod may illuminate determinants of vertical heterogeneity. PMID:24567772

  1. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lodde, P.F.

    1980-07-01

    The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

  2. Vertical current flow through extensive layer clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K. A.; Harrison, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    The global atmospheric electrical circuit sustains a vertical current density between the ionosphere and the Earth's surface, the existence of which is well-established from measurements made in fair-weather conditions. In overcast, but non-thunderstorm, non-precipitating conditions, the current travels through the cloud present, despite cloud layers having low electrical conductivity. For extensive layer clouds, this leads to space charge at the upper and lower cloud boundaries. Using a combination of atmospheric electricity and solar radiation measurements at three UK sites, vertical current measurements have been categorised into clear, broken, and overcast cloud conditions. This approach shows that the vertical "fair weather" current is maintained despite the presence of cloud. In fully overcast conditions with thick cloud, the vertical current is reduced compared to thin cloud overcast conditions, associated with the cloud's resistance contributions. Contribution of cloud to the columnar resistance depends both on cloud thickness, and the cloud's height.

  3. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  4. 23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  5. Vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of simple vertical wind models to improve the hazard prediction capability of an airborne Doppler sensor in a realistic microburst environment. The results indicate that in the altitude region of interest (at or below 300 meters), both the linear and empirical vertical wind models improved the hazard estimate. The radar simulation study showed that the magnitude of the performance improvement was altitude dependent. The altitude of maximum performance improvement occurred at about 300 meters. At the lower altitudes the percent improvement was minimized by the diminished contribution of the vertical wind. The vertical hazard estimate errors from flight tests were less than those of the radar simulation study.

  6. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Zhe; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Dong, J.Q.

    2005-02-01

    Series of ion temperature gradient (ITG or {eta}{sub i}) driven modes in the short wavelength region, vertical bar k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub i} vertical bar>1, are investigated with a gyrokinetic integral equation code in toroidal plasmas. These instabilities exist even if electrons are assumed adiabatic. However, nonadiabatic electron response can influence these short wavelength ITG (SWITG) modes, especially the fundamental l=0 mode. At typical parameters, excitation of the l=0 mode requires that both {eta}{sub i} and {eta}{sub e} exceed thresholds, while the l=1 and l=2 modes with higher harmonic eigenfunctions persist unstable even at {eta}{sub e}=0. Dependence of the SWITG modes on other parameters is also investigated. The l=1 mode with an odd potential eigenfunction grows faster than the l=0 mode and may be dominant in low {eta}{sub e}, high {beta}, weak positive magnetic shear, and/or weak toroidicity regions.

  7. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Laurence R.; Hecht, Heiko; Lyne, Lisette E.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Cheung, Carol C.; Kavelaars, Jessica

    2001-08-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects of pitch and yaw head movements in participants placed supine on a rotating bed with their head at the center of rotation, feel at the rim. The vast majority of participants experienced motion sickness, inappropriate vertical nystagmus and illusory tilt and roll as predicted by a semicircular canal model. However, a small but significant number of the 28 participants experienced tilt in the predicted plane but in the opposite direction. Heart rate was elevated following one-second duration head turns. Significant adaptation occurred following a series of head turns in the light. Vertical nystagmus, motion sickness and illusory tilt all decreased with adaptation. Consequences for artificial gravity produced by short-radius centrifuges as a countermeasure are discussed.

  8. Horizontal wires replace the vertical files.

    PubMed

    Colburn, J L

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, clippings of newspaper articles, pictures from magazines, pamphlets, charts, graphs, posters, proceedings, or copies thereof, and other miscellaneous information sources have been stored in vertical files in libraries. The practice of creating and maintaining vertical files is extremely time consuming. In a medical library, in particular, old information about diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis can quickly become incorrect, misleading, and possibly harmful. Adequately tending to the vertical files can require a librarian to create a balancing act between properly maintaining vertical files and meeting the needs of the users in other areas of the library. The maintenance of vertical files is, by nature, highly consumptive of paper and space consuming. A reasonable alternative to the traditional vertical files is the World-Wide Web. Search engines exist for locating specific information, and bookmarks and/or links which point users to particularly useful sites can be set in search software. Some methods for searching are discussed, and a variety of World-Wide Web information sources are offered. PMID:10173596

  9. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  10. Adhesion of biologically inspired vertical and angled polymer microfiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Aksak, Burak; Murphy, Michael P; Sitti, Metin

    2007-03-13

    This paper proposes an approximate adhesion model for fibrillar adhesives for developing a fibrillar adhesive design methodology and compares numerical simulation adhesion results with macroscale adhesion data from polymer microfiber array experiments. A technique for fabricating microfibers with a controlled angle is described for the first time. Polyurethane microfibers with different hardnesses, angles, and aspect ratios are fabricated using optical lithography and polymer micromolding techniques and tested with a custom tensile adhesion measurement setup. Macroscale adhesion and overall work of adhesion of the microfiber arrays are measured and compared with the models to observe the effect of fiber geometry and preload. The adhesion strength and work of adhesion behavior of short and long vertical and long angled fiber arrays have similar trends with the numerical simulations. A scheme is also proposed to aid in optimized fiber adhesive design. PMID:17284057

  11. High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurin, Jean-Francois; Ghosh, Chuni L.; Khalfin, Viktor; Miglo, Aleksandr; Xu, Guoyang; Wynn, James D.; Pradhan, Prachi; D'Asaro, L. Arthur

    2008-02-01

    We present record output power levels (a few hundred Watts) in continuous-wave (CW) and quasi-CW (QCW) from 2D vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays, corresponding to power densities exceeding 1kW/cm2 in CW and 3.5kW/cm2 in QCW. These VCSEL arrays emit around 975nm with narrow spectral width (<1nm) and excellent wavelength stability (<0.07nm/K). Peak power conversion efficiency of properly designed arrays exceeds 50%. Additional features of these arrays include emission in a circular, low-diverging beam, and reliable high-temperature operation. These arrays can also be operated reliably in short pulses (<200nsec) at many times their roll-over CW current, making them useful for high-energy applications. VCSEL arrays with 2.2kW peak output power operating under 100nsec pulse-width have been demonstrated.

  12. Vertical Ge/Si Core/Shell Nanowire Junctionless Transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Cai, Fuxi; Otuonye, Ugo; Lu, Wei D

    2016-01-13

    Vertical junctionless transistors with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure based on Ge/Si core/shell nanowires epitaxially grown and integrated on a ?111? Si substrate were fabricated and analyzed. Because of efficient gate coupling in the nanowire-GAA transistor structure and the high density one-dimensional hole gas formed in the Ge nanowire core, excellent P-type transistor behaviors with Ion of 750 ?A/?m were obtained at a moderate gate length of 544 nm with minimal short-channel effects. The experimental data can be quantitatively modeled by a GAA junctionless transistor model with few fitting parameters, suggesting the nanowire transistors can be fabricated reliably without introducing additional factors that can degrade device performance. Devices with different gate lengths were readily obtained by tuning the thickness of an etching mask film. Analysis of the histogram of different devices yielded a single dominate peak in device parameter distribution, indicating excellent uniformity and high confidence of single nanowire operation. Using two vertical nanowire junctionless transistors, a PMOS-logic inverter with near rail-to-rail output voltage was demonstrated, and device matching in the logic can be conveniently obtained by controlling the number of nanowires employed in different devices rather than modifying device geometry. These studies show that junctionless transistors based on vertical Ge/Si core/shell nanowires can be fabricated in a controlled fashion with excellent performance and may be used in future hybrid, high-performance circuits where bottom-up grown nanowire devices with different functionalities can be directly integrated with an existing Si platform. PMID:26674542

  13. Piezoelectric potential in vertically aligned nanowires for high output nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Mantini, Giulia; Di Carlo, Aldo; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Falconi, Christian; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-11-01

    In this work we analyze the coupled piezoelectric and semiconductive behavior of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires under uniform compression. The screening effect on the piezoelectric field caused by the free carriers in vertically compressed zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) has been computed by means of both analytical considerations and finite element calculations. We predict that, for typical geometries and donor concentrations, the length of the NW does not significantly influence the maximum output piezopotential because the potential mainly drops across the tip, so that relatively short NWs can be sufficient for high-efficiency nanogenerators, which is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators. Furthermore, simulations reveal that the dielectric surrounding the NW influences the output piezopotential, especially for low donor concentrations. Other parameters such as the applied force, the sectional area and the donor concentration have been varied in order to understand their effects on the output voltage of the nanogenerator.

  14. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  15. High-temperature long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Near Moses

    Vertical cavity lasers(VCLs) have recently been the subject of much research effort around the world. These lasers hold the promise of inexpensive, low threshold, high speed sources for optical communication. Short wavelength lasers have many applications, including free space optical interconnects and short distance datacom, but have limited potential for longer distances due to the absorption and dispersion spectrum of standard optical fiber. The longer wavelength sources near 1.3 or 1.5 /mu m are ideally suited for medium and long distance applications. Interoperability as well as compatibility with existing fiber optic infrastructure also call for longer wavelength sources. However, large volume commercialization of such devices, for applications such as FTTH(fiber to the home), requires a wide temperature range of operation ([-]40o C to 85o C). Historically, the realization of such high performance long-wavelength vertical cavity- lasers has been difficult. Nonetheless, advances in fabrication techniques, such as wafer fusion, have allowed for ever increasing device performance. In this thesis, we present recent results that include devices with multigigahetz frequency responses, hundred of microwatts of cw output powers, as well as 65o C continuous-wave operating temperatures. In addition, these devices have now been demonstrated as sources in link transmission experiment at 2.5 Gb/s over 200 km of optical fiber, far surpassing the record distance-bandwidth products of any other VCL experiment. We analyze here the design and fabrication of these record performance devices. Further advancements may soon lead to commercial level performance.

  16. Enceladus' Influence on the Vertical Structure of Saturn's E Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Agarwal, M.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    Within ~+/- 20,000 km of Enceladus' orbit, Saturn's tenuous E ring has a double-banded appearance, with the number of particles depleted by a few percent within +/- 1000 km of the planet’s equatorial plane (Hedman et al. 2012). We wish to understand this vertical structure, to learn if it might indicate launch speeds or a sweeping effect of Enceladus. We have combined order-of-magnitude analytical estimates and numerical simulations that include Enceladus and Saturn's gravity up to J6 in short-term (1-2 days) and longer-term 200-yr) integrations. Because most particles emanating from the surface geysers will fall back on the moon, the E ring must be dominated by particles that barely escaped. Hence we follow the orbits of many hundreds of particles launched near Enceladus' southern pole with speeds between ~ 0.8 to 2 times the nominal escape speed (i.e., that from an isolated sphere). We illustrate some contorted trajectories within the three-body problem for such launch conditions. Typically, gravitational deceleration after launch followed by a few gravitational kicks from the moon induce many particles to attain orbital inclinations corresponding to a maximum height of ~4rE (rE = radius of Enceladus = 250 km), or about one Hill radius for Enceladus. The vertical epicyclic motions of such inclined orbits account the observed two-banded structure. Simultaneous gravitational interactions will scatter particles to produce a two-banded, radially extended (+/-10,000km) Gaussian core on either side of Enceladus, as observed. In our simple model, particles are lost by collisions into Enceladus in ~ 100 yrs; mutual impacts are ignored. Since gravity alone can generate in short order the most prominent features in the observed structures, non-gravitational forces (cf. Kempf et al. 2010) mostly affect other aspects of the E ring structure and evolution.

  17. Short course review and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  18. Short course review and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-01

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what "proliferation" means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both "vertical" in numbers and "horizontal" to additional countries, what way the "vector" of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  19. Biomechanical Comparison of Shorts With Different Pads

    PubMed Central

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Reggiani, Carlo; Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort. To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort. Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects’ perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle. Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation. The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes introduced in this study could be helpful for manufacturers in the development of their protective pads. PMID:26200626

  20. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  1. Some vertical lineaments of lip position.

    PubMed

    Peck, S; Peck, L; Kataja, M

    1992-06-01

    This study was performed to elucidate quantitatively upper lip-tooth-jaw relativity in the vertical dimension. Values for five linear dentolabial measurements were generated from male (n = 42) and female (n = 46) reference samples. In addition, three vertical skeletofacial dimensions and two vertical dental dimensions were recorded. A significant sexual dimorphism was found in the vertical lip-tooth-jaw relationship: the upper lip of the female subjects was positioned on average 1.5 mm more superiorly at maximum smile than the upper lip of the male subjects (p less than 0.01). High smile lines appeared to be a female lineament, and low smile lines appeared to be a male lineament. There was a significant sex difference in upper lip length: the male subjects exhibited a longer upper lip than the female subjects (p less than 0.001). The mean difference was 2.2 mm. A similarly significant male-female difference was seen in the skeletal maxillary height measurement: the male sample showed a 2.2 mm mean vertical maxillary increase over the female sample (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference was found between the clinical crown height of the maxillary central incisors in the male and female subjects of comparable ages: the male group had longer central incisor crowns (p less than 0.01). PMID:1598892

  2. Future short-field aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    The application of short takeoff and landing aircraft for improving short-haul air transportation is examined. The contracts with industry to study quiet turbofan short-field aircraft in the short-haul air transportation system are identified. Studies of appropriate propulsion systems are conducted in parallel with the aircraft studies. The objectives of the studies are to: (1) determine economic and social viability of short-haul air transportation, (2) identify critical technology and technology-related problems, (3) define representative aircraft configurations and characteristics to include development and operational costs, and (4) to establish desirable technology advances for improving short-haul transportation systems.

  3. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  4. Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

  5. Modeling the CAPTEX vertical tracer concentration profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, R.R.; Stunder, B.J.B.

    1988-05-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracer concentration profiles measured by aircraft 600--900 km downwind of the release locations during CAPTEX are discussed and compared with some model results. In general, the concentrations decreased with height in the upper half of the boundary layer where the aircraft measurements were made. The results of a model sensitivity study suggested that the shape of the profile was primarily due to winds increasing with height and relative position of the sampling with respect to the upwind and downwind edge of the plume. Further modeling studies showed that relatively simple vertical mixing parameterizations could account for the complex vertical plume structure when the model had sufficient vertical resolution. In general, the model performed better with slower winds and corresponding longer transport times.

  6. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  7. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  8. Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

  9. Vertical cable surveys deliver additional seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Texaco and a Norwegian seismic firm have patented a new system for deploying hydrophones on vertical cables for offshore surveys. The system was used in Texaco North Sea UK Ltd.`s Strathspey field during the summer. The new technique was introduced in the article, ``Peaceful use for war technology,`` published in Texaco UK`s Agenda monthly news magazine, October 1995. That article is summarized here. Using technology developed by the US Navy for antisubmarine warfare, the vertical-cable survey relies on hydrophones attached at regular intervals vertically along cables secured to the ocean floor and held taut by a buoy. The shooting vessel fires the airguns in a pattern over a large area on the surface, over and around the cables. The cables are then moved to a new location and the process is repeated, up to six times in the Strathspey application described here.

  10. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  11. THE VERTICAL COMPONENT OF THE SUPERGRANULAR MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, T. L. Jr.; Birch, A. C.

    2010-12-10

    Supergranules are observed at the solar photosphere as a cellular horizontal flow pattern with flow diverging from cell centers and converging on cell boundaries. Clark and Johnson calculated that mass conservation leads to an expected vertical flow of only 10 m s{sup -1}, which has been difficult to observe. In the present work, Doppler images near the disk center from Michelson Doppler Imager are averaged about locations of cell centers to obtain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio to see the vertical flow. It is found that, for an average over 1100 cell centers, there is a 10 m s{sup -1} upflow at cell center and a 5 m s{sup -1} downflow at the cell boundaries, confirming the previous estimate. The rms vertical flow is 4 m s{sup -1}, smaller than Giovanelli's upper limit of 10 m s{sup -1}.

  12. Calculation of vertical and ramp-assisted takeoffs for supersonic cruise fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure that allows rapid preliminary evaluations of the vertical, short, and normal takeoff performance of supersonic cruise aircraft concepts was developed into a numerical computer program. The program is used to determine the effects on takeoff performance of various parameters, such as thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, thrust vector angle, and flap setting. Ramp-assisted takeoffs for overloaded configurations typical of a ground-attack mission are included. The effects of wind on the takeoff performance are also considered.

  13. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  14. Top-down vertical itemset mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Mohammad Karim; Ghods, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Vertical itemset mining is an important frequent pattern mining problem with broad applications. It is challenging since one may need to examine a combinatorial explosive number of possible patterns of items of a dataset in a traditional horizontal algorithm. Since high dimensional datasets typically contain a large number of columns and a small number of rows, vertical itemset mining algorithms, which extract the frequent itemsets of dataset by producing all combination of rows ids, are a good alternative for horizontal algorithms in mining frequent itemsets from high dimensional dataset. Since a rowset can be simply produced from its subsets by adding a new row id to a sub rowset, many bottom up vertical itemset mining algorithms are designed and represented in the literature. However, bottom up vertical mining algorithms suffer from a main drawback. Bottom-up algorithms start the process of generating and testing of rowsets from the small rowsets and go on to the larger rowsets, whereas the small rowsets cannot produce a frequent itemsets because they contain less than minimum support threshold number of rows. In this paper, we described a new efficient vertical top down algorithm called VTD (Vertical Top Down) to conduct mining of frequent itemsets in high dimensional datasets. Our top down approach employed the minimum support threshold to prune the rowsets which any itemset could not be extracted from them. Several experiments on real bioinformatics datasets showed that VTD is orders of magnitude better than previous closed pattern mining algorithms. Our performance study showed that this algorithm outperformed substantially the best former algorithms.

  15. Vortex Formation in Vertically Stratified Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2013-10-01

    A central problem of planet formation is how to form large planetesimals in a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Recent work suggests that MRI turbulence would excite such large velocities that the planetesimals would collisionally fragment rather than grow. The structure of chondritic meteorites indicates a gentle nebular environment where chondrules are sorted by size and cemented together rapidly. Although it is well established that anticyclones can concentrate particles that are weakly coupled to the gas in protoplanetary disks, the conditions required for the formation and long-time stability of anticyclones in a vertically stratified disk are still highly uncertain. Fully three dimensional fluid dynamic simulations of protoplanetary disks are computationally expensive when one requires a computational domain that is large compared to the vertical scale height of the disk. An alternative simulation approach is to use potential temperature as the vertical coordinate so that the equations of motion resemble the shallow water equations (Dowling et al. 1998). We have therefore modified a multilayer shallow water simulation code to model the formation of vortices in a vertically stratified protoplanetary disk with a radial entropy gradient. Vertical stratification of the disk is modeled by using multiple layers, where each layer has a different constant value of the entropy. By forcing a slope in the interfaces between the layers, we impose a radial entropy gradient in the disk. Radiative heating and cooling causes vertical mass exchange between adjacent constant entropy layers according to a Newton cooling formula. We find that the formation of anticyclones is robust, and that these vortices actively excite density waves, which in turn, transport angular momentum through the disk. Our simulations therefore yield new insights on how the dusty dead zones of protoplanetary disks can transport angular momentum through the disk by purely hydrodynamic processes. Support from NASA’s Origins of Solar Systems program is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  17. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. ); Lazarus, E.A. ); Lister, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation {kappa}, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q {approximately}1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

  19. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  20. Critique of the vertical gradient of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Sigmund

    1989-01-01

    Growing interest in high precision studies of the Earth's gravitational field warrant a critical review of precision requirements to yield useful results. Several problems are now under consideration. All of these problems involve, more or less, the precise value of the vertical gradients of gravity. The principle conclusion from this review is that the essential absence of Free Air Vertical Gravity Gradient control and actual values of gravimeter calibrations require serious attention. Large errors in high topography on official published gravity maps also cannot be ignored.

  1. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  2. Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tony A.; Hosoi, A. E.; Ehrlich, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates. PMID:19693394

  3. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  4. Vertical Drop Testing and Simulation of Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 14 vertical impact tests were conducted using Hybrid III 50th Percentile and Hybrid II 50th Percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of conducting these tests was threefold: to compare and contrast the impact responses of Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs under two different loading conditions, to compare the impact responses of the Hybrid III configured with a nominal curved lumbar spine to that of a Hybrid III configured with a straight lumbar spine, and to generate data for comparison with predicted responses from two commercially available ATD finite element models. The two loading conditions examined were a high magnitude, short duration acceleration pulse, and a low magnitude, long duration acceleration pulse, each created by using different paper honeycomb blocks as pulse shape generators in the drop tower. The test results show that the Hybrid III results differ from the Hybrid II results more for the high magnitude, short duration pulse case. The comparison of the lumbar loads for each ATD configuration show drastic differences in the loads seen in the spine. The analytical results show major differences between the responses of the two finite element models. A detailed discussion of possible sources of the discrepancies between the two analytical models is also provided.

  5. Mode-locked vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenbin

    In-plane semiconductor lasers can be mode locked to generate ultra short pulses, but the output power is small because of the gain saturation limitation. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL), on the other hand, have a large gain saturation energy because of the large active area. High power ultra short optical pulses can thus be generated by mode locking a VCSEL. Optically pumped external cavity VCSELs have been synchronously mode locked to generate subpicosecond pulses with a peak power two orders of magnitude higher than that from an in-plane laser. However, pulses generated from the mode locked VCSEL are broadened because of the pulse chirping. The cause of this pulse chirping is analyzed. Carrier transport effect is identified as another cause of the pulse broadening. A periodic gain structure has been used to limit the carrier transport so that pulses with an intensity autocorrelation width of 300 fs have been directly generated from the mode-locked VCSEL. To make the mode-locked VCSEL compact, devices for electrical pumping have been designed and fabricated. Active mode locking of such devices has yielded pulses with a pulsewidth of 80 ps and a pulse energy of 4.6 pJ at a repetition rate of 1 GHz. This is the first electrically pumped mode locked VCSEL.

  6. Theoretical Investigation of the Vertically Averaged Balance Equations for Chemically Reactive Trace Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramm, G.; Dlugi, R.

    2001-12-01

    The vertically averaged balance equation of chemically reactive atmospheric trace constituents as customarily served as a basis for so-called box models is derived and discussed. It is shown that this kind of balance equation has several prominent short-comings so that the capability of box models to predict real situations of photochemical smog formation and depletion is strongly limited. Two of these prominent short-comings are theoretically elucidated in more detail, namely (1) the vertically averaged source and sink terms owing to chemical reactions, and (2) the parameterization of the dry deposition and exhalation fluxes at the earth's surface. Based on our theoretical results, we suggest that such box models should be refused. Even though the consumption of computing time is much smaller than those of sophisticated Eulerian air pollution models like ADOM, DRAIS, EURAD or RADM, box models should not be considered as a true alternative to such air pollution models. It is also shown that before introducing vertically averaged balance equation of atmospheric trace constituents into general circulation models (GCMs) to investigate the interrelation between air pollution and climate change on the basis of long-term simulations the influence of these short-comings has to be estimated in a reliable manner.

  7. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  8. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  9. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  10. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  11. Short-period comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Campins, Humberto

    1991-01-01

    The spacecraft flybys of Comet Halley in 1986 confirmed Whipple's icy conglomerate hypothesis for cometary nuclei and showed that comets are far richer in volatiles than any other class of solar system bodies. Water is the most abundant volatile, comprising roughly 80 percent of the gas flowing out from the nucleus. Carbon monoxide is next with a content of 15 percent relative to water, though with approximately half of that coming from an extended source in the cometary coma, i.e., hydrocarbon dust grains. The detection of large numbers of hydrocarbon CHON grains was one of the more significant discoveries of the Halley flybys, as was the ground-based observation that CN occurs in jets, again indicating an extended source. Evidence was also found for more complex hydrocarbons. Estimates of the total dust-to-gas ratio for Halley range as high as 2:1, indicating that a substantial fraction of the volatile material may be tied up in solid hydrocarbons rather than ices. The role of clathrates in trapping more volatile ices is not yet understood. If Halley can be taken to be representative of all short-period comets, then the short-period comets may provide a significant source of volatiles in near-earth space. This resource is more difficult to reach dynamically than the near-earth asteriods, but the high volatile content may justify the additional effort necessary. In addition, there is considerable evidence that at least some fraction of the near-earth asteriods are extinct cometary nuclei which have evolved into asteroid orbits, and which may contain significant volatiles buried beneath an insulating lag-deposit crust of nonvolatiles. Knowledge of comets will be greatly enhanced in the near future by the Comet Rendezvous Flyby mission now under development by NASA, and by the proposed Rosetta mission.

  12. Vertical deformation along the Indio Hills, San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharer, K. M.; Blisniuk, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Williams, P. L.; Johnson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Halfway between the Salton Sea and San Gorgonio Pass, the southernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into the Mission Creek and Banning strands. These strands bound the Indio Hills (IH), and mark the first of a series of left-stepping branches that define the transpressional, southern Big Bend of the SAF. Between the fault strands, the Quaternary Ocotillo Formation is deformed with fold axis orientations consistent with dextral shear; structurally the IH are synclinal in the east, transitioning to a complex antiform with increased uplift suggested by exhumation of Tertiary units in the west. We report new long- and short-term erosion rates across the IH and uplift rates on the Banning strand, and we evaluate these measurements in terms of slip rates across the fault system and structural deformation within the IH. Two methods of catchment-averaged erosion rates provide minimum rates yield similar results, (0.08 to 0.34 mm/yr) across 6 catchments. The long-term rates are calculated from eroded volumes estimated from a 10-m DEM surface enveloping the Indio Hills and assume that all folding and uplift initiated ca. 500ka (the 750 ka Bishop ash is uplifted and warped within the IH). The short-term rates, determined from 10Be dating of alluvial sediments, increase gradually to the northwest. Similarity of the rates suggests steady state uplift over the history of the fold; ongoing structural analysis and dating needed to constrain the maximum rates will test this possibility. The new uplift rate for the Banning strand at the east end of the IH is determined from a 60 pts/m^2 DEM produced by structure from motion photogrammetry and U-series ages and cosmogenic dates that provide an age range of 20-76ka for a fan vertically offset by ~2.5 m. The resulting uplift rate on the fault (0.03-0.125 mm/yr) overlaps with the short-term catchment-averaged erosion rate for this location (0.08 mm/yr). Consequently, we interpret that vertical strain is partitioned onto both the Banning fault and in uplift and folding of the IH. The uplift rates increase westward along the IH, possibly indicating increased activity on the Banning strand to the west. This pattern will be considered in the context of paleoseismic and horizontal slip rate studies in the region, and implications for rupture directivity on this hazardous fault system.

  13. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Volume from High Spectral Resolution Infrared Transmission Measurements: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Kahn, Brian H.; Mills, Franklin P.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Steele, Helen M.; Gunson, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are utilized to derive vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density and extinction coefficient. Following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991, the ATMOS spectra obtained on three Space Shuttle missions (1992, 1993, and 1994) provide a unique opportunity to study the global stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer shortly after a major volcanic eruption and periodically during the decay phase. Synthetic sulfate aerosol spectra are fit to the observed spectra, and a global fitting inversion routine is used to derive vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density. Vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density for the three missions over portions of the globe are presented, with the peak in aerosol volume density occurring from as low as 10 km (polar latitudes) to as high as 20 km (subtropical latitudes). Derived aerosol volume density is as high as 2-3.5 (mu)m(exp 3) per cubic centimeter +/-10% in 1992, decreasing to 0.2-0.5 (mu)m(exp 3) per cubic centimeter +/-20% in 1994, in agreement with other experiments. Vertical extinction profiles derived from ATMOS are compared with profiles from Improved Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) and Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) that coincide in space and time and show good general agreement. The uncertainty of the ATMOS vertical profiles is similar to CLAES and consistently smaller than ISAMS at similar altitudes.

  15. IMPROVED PREDICTION OF THE VERTICAL PROFILE OF ATMOSPHERIC BLACK CARBON: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF WRF-CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced model descriptions of cloud processing of atmospheric pollutants will improve predicted vertical profiles of optically active particulate carbon (e.g., black carbon (Be) and other short lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as "brown" carbon). More accurate prediction of...

  16. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikstrm, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other as a receiver (Rx) and they were lowered into the holes opposite each other. The Tx was operated in single shot mode, where an electromagnetic pulse was propagated and the time it took to penetrate the soil matrix and be detected by the Rx was measured. To allow for tomographic reconstruction of the vertical roots, a series of vectors were created by raising and lowering the antennas at intervals of 5 cm. Then the antennas were moved to opposite holes and the process was repeated creating 3200 unique travel-paths per tree. Borehole to surface measures were collected in a similar fashion, though the Rx was moved across the soil surface (10 cm interval) and the Tx was manipulated below ground (5 cm interval), generating 2400 unique travel-paths per tree. This is the first report of using borehole radar to study vertical tree roots. Cross-hole tomography provided excellent information on the depth of tree roots, but was less useful for imaging near surface features. Borehole to surface measures provided the best information on the near surface, where the bulk of roots are found (0-0.3 m). Cross-hole and borehole to surface data may be combined to further define vertical roots systems. Analysis of root mass and projected root mass is ongoing.

  17. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  18. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  19. Vertical Decalage and the EFL Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in reading of English by foreign students who are unaccustomed to English script. Considering two levels of reading, students having difficulties at one level will regress by reason of vertical decalage to a lower level of learning strategy. This is manifested by a more intent focus on individual letters if the pupil…

  20. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  1. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  2. Comparison of vertical seismic profiling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, L.J.; Chen, S.T. )

    1993-01-01

    To study the imaging characteristics of various vertical seismic profiling techniques, two vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and a reversed vertical seismic profile (RVSP), where source and receiver positions are interchanged, were collected in the Loudon Oil Field in Illinois. Both VSPs were collected using a line of dynamite charges on the surface as sources. One was collected with geophones and the other with hydrophones as downhole receivers. The RVSP was collected by detonating 25 gram explosive charges in a well and detecting the seismic response with geophones at the surface. Three subsurface images (VSP with geophones, VSP with hydrophones, and RVSP) were produced using VSP-CDP transforms. For comparison, a surface seismic profile was collected along the same line with dynamite sources and vertical geophone receivers. The RVSP and hydrophone VSP stacked sections both produced higher frequency images at shallower depths than did the geophone VSP stacked section. However, the lower frequency geophone VSP stacked section produced an interpretable subsurface image at much greater depths than either the RVSP or the hydrophone VSP sections. The results of this experiment demonstrate that if tube-wave noise could be suppressed, hydrophone VSPs would provide attractive alternatives to geophone VSPs, because it is much easier and cheaper to deploy multilevel hydrophones downhole than geophones. Also, if a high-powered, nondestructive source is developed, RVSP could be a practical alternative to VSP since one can easily lay out numerous receivers on the surface to record multioffset or three-dimensional (3-D) VSP data.

  3. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  4. Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States

    PubMed Central

    Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue. PMID:22840424

  5. A Vertical Approach to Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of mathematics standards, whether they are Common Core State Standards or other state standards, effective vertical mathematics teams offer an opportunity for teachers to grow professionally through shared experiences, for leadership to grow among the faculty, and for the school to change its perspective on the teaching and

  6. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  7. Vertical distribution of Pahang River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, T. M.; Lihan, T.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Large rivers transported high amount of discharge towards the sea and induced the river plume formation. The contents of the plume consist of suspended solids, nutrients, pollutants and other particles. Productivity at estuary depends on the organic and nutrient contents from the river discharge. Due to many possible factors, the dispersal of the plume shows spatial variation horizontally and vertically. The monsoonal wind is a factor that effecting plume vertical profile pattern. This study determines the vertical distribution pattern of the plumeat Pahang River through field observation. Several water parameters were measured during cruises conducted at respective monsoon. Data collected includes depth, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature and suspended particulate matter. Depth at Pahang's offshore usually does not reached more than 15 m depth because of the shallow continental shelf at South China Sea. The plume has higher concentration at the mouth of the river which causes the area to be less saline and it decreases as the station furthers from the river. Chlorophyll-a is distributed mainly at the surface level where the area is warmer and received freshwater runoff. Suspended particulate matter shows downward distribution from the front of the estuary towards deep water column depth (10 m). Temperature pattern shows warmer surface layer with depth less than 5 m while deeper water column has lower temperature. Vertical profile pattern of Pahang River plume generally shows slight difference between each monsoon by referring to particular parameter.

  8. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  9. Surgical correction of primary cutis vertices gyrata.

    PubMed

    Al-Malaq, Ali; Hashem, Fuad K; Helmi, Ayman; Al-Qattan, Mohammed M

    2002-12-01

    Primary cutis vertices gyrata is a rare condition of the scalp characterized by the formation of furrows and folds resembling the convolutions of the brain. A review of the English literature did not reveal any surgically treated cases. The authors report three cases treated by simple excision of the deepest furrows with a satisfactory result. PMID:12461454

  10. Vertical transport processes in unconfined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Reckhow, David A.; Popielarczyk, David J.

    1989-02-01

    We derive simple two-dimensional mathematical models describing the unsteady transport of conservative contaminants through an unconfined aquifer with a gently sloping aquiclude subject to advection, recharge, and vertical dispersion. The inclusion of vertical transport terms permits the proper nonreactive analysis of closed and open chemical systems, with the latter allowing dispersion of volatile constituents across the water table. These systems exhibit conservative and pseudoreactive behavior respectively when the pollution is analyzed on a depth-integrated basis, as is common in present one-dimensional models of groundwater contamination. Vertical and longitudinal chloride and total inorganic carbon observations at the well-documented Babylon, Long Island sanitary landfill plume are used to calibrate and test the analyses with a modest level of accuracy, using the vertical dispersivity as a calibration factor in this testing process. The parameter is important in the determination of reaeration rates across the water table and nutrient mixing from below in the related problem of biological transformations near the free surface.

  11. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory

  12. Vertical motions in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A single station vertical velocity equation which considers ageostrophic and diabatic effects derived from the first law of thermodynamics and a generalized thermal wind relation is presented. An analysis and verification procedure which accounts for measurement and calculation errors as well as time and space continuity arguments and theoretical predictions are described. Vertical velocities are calculated at every kilometer between 25 and 60 km and for approximately every three hours for the above diurnal period at Kourou (French Guiana), Fort Sherman (Panama Canal Zone), Ascension Island, Antigua (British West Indies) and Natal (Brazil). The results, plotted as time series cross sections, suggest vertical motions ranging in magnitude from 1 or 2 cm/sec at 30 km to as much as 15 cm/sec at 60 km. Many of the general features of the results agree well with atmospheric tidal predictions but many particular features suggest that both smaller time scale gravity waves (periods less than 6 hours) and synoptic type waves (periods greater than 1 day) may be interacting significantly with the tidal fields. The results suggest that vertical motions can be calculated for the equatorial middle atmosphere and must be considered a significant part of the motion for time scales from 8 to 24 hours.

  13. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  14. [From vertical to horizontal. Writing in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Catheline-Antipoff, N

    1995-04-01

    Writing at adolescence has a non negligible part in identity's construction. Vertical writing as tags, graphs and graffiti refer to a narcissism deficiency and express a pulsional necessity, whereas, horizontal writing as private diaries, letters and novels express object's search and are made in dreaming attitude. PMID:7618823

  15. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  16. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  17. Higher Education Vertical Infrastructure Maintenance Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    To assist higher education facility officers in documenting their financial needs for renewing and renovating existing physical facilities, this study examined the accuracy against observed conditions of the tools used to identify vertical infrastructure maintenance needs in a large public university. Data developed for U.S. Army facilities is

  18. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In

  19. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Kil; Dodaran, Asgar Ahadpour; Han, Chong Soo; Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Ebrahim Meshkati

    2014-12-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size) of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls ( 1 ?v = 1). Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  20. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrationstransmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  1. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat module consists of a 2-m-high barrel with 0.6-mhigh end domes forming the 56-cubicmeter pressure vessel, and a 19-squaremeter floor area. The module has up to four docking ports located orthogonally from each other around the perimeter, and up to one docking port each on the top or bottom end domes. In addition, the module has mounting trusses top and bottom for equipment, and to allow docking with the ATHLETE mobility system. Novel or unique features of the HDU vertical habitat module include the nodelike function with multiple pressure hatches for docking with other versions of itself and other modules and vehicles; the capacity to be carried by an ATHLETE mobility system; and the ability to attach inflatable 'attic' domes to the top for additional pressurized volume.

  2. Are Short GRBs Really Hard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Palmer, D.; Parsons, A.; Sato, G.; Tueller, J.; Aptekar, R.; Cline, T.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Pal'Shin, V.; Ricker, G.; Lamb, D.; Atteia, J.-L.; Swift-Bat; Konus-Wind; Hete-2 Team

    2006-05-01

    Thanks to the rapid position notice and response by HETE-2 and Swift, the X-ray afterglow emissions have been found for four recent short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs GRB 050509b, GRB 050709, GRB 050724, and GRB 050813). The positions of three out of four short GRBs are coincident with galaxies with no current or recent star formation. This discovery tightens the case for a different origin for short and long GRBs. On the other hand, from the prompt emission point of view, a short GRB shows a harder spectrum comparing to that of the long duration GRBs according to the BATSE observations. We investigate the prompt emission properties of four short GRBs observed by Swift/BAT. We found that the hardness of all four BAT short GRBs is in between the BATSE range for short and long GRBs. We will discuss the spectral properties of short GRBs including the short GRB sample of Konus-Wind and HETE-2 to understand the hard nature of the BATSE short GRBs.

  3. Perceptual asymmetries are preserved in short-term memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Visual performance is heterogeneous at isoeccentric locations; it is better on the horizontal than on the vertical meridian and worse at the upper than at the lower region of the vertical meridian (Carrasco, Talgar, & Cameron, 2001; Talgar & Carrasco, 2002). It is unknown whether these performance inhomogeneities are also present in spatial frequency tasks and whether asymmetries present during encoding of visual information also emerge in visual short-term memory (VSTM) tasks. Here, we investigated the similarity of the perceptual and VSTM tasks in spatial frequency discrimination (Experiments 1 and 2) and perceived spatial frequency (Experiments 3 and 4). We found that (1) performance in both simultaneous (perceptual) and delayed (VSTM) spatial frequency discrimination tasks varies as a function of location; it is better along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian; and (2) perceived spatial frequency in both tasks is higher along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian. These results suggest that perceived spatial frequency may mediate performance differences in VSTM tasks across the visual field, implying that the quality with which we encode information affects VSTM. PMID:19933562

  4. Vertical distribution of Macrocystis pyrifera nutrient exposure in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konotchick, T.; Parnell, P. E.; Dayton, P. K.; Leichter, J. J.

    2012-06-01

    We examined water column temperature time series profiles for several years at two locations in a single kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forest to characterize the alongshore variability of the nutrient climate that giant kelp is exposed to and compare it to the response of giant kelp. The differences in nutrient climate are due to differential alongshore vertical variations in temperature, a well-established proxy of nitrate, due to the topographically induced internal wave dynamics within the kelp forest. We observed the greatest temperature variability during summer and most of this variability occurred near the surface. The 14.5 C isotherm, indicating the presence of nitrate, ranged the entire vertical extent of the water column, and was shallowest during the winter and in the southern portion of the kelp forest. Predicted water column integrated nitrate varies from 0 ?mol NO3-/m2 to 431 ?mol NO3-/m2 yielding a time series daily average of 0.12 gN/m2day (North La Jolla) and 0.18 gN/m2day (South La Jolla). Redfield conversion of these values puts the time series daily average for carbon production (upper limit) between 0.8 and 1.2 gC/m2day for the north and south parts of the bed respectively, and shows considerable variation at several time scales. Giant kelp in the southern portion of the forest exhibited greater stipe densities (a proxy for kelp production) than individuals in the northern portion, corresponding with the alongshore nutrient climate variability. The depth of the nutricline varied by up to 10 m over time scales as short as hours. Variability was greatest at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies, with shallower water column depths showing greatest variability. These depth-specific variations in temperature and nutrient exposure may have biologically important consequences for M. pyrifera especially during low nutrient seasons.

  5. Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ariel U.; Neaga, Andreea; West, Brady; Safran, Jared; Brown, Pamela; Btaiche, Imad; Kuzma-O'Reilly, Barbara; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine predictors of survival and of weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN) in pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. Summary Background Data: Pediatric SBS carries extensive morbidity and high mortality, but factors believed to predict survival or weaning from PN have been based on limited studies. This study reviews outcomes of a large number of SBS infants and identifies predictors of success. Methods: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted on 80 pediatric SBS patients. Primary outcome was survival; secondary outcome was ability to wean off PN. Nonsignificant covariates were eliminated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Over a mean of 5.1 years of follow-up, survival was 58 of 80 (72.5%) and 51 weaned off PN (63.8%). Cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin ?2.5 mg/dL) was the strongest predictor of mortality (relative risk [RR] 22.7, P = 0.005). Although absolute small bowel length was only slightly predictive, percentage of normal bowel length (for a given infant's gestational age) was strongly predictive of mortality (if <10% of normal length, RR of death was 5.7, P = 0.003) and of weaning PN (if ?10% of normal, RR of weaning PN was 11.8, P = 0.001). Presence of the ileocecal valve (ICV) also strongly predicted weaning PN (RR 3.9, P < 0.0005); however, ICV was not predictive of survival. Conclusions: Cholestasis and age-adjusted small bowel length are the major predictors of mortality in pediatric SBS. Age-adjusted small bowel length and ICV are the major predictors of weaning from PN. These data permit better prediction of outcomes of pediatric SBS, which may help to direct future management of these challenging patients. PMID:16135926

  6. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.D.; Gassman, R.A.; Keicher, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  7. Experimental Studies in Helicopter Vertical Climb Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data and analysis from an experimental program to measure vertical climb performance on an eight-foot model rotor are presented. The rotor testing was performed using a unique moving-model facility capable of accurately simulating the flow conditions during axial flight, and was conducted from July 9, 1992 to July 16, 1992 at the Dynamic Model Track, or 'Long Track,' just prior to its demolition in August of 1992. Data collected during this brief test program included force and moment time histories from a sting-mounted strain gauge balance, support carriage velocity, and rotor rpm pulses. In addition, limited video footage (of marginal use) was recorded from smoke flow studies for both simulated vertical climb and descent trajectories. Analytical comparisons with these data include a series of progressively more detailed calculations ranging from simple momentum theory, a prescribed wake method, and a free-wake prediction.

  8. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

  9. Jamming of Cylindrical Grains in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Spier, Gregory; Barr, Nicholas; Steel, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. These cylindrical grains resemble antacid tablets, poker chips, or coins since their height is less than their diameter. Grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Within this channel, grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by the grain dimensions and channel size. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  10. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling. PMID:26544156

  11. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  12. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  13. The Effective Vertical Advection-Diffusion Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M.; Tailleux, R.; Ferreira, D.; Kuhlbrodt, T.; Gregory, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The capacity of the world ocean to transfer heat to deeper levels is a crucial factor in setting the magnitude and temporal evolution of the global temperature response under transient climate change. A traditional framework to discuss the vertical ocean heat balance is the classic upwelling-diffusive model of Munk [1966] between upwelling of cold abyssal waters and downward diffusion of warm waters. This simple framework is also often used to interpret (and predict) transient heat uptake under climate change. However, this is done in an ad-hoc manner, with little acknowledgment of the complex physics hidden behind the vertical velocity w and diffusivity k? of the classic model (advection of heat by the mean and eddy circulation, diffusion along and across surfaces of constant density, deep convection). Here, we derive an effective vertical velocity and an effective diffusivity for each advective and diffusive process from the steady-state temperature tendencies of two models, an eddy-parameterizing (HadCM3) and an eddy-permitting climate model (HiGEM). For both models, we find that both the effective vertical velocity and diffusivity change sign in mid-depth, highlighting the two physical regimes in which the residual advection is balanced by diapycnal diffusion (deep ocean) and isopycnal diffusion (upper to mid-depths). These findings are at odds with common practices which assume that w and k? are positive constants (in space and time), but is consistent with previous studies of the modeled heat balance. We further present the time-evolution of the effective quantities under an idealized transient climate change simulation. We demonstrate that these spatial and time variations are key to evaluate the transient heat uptake. Implications for the use of simple upwelling-diffusive models to interpret transient heat uptake will be discussed.

  14. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field Br (10-4-10-2)(r/ AU)-2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner 1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10-8 M? yr-1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  15. Vertical shear in the Jovian equatorial zone.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Jupiter photographs taken in two different wavelength regions (blue and red) are studied for clues to differing Jovian atmosphere motions. The relative motions of features visible on these photographs may be interpreted as a vertical shear at visible cloud level. The value obtained implies that the north equatorial zone must be about 0.35 deg K warmer than the adjacent equatorial zone. Deeper in the atmosphere the reverse must hold.

  16. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  17. Centro-lateral subperiosteal vertical midface lift

    PubMed Central

    Hnig, Johannes Franz; Knutti, Daniel; Hasse, Frank Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of fiberendoscopic video-assisted technique in facial rejuvenation is one of the most advances in aesthetic plastic surgery of the face. It substitutes the coronal incision without the necessity of skin resection and allows a vertical reposition of the mobile soft tissue of the midface in indicated cases. It can easily be done through a small incision of the scalp just behind the coronal incision and in the temporal area. PMID:26504715

  18. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T. ); McAssey, E. ); Qureshi, Z. )

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  19. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T.; McAssey, E.; Qureshi, Z.

    1989-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  20. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  1. Present day vertical deformation in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Wallace, Laura; Litchfield, Nicola; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta; Denys, Paul; Pearson, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    New Zealand is tectonically very active. It lies along the oblique convergent plate boundary between the Pacific and Australian plate. In the North Island active tectonics is dominated by westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the eastern North Island at the Hikurangi Trench, strike-slip faulting in the upper plate, and back-arc rifting in the central North Island. A series of very large strike-slip faults run through the South Island (Marlborough Fault System and the Alpine Fault) connecting with the Puysegur subduction zone in the south. The present day uplift rates are evaluated by analyzing data from continuous GPS stations in New Zealand. The up to 20 years of continuous GPS gives us a snapshot into the deformation rate. The average velocity is corrected for significant coseismic offsets, but the data can also be influenced by postseismic deformation, slow slip events along the Hikurangi subduction zone, volcanic deformation, as well as none tectonic local affects such as water extraction. We evaluate the interseismic vertical rate. We exclude data significantly affected by postseismic deformation from recent earthquakes and provide vertical rates both with and without correcting for slow slip events. Outside the Taupo rift zone the vertical rates are range from -6 to +6 mm/yr with uplift observed across the Alpine fault, few mm/yr uplift around the Raukumara Peninsula, northeast North Island, and subsidence along the southeast North Island, reflecting variation in plate locking. We compare the present day vertical deformation to the long-term motion along the coast determined primarily from 125,000 years old marine geological markers. The largest proportion of the New Zealand coastline (45%) is undergoing long-term tectonic uplift. Small stretches of the coastline (15%) are undergoing long-term subsidence. Areas farthest from the plate boundary (northern North Island and southeastern South Island) are assessed to be tectonically stable, in agreement with the continuous GPS data.

  2. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  3. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  4. Engineering high-performance vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Hou, H.Q.; Hietala, V.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The cw and high-speed performance of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors and Al-oxide confinement layers address these issues and have produced record performance including 50% power conversion efficiency and modulation bandwidths up to 20 GHz at small bias currents.

  5. Vertical Scales of Turbulence at the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert N.; Lowe, Stephen T.; Bester, Manfred; Danchi, William C.; Townes, Charles H.

    1995-01-01

    The vertical scales of turbulence at the Mount Wilson Observatory are inferred from data from the University of California at Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI), by modeling path length fluctuations observed in the interferometric paths to celestial objects and those in instrumental ground-based paths. The correlations between the stellar and ground-based path length fluctuations and the temporal statistics of those fluctuations are modeled on various timescales to constrain the vertical scales. A Kolmogorov-Taylor turbulence model with a finite outer scale was used to simulate ISI data. The simulation also included the white instrumental noise of the interferometer, aperture-filtering effects, and the data analysis algorithms. The simulations suggest that the path delay fluctuations observed in the 1992-1993 ISI data are largely consistent with being generated by refractivity fluctuations at two characteristic vertical scales: one extending to a height of 45 m above the ground, with a wind speed of about 1 m/ s, and another at a much higher altitude, with a wind speed of about 10 m/ s. The height of the lower layer is of the order of the dimensions of trees and other structures near the interferometer, which suggests that these objects, including elements of the interferometer, may play a role in generating the lower layer of turbulence. The modeling indicates that the high- attitude component contributes primarily to short-period (less than 10 s) fluctuations, while the lower component dominates the long-period (up to a few minutes) fluctuations. The lower component turbulent height, along with outer scales of the order of 10 m, suggest that the baseline dependence of long-term interferometric, atmospheric fluctuations should weaken for baselines greater than a few tens of meters. Simulations further show that there is the potential for improving the seeing or astrometric accuracy by about 30%-50% on average, if the path length fluctuations in the lower component are directly calibrated. Statistical and systematic effects induce an error of about 15 m in the estimate of the lower component turbulent altitude.

  6. Lunar and Vertical Distribution of Myctophidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarin, S.

    The Myctophidae are the most numerous of the mesopelagic fishes in all oceans. Daily vertical migrations which connected with nutrition and energy exchange, are charac- teristic feature of the myctophids behavior. Myctophidae in main during the nighttime basic feed. There are two ecological groups of Myctophidae on the type of vertical migrations. (Some scientists select the third intermediate group). Superficial (nyc- toepipelagic) myctophids are species, which during the nighttime arrive at surface of water. Layer myctophids are fishes, which are located in the main pycnocline (thermo- and halocline) and enter into composition of fauna of sound scattering layers (SSL) during the nighttime. However lunar light is hardly influenced on the upper bound of myctophids localization during the night. Agrees Barham (1970) all Myctophidae are divided on two morphoecological types: active and inactive. These types differ on morphology, on a response on light, under the contents of lipids into organism. To the first type concern all superficial Myctophidae and majority of myctophids of the night zone of pycnocline, including the most numerous genus - Diaphus. To an inactive type concern myctophids of the second genus on number of species from the family - Lam- panyctus. Superficial Myctophidae do not achieve the surfaces of water for want of vertical migrations for want of maximum and intensive lunar light. They are located in SSL. Inactive layer myctophids are in this case located deeper than main SSL. Lunar light practically does not influence on remaining active layer Myctophidae.

  7. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  8. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction. PMID:26885948

  9. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics. PMID:26676997

  10. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  11. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  12. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  13. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  14. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  15. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  16. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  17. Short Stories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Carole L., Ed.; Kratzke, Peter, Ed.

    Examining how teachers help students respond to short fiction, this book presents 25 essays that look closely at "teachable" short stories by a diverse group of classic and contemporary writers. The approaches shared by the contributors move from readers' first personal connections to a story, through a growing facility with the structure of…

  18. Relation between geoidal undulation, deflection of the vertical and vertical gravity gradient revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    The vertical gradients of gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance can be related to horizontal first derivatives of deflection of the vertical or second derivatives of geoidal undulations. These are simplified relations of which different variations have found application in satellite altimetry with the implicit assumption that the neglected termsusing remove-restoreare sufficiently small. In this paper, the different simplified relations are rigorously connected and the neglected terms are made explicit. The main neglected terms are a curvilinear term that accounts for the difference between second derivatives in a Cartesian system and on a spherical surface, and a small circle term that stems from the difference between second derivatives on a great and small circle. The neglected terms were compared with the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) and the requirements on the GOCE gravity gradients. In addition, the signal root-mean-square (RMS) of the neglected terms and vertical gravity gradient were compared, and the effect of a remove-restore procedure was studied. These analyses show that both neglected terms have the same order of magnitude as the DOT gradient signal and may be above the GOCE requirements, and should be accounted for when combining altimetry derived and GOCE measured gradients. The signal RMS of both neglected terms is in general small when compared with the signal RMS of the vertical gravity gradient, but they may introduce gradient errors above the spherical approximation error. Remove-restore with gravity field models reduces the errors in the vertical gravity gradient, but it appears that errors above the spherical approximation error cannot be avoided at individual locations. When computing the vertical gradient of gravity anomaly from satellite altimeter data using deflections of the vertical, the small circle term is readily available and can be included. The direct computation of the vertical gradient of gravity disturbance from satellite altimeter data is more difficult than the computation of the vertical gradient of gravity anomaly because in the former case the curvilinear term is needed, which is not readily available.

  19. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simes, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean standard deviation age = 23.95.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at ?110C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60 s?1 concentric and 180 s?1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  20. Atypical vertical sound localization and sound-onset sensitivity in people with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Eelke; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; van Opstal, A. John; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with auditory hyper- or hyposensitivity; atypicalities in central auditory processes, such as speech-processing and selective auditory attention; and neural connectivity deficits. We sought to investigate whether the low-level integrative processes underlying sound localization and spatial discrimination are affected in ASDs. Methods We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect). Results Ten adult participants with ASDs and 10 healthy control listeners participated in experiments 1 and 3; sample sizes for experiment 2 were 18 adults with ASDs and 19 controls. Horizontal localization was unaffected, but vertical localization performance was significantly worse in participants with ASDs. The temporal window for the precedence effect was shorter in participants with ASDs than in controls. Limitations The study was performed with adult participants and hence does not provide insight into the developmental aspects of auditory processing in individuals with ASDs. Conclusion Changes in low-level auditory processing could underlie degraded performance in vertical localization, which would be in agreement with recently reported changes in the neuroanatomy of the auditory brainstem in individuals with ASDs. The results are further discussed in the context of theories about abnormal brain connectivity in individuals with ASDs. PMID:24148845

  1. Optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for monitoring the vertical structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Jian; Han, Houzeng

    2014-11-01

    The vertical structural dynamics is a crucial factor for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil structures such as high-rise buildings, suspension bridges and towers. This paper presents an optimal GPS/accelerometer integration algorithm for an automated multi-sensor monitoring system. The closed loop feedback algorithm for integrating the vertical GPS and accelerometer measurements is proposed based on a 5 state extended KALMAN filter (EKF) and then the narrow moving window Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to extract structural dynamics. A civil structural vibration is simulated and the analysed result shows the proposed algorithm can effectively integrate the online vertical measurements produced by GPS and accelerometer. Furthermore, the accelerometer bias and scale factor can also be estimated which is impossible with traditional integration algorithms. Further analysis shows the vibration frequencies detected in GPS or accelerometer are all included in the integrated vertical defection time series and the accelerometer can effectively compensate the short-term GPS outages with high quality. Finally, the data set collected with a time synchronised and integrated GPS/accelerometer monitoring system installed on the Nottingham Wilford Bridge when excited by 15 people jumping together at its mid-span are utilised to verify the effectiveness of this proposed algorithm. Its implementations are satisfactory and the detected vibration frequencies are 1.720 Hz, 1.870 Hz, 2.104 Hz, 2.905 Hz and also 10.050 Hz, which is not found in GPS or accelerometer only measurements.

  2. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  3. 47 CFR 73.160 - Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?). (a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at...

  4. 47 CFR 73.160 - Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?). (a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at...

  5. 47 CFR 73.160 - Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?). (a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at...

  6. 47 CFR 73.160 - Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?). (a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at...

  7. 47 CFR 73.160 - Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations 73.160 Vertical plane radiation characteristics, f(?). (a) The vertical plane radiation characteristics show the relative field being radiated at...

  8. Circuit enhances vertical resolution in raster scanning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsovsky, W. H.; Greenwood, J. R.; Holley, O. M.

    1968-01-01

    Circuit enhances vertical resolution in electron beam, raster scanning systems exhibiting aperture distortion in the vertical direction. A sensitized area /image/ produces a video output when the scan beam nears it, which causes vertical elongation in the reconstructed images of all sensitized areas on the surface.

  9. The Impact of Vertical Scaling Decisions on Growth Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Weeks, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Most growth models implicitly assume that test scores have been vertically scaled. What may not be widely appreciated are the different choices that must be made when creating a vertical score scale. In this paper empirical patterns of growth in student achievement are compared as a function of different approaches to creating a vertical scale.

  10. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... General Design Requirements 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance standard. Each... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except...

  11. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... General Design Requirements 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance standard. Each... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except...

  12. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... General Design Requirements 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance standard. Each... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except...

  13. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... TANK CARS General Design Requirements 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance... not be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification....

  14. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coupler vertical restraint system. 179.14 Section... General Design Requirements 179.14 Coupler vertical restraint system. (a) Performance standard. Each... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except...

  15. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  16. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  17. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  18. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, Jrmie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45 rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration profiles is consistent with the premise that the CNS optimises motor commands with respect to both gravitational and inertial constraints. PMID:21765935

  19. Effect of vertical magnetic field on convection and segregation in vertical Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Adornato, Peter M.; Brown, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    A previous finite-element analysis of vertical Bridgman growth for dilute and nondilute alloys is extended to include the effect of a vertically-aligned magnetic field in the limit of zero magnetic Reynolds number. Calculations are presented for growth of a dilute gallium-germanium alloy in a vertically stabilized Bridgman-Stockbarger system and in a furnace with a uniform temperature gradient imposed along the ampoule. Steady cellular convection driven by radial temperature gradients causes good axial and radial mixing in both systems without a magnetic field. A weak magnetic field decreases the intensity of convection and the effectiveness of solute mixing. The radial nonuniformity is greatest for an intermediate field strength. Stronger fields suppress flow recirculation completely, and lead to uniform solute segregation across the crystal and to diffusion-controlled axial segregation.

  20. Spin-controlled vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hövel, Stephan; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Brenner, Carsten; Hofmann, Martin R.; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Schuster, Ellen; Keune, Werner

    2006-04-01

    The output polarization of an optically pumped InGaAs/GaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is analyzed at room temperature as a function of the circular input polarization degree. The emission of the VCSEL is unambiguously controlled by the exciting polarization and only 30% of spin-polarized electrons are needed in the active region to generate an output polarization degree of up to 100% at short-pulsed pumping. This testifies that a VCSEL can be used as an effective amplifier for spin information even at room temperature. Measurements with a continuous wave excitation were executed to demonstrate the possibility of spin-amplification by electrical spin-injection in a VCSEL. All measurements were confirmed by a phenomenological spin flip model. Our paper is completed with the introduction of Fe/Tb-Multilayers used for spin injection. These contacts enable spin injection without external magnetic fields, i.e. in remanence. Finally, we suggest a combination of these multilayers with a VCSEL-structure to create the first spin-optoelectronic device working both at room temperature and without external fields.

  1. Wafer-scale transfer of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Li, Taotao; Yao, Yagang; Lu, Huifen; Li, Qiang; Chen, Minghai; Li, Qingwen

    2014-12-31

    The first critical step in making vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT)-based thermal interface materials is to transfer the VACNTs on a large scale. Although VACNTs have been transferred by several methods, they were only transferred inadvertently in most cases. Here we report well-controlled weak-oxidation-assisted transfer of VACNTs. Specifically, after a short time of weak oxidation, we found that VACNTs could be easily detached from the native growth substrates, and thus, a freestanding VACNT film was obtained. Then the VACNTs could be assembled onto specific substrates for its real applications. More importantly, the repeated growth-transfer synthesis of VACNT arrays can be realized in one batch by introducing an additional process of weak oxidation in chemical vapor deposition, which makes the strategy more effective. Surprisingly, no degradation in the quality was observed before and after the weak oxidation according to thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectra of VACNTs. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties were achieved after reactive ion etching (RIE) and subsequent metallization of the surfaces of the VACNTs, and this might be due to the removal of impurities such as amorphous carbon and entangled CNTs by RIE. These findings provide an efficient approach for transferring VACNTs, which is important for the application of VACNTs in thermal management. PMID:25490088

  2. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. We have carried out two field surveys in FY2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, the VCS will become a practical exploration tool for the exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  3. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  4. Axon-First Neuritogenesis on Vertical Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungtae; Park, Yi-Seul; Park, Matthew; Jang, Min Jee; Kim, Seong-Min; Lee, Juno; Choi, Ji Yu; Jung, Da Hee; Chang, Young-Tae; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Jin Seok; Nam, Yoonkey; Choi, Insung S

    2016-01-13

    In this work, we report that high-density, vertically grown silicon nanowires (vg-SiNWs) direct a new in vitro developmental pathway of primary hippocampal neurons. Neurons on vg-SiNWs formed a single, extremely elongated major neurite earlier than minor neurites, which led to accelerated polarization. Additionally, the development of lamellipodia, which generally occurs on 2D culture coverslips, was absent on vg-SiNWs. The results indicate that surface topography is an important factor that influences neuronal development and also provide implications for the role of topography in neuronal development in vivo. PMID:26645112

  5. Vertical engine for walk behind lawn mower

    SciTech Connect

    Isaka, Y.; Oguri, K.

    1988-03-01

    This patent describes a lawn mower or other similar walk behind type of implement that is designed to be operated in a normally erect position and which is tilted to the side for servicing. An engine is provided for the lawn mower having an output shaft rotatable about a vertically extending axis. The engine includes a lubricating system incorporating a crankcase in which the engine output shaft rotates and a crankcase ventilating system. The crankcase ventilating system is designed so as to prevent lubricant from flowing into the induction system when the engine is tilted on its side.

  6. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  7. Biomineralization of superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Marsi, Teresa Cristina O; Santos, Tiago G; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J; Marciano, Fernanda R; Lobo, Anderson O

    2012-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) promise a great role for the study of tissue regeneration. In this paper, we introduce a new biomimetic mineralization routine employing superhydrophilic VACNT films as highly stable template materials. The biomineralization was obtained after VACNT soaking in simulated body fluid solution. Detailed structural analysis reveals that the polycrystalline biological apatites formed due to the -COOH terminations attached to VACNT tips after oxygen plasma etching. Our approach not only provides a novel route for nanostructured materials, but also suggests that COOH termination sites can play a significant role in biomimetic mineralization. These new nanocomposites are very promising as nanobiomaterials due to the excellent human osteoblast adhesion. PMID:22320358

  8. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    DOEpatents

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  9. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  10. Vertical datum standardisation: a fundamental step towards a global vertical reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important problems of modern geodesy is the definition and realisation of a global vertical reference system, which unifies, with high accuracy (at least 1 cm-level), the existing classical height datums; i.e. all existing physical heights (or geopotential numbers) have to be referred to one and the same equipotential surface, defined and realised in a global frame. The basic approach proposed at present to achieve this so-called vertical datum unification is based on the combination of physical heights (orthometric or normal heights) derived from levelling (reduced by gravity effects) with those computed from gravimetric (quasi-) geoid models and ellipsoidal heights. However, the combination of these heights "as they are" reflects the inconsistencies included in the height determination; for instance: 1) different ellipsoid parameters in gravity and geometry; 2) different tide systems; 3) different hypotheses for the estimation of orthometric heights and gravimetric geoid models; 4) different reference epochs with unknown height changes in time; 5) systematic errors over long distances in levelling; 6) different reductions for Earth-, ocean-, atmospheric tides, ocean and atmospheric loading, post-glacial rebound, etc. These inconsistencies mislead the vertical datum unification and limit the reliability of the global vertical reference system realisation to the m-level. In order to advance in the homogenisation of the input data and procedures for the solution of the vertical datum problem with a high and reliable accuracy, the Working Group "Vertical Datum Standardisation" was established for the term 2011-2015 by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), jointly with the IAG Commission 1 (Reference Frames), IAG Commission 2 (Gravity Field), and the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS). This contribution presents objectives, achievements, and coming challenges of this Working Group.

  11. Genetic Evaluation of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Genetics plays a major role in determining an individual's height. Although there are many monogenic disorders that lead to perturbations in growth and result in short stature, there is still no consensus as to the role that genetic diagnostics should play in the evaluation of a child with short stature. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed was performed, focusing on the genetic diagnosis of short stature as well as on specific diagnostic subgroups included in this article. Consensus guidelines were reviewed. Evidence Synthesis: There are a multitude of rare genetic causes of severe short stature. There is no high-quality evidence to define the optimal approach to the genetic evaluation of short stature. We review genetic etiologies of a number of diagnostic subgroups and propose an algorithm for genetic testing based on these subgroups. Conclusion: Advances in genomic technologies are revolutionizing the diagnostic approach to short stature. Endocrinologists must become facile with the use of genetic testing in order to identify the various monogenic disorders that present with short stature. PMID:24915122

  12. Diagnosis of vertical motions from VAS retrievals during a convective outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, T. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    GOES-VAS satellite retrievals are used to investigate an intense convective outbreak over the Mississippi River Valley on 21-22 July 1982. The primary goals are to assess the strengths and weaknesses of three methods for computing vertical motion using satellite retrievals and to determine the effects of short interval observations on the calculations. Then, the vertical motions are incorporated with thermodynamic parameters to assess the usefulness of VAS data in delineating factors leading to storm formation. Results indicate that the quasi-geotrophic omega equation provided patterns and magnitudes most consistent with observed weather events and the 12 h radiosonde-derived motions. The vorticity method generally produced reasonable patterns, especially over the convective outbreak, although magnitudes were large due to its time derivative.

  13. Characterization of vertical strain silicon MOSFET incorporating dielectric pocket (SDP-VMOSFET)

    SciTech Connect

    Napiah, Z. A. F. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Makhtar, N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Othman, M. A. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Idris, M. I. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Arith, F. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Yasin, N. Y. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Taib, S. N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com

    2014-02-24

    The vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) leads to a double channel width that can increase the packaging density. The strained silicon MOSFET was introduced to modify the carrier transport properties of silicon in order to enhance transport of both electrons and holes within strained layer. Dielectric pocket was act to control encroachment of the drain doping into the channel and reduce short channel effects (SCE). SDP-VMOSFET which was a combination of those advantages was proposed to overcome the SCE in term of leakage current, threshold voltage roll-off also Drain Induce Barrier Lowering (DIBL). As a result, SDP-VMOSFET produces a better threshold voltage and DIBL compared to related structures. Meanwhile, it gives slightly increased for leakage current compared to Vertical MOSFET Incorporating Dielectric Pocket. The characteristics of the SDP-VMOSFET are analyzed in order to optimize the performance of the device and leading to the next generation of IC technology.

  14. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process.Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00202h

  15. Experimental evaluation of vertically versus horizontally split yokes for SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Coulter, K.; Jaffery, T.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.

    1990-05-03

    The yoke in SSC dipole magnets provides mechanical support to the collared coil as well as serving as a magnetic element. The yoke and skin are used to increase the coil prestress and reduce collar deflections under excitation. Yokes split on the vertical or horizontal mid-plane offer different advantages in meeting these objectives. To evaluate the relative merits of the two configuration a 1.8 m model dipole was assembled and tested first with horizontally split and then with vertically split yoke laminations. The magnet was extensively instrumented to measure azimuthal and axial stresses in the coil and the cold mass skin resulting from cooldown and excitation. Mechanical behavior of this magnet with each configuration is compared with that of other long and short models and with calculations. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Vertical distribution of the chloromonad flagellate Heterosigma carterae in columns: Implications for bloom development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Matter, A.L.; Taub, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    Blooms of the marine flagellate Heterosigma carterae have been associated with catastrophic fish kills at mariculture facilities around the world. The precise cause(s) of the sudden appearance and disappearance of Heterosigma surface blooms has not been completely described or understood. Environmental data from prior studies of blooms indicate the presence of vertical stratification of the water column that is often induced by freshwater runoff. We report the relatively rapid concentration of Heterosigma cells at the surface of tubes shortly after the addition of distilled water to the surface. This phenomenon of cell concentration in surface waters may partially explain the sudden appearance of Heterosigma cells near the surface and subsequent disappearance when vertical stratification is lost due to turbulence or mixing. The results may lead to bloom mitigation techniques for net pen aquaculture.

  17. Free-flight model investigation of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter with twin vertical tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.; Anglin, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Free-flight tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the stability and control characteristics of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter having twin vertical tails and a pivoted fuselage forebody (nose-cockpit) arrangement. The flight tests included hovering flights and transition flights from hover to conventional forward flight. Static force tests were also made to aid in the analysis of the flight tests. The model exhibited satisfactory stability and control characteristics, and the transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight was relatively smooth and straightforward.

  18. Mechanistic modeling of the vertical soil organic matter profile in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Beer, Christian; Hoosbeek, Marcel; Reichstein, Markus; Kruijt, Bart; Wutzler, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; Schrumpf, Marion; Kabat, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Modelling and measuring studies of soil organic carbon have traditionally focused on the 30 cm of the soil. In the recent past however, interest in the vertical distribution of soil carbon has increased due to 1) estimates suggesting that the deep soil globally stores a large amount of carbon, and 2) increasing evidence that soil carbon stabilization is be controlled by different processes at different depths that are likely to respond varyingly to future global changes, possibly leading to release of previously stabilized carbon. Therefore the bucket' approach employed in traditional soil carbon models is not sufficient to adequately predict future soil carbon dynamics on long time scales. Furthermore, aggregation of soil temperature and moisture response of the whole profile may lead to biased results on short time scales as well. Hence, a more vertically explicit representation is needed, but development and parameterization of such models is hindered by lack of understanding of the processes involved in SOM profile development. Our study aims to answer the following questions: 1) what are the key driving processes that determine the vertical profile of soil organic matter and their comparative strength? and 2) can we improve soil carbon cycle models by accounting for the vertical SOM profile? In this scope we have developed SOMPROF, a new soil carbon model that dynamically simulates the vertical profile of the SOM fraction in the mineral soil, as well as the storage of organic matter in organic surface horizons L, F and H. The model includes two mechanisms of vertical organic matter transport: 1) diffusion, representing bioturbation (mixing of the soil matrix by soil biota), and 2) advection, representing downward movement with infiltrating water. Furthermore organic matter may be input directly at depth by root turnover. The model includes 5 organic carbon pools that differ with respect to their transport behavior and decomposability. The model has been parameterized for two Europe forests with strongly contrasting soil conditions: Loobos, a young Pinus Sylvestris forest on an acid sandy soil in the Netherlands, and Hainich, an old Fagus Silvatica forest on a basic clay soil in Germany. SOMPROF is well able to reproduce the vertical SOM profiles of both sites, as well as effective turnover rates at different depths in Hainich. However, due to the large number of parameters (10-12) and limited availability of measurements, parameter optimization is somewhat problematic. We therefore implemented a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to explore the parameters space. Furthermore, we investigated the information content of the available data. This approach allows us to define the type and amount of data needed to constrain the different processes involved in the development of vertical SOM profile.

  19. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Brulle, R.V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90/sup 0/ and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  20. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOEpatents

    Brulle, Robert V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  1. Experimental gas-solid vertical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kuo Ming

    1987-05-01

    Gas-solid transport in dilute and dense phase conveying is studied. A new experimental system for vertical pneumatic conveying incorporates a screw feeder for dilute transport and an L-valve for dense flow. For measuring solid volume fractions a novel method using an x-ray densitometer was developed. The pressure in the system was measured using a strip chart recorder (SCR) and a manometer. The solids flux was estimated by collecting the particles from the system for a known time. The porosity and pressure drop data in the fully developed region were translated into drag coefficients and friction factors. The drag coefficients are in reasonable agreement with literature values. The friction factors with the wall were sometimes negative, reflecting downward flow, as observed in two-dimensional studies. Four available hydrodynamic models for vertical pneumatic conveying were used to predict the porosity and the pressure for the experimental conditions. Experimental data for porosity and pressure agree well with theoretical predictions. However, the predictions from the relative velocity model were in the best agreement for pressure drop values.

  2. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and {alpha} are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr {approximately} 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size.

  3. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, A. ); Steinolfson, R. ); Tajima, T. . Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and [alpha] are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr [approximately] 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size.

  4. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  5. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Cunnold, Derek M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of satellite, ground-based, and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone since 1979. The results show overall consistency among several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere midlatitudes where most balloon and ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes for the period 1979-96 show statistically significant negative trends at all altitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local extremes: -7.4 plus or minus 2.0% per decade at 40 km and -7.3 plus or minus -4.6% per decade at 15 km altitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern midlatitudes in the attitude range of 10 to 18 km, with the largest ozone loss during winter and spring. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone, the amount of ozone in a column above the surface. The vertical profiles of ozone trends provide a fingerprint for the mechanisms of ozone depletion over the last two decades.

  6. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Randel, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of satellite, ground-based, and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone since 1979. The results show overall consistency among several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere midlatitudes where most balloon and ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes for the period 1979-96 show statistically significant negative trends at all attitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local extremes: -7.4 +/- 2.0% per decade at 40 km and -7.3 +/- 4.6% per decade at 15 km attitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern midlatitudes in the attitude range of 10 to 18 km. with the largest ozone loss during winter and spring. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone, the amount of ozone in a column above the surface. The vertical profiles of ozone trends provide a fingerprint for the mechanisms of ozone depletion over the last two decades,

  7. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Cunnold, Derek M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of satellite, ground-based, and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone since 1979. The results show overall consistency among several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere midlatitudes where most balloon and ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes for the period 1979-96 show statistically significant negative trends at ail attitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local extremes: -7.4 +/- 2.0% per decade at 40 km and -7.3 +/- 4.6% per decade at 15 km attitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern midlatitudes in the altitude range of 10 to 18 km, with the largest ozone loss during winter and spring. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone, the amount of ozone in a column above the surface. The vertical profiles of ozone trends provide a fingerprint for the mechanisms of ozone depletion over the last two decades.

  8. Marsh vertical accretion via vegetative growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, John A.; Walters, Russel J.; Delaune, Ronald D.; Patrick, William H., Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Coastal marshes accrete vertically in response to sea-level rise and subsidence. Inadequate accretion and subsequent conversion of coastal marshes to open water generally is attributed to inadequate mineral sedimentation because mineral sedimentation is widely assumed to control accretion. Using 137Cs dating to determine vertical accretion, mineral sedimentation, and organic matter accumulation, we found that accretion varied with organic accumulation rather than mineral sedimentation across a wide range of conditions in coastal Louisiana, including stable marshes where soil was 80% mineral matter. These results agreed with previous research, but no mechanism had been proposed to explain accretion via vegetative growth. In an exploratory greenhouse experiment, we found that flooding stimulated root growth above the marsh surface. These results indicated the need for additional work to determine if flooding controls accretion in some marshes by stimulating root growth on the marsh surface, rather than by mineral accumulation on the marsh surface. Restoration or management that focus on mineral sedimentation may be ineffective where a relationship between accretion and mineral sedimentation is assumed rather than tested.

  9. Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M.

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

  10. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-14

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process. PMID:25779772

  11. A Sensor Fusion Method for Tracking Vertical Velocity and Height Based on Inertial and Barometric Altimeter Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was in the range 0.04–0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5–68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions. PMID:25061835

  12. A sensor fusion method for tracking vertical velocity and height based on inertial and barometric altimeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was in the range 0.04-0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5-68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions. PMID:25061835

  13. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  14. Vertically movable marine working platform structure having vertically movable groundable support frames

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Koshikawa, S.

    1983-05-10

    A vertically movable, offshore working platform structure is disclosed, which includes a working platform vertically movably mounted on parallel arranged support frames individually comprising a plurality of parallel disposed vertically elongate cords connected altogether to a support frame assemblage by horizontal members and diagonal members having their ends secured to the cords at panel point portions of the cords, and which also includes guides for the vertical movement thereof which individually have a length at least great enough to extend between two longitudinally adjacent panel point portions of respective cords. The guides of the working platform being of such a relatively great length as above, horizontal forces to be applied by the guide onto the support frame are centralized in their application mainly upon panel point portions to thereby realize that the horizontal forces being born in substantially even portions by respective cords through horizontal members and diagonal members, concentration of loads is avoided upon that portion of respective cords which lies between two longitudinally adjacent panel point portions.

  15. Vertical facial pattern and orthodontic stability. Part I: Pretreatment vertical pattern and stability.

    PubMed

    Pinto, N; Woods, M; Crawford, E

    2000-11-01

    The occlusions of sixty patients treated by one experienced orthodontist were assessed using the PAR Index. For each patient, pretreatment, post-treatment and long-term follow-up study casts were examined. Follow-up casts were taken at least 6.5 years following the removal of all retention appliances. Following pretreatment cephalometric analysis, the patient sample was divided into three vertical facial subgroups according to the Jarabak Facial Height Quotient. Mean weighted PAR scores were then calculated at each stage for the total sample and for the three subgroups. Mean absolute and percentage occlusal changes were also calculated for the post-treatment period. The relationship between post-treatment occlusal change and pretreatment vertical facial pattern was then studied. The mean weighted pretreatment, post-treatment and follow-up PAR scores were 27.3, 3.3 and 8.0, respectively. The mean-absolute and percentage post-treatment increases in weighted PAR score were 4.7 and 25.4, respectively. No statistically-significant relationship could be found between the pretreatment vertical facial pattern and changes occurring in the weighted PAR score during the follow-up period. It was concluded, therefore, that pretreatment vertical facial pattern, at least on its own, is not likely to be predictive of the amount of post-treatment occlusal change. PMID:12476495

  16. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  17. Short implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ?10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ?7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ?7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ?7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ?7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

  18. Rolling Motion of a Ball Spinning About a Near-Vertical Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    A ball that is projected forward without spin on a horizontal surface will slide for a short distance before it starts rolling. Sliding friction acts to decrease the translation speed v and it acts to increase the rotation speed ?. When v = R?, where R is the ball radius, the ball will start rolling and the friction force drops almost to zero since the contact point at the bottom of the ball comes to rest on the surface. The coefficient of rolling friction is much smaller than that for sliding friction. A different situation arises if the ball is projected forward while it is spinning about a vertical or near vertical axis. The latter situation arises in many ball sports. It arises if a player attempts to curve a ball down a bowling alley, or when a billiards player imparts sidespin or "English" to a ball,2 and it can arise in golf if a player strikes a ball with a putter at a point well away from the middle of the putter head. The situation also arises in the game of curling,3 although in that case the object that is projected is a cylindrical rock rather than a spherical ball, and it arises in tennis when a ball lands on the court spinning about a near vertical axis, as it does in both a slice serve and a kick serve. In a slice serve, the axis is almost vertical. In a kick serve, the axis is tilted about 30 degrees away from the vertical in order to increase the amount of topspin.4

  19. Vertical gradients in regional lung density and perfusion in the supine human lung: the Slinky effect.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Susan R; Henderson, A Cortney; Levin, David L; Yamada, Kei; Arai, Tatsuya; Buxton, Richard B; Prisk, G Kim

    2007-07-01

    In vivo radioactive tracer and microsphere studies have differing conclusions as to the magnitude of the gravitational effect on the distribution of pulmonary blood flow. We hypothesized that some of the apparent vertical perfusion gradient in vivo is due to compression of dependent lung increasing local lung density and therefore perfusion/volume. To test this, six normal subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling during breath holding at functional residual capacity, and perfusion quantified in nonoverlapping 15 mm sagittal slices covering most of the right lung. Lung proton density was measured in the same slices using a short echo 2D-Fast Low-Angle SHot (FLASH) sequence. Mean perfusion was 1.7 +/- 0.6 ml x min(-1) x cm(-3) and was related to vertical height above the dependent lung (slope = -3%/cm, P < 0.0001). Lung density averaged 0.34 +/- 0.08 g/cm3 and was also related to vertical height (slope = -4.9%/cm, P < 0.0001). By contrast, when perfusion was normalized for regional lung density, the slope of the height-perfusion relationship was not significantly different from zero (P = 0.2). This suggests that in vivo variations in regional lung density affect the interpretation of vertical gradients in pulmonary blood flow and is consistent with a simple conceptual model: the lung behaves like a Slinky (Slinky is a registered trademark of Poof-Slinky Incorporated), a deformable spring distorting under its own weight. The greater density of lung tissue in the dependent regions of the lung is analogous to a greater number of coils in the dependent portion of the vertically oriented spring. This implies that measurements of perfusion in vivo will be influenced by density distributions and will differ from excised lungs where density gradients are reduced by processing. PMID:17395757

  20. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    Garca-Ramos, Amador; tirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Beln

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 ms(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 ms(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  1. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Ramos, Amador; tirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Beln

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 ms-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 ms-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  2. Debris Flow Models With Vertical Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcelwaine, J. N.; Kowalski, J.

    2011-12-01

    The destructive power of debris flows is enormous and hence there is a need for quantitative models that can accurately describe their behavior and predict their flow paths, heights, velocities and corresponding impact pressures. The dynamics of a debris flows is effected by the pore pressure, which can be measured in experiments and in the field, but existing theories to not model this well. We introduce a new class of shallow debris flow models that includes an equation for the vertical distribution of material and show how this gives predictions of the pore pressure and can effect flow mobility. Debris flows exhibit different flow forms depending on water and solid concentration, particle size distribution and the topography of the flow path. The complex interplay between the fluid and solids of a whole range of different grain sizes leads to physical phenomena such as the development of a front with large boulders, lateral levee formation and, due to a varying fraction of particles being in suspension, an effective basal fluid pressure that can exceed the pure fluids hydrostatic pressure. Large scale debris flow data of the Illgraben torrent, Switzerland, show that a varying basal fluid pressure is characteristic for the snout of debris flows with a granular front and significantly affects basal shear stresses. A comprehensive mathematical debris flow model that explains all the observed phenomena will be extremely complicated; if it is achievable at all. However, promising approaches exist that successfully describe some of the effects in simple situations. Yet the observed basal fluid pressure data in granular front flows is not explained satisfactorily up to this point. One reason for this is that any change of the effective basal fluid pressure is associated with an internal redistribution of the solids above, and hence is caused by relative motion between the phases within the flowing body. However, this inter-component slip is usually neglected in the existing debris flow models. In this paper, we present a theory that explicitly allows for small slip in any direction. Starting from mixture theory, we derive an extended shallow flow system formulated in terms of bulk mixture mass, depth-averaged concentration, depth-averaged velocity and the vertical center of mass of the solid phase. The system reduces to the well-known shallow water equations in the limit of a pure fluid. By tracking the vertical center of mass of the solid component we are able to model sedimentation and resuspension processes, and consequently, also variations in the basal fluid pressure. We conclude this paper with a brief comparison of the model with observations of natural debris flow from the Illgraben torrent.

  3. Vertical and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to vertical fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the vertical structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are heat, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and heat transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for vertical transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the velocity and scalar fields, respectively. To study sediment transport, an additional step is needed. Idealized sediment grains are manufactured, again using fluoropolymers. This allows the sediment and fluid phase to be resolved simultaneously, and the velocities of each to be determined independently of the other. The use of fluoropolymers means that the laboratory imaging techniques do not suffer from blockage during laser light delivery or during image capture by digital cameras. Cameras are paired and run in stereoscopic mode to allow three-dimensional velocities to be determined. This is important given the 3D nature of flow through vegetation. Current results from ongoing laboratory, field, and modeling efforts will be discussed, as well as the upcoming steps.

  4. Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimasi, F. P.; Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined.

  5. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones in water could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures an accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. In case of shooting on sea surface, GPS navigation system are available, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging as requested for the SMS survey. We will incorporate the accurate LBL navigation systems with VCs. The LBL navigation system has been developed by IIS of the University of Tokyo. The error is estimated less than 10cm at the water depth of 3000m. Another approach is that the shot points can be calculated using the first break of the VCS after the VCS locations are estimated by slant-ranging from the sea surface. Our VCS system has been designed as a survey tool for hydrothermal deposit, but it will be also applicable for deep water site surveys or geohazard assessment such as active faults.

  6. The vertical profile of winds on Titan.

    PubMed

    Bird, M K; Allison, M; Asmar, S W; Atkinson, D H; Avruch, I M; Dutta-Roy, R; Dzierma, Y; Edenhofer, P; Folkner, W M; Gurvits, L I; Johnston, D V; Plettemeier, D; Pogrebenko, S V; Preston, R A; Tyler, G L

    2005-12-01

    One of Titan's most intriguing attributes is its copious but featureless atmosphere. The Voyager 1 fly-by and occultation in 1980 provided the first radial survey of Titan's atmospheric pressure and temperature and evidence for the presence of strong zonal winds. It was realized that the motion of an atmospheric probe could be used to study the winds, which led to the inclusion of the Doppler Wind Experiment on the Huygens probe. Here we report a high resolution vertical profile of Titan's winds, with an estimated accuracy of better than 1 m s(-1). The zonal winds were prograde during most of the atmospheric descent, providing in situ confirmation of superrotation on Titan. A layer with surprisingly slow wind, where the velocity decreased to near zero, was detected at altitudes between 60 and 100 km. Generally weak winds (approximately 1 m s(-1)) were seen in the lowest 5 km of descent. PMID:16319831

  7. Flow Regimes in Vertical Pneumatic Conveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, S. B.; Yu, A. B.; Zou, Z. S.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the flow regimes in a vertical pipeline by a combined approach of discrete element model for solid phase and computational fluid dynamics model for gas phase. Two typical cases, i.e. the transports of glass beads when Solid Loading Ratio (SLR) = 0.53.4 and polyethylene pellets when SLR = 7.3-33.0 are considered. The results show that in both cases, the phase diagrams featured with the flow transition between the dense-phase flow and dilute-phase flow can be produced. In the transport of glass beads, only the dispersed flow regime is observed. However, both the slug flow regime and the dispersed flow regime are observed in the transport of polyethylene pellets. These results satisfactorily agree with the experiments.

  8. Track of Right-Wheel Drag (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitatesmore » specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.« less

  10. Aberrations of a horizontal-vertical depolarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1992-01-01

    Ray-trace equations for uniaxial birefringent materials are used here to derive third-order estimates for aberrations that are produced in imaging through uniaxial plates and horizontal-vertical (HV) depolarizers. An HV depolarizer is a spatial pseudodepolarizer; it converts a uniform input polarization state into a continuum of spatially varying polarization states in an output beam. An HV depolarizer consists of two birefringent wedges whose crystal axes are crossed at 90 deg. The interface between the wedges is included, which leads to a spatially varying retardance that provides the spatial pseudodepolarization. In HV depolarizers, spherical aberration, astigmatism, and image doubling are the principal aberrations for on-axis objects. Only spherical aberration occurs in isotropic plates, while the presence of birefringent wedges introduces astigmatism and image doubling. It is shown that image separation is proportional to the magnitude of the retardance variation.

  11. Vertical Transport in Ferroelectric/Superconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begon-Lours, Laura; Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Jacquet, Eric; Carretero, Cecile; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fusil, Stephane; Garcia, Vincent; Xavier, Stephane; Girod, Stephanie; Deranlot, Cyrile; Bibes, Manuel; Barthelemy, Agnes; Villegas, Javier E.

    2015-03-01

    We study electric field-effects in superconducting films by measuring vertical transport in ferroelectric/superconductor heterostructures. These are based on ultrathin (4 to 8 nm thick) BiFeO3-Mn grown on YBa2Cu3O7 by pulsed laser deposition. Nanoscale contacts are defined on the BiFeO3 via a series of nanofabrication steps which include e-beam lithography, metal deposition (Nb or Co capped with Pt) and lift-off. Conductive-tip atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy are used to characterize the transport across the ferroelectric barrier as a function of its polarization (up/down). The observed electro-resistance, measured at various temperatures, allows studying the different electric-field screening in the normal and superconducting states. Work supported by DIM Oxymore.

  12. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  13. Stripe stabilization in vertical Bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. C.; Katti, R. R.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Long, partial rectangular grooves have been made to reside below the stripe-confinement groove on a garnet surface, in order to stabilize minor loop stripes in a vertical Bloch-line memory. The test chip contained, in addition to either 10 or 20 minor-loop grooves, 10 read/write gate grooves and a major line groove; both 10 and 20 micron groove periods were tested. As the bias field was gradually decreased, bubbles began to stripe out. These stripes were stable at bias fields in the 70-80 Oe range. When stripes escaped from the groove, the even occurred from the end which does not face a read/write gate groove.

  14. Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

  15. Vertical axis wind turbine control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    McNerney, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Early expensive in automatic operation of the Sandia 17-m vertical axis research wind turbine (VAWT) has demonstrated the need for a systematic study of control algorithms. To this end, a computer model has been developed that uses actual wind time series and turbine performance data to calculate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model has been used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long-term energy production. An attempt has been made to generalize these results from local site and turbine characteristics to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008).

    Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction.

    Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Dynamic soil pressures on rigid vertical walls

    SciTech Connect

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H. )

    1992-12-01

    A critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and the associated forces induced by ground shaking on a rigid, straight, vertical wall retaining a semi-infinite, uniform viscoelastic layer of constant thickness. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. Simple approximate expressions for the responses of the system are developed, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. These solutions are then compared with those obtained by use of a simple model proposed previously by Scott, and the accuracy of this model is assessed. Finally, two versions of an alternative model are proposed which better approximate the action of the system. In the first, the properties of the model are defined by frequency-dependent parameters, whereas in the second, which is particularly helpful in analyses of transient response, they are represented by frequency-independent, constant parameters.

  18. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought. PMID:11343103

  19. Stability of vertical and horizontal axis Levitrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Taylor, D. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of the new horizontal axis Levitron3 is compared with that of the vertical axis device. The rotation frequency ranges are similar because they are determined by the same precessional micro-trap, for which some theory is given. But the macro-trap of the horizontal axis system gives it far greater mechanical stability. Field-line studies allow this to be more easily visualized. The greater stability allows for educational experiments which could only be contemplated with the old Levitron: driven precession and nutation and motion along the field lines. These experiments illustrate some very fundamental space dynamics and several other topics. The enhanced stability may also lead to electro-mechanical applications.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  1. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  2. Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Cunnold, Derek M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Newchurch, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent reanalyses of satellite, ground-based and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone during 1980-96. The results show overall consistency between several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere mid-latitudes where most ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes show statistically significant negative trends at all altitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local maxima: -7.4 +/- 2.0%/decade at 40 km and -7.6 +/- 4.6%/decade at 15 km altitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern mid-latitudes in the altitude range of 10- 18 km. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone.

  3. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  4. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  5. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.

    2001-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects of pitch and yaw head movements in participants placed supine on a rotating bed with their head at the center of rotation, feet at the rim. The vast majority of participants experienced motion sickness, inappropriate vertical nystagmus and illusory tilt and roll as predicted by a semicircular canal model. However, a small but significant number of the 28 participants experienced tilt in the predicted plane but in the opposite direction. Heart rate was elevated following one-second duration head turns. Significant adaptation occurred following a series of head turns in the light. Vertical nystagmus, motion sickness and illusory tilt all decreased with adaptation. Consequences for artificial gravity produced by short-radius centrifuges as a countermeasure are discussed. Grant numbers: NCC 9-58. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture characterization from vertical seismic profiling data

    SciTech Connect

    Cicerone, R.D.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1995-03-10

    In vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data, large-amplitude borehole Stoneley waves are observed at depths where fractures intersect the borehole. The authors present a model which predicts the amplitudes of these Stoneley waves as a function of certain parameters of the fractures, namely, the fracture aperture (width), the orientation, and the degree of stiffness and roughness of the fracture. The proposed mechanism for the generation of these borehole Stoneley waves is coupling of a guided mode, induced in the fracture by an incident plane wave (typically a P wave), to the borehole. The model expresses the borehole Stoneley wave amplitude, normalized by the amplitude of the direct P wave, as a function of frequency, in terms of the fracture parameters. The model is used as the basis for an inversion scheme, employing a nonlinear least squares algorithm to estimate the fracture parameters. The inversion is then applied to VSP data where borehole Stoneley waves are observed at depths where fractures are known to intersect the borehole. The results of the inversion indicate that the aperture and vertical component of the orientation (i.e., dip) of the fracture can be accurately estimated but the horizontal component of the orientation (i.e., strike) is not well resolved. These conclusions are based on comparisons with independent estimates of these parameters from flow tests and borehole televiewer measurements. In addition, stiffness and roughness of the fractures are important effects which must be considered in order to obtain realistic estimates for the other parameters, especially the fracture aperture. 27 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Diagnosing vertical motion in the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, Herv; Caniaux, Guy

    2011-12-01

    Estimating the vertical velocity ( w) in the oceanic upper-layers is a key issue for understanding the cold tongue development in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. In this methodological paper, we develop an expanded and general formulation of the vertical velocity equation based on the primitive equation (PE) system, in order to gain new insight into the physical processes responsible for the Equatorial and Angola upwellings. This approach is more accurate for describing the real ocean than simpler considerations based on just the wind-driven patterns of surface layer divergence. The w-sources/forcings are derived from the PE w-equation and diagnosed from a realistic ocean simulation of the Equatorial Atlantic. Sources of w are numerous and express the high complexity of terms related to the turbulent momentum flux, to the circulation and to the mass fields, some of them depending explicitly on w and others not. The equatorial upwelling is found to be mainly induced by the (i) the zonal turbulent momentum flux, (ii) the curl of turbulent momentum flux and (iii) the imbalance between the circulation and the pressure fields. The Angola upwelling in the eastern part of the basin is controlled by strong curl of turbulent momentum flux. A strong cross-regulation is evidenced between the w-forcings independent of w and dependent on w, which suggests an equatorial balanced-dynamics. The w-forcing depending on w represents the negative feedback of the ocean to the w-forcing independent of w: in the equatorial band, this adjustment is led by non-linear processes and by vortex stretching outside.

  8. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernstrm, Michael; Klln, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification. PMID:18172495

  9. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio ?. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our populations value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio ?. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  10. Ocular torsion and the function of the vertical extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Jampel, R S

    1975-02-01

    The vertical corneal meridia are not kept perpendicular to the horizon in human and nonhuman primates when the head or body is tilted, i.e., compensatory counter-rolling of the eyes does not occur. The slight torsional displacement of the vertical corneal meridia noted by many observers may be the result of rotation around an axis or to translation of the globe. The neurologic and structural systems that control the actions of the vertical muscles in human and nonhuman primates do not appear to provide a mechanism for wheel-rotation of the eyes around the pupillary axis. Ocular torsion is not a normal function of the vertical extraocular muscles. Their function is probably the reverse, i.e., the inhibition or prevention of ocular torsion and the stabilization of the eyes when the head or body inclines. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only when there is an abnormal muscle imbalance. Wheel-like movements (cycloduction) around the pupillary axis or visual line do not occur. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only with a simultaneous vertical movement. The vertical rectus and the oblique muscles in man work together to produce vertical ocular movements regardless of head position of body posture while maintaining the vertical corneal meridia parallel to the sagittal plane of the head. The vestibular apparatus may be responsible for distributing innervation among these muscles, enabling them to function in this manner. PMID:803789

  11. Orienting numbers in mental space: horizontal organization trumps vertical.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kevin J; Lourenco, Stella F

    2012-01-01

    While research on the spatial representation of number has provided substantial evidence for a horizontally oriented mental number line, recent studies suggest vertical organization as well. Directly comparing the relative strength of horizontal and vertical organization, however, we found no evidence of spontaneous vertical orientation (upward or downward), and horizontal trumped vertical when pitted against each other (Experiment 1). Only when numbers were conceptualized as magnitudes (as opposed to nonmagnitude ordinal sequences) did reliable vertical organization emerge, with upward orientation preferred (Experiment 2). Altogether, these findings suggest that horizontal representations predominate, and that vertical representations, when elicited, may be relatively inflexible. Implications for spatial organization beyond number, and its ontogenetic basis, are discussed. PMID:22630356

  12. Vertical semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a vertical semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sSWCNT)-based Schottky device. For the first time, the author successfully demonstrated a vertical s-SWCNT Schottky diode on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. In the vertical pores of an AAO template s-SWCNTs were vertically grown and aligned. The vertical growth of s-SWCNTs inside the pores was achieved by successfully isolating the catalyst at the bottom of the pores by using redeposition enabled angled ion milling. The ends of the grown s-SWCNTs were coated with palladium and titanium to form Schottky and Ohmic contacts, respectively. The I-V characteristics of the vertical s-SWCNT paths engaging the Schottky and Ohmic contacts well demonstrated Schottky diode rectification.

  13. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  14. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor.

  15. Short baseline phase delay interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C. D.

    1987-01-01

    The high precision of the phase delay data type allows angular navigation accuracy on relatively short baselines to compete with the angular accuracy achieved with long baseline group delay measurements. Differential phase delay observations of close quasar pairs on both a 5.9-km baseline (DSS 12-DSS 13) and a 253-km baseline (DSS 13-Owens Valley Radio Observatory) have been performed to study the potential navigational precision and accuracy of the short baseline interferometry. As a first step toward demonstration of a connected element system at Goldstone, the DSS 12-DSS 13 baseline was operated coherently, distributing a common frequency reference via a recently installed fiber optic cable. The observed phase delay residuals of about 10 psec or less on both baselines appear to be dominated by short term troposphere fluctuations, and correspond to navigational accuracies of well below 50 nrad for the 253-km baseline. Additional experiments will be required to probe the full range of systematic errors.

  16. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  17. Long Swarms and Short Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Many earthquake swarms at volcanoes last several months, then have a sharp uptick in rate in the hours before eruption. Examples include 2006 Augustine, 8.5 months then 10 hours; 1992 Spurr, 10 months then 4 hours; 1994 Rabaul, ~1 year then 27 hours; 2008 Kasatochi, 6 weeks then 2 days; and 2011 Puyuehue Cordon Caulle, 5 weeks then 2 days. For the well studied Augustine case, broadband data showed that very long period (VLP) energy accompanied 221 of 722 located earthquakes in the 10 hours before the first explosive eruption on 11 January 2006. This was revealed by low-pass filtering and the period of the VLP signal was 50 sec. The Augustine broadband stations were campaign instruments at distances of 2-3 km from the vent. No similar VLP energy has been found in events during the 8.5 month long swarm. Okmok volcano had a short swarm only lasting 5 hours prior to its 12 July 2008 eruption. Low-pass filtering of data from broadband station OKSO, 10 km from the vent, showed that 23 of 42 located events had VLP energy with a period of 30-40 sec. Events from Kasatochi volcano were scanned on station ATKA. Here the broadband station is much farther away at 88 km but the earthquakes in the short swarm 7 August 2008 were much larger with many M>3 events. The station suffered data gaps so only a few hours of data were scanned but numerous events were observed with VLP energy starting just after the P phase. Low-pass filtering showed VLP energy with a period of 10-12 sec. No VLP energy has been found in events of the preceding 6 week long swarm. These observations at three different volcanoes suggest that the short swarms represent a different process than the long swarms. The long swarms likely reflect pressure increases in the surrounding country rock caused by increasing magma pressure. The short swarms in contrast, appear to represent discrete pulses of magma injection at shallow depths. For all three volcanoes the earthquakes looked like typical volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes on short-period stations. This demonstrates that broadband stations are needed at close distances to be able to make the needed observations. The short swarms are very short - a few hours to 2 days - and have important implications for hazards assessments. It is not known how commonly the long swarm-short swarm pairs occur and the false alarm rate is also not known.

  18. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4-Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-09-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9?F?g-1 at a current density of 0.5?A?g-1, compared with ~247?F?g-1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4-graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4-graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6?V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108?Wh?kg-1.

  19. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4–Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, compared with ~247 F g−1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4–graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4–graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg−1. PMID:26333591

  20. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4-Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9?F?g(-1) at a current density of 0.5?A?g(-1), compared with ~247?F?g(-1) of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4-graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4-graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6?V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108?Wh?kg(-1). PMID:26333591

  1. Shorts in self-checking circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, M.

    1987-04-01

    Consequences of shorts in self-checking NMOS and CMOS circuits are analyzed. Circuits checked by the parity code or by unordered codes are considered. Coverage of the different short types by techniques for other faults is examined. It is shown that the techniques cover feedback shorts having different consequences than the faults for which these techniques are originally proposed. Transfer of the results to other technologies is easy since the technology independent classification of short gives four possible cases: non feedback shorts always giving logical erroneous levels (the error on the two shorted lines is always single); non feedback shorts which may give indeterminate erroneous levels (the error on the two shorted lines may be double non unidirectional); even feedback shorts (the possible double error on the two shorted lines is implicitly unidirectional); and odd feedback shorts (the possible double error on the two shorted lines is implicitly non unidirectional).

  2. Vertical silicon waveguide coupler bent by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoya; Tajima, Syougo; Takei, Ryohei; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Noboru; Sakakibara, Youichi

    2015-11-16

    We propose and demonstrate that vertically curved waveguides (VCWs) enable vertical coupling between silicon wire waveguides and optical fibers with low wavelength dependence and polarization dependence for wide telecommunication wavelength band light. To bend these VCWs, we implanted silicon ions into silicon wire cantilevers from the vertical direction. The internal stress distribution that was induced by ion implantation drove the bending force, and we achieved vertical bending of the waveguides, with curvature radii ranging from 3 to 25 ?m. At a radius of curvature of 6 ?m, we obtained a coupling loss of 3 dB using a lens fiber. PMID:26698428

  3. WEST PORTAL. NOTE SHELTER PANELS COMPOSED OF VERTICAL SHEATHING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PORTAL. NOTE SHELTER PANELS COMPOSED OF VERTICAL SHEATHING WITH ATTACHED GUARD RAIL JUST INSIDE PORTAL. - Uhlerstown Bridge, Spanning Delaware Canal, Uhlerstown Hill Road, Uhlerstown, Bucks County, PA

  4. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo. It generates high frequency acoustic waves around 1kHz. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections and currently being processed for imaging the subsurface structure.

  5. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two hundred meters. Our VCS system has been demonstrated as a promising survey tool for the SMS exploration.

  6. On the Vertical Structuring of Gigantic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, C.; Pasko, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Gigantic Jets (GJs) are large-scale electrical discharges between the thundercloud tops and the lower ionosphere. It is estimated that an individual GJ can contribute as much as cloud-to-ground lightning in discharging a thunderstorm system, transferring hundreds of coulombs from thundercloud to the ionosphere [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617-620, 2009]. GJs are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud lightning discharges. Owing to a charge imbalance, meaning the upper charge center is depleted with respect to the midlevel charge center, the upward-directed lightning leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top to form GJs [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008]. As a GJ leader crosses the stratosphere its streamer zone becomes longer and longer, due to the dynamics of streamer growth in a medium with exponentially-decreasing air density, such as in the Earth's atmosphere [Raizer et al., GRL, 33, L23801, 2006]. The speed at which a leader propagates is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 39, L13805, 2012]. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. To address this issue, we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that simulates the upward propagation of a leader discharge accounting for the effects of the expansion of its streamer zone. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its vertical structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 40, 12, 3315-3319, 2013]. Leaders and streamers are very different electrical discharges in terms of the degree of ionization, temperature, and composition of the plasma inside their channels. A correct description of the vertical structuring of GJs is of fundamental importance for evaluation of their effects in the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  7. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of shot points and receiver points in the field include the errors. We use these data as initial guesses, we invert iteratively shot and receiver positions to match the travel time data. After several iterations we could finally estimate the most probable positions. Integration of the constraint of VCS hydrophone positions, such as the spacing is 10m, can accelerate the convergence of the iterative inversion and improve results. The accuracy of the estimated positions from the travel time date is enough for the VCS data processing.

  8. Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogawa, Sayaka; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimode, Shinji; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest temperature did not vary greatly (from 1.0 °C to 1.8 °C), which indicates high temperatures act as a limiting factor as opposed to low temperatures. Furthermore, the integrated chlorophyll a values exhibited significant negative correlation with median depths of only E. pacifica at night. These results indicate a strategy which makes E. pacifica the dominant species in the area, that is, it has a trade-off of long migrations and a warmer environment that accelerates metabolism, in return for obtaining a food-rich environment.

  9. Effect of Vertical Wind Shear on Concentration Fluctuation Statistics in a Point Source Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilderman, Trevor; Wilson, David J.

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of concentration fluctuation intensity, intermittency factor, and integral time scale were made in a water channel for a plume dispersing in a well-developed, rough surface, neutrally stable, boundary layer, and in grid-generated turbulence with no mean velocity shear. The water-channel simulations apply to full-scale atmospheric plumes with very short averaging times, on the order of 1 4 min, because plume meandering was suppressed by the water-channel side walls. High spatial and temporal resolution vertical and crosswind profiles of fluctuations in the plume were obtained using a linescan camera laser-induced dye tracer fluorescence technique. A semi-empirical algebraic mean velocity shear history model was developed to predict these concentration statistics. This shear history concentration fluctuation model requires only a minimal set of parameters to be known: atmospheric stability, surface roughness, vertical velocity profile, and vertical and crosswind plume spreads. The universal shear history parameter used was the mean velocity shear normalized by surface friction velocity, plume travel time, and local mean wind speed. The reference height at which this non-dimensional shear history was calculated was important, because both the source and the receptor positions influence the history of particles passing through the receptor position.

  10. Increasing vertical mixing to reduce Southern Ocean deep convection in NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuz, C.; Ridley, J. K.; Calvert, D.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-03-01

    Most CMIP5 models unrealistically form Antarctic Bottom Water by open ocean deep convection in the Weddell and Ross Seas. To identify the triggering mechanisms leading to Southern Ocean deep convection in models, we perform sensitivity experiments on the ocean model NEMO forced by prescribed atmospheric fluxes. We vary the vertical velocity scale of the Langmuir turbulence, the fraction of turbulent kinetic energy transferred below the mixed layer, and the background diffusivity and run short simulations from 1980. All experiments exhibit deep convection in the Riiser-Larsen Sea in 1987; the origin is a positive sea ice anomaly in 1985, causing a shallow anomaly in mixed layer depth, hence anomalously warm surface waters and subsequent polynya opening. Modifying the vertical mixing impacts both the climatological state and the associated surface anomalies. The experiments with enhanced mixing exhibit colder surface waters and reduced deep convection. The experiments with decreased mixing are warmer, open larger polynyas and have deep convection across the Weddell Sea until the simulations end. Extended experiments reveal an increase in the Drake Passage transport of 4 Sv each year deep convection occurs, leading to an unrealistically large transport at the end of the simulation. North Atlantic deep convection is not significantly affected by the changes in mixing parameters. As new climate model overflow parameterisations are developed to form Antarctic Bottom Water more realistically, we argue that models would benefit from stopping Southern Ocean deep convection, for example by increasing their vertical mixing.

  11. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  12. Pick of the (Short) Flicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Frank, Ed.

    1967-01-01

    Five experts suggest a list of 50 short motion pictures which are inexpensive and fit easily within a normal class period. These films, not narrowly related to specific disciplines, range from visual poems inducing creative responses, to films analyzing the problems of maturing in an irrelevant society. Twenty of the film entries have annotations…

  13. Vortex formation in protoplanetary discs induced by the vertical shear instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Samuel; Nelson, Richard P.; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations of idealized protoplanetary discs that examine the formation and evolution of vortices by the vertical shear instability (VSI). In agreement with recent work, we find that discs with radially decreasing temperature profiles and short thermal relaxation time-scales, are subject to the axisymmetric VSI. In three dimensions, the resulting velocity perturbations give rise to quasi-axisymmetric potential vorticity perturbations that break up into discrete vortices, in a manner that is reminiscent of the Rossby wave instability. Discs with very short thermal evolution time-scales (i.e. τ ≤ 0.1 local orbit periods) develop strong vorticity perturbations that roll up into vortices that have small aspect ratios (χ ≤ 2) and short lifetimes (˜ a few orbits). Longer thermal time-scales give rise to vortices with larger aspect ratios (6 ≤ χ ≤ 10), and lifetimes that depend on the entropy gradient. A steeply decreasing entropy profile leads to vortex lifetimes that exceed the simulation run times of hundreds of orbital periods. Vortex lifetimes in discs with positive or weakly decreasing entropy profiles are much shorter, being 10s of orbits at most, suggesting that the subcritical baroclinic instability plays an important role in sustaining vortices against destruction through the elliptical instability. Applied to the outer regions of protoplanetary discs, where the VSI is most likely to occur, our results suggest that vortices formed by the VSI are likely to be short-lived structures.

  14. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  15. Looking ahead with vertical seismic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, M.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Several operations enhance the ability to predict the subsurface below the bottom total depth (TD) of the well when applied to zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data. Other key issues regarding the use of VSP data in this fashion are resolution and look-ahead distance. An impedance log is the most useful form for presenting VSP data to look ahead of the drill bit. The VSP composite trace must first tie reliably to the surface seismic section and to the well log synthetic seismogram. The impedance log is obtained by inverting this VSP composite trace. However, before performing the inversion, one needs to (1) correct the composite trace for attenuation effects below TD and (2) input velocities to provide low-frequency information. An exponential gain function applied to the VSP data below TD adequately compensates for the loss of amplitude caused by attenuation. A calibration of the seismically derived velocities with VSP velocities yields the necessary low-frequency information. These concepts are illustrated using a field data set and its subset truncated above TD. The output of these operations on the VSP data are compared to well log data. By way of illustration, the techniques described and investigated were applied to an offshore VSP data set to yield an impedance log. After calibrating this curve with the well log data, the base of the target sand was correctly identified below TD. This prediction successfully yielded the thickness of the sand. Individual zones within the sand unit were identified with less confidence.

  16. Microfluidic dielectrophoretic sorter using gel vertical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jason; Nelson, Edward L.; Li, G. P.; Bachman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report the development and results of a two-step method for sorting cells and small particles in a microfluidic device. This approach uses a single microfluidic channel that has (1) a microfabricated sieve which efficiently focuses particles into a thin stream, followed by (2) a dielectrophoresis (DEP) section consisting of electrodes along the channel walls for efficient continuous sorting based on dielectric properties of the particles. For our demonstration, the device was constructed of polydimethylsiloxane, bonded to a glass surface, and conductive agarose gel electrodes. Gold traces were used to make electrical connections to the conductive gel. The device had several novel features that aided performance of the sorting. These included a sieving structure that performed continuous displacement of particles into a single stream within the microfluidic channel (improving the performance of downstream DEP, and avoiding the need for additional focusing flow inlets), and DEP electrodes that were the full height of the microfluidic walls (vertical electrodes), allowing for improved formation and control of electric field gradients in the microfluidic device. The device was used to sort polymer particles and HeLa cells, demonstrating that this unique combination provides improved capability for continuous DEP sorting of particles in a microfluidic device. PMID:24926390

  17. Thermal convection in vertically suspended soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    In normal fluids, a temperature difference can create a density difference. In the presence of the gravitational field, denser fluid will fall and lighter fluid will rise, causing fluid motion known as thermal convection. This type of convection can occur on different scales, from a single growing crystal to mantle movement inside the earth. Although many experiments have been conducted in unstably stratified fluids, there have been few laboratory experiments studying convective turbulence in stably stratified fluids, which is more common in nature. Here I present a two-dimensional (2D) convection in a stably stratified vertical soap film. It was found that the interaction between the gravitational potential energy, due to the 2D density fluctuation, and the kinetic energy is important. This interplay between the two energy sources manifests itself in the statistical properties of velocity and 2D density fluctuations in the system. Our experimental findings shed new lights to a turbulent system that strongly couples to a non-passive field.

  18. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology. PMID:21132951

  19. Heaping Instabilities in Vertically Shaken Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, R. R.; Behringer, R. P.

    1999-11-01

    We present experimental studies and PIV analysis of granular convection and the formation of heaps in vertically shaken sand. The sand is contained in a quasi two-dimensional, glass or Plexiglas rectangular cell (25.4 cm x 20.3 cm x 1.5 cm lwh) vibrated sinusoidally with a mechanical shaker at frequencies ~ 10 Hz and amplitudes ~ 1 cm. Localized heaping develops as granular convection begins. While the dimensionless acceleration (? = a ?^2 /g) largely determines the time scale for the formation of the heap, the surface properties of the granular material has an enormous impact on the internal convection patterns and the magnitude of the local slope. Specifically, high-friction ``rough'' sand forms a large heap -- approaching 30^o -- under moderate accelerations (? ~ 1.4) while the surface of the heap formed by low-friction glass beads remains nearly flat. The location of the top of the heap within the cell can be tracked over periods of several days and exhibits a ``random'' side-to-side motion resembling a random walker in a quartic potential.

  20. Anorthite Weathering: Rates from Vertical Scanning Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, M. S.; Luttge, A.

    2001-12-01

    Feldspar weathering plays an important role in many environmental and engineering problems, including waste disposal, groundwater movement, and diagenesis. As the most abundant rock forming minerals in the Earth's crust, feldspar dissolution rates are especially important parameters in global flux models, as well as in smaller scale kinetic dissolution models. We present results based on the dissolution rates of anorthite measured during single-crystal, flow-through experiments at varying temperature and saturation state. The experiments are conducted in a 0.01M solution of sodium tetraborate with pH 9. Saturation states with respect to anorthite are controlled by adding known concentrations of aluminum chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium meta-silicate. Using vertical scanning interferometry we obtain absolute measurements of the rate of the mineral's surface normal retreat. From the molar volume of the mineral and the velocity of the surface normal retreat we calculate absolute rate constants. No external measurement of surface area is necessary. Each measurement by the interferometer produces up to 600,000 individual rate data. Statistical analyses of these data account for the heterogeneity of dissolution across the mineral surface and can provide an average dissolution rate constant that can be compared to bulk rates obtained from powder or weight loss experiments and with rates measured by AFM. Comparing data from various techniques is important for identifying the relationship between the varying rates obtained by the different methods, as well as to rates measured in the field.

  1. Visible vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, James A.

    This dissertation explores the design, fabrication, and characterization of visible (620 to 690 nm) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL's), consisting of a strained quantum well optical cavity active region, surrounded by distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR's). The lattice-matched device structures are grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The key design and fabrication issues are reviewed and contrasted with conventional near infrared (IR) VCSEL's. Design trade-offs and quantum well gain characteristics are examined by studying optically pumped structures. Device fabrication techniques are developed, and the first electrically injected visible AlGaInP VCSEL's are demonstrated. Prototype devices operate with pulsed current excitation at room temperature with a maximum output power of 3.38 mW at a lasing emission wavelength of 650 nm with threshold current densities of about 4.2 kA/sq. cm and threshold voltages of about 2.7 V. Due to cavity losses and unoptimized gain layer design, lasing is only achieved with significant gain contributions from the second (n=2) quantized quantum well state. With several design improvements, pulsed room temperature (23 deg C) lasing is achieved over the very broad range 629.6 to 691.4 nm, where the lasing emission above 650 nm is due primarily to gain contributions from the first (n=1) quantized quantum well state.

  2. Maximum height and minimum time vertical jumping.

    PubMed

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2015-08-20

    The performance criterion in maximum vertical jumping has typically been assumed to simply raise the center of mass as high as possible. In many sporting activities minimizing movement time during the jump is likely also critical to successful performance. The purpose of this study was to examine maximum height jumps performed while minimizing jump time. A direct dynamics model was used to examine squat jump performance, with dual performance criteria: maximize jump height and minimize jump time. The muscle model had activation dynamics, force-length, force-velocity properties, and a series of elastic component representing the tendon. The simulations were run in two modes. In Mode 1 the model was placed in a fixed initial position. In Mode 2 the simulation model selected the initial squat configuration as well as the sequence of muscle activations. The inclusion of time as a factor in Mode 1 simulations resulted in a small decrease in jump height and moderate time savings. The improvement in time was mostly accomplished by taking off from a less extended position. In Mode 2 simulations, more substantial time savings could be achieved by beginning the jump in a more upright posture. However, when time was weighted more heavily in these simulations, there was a more substantial reduction in jump height. Future work is needed to examine the implications for countermovement jumping and to examine the possibility of minimizing movement time as part of the control scheme even when the task is to jump maximally. PMID:25964210

  3. Absolute Position Encoders With Vertical Image Binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic patternrecognition encoders that measure rotary and linear 1-dimensional positions at conversion rates (numbers of readings per unit time) exceeding 20 kHz have been invented. Heretofore, optoelectronic pattern-recognition absoluteposition encoders have been limited to conversion rates <15 Hz -- too low for emerging industrial applications in which conversion rates ranging from 1 kHz to as much as 100 kHz are required. The high conversion rates of the improved encoders are made possible, in part, by use of vertically compressible or binnable (as described below) scale patterns in combination with modified readout sequences of the image sensors [charge-coupled devices (CCDs)] used to read the scale patterns. The modified readout sequences and the processing of the images thus read out are amenable to implementation by use of modern, high-speed, ultra-compact microprocessors and digital signal processors or field-programmable gate arrays. This combination of improvements makes it possible to greatly increase conversion rates through substantial reductions in all three components of conversion time: exposure time, image-readout time, and image-processing time.

  4. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  5. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  6. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  7. Jetting during vertical impacts of spherical projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Bowling, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    The extreme pressures reached during jetting, a process by which material is squirted out from the contact point of two colliding objects, causes melting and vaporization at low impact velocities. Jetting is a major source of melting in shocked porous material, a potential source of tektites, a possible origin of chondrules, and even a conceivable origin of the Moon. Here, in an attempt to quantify the importance of jetting, we present numerical simulation of jetting during the vertical impacts of spherical projectiles on both flat and curved targets. We find that impacts on curved targets result in more jetted material but that higher impact velocities result in less jetted material. For an aluminum impactor striking a flat Al target at 2 km/s we find that 3.4% of a projectile mass is jetted while 8.3% is jetted for an impact between two equal sized Al spheres. Our results indicate that the theory of jetting during the collision of thin plates can be used to predict the conditions when jetting will occur. However, we find current analytic models do not make accurate predictions of the amount of jetted mass. Our work indicates that the amount of jetted mass is independent of model resolution as long as some jetted material is resolved. This is the result of lower velocity material dominating the mass of the jet.

  8. Spectral sensitivity of vertically migrating marine copepods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Forward, Richard B

    2002-12-01

    Light is a critical factor in the proximate basis of diel vertical migration (DVM) in zooplankton. A photobehavioral approach was used to examine the spectral sensitivity of four coastal species of calanoid copepod, representing a diversity of DVM patterns, to test whether species that migrate (nocturnal or reverse DVM) have response spectra that differ from non-migratory surface dwellers. The following species were given light stimuli at wavelengths from 350 to 740 nm, and their photoresponses were measured: Centropages typicus (nocturnal migrator), Calanopia americana (nocturnal migrator), Anomalocera ornata (reverse migrator), and Labidocera aestiva (non-migrator). Centropages typicus and A. ornata had peak responses at 500 and 520 nm, respectively, while Calanopia americana had maximum responses at 480 and 520 nm. Thus, the species that undergo DVM have peak photobehavioral responses at wavelengths corresponding to those available during twilight in coastal water, although the range of wavelengths to which they respond is variable. Non-migratory surface-dwelling L. aestiva had numerous response peaks over a broad spectral range, which may serve to maximize photon capture for vision in their broad-spectrum shallow-water habitat. PMID:12480721

  9. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  10. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  11. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  12. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1–39 mm2 s‑1 in kinematic viscosities and 40–72 mN m‑1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  13. Temporal variability of vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Lavigne, Héloïse; Migon, Christophe; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Estournel, Claude; Coppola, Laurent; Miquel, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Ligurian Sea) over the last 20 years reveals a strong interannual variability. Winter convection allows particulate (and dissolved) matter to be vertically exported (“flush-down” effect). The efficiency of this process determines also the concentration of nutrients brought to surface waters and, therefore, the intensity of the subsequent phytoplankton bloom. The sequence “convection-bloom” is the main driving force of vertical export flux in this region. The present work attempts to better identify the parameters that control vertical export flux dynamics by observing a 20 year time-series in relation with the temporal variability of mixed layer depth and surface primary production. The consequences of a more stratified water column in the future on biological productivity and vertical export flux are pointed out. In winter, the cooling of surface water, combined with evaporation, increases its density and determines the vertical convection. This allows for a rapid downward transfer of dissolved and particulate matter, yielding high vertical export flux. This “flush-down effect” results from a combination of convection and gravitational flux, since the diving of dense surface waters breaks the stratification of the water column and carries all material (particulate + dissolved) accumulated in the surface layer to depth. The rapid downward transfer of dissolved and particulate matter by this “flush-down effect” yields high vertical export fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes may vary according to the amount of atmospheric material accumulated in surface waters during the preceding stratified period. In the present data set, highest vertical export fluxes were observed in 1999, 2003 and 2004. In those years, the MLD was greater (Fig. 2), suggesting a causal relationship between the efficiency of vertical mixing and the subsequent vertical export flux. In spring, nutrients brought to surface waters by the vertical mixing trigger phytoplankton blooms, which generate new material for the vertical transfer of dissolved and particulate matter. Maximum Chl-a occurs shortly after the MLD maximum. Gačić et al. (2002) observed a marked seasonal variability of POC fluxes in the Adriatic Sea. Spring maxima are associated with phytoplankton blooms. In spite of interannual variations in the intensity of the phytoplankton blooms, their seasonal distribution and biomass abundance are reproducible (Marty et al., 2002), with maximum values of carbon assimilation in March and April (Marty and Chiavérini, 2002; Fig. 2). Indeed, high vertical export fluxes were observed within the present dataset in spring, as a result of biological productivity (e.g. 2000). In summer and fall, the heating of the sea surface results in a stratified water column with a shallow ML which is rapidly exhausted of nutrients. During such oligotrophic conditions (June to November), the concentrations of biogenic matter in the photic layer are minimal. Therefore, owing to insignificant transfer of POC, atmospherically-transported individual particles presumably do not sink (or sink with negligible sinking velocity), according to Stokesian settling calculations (Stokes, 1901). In the absence of packaging into large biogenic material (adsorption onto phytoplanktonic debris or incorporation into fecal pellets), atmospheric particles thus accumulate in the surface ML. In addition, dissolved atmospheric matter (e.g., from atmospheric wet deposition) is not removed from surface waters via its assimilation by phytoplankton, and it accumulates in the surface ML (e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM); (Copin-Montégut and Avril, 1993)). Consequently, the lowest vertical export fluxes are observed during this period of the year. For example, years 2003 and 2004 exhibited minimal vertical export fluxes during summer and fall (Fig. 2). However, summer 2002 was unusual, with relatively a high vertical export flux. This resulted from the combination of particularly strong summer stratification and the erosion of the thermocline by wind gales in late summer, with the subsequent release of the organic particulates accumulated above the pycnocline (Martín and Miquel, 2010).

  14. Novel applications of short and ultra-short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stral, M.; Kopecek, H.; Weinrotter, M.; Bcker, A.; Al-Janabi, A. H.; Wieger, V.; Wintner, E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper offers recent successful examples for the application of nanosecond (ns) as well as picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to media of gaseous, liquid or solid nature via non-linear interactions as a review, the laser ignition and dental ultra-short pulse interaction being parts of the authors' own work. Plasma-initiated ignition of combustible gas mixtures represents a potential alternative way for long-lasting operation of gas engines with rather clean exhaust. Ultra-short pulses are useful for materials processing including dental hard tissue. Using miniaturized scanners of different types yields perfect cavity sizes without collateral damage at ablation rates coming close to mechanical drills in dentistry.

  15. Human visual and vestibular heading perception in the vertical planes.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2014-02-01

    Heading estimation has not previously been reported in the vertical planes. This is a potentially interesting issue because although distribution of neuronal direction sensitivities is near uniform for vertical headings, there is an overrepresentation of otolith organs sensitive to motion in the horizontal relative to the vertical plane. Furthermore, thresholds of horizontal motion perception are considerably lower than those of vertical motion which has the potential to bias heading perception. The current data from 14 human subjects (age 19 to 67) measured heading estimation in response to vestibular motion of 14 cm (28 cm/s) over a 360 of headings at 5 intervals. An analogous visual motion was tested in separate trials. In this study, earth and head vertical/horizontal were always aligned. Results demonstrated that the horizontal component of heading was overestimated relative to the vertical component for vestibular heading stimuli in the coronal (skew) and sagittal (elevation) planes. For visual headings, the bias was much smaller and in the opposite direction such that the vertical component of heading was overestimated. Subjects older than 50 had significantly worse precision and larger biases relative to that of younger subjects for the vestibular conditions, although visual heading estimates were similar. A vector addition model was fit to the data which explains the observed heading biases by the known distribution of otolith organs in humans. The greatly decreased precision with age is explained by the model with decreases in end organ numbers, and relatively greater loss of otoliths that are sensitive to vertical motion. PMID:24249574

  16. Measurements of vertical air currents in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K O

    1931-01-01

    To summarize, the experiments with balloons, sailplanes and light airplanes conducted thus far, reveal the vertical velocities of the air to be primarily dependent on the vertical temperature distribution. Stable stratifications result in up-and-down currents forced by the contour of the ground, which are readily recognized in flight and, if need be, may be avoided.

  17. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left

  18. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in agricultural drainage ditch soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pedological processes such as gleization and organic matter accumulation may affect the vertical distribution of P within agricultural drainage ditch soils. The objective of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of P as a function of horizonation in ditch soils at the University of Mary...

  19. SeedChaser: Vertical soil tillage distribution model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of surface residues, chemicals, or seeds following tillage operations is of paramount importance to a wide variety of soil research areas. This paper describes a 1-D empirical vertical soil tillage distribution model with 1-cm grid spacing (SeedChaser) that pre...

  20. SIMPLE PDF MODELS FOR CONVECTIVELY DRIVEN VERTICAL DIFFUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of vertical velocity in convective boundary layers is usually negative and the probability distribution function(PDF) of w, pw is rarely symmetrlc. Consequently, vertical diffusion from elevated sources is usually asymmetric and exhibits a descending mode of concentratio...

  1. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges. 118.85 Section 118.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  2. Half-State Readout In Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1994-01-01

    Potentially narrow margins of chirality-based chopping of magnetic stripes avoided. Half-state readout is experimental method of readout in Vertical-Bloch-Line (VBL) memory. Based on differential deflections of magnetic stripe domains in which data bits stored. To give meaning to explanation of half-state readout, see "Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory" (NPO-18467).

  3. Optimal control methods for vertical and horizontal beam dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitura, A.; Warminski, J.; Bochenski, M.

    2012-08-01

    An application of the Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators for damping of a composite beam is presented in this paper. The effectiveness of vibration reduction by a selected control method is tested for vertical and horizontal position of the beam. The original model has been studied numerically by using Galerkin's discretisation method. The numerical results for the vertical and horizontal beams are compared.

  4. Experimental vertical stability studies for ITER performance and design guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D. A.; Casper, T. A.; Eidietis, N.; Ferrara, M.; Gates, D. A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Kolemen, E.; Leuer, J. A.; Lister, J.; Lo Destro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Portone, A.; Sartori, F.; Walker, M. L.; Welander, A. S.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modelling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be severe. This work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment (MDC-13) on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement and several common disturbances which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analysed.

  5. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  6. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  7. Rasch Simultaneous Vertical Equating for Measuring Reading Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ong Kim

    2003-01-01

    Compared the observation of children's growth in reading using grade equivalents with that using the Rasch simultaneous vertical equating procedure. Results from equating 25 reading tests show that grade equivalents differ more between two different test forms than do ability measures obtained from the Rasch simultaneous vertical equating. (SLD)

  8. 19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CASTLE ROCK IN BACKGROUND. JUNCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL AND TOP CHORD WITH STABILIZING LATERAL STRUT ABOVE AND SWAY STRUT BELOW. ORIGINAL PAIRED DIAGONAL EYE BARS LATER REINFORCED WITH TIE ROD - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  9. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  10. Synthetic Convection Log — Characterization of vertical transport processes in fluid-filled boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Susann

    2010-09-01

    Two main types of vertical convective flows play an important role in transport along the fluid column: forced convective and free convective flows. Forced vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes (short-circuit flow) can be detected by means of borehole measurements, e.g. different types of flowmeters, temperature logs, and fluid-logging. For detecting free vertical convection (natural convection), so far, no special logging device or interpretation algorithm was available. This paper presents a new synthetic borehole log, the so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log). It enables in-situ detection and identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements. Vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes is known to lead to transport of heat and mass. Thus, understanding free convective flow is crucial for geothermics, borehole geophysics, hydrological investigations, and meaningful fluid sampling. The SYNCO-Log is divided into two closely linked parts: (1) the cause-oriented approach compares the situation along the fluid column with critical thresholds for the onset of free convection and (2) the effect-oriented approach separates the anomalies and patterns in fluid quality that are induced by free convection. Inputs for the interpretation algorithm are simultaneously acquired temperature and mudresistivity (or fluid conductivity) logs, hydraulic pressure, and borehole diameter. Output of the algorithm is a computer generated, descriptive illustration of the results including a classified plot for delineating the type of flow. The reliability of the SYNCO-Log is high, as causes and effects, i.e. driving forces and resulting heat and mass transport, are simultaneously identified. Its applicability and the relevance of the results are shown on the example of borehole measurements from the KTB-MH deep crustal borehole, located in the Bavarian region of Germany.

  11. A dynamic optimization model of the diel vertical distribution of a pelagic planktivorous fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosland, Rune; Giske, Jarl

    A stochastic dynamic optimization model for the diel depth distribution of juveniles and adults of the mesopelagic planktivore Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin) is developed and used for a winter situation. Observations from Masfjorden, western Norway, reveal differences in vertical distribution, growth and mortality between juveniles and adults in January. Juveniles stay within the upper 100m with high feeding rates, while adults stay within the 100-150m zone with very low feeding rates during the diel cycle. The difference in depth profitability is assumed to be caused by age-dependent processes, and are calculated from a mechanistic model for visual feeding. The environment is described as a set of habitats represented by discrete depth intervals along the vertical axis, differing with respect to light intensity, food abundance, predation risk and temperature. The short time interval (24h) allows fitness to be linearly related to growth (feeding), assuming that growth increases the future reproductive output of the fish. Optimal depth position is calculated from balancing feeding opportunity against mortality risk, where the fitness reward gained by feeding is weighted against the danger of being killed by a predator. A basic run is established, and the model is validated by comparing predictions and observations. The sensitivity for different parameter values is also tested. The modelled vertical distributions and feeding patterns of juvenile and adult fish correspond well with the observations, and the assumption of age differences in mortality-feeding trade-offs seems adequate to explain the different depth profitability of the two age groups. The results indicate a preference for crepuscular feeding activity of the juveniles, and the vertical distribution of zooplankton seems to be the most important environmental factor regulating the adult depth position during the winter months in Masfjorden.

  12. Ontogenetic vertical migration of grenadiers revealed by otolith microstructures and stable isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Yung; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Chen, Yue-Gau; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    Otolith ?18O and ?13C of six species grenadiers were analyzed to reconstruct the historical residing depths and metabolic activity. During the larval to juvenile stage, Spicomacrurus kuronumai, Hymenocephalus lethonemus, and Bathygadus nipponicus gradually migrated from the mixed layer to the thermocline downward over a vertical distance >140 m after which they moved within a narrow vertical range for the remaining life. The downward migration distance was less than 65 m during the larval stage of Hymenocephalus sp. and Coryphaenoides acrolepis, which showed a second descent period from the thermocline to deeper water as juveniles. Coryphaenoides marginatus stayed at the lower thermocline during the larval stage and the juveniles migrated downward in a relative short distance around 100 m and settled in deeper water (>600 m), followed by irregular movements over a vertical range of about 200 m during juvenile and adult stages. The otolith ?13C profile suggested that fishes (S. kuronumai, H. lethonemus, and B. nipponicus) with a longer migration distance had a higher metabolic rate in their early life-history stages than in the later stages. However, the metabolic rate did not vary for those fishes (H. sp., C. acrolepis and C. marginatus) living within a narrow vertical range during their larval to adult stages. The otolith microchemistry suggested that ontogenetic downward migration was an important strategy for grenadiers linking the life stages between pelagic larvae and benthic settlement. Furthermore, the migration timing and distance for the pelagic larvae varied between species and habitats. S. kuronumai, H. lethonemus, H. sp. and C. acrolepis might metamorphose and settle at the same time, B. nipponicus metamorphosed during migration and C. marginatus migrated as juveniles.

  13. Effect of well-screen placement on recovery of vertically stratified contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Conant, B. Jr.; Akindunni, F.F.; Gillham, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    Field experiments and numerical modeling showed that vertical placement of a pumping-well screen in an appropriate location could enhance the recovery of dissolved contaminants from a distinct depth interval of an unconfined aquifer. Two single-well contaminant recovery tests were performed for 72 hours each at Borden, Ontario in a thin, fine-grained sand aquifer. A zone 1.5 m thick at the bottom of the aquifer was contaminated by landfill leachate. One screen was located entirely within the contaminated zone and the other had only half its length placed in the zone of contamination. In both tests, concentrations in the effluent were initially high, but asymptotically declined and approached the vertically averaged concentration of the aquifer. The decline in concentration occurred because converging flow in the vertical plane caused a reduction in the thickness of the plume near the well; that in turn decreased the ratio of contaminated to clean waters entering the well screen. The field results were simulated using SUNFLOWPT, a saturated-unsaturated flow model with particle tracking. Predictions of the model successfully matched the observed drawdown and effluent concentration data. Propagation of simulated capture zones into the overlying uncontaminated aquifer waters are consistent with the observed declines in effluent concentrations. Two-dimensional plan-view modeling is unable to accurately simulate observed data at early times of pumping. In aquifers having stratified contamination, only models that incorporate vertical flow should be used to interpret or predict effluent concentrations from short-duration tests conducted for the purpose of designing pump-and-treat remediation schemes. The results suggest that in some cases of long-term cleanup, two screens that separately capture the clean and contaminated waters of the aquifer could significantly reduce the volume of water requiring treatment.

  14. Vertical δ13C and δ15N changes during pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunn, Melanie; Spielvogel, Sandra; Wells, Andrew; Condron, Leo; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2015-04-01

    The natural abundance of soil organic matter (SOM) stable C and N isotope ratios are subjected to vertical changes throughout the soil profile. This vertical distribution is a widely reported phenomenon across varieties of ecosystems and constitutes important insights of soil carbon cycling. In most ecosystems, SOM becomes enriched in heavy isotopes by several per mill in the first few centimeters of the topsoil. The enrichment of 13C in SOM with soil depth is attributed to biological and physical-chemical processes in soil e.g., plant physiological impacts, microbial decomposition, sorption and transport processes. Such vertical trends in 13C and 15N abundance have rarely been related to SOM composition during pedogenesis. The aims of our study were to investigate short and long-term δ13C and δ15N depth changes and their interrelations under progressing pedogenesis and ecosystem development. We sampled soils across the well studied fordune progradation Haast-chronosequence, a dune ridge system under super-humid climate at the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island (43° 53' S, 169° 3' E). Soils from 11 sites with five replicates each covered a time span of around 2870 yr of soil development (from Arenosol to Podzol). Vertical changes of δ13C and δ15N values of SOM were investigated in the organic layers and in 1-cm depth intervals of the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. With increasing soil depth SOM became enriched in δ13C by 1.9 ± SE 0.1 o and in δ15N by 6.0 ± 0.4 ‰˙Litter δ13C values slightly decreased with increasing soil age (r = -0.61; p = 0.00) likely due to less efficient assimilation linked to nutrient limitations. Fractionation processes during mycorrhizal transfer appeared to affect δ15N values in the litter. We found a strong decrease of δ15N in the early succession stages ≤ 300 yr B.P. (r = -0.95; p = 0.00). Positive relations of vertical 13C and 15N enrichment with soil age might be related to decomposition and appeared to be affected by a change of hydrology, nutrient limitations, secondary minerals and root impacts. The investigation of vertical changes of soil organic matter (SOM) stable isotope ratios provides the opportunity to detect combined processes that enhance our understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning and pedogenetic processes leading to stabilization/destabilization in soil and therefore addressing the soil's sink/source function.

  15. Vertical Wellbore Flow Monitoring for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Flow Relationships with a Dynamic River Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2010-10-01

    A useful tool for identifying the temporal and spatial ambient wellbore flow relationships near a dynamic river boundary is to continuously monitor ambient vertical wellbore flow with an electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF). This is important because the presence of the wellbore can result in significant mixing or exchange of groundwater vertically across the aquifer. Mixing or exchanging groundwater within the well-screen section can have significant impacts on the distribution of contaminants within the aquifer and adverse effects on the representativeness of groundwater samples collected from the monitoring well. EBF monitoring data collected from long, fully screened wells at Hanford’s 300-Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, located ~260 to 290 m from the Columbia River, demonstrate that ambient vertical wellbore flow exhibits both a positive (direct) and inverse temporal relationship with periodic river-stage fluctuations over short distances. The ambient flow monitoring wells fully penetrate a highly transmissive unconfined aquifer that consists of unconsolidated coarse sediments of the Hanford formation. The spatial distribution of ambient vertical wellbore flows across the IFRC’s ~2,200 m2 well-field size indicates two general regions of inverse ambient wellbore flow behavior. The western region of the IFRC site is characterized by ambient vertical wellbore flows that are positively related to river-stage fluctuations. In contrast, the eastern region of the site exhibits ambient wellbore flows that are inversely related to river-stage fluctuations. The cause of this opposite relationship between ambient wellbore flows and river-stage changes is not completely understood; however, the positive relationships appear to be associated with high-energy Hanford formation flood deposits. These flood deposits have a well-defined northwest-southeast trend and are believed to coincide with a local paleochannel. This local paleochannel bisects the site and connects to larger, more regionally developed flood paleochannels that laterally connect to the north and south across the 300 Area and the Hanford Site. The inverse relationships are attributed to an erosional, subsurface high in the Hanford/Ringold formation contact between the IFRC site and the Columbia River. Under these complex hydrogeologic and hydrodynamic conditions, the behavior of ambient vertical wellbore flow in monitoring wells near a dynamic river boundary can have important implications for collecting groundwater-quality samples, for contributing to contaminant distribution and transport within an aquifer system, and for implementing effective remediation strategies.

  16. Applications of Vertical Seismic Profiling at NTS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1987-09-01

    Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data can be used to refine the geologic interpretation of the structural setting around an emplacement hole at NTS. Recent upgrades to the seismic recording equipment routinely fielded by the NTS logging contractor permit VSP data to be obtained quickly as needed without external support. VSP data can be used in many different ways. Traditionally, VSP data have been used as a tool to assist in the interpretation of surface seismic Common Depth Point (CDP) reflection data. LLNL has been examining several direct applications to the geologic characterization of an emplacement site. VSP data from a single surface seismic source location near an emplacement hole can be used to determine the depth and apparent dip of reflecting horizons below the bottom of the hole. With multiple surface seismic source locations, the true dip of a reflector can be determined. However, geologic interpretation is still required to properly identify the reflector. In some cases, the evidence of the presence or absence of the reflector is all that is required for containment evaluation. An example of this technique (along with its shortcomings) using data from hole, U20ar is presented. Offset VSP data are obtained when the surface source is not near the well head. This technique uses the direct and reflected energy and differs from half-refraction techniques that utilize only the refracted head waves. A convenient method of imaging these data involves the transformation of these data from the traditional VSP domain to a CDP domain. In the CDP domain, the transformed VSP data resemble a CDP reflection section. Standard surface seismic reflection techniques can be utilized to determine the structure on a portion of the plane defined by the emplacement hole and the surface seismic source location. Data from experimental deployments of this technique at hole, U4ag are presented.

  17. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Vibroconvective mixing applied to vertical Bridgman growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawilski, Kevin T.; Claudia, M.; Custodio, C.; DeMattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.

    2003-10-01

    A promising method for stirring melts during vertical Bridgman growth is the coupled vibrational stirring (CVS) method. It involves the application of low frequency vibrations to the outside of the growth ampoule and produces strong flows emanating from the fluid surface. Although the technique was pioneered a number of years ago, previous studies have not provided sufficient information to explain how to control CVS generated flows in a particular system. This paper examines both the fluid flow produced by CVS and the effect of these flows on a model oxide growth system. CVS generated flows were studied using tracer particles in a water/glycerin system. The particle velocities were measured as a function of distance from the fluid surface. A large velocity gradient, decreasing from the surface, was found to be present. The velocity profile produced was dependent on the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the crucible diameter, and the fluid viscosity. The effects of CVS flows on the crystal growth interface were studied using NaNO 3 as a model oxide. Under non-growth conditions (i.e. no furnace or crucible translation), the solid-liquid interface position was found to be a strong function of vibrational frequency once CVS generated flows approached the interface. During crystal growth, undesirable growth rate fluctuations were found as the growth interface moved into regions of increasing fluid flow. This data suggests that a control system in which CVS flows are continuously decreased during growth to maintain a constant flow rate in the vicinity of the growth interface is necessary in order to prevent or reduce growth rate fluctuations.

  19. Vertical Diffusivities of Active and Passive Tracers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The climate models that include a carbon-cycle need the vertical diffusivity of a passive tracer. Since an expression for the latter is not available, it has been common practice to identify it with that of salt. The identification is questionable since T, S are active, not passive tracers. We present the first derivation of the diffusivity of a passive tracer in terms of Ri (Richardson number) and Rq (density ratio, ratio of salinity over temperature z-gradients). The following results have emerged: (a) The passive tracer diffusivity is an algebraic function of Ri, Rq. (b) In doubly stable regimes (DS, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0), the passive scalar diffusivity is nearly the same as that of salt/heat for any values of Rq < 0 and Ri > 0. (c) In DC regimes (diffusive convection, partial derivative of T with respect to z < 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0, Rq > 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is larger than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be more than twice as large. (d) In SF regimes (salt fingers, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z > 0, Rq < 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is smaller than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be less than half of it. (e) The passive tracer diffusivity predicted at the location of NATRE (North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment) is discussed. (f) Perhaps the most relevant conclusion is that the common identification of the tracer diffusivity with that of salt is valid only in DS regimes. In the Southern Ocean, where there is the largest CO2 absorption, the dominant regime is diffusive convection discussed in (c) above.

  20. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Satou, A.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-09-21

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  1. The vertical replacement-gate (VRG) MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, J. M.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Nigam, T.; Monroe, D.; Klemens, F. P.; Kornblit, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have fabricated and demonstrated a new device called the vertical replacement-gate (VRG) MOSFET. This is the first MOSFET ever built in which: (1) all critical transistor dimensions are controlled precisely without lithography and dry etch, (2) the gate length is defined by a deposited film thickness, independently of lithography and etch, and (3) a high-quality gate oxide is grown on a single-crystal Si channel. In addition to this unique combination, the VRG-MOSFET includes self-aligned source/drain extensions (SDEs) formed by solid source diffusion (SSD), small parasitic overlap, junction, and source/drain capacitances, and a replacement-gate approach to enable alternative gate stacks. We have demonstrated nMOSFETs with an initial VRG process, and pMOSFETs with a more mature process. Since both sides of the device pillar drive in parallel, the drive current per ?m of coded width can far exceed that of advanced planar MOSFETs. Our 100 nm VRG-pMOSFETs with tOX=25 drive 615 ?A/?m at 1.5 V with IOFF=8 nA/?m80% more drive than specified in the 1999 ITRS Roadmap at the same IOFF. Our 50 nm VRG-pMOSFETs with tOX=25 approach the 1.0 V roadmap target of ION=350 ?A/?m at IOFF=20 nA/?m without the need for a hyperthin (<20 ) gate oxide. We have described a process for integrating n-channel and p-channel VRG-MOSFETs to form side-by-side CMOS that retains the key VRG advantages while providing packing density and process complexity that is competitive with traditional planar CMOS. All of this is achieved using current manufacturing methods, materials, and tools, and high-performance devices with 50 nm physical gate lengths ( LG) have been demonstrated with precise gate length control without advanced lithography.

  2. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  3. Vertical diffusivities of active and passive tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    The climate models that include a carbon-cycle need the vertical diffusivity of a passive tracer. Since an expression for the latter is not available, it has been common practice to identify it with that of salt. The identification is questionable since T, S are active, not passive tracers. We present the first derivation of the diffusivity of a passive tracer in terms of Ri (Richardson number) and R ? (density ratio, ratio of salinity over temperature z-gradients). The following results have emerged: The passive tracer diffusivity is an algebraic function of Ri, R ?. In doubly stable regimes (DS, ? T/?z > 0, ?S/? z < 0), the passive scalar diffusivity is nearly the same as that of salt/heat for any values of R ? < 0 and Ri > 0. In DC regimes (diffusive convection, ? T/? z < 0, ? S/? z < 0, R ? > 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is larger than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be more than twice as large. In SF regimes (salt fingers, ? T/? z > 0, ? S/? z > 0, R ? < 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is smaller than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be less than half of it. The passive tracer diffusivity predicted at the location of NATRE (North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment) is discussed. Perhaps the most relevant conclusion is that the common identification of the tracer diffusivity with that of salt is valid only in DS regimes. In the Southern Ocean, where there is the largest CO 2 absorption, the dominant regime is diffusive convection discussed in (c) above.

  4. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  5. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  6. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  7. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2011-12-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  8. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2012-01-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  9. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically small objects and interfaces. This configuration can be labeled as a vertical differential configuration. At the conference, the reconstruction capabilities of this differential GPR configuration system will be discussed by means of an analysis of the problem based on a properly designed microwave tomographic inversion approach. The proposed approach exploits the Born approximation and faces the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse scattering problem. In this way, the problem of the local minima is avoided [7] and it is possible to impose some regularization to the problem in an easy way problem [8-9]. At the conference, a theoretical analysis of the mathematical propserties of the scattering operator under the vertical differential configuration will be presented showing that, with respect to the horizontal differential configuration, the vertical one allows to reject the direct coupling between the antennas but not the coupling of the antennas occurring through the air-soil interface. On the other hand, the filtering properties of the operator at hand con be considered, let say, less severe in some cases. At the conference, both some numerical and experimental results will be shown. References [1] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Effects of the background removal in linear inverse scattering", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 46, pp. 1104-1114, April 2008. [2] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Three-Dimensional FDTD modeling of a ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 38, pp. 1513-1521, July 2000. [3] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Optimization of the transmitter-receiver separation in the ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 51, no 3, pp. 362-370, March 2003. [4] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "A microwave tomography approach for a differential configuration in GPR prospecting", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 54, pp. 3541 - 3548, 2006. [5] Y.A. Kopylov, S.A. Masalov, G.P. Pochanin, "The way of isolation between transmitting and receiving modules of antenna", Patent 81652 Ukraine: IPC (2006) H01Q 9/00 H01Q 19/10 / publ. 25.01.08, Bull. N. 2 [6] G.P. Pochanin, "Some Advances in UWB GPR," in "Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation, - NATO Science for Peace and Security Series -B: Physics and Biophysics - Ed. by Jim Byrnes, Springer: Dordrecht, (The Nederland), 2009. pp.223-233. [7] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, R. Pierri, "Convergence Properties of a Quadratic Approach to the Inverse Scattering Problem", Journal of Optical Society of America Part A, vol. 19, n. 12, pp. 2424-2428, December 2002. [8] R. Pierri, G. Leone, F. Soldovieri, R. Persico, "Electromagnetic inversion for subsurface applications under the distorted Born approximation" Nuovo Cimento, vol. 24C, N. 2, pp 245-261, March-April 2001. [9] R. Persico, Introduction to ground penetrating Radar: Inverse Scattering and data Processing, in print on Wiley and Sons, 2014, ISBN 9781118305003.

  10. Optimal short-sighted rules.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson's (2001) seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short-sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long run. Such long-term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs) but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch) are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices. PMID:22973188

  11. Syndromic Disorders with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    ??klar, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  12. Optimal Short-Sighted Rules

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Andersons (2001) seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short-sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long run. Such long-term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs) but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch) are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices. PMID:22973188

  13. Syndromic disorders with short stature.

    PubMed

    ??klar, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  14. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  15. Tetrahymena mutants with short telomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S; Sheng, H; Niu, L; Henderson, E

    1998-01-01

    Telomere length is dynamic in many organisms. Genetic screens that identify mutants with altered telomere lengths are essential if we are to understand how telomere length is regulated in vivo. In Tetrahymena thermophila, telomeres become long at 30 degrees, and growth rate slows. A slow-growing culture with long telomeres is often overgrown by a variant cell type with short telomeres and a rapid-doubling rate. Here we show that this variant cell type with short telomeres is in fact a mutant with a genetic defect in telomere length regulation. One of these telomere growth inhibited forever (tgi) mutants was heterozygous for a telomerase RNA mutation, and this mutant telomerase RNA caused telomere shortening when overexpressed in wild-type cells. Several other tgi mutants were also likely to be heterozygous at their mutant loci, since they reverted to wild type when selective pressure for short telomeres was removed. These results illustrate that telomere length can regulate growth rate in Tetrahymena and that this phenomenon can be exploited to identify genes involved in telomere length regulation. PMID:9755196

  16. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ≈18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  17. Orogeny can be very short.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John F

    2005-10-25

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc-continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted approximately 18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10(-15). Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  18. Longitudinal differences of ionospheric vertical density distribution and equatorial electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valladares, C. E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian 37E and 290E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation, such as from VEFI onboard Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite and JULIA radar, is equally promising. The observations at different longitudes suggest that the vertical drift velocities and the vertical density distribution have significant longitudinal differences; especially the equatorial anomaly peaks expand to higher latitudes more in American sector than the African sector, indicating that the vertical drift in the American sector is stronger than the African sector.

  19. Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation, such as from VEFI onboard Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite and JULIA radar, is equally promising. The observations at different longitudes suggest that the vertical drift velocities and the vertical density distribution have significant longitudinal differences; especially the equatorial anomaly peaks expand to higher latitudes more in American sector than the African sector, indicating that the vertical drift in the American sector is stronger than the African sector.

  20. High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Zhiping; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-11-01

    The high-efficiency binary blazed grating couplers with perfectly vertical and nearly vertical coupling are proposed. The efficiencies of them are much higher than those of other types of grating couplers without bottom mirrors under vertical and oblique incidence respectively. For perfectly vertical coupler with transverse-electric polarized incident light, the coupling efficiency, which is defined as the ratio between the power coupled to the fundamental mode of the chip waveguide and that carried by the fundamental mode of the input optical fiber, is 75%, while the nearly vertical coupler with the incident angle of 10.2° has a coupling efficiency of 84%. Rigorous coupled-wave diffraction analysis and a complete optimization method have been used to make the optimal design valid and unique.

  1. Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2008-11-01

    A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.; Evans, Karen J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Dupoux, Cyndie; Vourey, Elodie; Dubosc, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) are an important upper tropic-level oceanic predator with a circum-global distribution. Little is known of the movements and diet of albacore tuna in the South Pacific Ocean and how variability in both might influence the vulnerability of albacore tuna to fisheries across their range. We coupled data derived from satellite-tagged albacore tuna with stomach samples collected from individuals at the same locations to characterize the vertical behavior, thermal and dietary habits of albacore tuna at tropical (New Caledonia and Tonga) and temperate (New Zealand) latitudes. A total of 18 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed on albacore tuna remained attached for 0-50 days. Position estimates, calculated from 11 tags, described short-term movements of predominantly less than 500 km, although one fish moved more than 1000 km over a period of 50 days. Vertical behavior and diet differed substantially between tropical and temperate latitudes. At tropical latitudes, albacore tuna showed a distinct diel pattern in vertical habitat use, occupying shallower, warmer waters above the mixed layer depth (MLD) at night, and deeper, cooler waters below the MLD during the day. In contrast, there was little evidence of a diel pattern of vertical behavior in albacore tuna at temperate latitudes, with fish limited to shallow waters above the MLD almost all of the time. Spatial patterns of species composition in stomach contents were consistent with vertical movement patterns, with significantly more deepwater prey species consumed in tropical waters than in temperate waters. Albacore in tropical waters also consumed significantly greater diversities of prey than in temperate waters, predominately preying on fish species, whereas those in temperate waters predominately preyed on crustacea. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of albacore is constrained either by thermal preferences with diet reflecting these preferences, by the vertical distribution of prey species, which may be affected by the thermal structure of the ocean, or most likely by a mixture of both. Spatial differences in the vertical distribution of albacore tuna suggest that vulnerability of albacore to oceanic fisheries varies with latitude. Changes in the thermal structure of oceanic waters in temperate areas associated with climate change might influence the vertical distributions and, therefore, vulnerability of albacore to oceanic fisheries into the future.

  3. The persistence of vertically transmitted fungi in grass metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Ion, Diana; Gyllenberg, Mats

    2002-07-01

    Theory predicts that (i) vertical transmission of parasites (i.e. when they are passed directly from a host to its offspring) selects for benign association with the host and that (ii) vertically transmitted parasites that lower their hosts' fitness cannot persist if they are not able to infect horizontally (i.e. contagiously) other host individuals in the population. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to examine whether mutualism is a prerequisite for persistence of exclusively vertically transmitted (from maternal plant to offspring via seeds) fungal endophytes in structured grass metapopulations. Interestingly, endophyte survival does not require plant mutualism, even in a metapopulation consisting of qualitatively identical patches, if vertical transmission of the fungus is perfect, i.e. if all established seedlings in offspring of the endophyte-infected plant are infected. In more realistic situations, when the metapopulation consists of qualitatively different patches, endophyte-infected plants may persist at the metapopulation level even if the vertical transmission is imperfect (due to hyphae inviability or failure to grow into all seeds) and the endophyte decreases the host grass fitness in certain environments. These results have biological importance because they (i) question the requirement of a mutualistic nature in exclusively vertically transmitted symbionts and (ii) emphasize the importance of habitat diversity in relation to symbiont success in vertical transmission. PMID:12079664

  4. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clmence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  5. Vertical velocity estimates in the North Pacific using Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical velocity in the oceans is critical for maintenance of the structure of the main thermoclines and the transport of nutrients from deepwater towards the surface and thus is an important variable for understanding the dynamics of the ocean and the transport of scalar variables. In the mid 1970s the author was engaged in discussions with Tom Rossby about how SOFAR floats might be used to observe the vertical component of velocity. This paper in some sense follows on from those discussions almost 40 years later. In this paper the Argo array is used to compute the horizontal volume divergence in a control volume in the North Pacific. Divergence is found and this must be related to a volume flux through the base of the control volume. The implied vertical velocity is large and various tests are proposed to determine whether or not the estimate is plausible. The first test shows that a vertical velocity this large is necessary to close the salt budget. The second test shows that the vertical velocity balances about half of the observed heat divergence, the remainder is then accounted for by heat flux at the sea surface. Finally the time variable vertical velocity is computed and used to compute the evolution of the salt content in the control volume. Thus though the estimated vertical velocity is surprisingly large, it passes plausibility tests.

  6. A semi analytical model for short range dispersion from ground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavze, Ehud; Reichman, Rivka; Fattal, Eyal

    2014-05-01

    A semi-analytical model for dispersion of passive scalars from ground sources up to distances of a few hundred meters is presented. Analytical, or semi-analytical models are useful as they are simple to use and require only a short computation time, compared, for example, to Lagrangian Stochastic Models. As such they are valuable in cases where repeated computations of the concentration field is required, as for example in risk assessments and in the inverse problem of source determination. Among the analytical models the most widely used are the Gaussian models which assume both a uniform wind field and homogeneous turbulence. These assumptions are not valid when ground source is involved since both the wind and the turbulence depend on height. The model proposed here is free of these two assumptions. The formulation of the vertical dispersion is based on approximating the vertical profiles of the wind and the the vertical diffusion coefficient as power laws. One advantage of this approach is that it allows for non Gaussian vertical profiles of the concentration which better fit the experimental data. For the lateral dispersion the model still assumes a Gaussian form. A system of equations was developed to compute the cloud width, taking into account the non-homogeneity of the wind and the turbulence in the vertical direction. The model was tested against two field experiments. Comparison with a Gaussian model showed that it performed much better in predicting both the integrated cross wind ground concentration and the cloud width.

  7. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.

    2016-02-01

    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the theoretical model value, assuming saturated GWs, became larger in the equatorial region and over mountainous regions.

  8. Silicon-integrated short-wavelength hybrid-cavity VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Emanuel P; Kumari, Sulakshna; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Larsson, Anders

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a short-wavelength hybrid-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) heterogeneously integrated on silicon. A GaAs-based "half-VCSEL" has been attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on a silicon wafer using ultra-thin divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) adhesive bonding, thereby creating a cavity with the standing-wave optical field extending over the silicon- and GaAs-based parts of the cavity. A 9 m oxide aperture diameter VCSEL with a threshold current of 1.2 mA produces 1.6 mW optical output power at 6.0 mA bias current with a wavelength of ~845 nm. PMID:26832027

  9. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  10. Downhole vertical seismic profile survey reveals structure near borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Dautenhahn Wyatt, K.; Wyatt, S.B.

    1982-10-18

    A vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey can be useful for obtaining subsurface structural information in the immediate vicinity of the borehole. Such information has much higher vertical and horizontal resolution than that of conventional surface seismic data. Ray-tracing techniques allow the interpreter to compare synthetic VSP data from a structural model with the actual VSP field data. Additionally, the vertical seismic profile common-depth-point (VSPCDP) stack procedure effectively determines what the model should be by transforming VSP data into a high-resolution miniseismic section in the vicinity of the boreholes.

  11. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  12. Vertically coupled microresonators and oscillatory mode splitting in photonic molecules.

    PubMed

    Bo, Fang; zdemir, ?ahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun; Yang, Lan

    2015-11-30

    We report the formation of a photonic molecule by vertically coupling two microdisk resonators. We show that mode splitting monotonously increases when one resonator vertically approaches the other. However, when the vertical distance is kept fixed and one resonator is moved horizontally with respect to the other, the strength of coupling and hence the mode splitting demonstrate an oscillatory behavior. This is attributed to the interference of light coupled into the resonators through multiple coupling regions as confirmed by a theoretical model based on coupled mode theory. PMID:26698711

  13. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  14. Internal wave propagation sensitivity to model vertical coordinate and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boyer, Arnaud; Lathuilire, Cyril; Pichon, Annick; Gouillon, Flavien

    2015-04-01

    Oceanic General Circulation Models (OGCM) can almost be solely defined by their vertical coordinate. The necessary discretization of the physical space to apply numerical methods can lead to a misrepresentation of some physical processes. This is particularly the case at small spatial scales where mixing is involved as OGCMs do not have a sufficient spatial resolution to represent these processes. This work focuses on the role of the model vertical resolution on the Internal waves (IW) propagation and on the modal representation of IWs using idealized numerical experiments. We show how the model vertical resolution and the choice of isopycnic or eulerian (i.e., geopotential or terrain following models) coordinate impact the IW propagation in an idealized context. The IW are generated over a continental slope and forced by an S2 barotropic tide in a two dimensions domain. Three different initial stratifications are used to allow for IW propagation: a two-layer ocean, a depth constant Brunt-Visl frequency (N) and a mixed layer above a depth constant N. Step stratifications can be challenging for OGCMs and any model vertical coordinate inducing abrupt changes in the water masses properties. These changes would imply a modification of the IW characteristics with respect to time in eulerian coordinate ocean model. Despite a spurious diapycnal mixing associated with the fixed vertical coordinates, we show that model solutions converge for high model vertical resolution (~80 levels) and for all the stratifications. Coarser model vertical resolutions (~40 levels) show that there is a wave phase lag and/or amplitude modulation between the isopycnic and eulerian vertical coordinates. For these vertical resolutions, an isopycnic experiment using a time-evolving stratification from an eulerian coordinate simulation is ran as an initial conditions. Because there is no diapycnal mixing in a fully-isopycnic coordinate system, the changes in the IW wave field due to the spurious mixing is diagnosed. The actual model vertical resolutions are likely to induce biases in the internal wave field and their propagation thus inducing unrealistic vertical mixing rates in global/regional simulation. With this study, we aim to define a vertical model resolution threshold for OGCMs below which, these biases could vanish or be negligible.

  15. Dissociated vertical divergence: a righting reflex gone wrong.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, M C

    1999-09-01

    Dissociated vertical divergence (DVD) is an ocular motor disorder characterized by a slow, upward drift of 1 eye when the other eye is fixating a target. I propose that DVD is a dorsal light reflex in which asymmetrical visual input to the 2 eyes evokes a vertical divergence movement of the eyes. This primitive visuo-vestibular reflex functions as a righting response to restore vertical orientation in lower lateral-eyed animals by equalizing binocular visual input. The dorsal light reflex is suppressed in humans but can manifest as DVD when early-onset strabismus precludes normal binocular development. PMID:10496394

  16. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  17. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  18. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  19. Assessment of EGM2008 in Europe using accurate astrogeodetic vertical deflections and omission error estimates from SRTM/DTM2006.0 residual terrain model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, C.; Marti, U.; Bürki, B.; Featherstone, W. E.

    2010-10-01

    We assess the new EGM2008 Earth gravitational model using a set of 1056 astrogeodetic vertical deflections over parts of continental Europe. Our astrogeodetic vertical deflection data set originates from zenith camera observations performed during 1983-2008. This set, which is completely independent from EGM2008, covers, e.g., Switzerland, Germany, Portugal and Greece, and samples a variety of topography - level terrain, medium elevated and rugged Alpine areas. We describe how EGM2008 is used to compute vertical deflections according to Helmert's (surface) definition. Particular attention is paid to estimating the EGM2008 signal omission error from residual terrain model (RTM) data. The RTM data is obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model and the DTM2006.0 high degree spherical harmonic reference surface. The comparisons between the astrogeodetic and EGM2008 vertical deflections show an agreement of about 3 arc seconds (root mean square, RMS). Adding omission error estimates from RTM to EGM2008 significantly reduces the discrepancies from the complete European set of astrogeodetic deflections to 1 arc second (RMS). Depending on the region, the RMS errors vary between 0.4 and 1.5 arc seconds. These values not only reflect EGM2008 commission errors, but also short-scale mass-density anomalies not modelled from the RTM data. Given (1) formally stated EGM2008 commission error estimates of about 0.6-0.8 arc seconds for vertical deflections, and (2) that short-scale mass-density anomalies may affect vertical deflections by about 1 arc second, the agreement between EGM2008 and our astrogeodetic deflection data set is very good. Further focus is placed on the investigation of the high-degree spectral bands of EGM2008. As a general conclusion, EGM2008 - enhanced by RTM data - is capable of predicting Helmert vertical deflections at the 1 arc second accuracy level over Europe.

  20. Ionospheric vertical drifts over an Indian low latitude station and its comparison with IRI-2007 vertical drift model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, P. L.; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.; Rama Rao, P. V. S.

    2014-09-01

    The vertical plasma drift velocity (Vz=dh‧F/dt) of the Ionospheric F-Region is calculated using the Ionosonde data over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7°N, 83.3°E, dip 20°N). The vertical drift velocities thus computed are compared with those of the IRI-2007 vertical drift model during the post sunset hours of the high sunspot period of 2001-2002. The vertical drift values are entirely downward between 2000 and 0700 h LT for the IRI-2007 vertical drift model compared to those derived using Ionosonde. The root mean square errors (RMSE) in the vertical drifts during the post sun-set hours computed between the IRI vertical drift model and Ionosonde measured values are found to be 13.54, 21.68 and 22.39 m/s for summer, equinox and winter seasons respectively. The average vertical drifts derived using Ionosonde showing pre-reversal enhancements during evening hours (1700-1900 h LT) over Waltair are found to be 8, 16 and 12 m/s, whereas the IRI-2007 model derived values show 15, 35 and 36 m/s during summer, equinox and winter seasons respectively. The correlation analysis of peak drift velocities derived using Ionosonde and those from IRI model with Rz and F10.7 shows more or less similar variation while they are differed in their variation with Ap index. A good correlation is observed between the vertical plasma drift obtained using Ionosonde and Equatorial Electrojet Strength (EEJ) except during winter, while the correlation coefficients computed using IRI model are little higher than those obtained using Ionosonde with maximum values during summer season. The percentage of deviation for IRI-model correlation coefficient and that of Ionosonde-inferred drift for equinoctial and summer months is around 50% and 25% respectively where as it is more than 100% for winter.

  1. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Normalized vertical ice mass flux profiles from vertically pointing 8-mm-wavelength Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Brad W.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    During the FIRE 2 (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) project, NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) operated its 8-mm wavelength Doppler radar extensively in the vertically pointing mode. This allowed for the calculation of a number of important cirrus cloud parameters, including cloud boundary statistics, cloud particle characteristic sizes and concentrations, and ice mass content (imc). The flux of imc, or, alternatively, ice mass flux (imf), is also an important parameter of a cirrus cloud system. Ice mass flux is important in the vertical redistribution of water substance and thus, in part, determines the cloud evolution. It is important for the development of cloud parameterizations to be able to define the essential physical characteristics of large populations of clouds in the simplest possible way. One method would be to normalize profiles of observed cloud properties, such as those mentioned above, in ways similar to those used in the convective boundary layer. The height then scales from 0.0 at cloud base to 1.0 at cloud top, and the measured cloud parameter scales by its maximum value so that all normalized profiles have 1.0 as their maximum value. The goal is that there will be a 'universal' shape to profiles of the normalized data. This idea was applied to estimates of imf calculated from data obtained by the WPL cloud radar during FIRE II. Other quantities such as median particle diameter, concentration, and ice mass content can also be estimated with this radar, and we expect to also examine normalized profiles of these quantities in time for the 1993 FIRE II meeting.

  3. VERTICAL REDISTRIBUTION OF A POLLUTANT TRACER DUE TO CUMULUS CONVECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical formalisms that incorporate the physical processes responsible for the vertical redistribution of a conservative pollutant tracer due to a convective cloud field are presented. Two modeling approaches are presented differing in the manner in which the cloud fields ar...

  4. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  5. 18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN LADDER, AT APPROXIMATELY BRIDGE DECK LEVEL, SHOWING PORTION OF GEAR TRAIN AT TURNTABLE. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  6. Vertical diffusion in meromictic Powell Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Brian; Perry, Karen; Pedersen, Tom

    1986-06-01

    Simple diffusion models are developed to describe vertical diffusion in Powell Lake, a meromictic former fjord containing trapped seawater. Measurements of the vertical distribution of chlorinity are used to determine the dependence of vertical diffusivity on depth. Near the bottom of the lake the vertical diffusivity is about 4 times that of the molecular diffusivity of salt. On this basis, ions with different molecular diffusion coefficients will be lost from the bottom of the lake at different rates, which partially explains differences observed in the ratios of concentrations of ions in saline bottom water from ratios characteristic of seawater. The observed increase in temperature with depth is shown to result from the geothermal heat flux through the lake's bottom.

  7. An Inchworm Using Levitation Caused by Vertical Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Akihiro; Kengaku, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomohiro; Ueda, Akiteru; Doki, Kae

    We propose an inchworm type microactuator which uses levitation caused by vertical vibration. The vertical vibration is generated by a piezoelectric actuator. The inchworm usually consists of thrust elements and adhesive elements. The proposed inchworm type microactuator does not use any adhesive elements. Three masses are connected with two thrust elements which are stacked-type piezoelectric actuators. One mass which is at the center of the inchworm is also connected with a vertical vibrating piezoelectric actuator. The vertical vibration levitates the central mass and eliminates the friction. The other masses without vibrating elements have constant friction force. By controlling the phase of the thrust elements and vibrating element, the inchworm moves in the liniear directions. The position of the inchworm is measured, and some experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed inchworm. The mechanism described in this paper is effective in a precise positioning system in a cleanroom.

  8. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; Shippert, TR; Riihimaki, LD

    2015-07-01

    fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  9. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF BUCKLED VERTICAL MEMBER ON UPSTREAM TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF BUCKLED VERTICAL MEMBER ON UPSTREAM TRUSS AT SOUTH CANTILEVER TOWER, LOOKING SOUTH - Smith River Bridge, CA State Highway 199 Spanning Smith River, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  10. 29. EXTERIOR, VERTICAL VIEW OF UMBRA, SOUTH TOWER, AND CONSERVATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR, VERTICAL VIEW OF UMBRA, SOUTH TOWER, AND CONSERVATORY FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  11. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING ENDPANEL VERTICAL, ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING END-PANEL VERTICAL, ARCH SEGMENT, LOWER CHORD AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Davis Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River at County Road 16, Lime Springs, Howard County, IA

  12. 15. FLOOR BEAM, GUSSET PLATE, LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL POST, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FLOOR BEAM, GUSSET PLATE, LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL POST, AND COUNTER DIAGONAL BRACES - CAMELBACK TRUSS - Parker Bridge, Spanning Verdigris River 1.5 miles Southeast of Coffeyville, Coffeyville, Montgomery County, KS

  13. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  14. 34. VERTICAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL FIRST FLOOR CEILING BEHIND ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VERTICAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL FIRST FLOOR CEILING BEHIND ELEVATOR LOBBY Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-PS11-MB-1972-424. - Wainwright Building, Seventh & Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  16. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 12. UPPER END CHORD, VERTICAL MEMBER, LATERAL STRUT, GUSSET PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. UPPER END CHORD, VERTICAL MEMBER, LATERAL STRUT, GUSSET PLATE AND END POST - CAMELBACK TRUSS - Parker Bridge, Spanning Verdigris River 1.5 miles Southeast of Coffeyville, Coffeyville, Montgomery County, KS

  18. 22. VERTICAL VIEW OF WEST FACADE FROM PARKING AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VERTICAL VIEW OF WEST FACADE FROM PARKING AREA TO WEST Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-B-1972-412L. - Wainwright Building, Seventh & Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  19. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  20. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA